Sample records for secondary pulmonary mineralization

  1. Pulmonary complications in lead miners

    SciTech Connect

    Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.

    1989-07-01

    We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

  2. Mineral County Secondary Data Analysis

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    prevalence (Heart Attack) 4.0% 4.1% 6.0% All Sites Cancer 466.5 455.5 543.2 1 Community Health Data, MT2 1. Cancer 2. Heart Disease 3. Unintentional Injuries**, CLRD*, Cerebrovascular Disease 1. Cancer 2. Heart Disease 3.CLRD* 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. CLRD* #12; Mineral County

  3. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:26024348

  5. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Thenappan, Thenappan; Prins, Kurt W; Cogswell, Rebecca; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is an increasingly recognized cause of PH due to an emerging epidemic of HFpEF. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PH in HFpEF are not well established, but the presence of PH and right ventricular dysfunction in HFpEF is associated with worse prognosis. Currently, it is unclear whether PH is just a marker of underlying disease severity or whether it could be a target of treatment in HFpEF. Although PH-HFpEF and pulmonary arterial hypertension share several clinical characteristics, the evidence supporting the use of pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific therapies in PH-HFpEF is limited. Here, we review the disease classification, epidemiology, proposed pathophysiology, and treatments for PH-HFpEF. Our limited understanding highlights an urgent need for more research to elucidate the pathogenesis of PH in HFpEF and to develop novel therapies for this challenging syndrome. PMID:25840094

  6. Raman Study of Secondary Minerals in a Recent Lava Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimbretière, G.; Canizarès, A.; Finizola, A.; Delcher, E.; Raimboux, N.; Veron, E.; Simon, P.; Devouard, B.; Bertil, A.

    2014-06-01

    We present here the technical adaptations made for a field use of a laboratory in situ Raman spectrometer, and the characterization of secondary mineral phases growing in a recent, still hot on some spots, lava tube (2007 Piton de la Fournaise).

  7. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction: Contemporary diagnosis and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi V. Shah; Marc J. Semigran

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction is often a poor prognostic marker in chronic heart\\u000a failure. In this article, we review evidence supporting modern strategies addressing pulmonary hypertension in patients with\\u000a left ventricular systolic dysfunction, including right-sided heart catheterization with vasoreactivity testing and subsequent\\u000a parenteral, oral, and inhaled therapy. We delineate a diagnostic approach to secondary pulmonary hypertension

  8. Bisphosphonates do not Alter the Rate of Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    R Fuchs; M Faillace; M Allen; R Phipps; L Miller; D Burr

    2011-12-31

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), ALN (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n=12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  9. Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.

    2011-05-18

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  10. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  11. Formation of secondary minerals and its effect on anorthite dissolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAKASHI MURAKAMI; TOSHIHIRO KOGURE; HIROYUKI KADOHARA; TOSHIHIKO OHNUKI

    1998-01-01

    To examine the relationship between product secondary minerals and dissolution of anorthite (An95Ab5 from Fugoppe, Hokkaido, Japan), anorthite batch dissolution experi- ments were carried out. The dissolution experiments were done at 90, 150, and 210 8C for 3 to 355 days at pH 4.56 measured at 25 8C, which corresponds to 4.69, 4.97, and 5.40 at the respective experimental temperatures.

  12. Acute pulmonary edema secondary to hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Obiagwu, Chukwudi; Paul, Vishesh; Chadha, Sameer; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, air embolism, carbon monoxide poisoning and gas gangrene with minimal adverse effects. Very few cases of HBOT causing acute pulmonary edema (PE) has been described; with a study on dogs suggesting that a complication of this therapy could be PE. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man with a history of stable systolic heart failure and diabetes mellitus presenting with acute PE following treatment with HBOT for diabetic foot. PMID:25988073

  13. Pulmonary edema secondary to a cardiac schwannoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Justin D; Rapoport, Gregg; Fallaw, Tiffany; Calvert, Clay A; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    A 4-year-old castrated labrador retriever presented for cardiac evaluation to determine the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema diagnosed 1 month prior. A large pedunculated mass involving the ventral aspect of the mural mitral valve leaflet and the endocardial surface of the left ventricular free wall, resulting in severe mitral regurgitation, was identified on echocardiogram. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of this mass and other endocardial masses identified at necropsy for S-100 protein were consistent with a diagnosis of schwannoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a benign intracardiac schwannoma described in the left heart of a dog. PMID:26048635

  14. Transient Rotation of a Non-ptotic Kidney Secondary to Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Iman; Goldman, Alice R

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of an acquired, transient, rotated right kidney in a 43-year-old woman with an enterocutaneous fistula who presented with acute pulmonary embolism. This non-ptotic rotated kidney returned to its normal orientation within 10 days. We postulate that this transient kidney rotation is due to transient hepatomegaly and passive renal congestion secondary to pulmonary embolism. While in this patient there were no untoward sequelae, it has been reported that ureteral obstruction or vascular occlusion can occur in patients with ptotic and malrotated kidneys, and radiologists, therefore, should be aware of this unusual occurrence and the potential complications. PMID:25806127

  15. [Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and plasmapheresis in the treatment of severe pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to nodose polyarteritis].

    PubMed

    Keller, Rodolfo; Torres, Silvio; Iölster, Thomas; Kreutzer, Christian; Fraire, Rafael; Grassi, Magdalena; Arrese, Damián; Trabadelo, Omar; Rocca Rivarola, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    We report to simultaneous use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS), plasmapheresis, hemodiafiltration and exogenous surfactant for the treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage, arterial hypertension, and renal failure secondary to nodose polyarteritis (NPA) in a 23-month-old patient. NPA is an autoimmune disease that affects small -and medium- caliber muscular arteries. Hypoxemia refractory to treatment with conventional and high frequency oscillatory ventilation was supported by ECMO while awaiting control of the autoimmune disease through the use of plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive treatment. Although the combination of ECLS with plasmapheresis is rare, it has been described during the management of cases of organ transplant, intoxication, cardiac failure, and sepsis. There are only two previous reports describing the use of this combined therapy for the treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to autoimmune vasculitis in childhood. PMID:22859338

  16. Microstructural analysis of secondary pulmonary lobule imaged by synchrotron radiation micro CT using offset scan mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Kageyama, K.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Yada, K.; Ohamatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

    2010-03-01

    The recognition of abnormalities relative to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. The purpose of this study is to analyze microstructure of the lobular anatomy with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers to quantitatively describe relation between the architectures and abnormalities. Recent commercial micro CT scanners play a vital role in imaging the lung micro-architectures. However, only a limited number of attempts have been conducted because of difficulties to image the secondary pulmonary lobule beyond the scan field of view and the limited contrast lung parenchyma. This paper demonstrates the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SR?CT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobule. The inflated and fixed lung specimen was imaged with resolution of 5.87x5.87x5.87 ?m3 by using offset scan mode of the SR?CT (15 keV) at the synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8). The 3-D SR?CT image which was stacked 2624 slices (each slice:7287x7287 voxels) covered the secondary pulmonary lobule being included in the lung specimen. A proper threshold value for appropriate segmentation was interactively determined to the volume of interest representing the secondary pulmonary lobule. Following transformation of the segmented binary image to a skeletonized surface representation, each voxel was classified as a curve, surface, or junction. The interlobular septa region was extracted interactively by using the voxel classification result which offered geometrical information. Each component of lobular airway, artery, and vein were extracted by using a seeding technique, considering equal attenuation values and connectivity. The resulting volumetric image from the SR?CT using offset scan mode made 3-D microstructural analysis of the lobular anatomy possible.

  17. Antecedent Influenza Virus Infection Enhances Pulmonary Responses to Secondary Haemophilus Infection in a Porcine Co-Infection Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza (Flu) infection and associated complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is appreciated that Flu is complicated by secondary bacterial infection. Tracheal epithelial cells (TEC) and pulmonary macrophages (Mac) respond to infection with proinflammatory cytok...

  18. The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub CAI, I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub CAI) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub CAI) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub CAI) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for CAI. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for CAI in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted CAIs by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "CAI age" thus determined, T(sub CAI,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub CAI) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub CAI, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub CAI)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5) and a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4558.6 Ma for the LEW86010 angrite. However. the (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of "intermediate" age D'Orbigny-clan angrites and Asuka 881394 are inconsistent with radioactive decay from CAI values with a Mn-55 half-life of 3.7+/-0.4 Ma. in spite of consistency between (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I). Nevertheless, it appears that the Mn-Cr method with I(Mn)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) can be used to date primary igneous events and also secondary mineralization on asteroid parent bodies. We summarize ages thus determined for igneous events on differentiated asteroids and for carbonate and fayalite formation on carbonaceous asteroids.

  19. Pulmonary Hemorrhage Secondary to Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Plata-Menchaca, Erika P.; de Leon, V. M. De la Puente-Diaz; Peña-Romero, Adriana G.; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to disseminated strongyloidiasis is an unusual, well-recognized entity in immunocompromised patients with autoimmune disease, which is associated with the hyperinfection syndrome, sepsis, and a high mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 44-year-old Mexican woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and acute bacterial meningitis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, treated with broad spectrum systemic antibiotics and high dose methylprednisolone, who subsequently developed a characteristic purpuric skin eruption and septic shock and died two days later of refractory hypoxemia caused by massive pulmonary bleeding. The postmortem examination reports filariform larvae of S. stercolaris in lung, skin, and other organs. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering disseminated strongyloidiasis in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus, and screening for S. stercolaris infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, especially in endemic areas. Disseminated strongyloidiasis has a high mortality rate, explained in part by absence of clinical suspicion.

  20. Sorption of selected radionuclides on secondary minerals associated with the Columbia River basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, P.F.; Ames, L.L.; McGarrah, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The sorption behavior of selected radionuclides on the secondary minerals which fill and/or line the vesicles, vugs, and fractures in the Columbia River basalts has been investigated. Radionuclide distribution coefficients (Kd), using a batch equilibrium technique, have been determined for selenium, strontium, technetium, iodine, cesium, neptunium, americium, plutonium, uranium, and radium under oxidizing conditions at both 23/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/C. Groundwater compositions simulating those found in the water-bearing zones of the Columbia River basalts were used in the Kd determinations. In addition, sorption isotherms, describing the dependence of radionuclide sorption on radionuclide concentration, were determined for uranium, cesium, and strontium. Based on these sorption data, it appears that the secondary minerals are capable of retarding the migration of cesium, stronium, radium, plutonium, americium, and uranium from a repository in basalt. Under oxidizing conditions, however, the secondary minerals do not adequately retard the migration of selenium, technetium, neptunium, and iodine. Additional information is needed on the sorption behavior of selenium, technetium, neptunium, and iodine under the highly reducing conditions expected for a sealed repository in basalt before further evaluation can be made of the retardation capability of the secondary minerals for these isotopes. A review of the available sorption data for cesium, strontium, plutonium, americium, neptunium, radium, and zirconium on Hanford Site sediments also is presented.

  1. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  2. Utility of computed tomography in assessment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to biomass smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Bora, Aydin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ekin, Selami; Gunbatar, Hulya; Arisoy, Ahmet; Avcu, Serhat; Ozbay, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of main pulmonary artery diameter quantification by thoracic computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension seconder to biomass smoke exposure. Material/Methods One hundred and four women subjects with biomass smoke exposure and 20 healthy women subjects were enrolled in the prospective study. The correlation between echocardiographic estimation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure and the main pulmonary artery diameter of the cases were studied. Results The main pulmonary artery diameter was 26.9±5.1 in the control subjects and 37.1±6.4 in subjects with biomass smoke exposure. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 22.7±12.4 in the control subjects and 57.3±22 in subjects with biomass smoke exposure. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Systolic pulmonary artery pressure was significantly correlated with the main pulmonary artery diameter (r=0.614, p<0.01). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that a value of 29 mm of the main pulmonary artery diameter differentiated between pulmonary hypertension and non-pulmonary hypertension patients. The sensitivity of the measurement to diagnose pulmonary hypertension was 91% and specificity was 80%. Conclusions Our results indicate that main pulmonary artery diameter measurements by SCT may suggest presence of pulmonary hypertension in biomass smoke exposed women. PMID:24618994

  3. Reduction of jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and secondary mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingjie, Ouyang; Xiancai, Lu; Huan, Liu; Juan, Li; Tingting, Zhu; Xiangyu, Zhu; Jianjun, Lu; Rucheng, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Jarosite is a common mineral in a variety of environments formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide normally accompanying with the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) in mining areas or acid rock drainages (ARD) in many localities. Decomposition of jarosite by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) influences the mobility of many heavy metals generally accommodated in natural jarosite. This study examined the anaerobic reduction of synthesized jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a typical facultative bacteria. The release of ferrous and ferric ion, as well as sulfate and potassium, in the inoculated experimental group lasting 80 days is much higher than that in abiotic control groups. The detection of bicarbonate and acetate in experimental solution further confirms the mechanism of microbial reduction of jarosite, in which lactate acts as the electron donor. The produced ferrous iron stimulates the subsequent secondary mineralization, leading to precipitation and transformation of various iron-containing minerals. Green rust and goethite are the intermediate minerals of the microbial reduction process under anoxic conditions, and the end products include magnetite and siderite. In aerobic environments, goethite, magnetite and siderite were also detected, but the contents were relatively lower. While in abiotic experiments, only goethite has been detected as a product. Thus, the microbial reduction and subsequent mineral transformation can remarkably influence the geochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in supergene environments, as well as the mobility of heavy metals commonly accommodated in jarosite.

  4. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  5. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  6. Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, Ian E. [CSIRO Minerals, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)]. E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D. [Geosciences Department, Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne, Vic. 3001 (Australia); Bougerol, Catherine [Equipe CEA-CNRS NPSC SP2M/DRFMC/CEA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Mills, Stuart J. [CSIRO Minerals, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Geosciences Department, Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne, Vic. 3001 (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

  7. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  8. Mineralogical study of secondary mineral phases from weathered MSWI bottom ash: implications for the modelling and trapping of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Piantone; F. Bodénan; L. Chatelet-Snidaro

    2004-01-01

    A mineralogical study of 3 samples of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash collected from different storage sites and with storage times varying from 3 weeks to 2 years, has enabled identification of the main secondary mineral species formed during weathering. The frequencies of the secondary phases were determined and a diagram is proposed for the relative distribution of the

  9. Human pulmonary acinar airspace segmentation from three-dimensional synchrotron radiation micro CT images of secondary pulmonary lobule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kawata; T. Hosokawa; N. Niki; K. Umetani; Y. Nakano; H. Ohmatsu; N. Moriyama; H. Itoh

    2011-01-01

    The recognition of abnormalities relative to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims for a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of

  10. Clinical features of three cases with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome developed during the course of Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Handa, Tomohiro; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Baba, Motoo; Takada, Toshinori; Nakata, Koh; Ishii, Haruyuki

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is the most common underlying disease in cases of secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Here, we present 3 MDS cases in which PAP developed during the course of Behçet's disease (BD). All patients carried trisomy 8 in the bone marrow. Chest HRCT scans showed variable distribution of ground glass opacities, but none of the scans showed so called "crazy paving appearance". Two patients with intestinal BD who underwent potent immunosuppressive therapy died of sepsis. These findings demonstrate that PAP secondary to MDS may be occasionally associated with BD. PMID:24388375

  11. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Secondary to Anorexigens and Other Drugs and Toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Bouillon; Yola Moride; Lamiae Bensouda-Grimaldi; Lucien Abenhaim

    \\u000a Several drugs and toxins have been shown to be associated with the development of pulmonary vascular hypertension. Pulmonary\\u000a hypertension (PH) related to these factors has been classified as primary PH (PPH), currently referred to as idiopathic pulmonary\\u000a arterial hypertension, because its morphological findings, clinical manifestations, hemodynamic measures, and pathological\\u000a changes were reported to be similar to those of PPH. In

  12. Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail. PMID:20851443

  13. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    PubMed

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. PMID:21879833

  14. Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets

    PubMed Central

    Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

  15. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left-heart failure involves peroxynitrite-induced downregulation of PTEN in the lung.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Yazhini; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Naidu, Shan K; Meduru, Sarath; Citro, Lucas A; Bognár, Balázs; Khan, Mahmood; Kálai, Tamás; Hideg, Kálmán; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B

    2013-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) that occurs after left-heart failure (LHF), classified as Group 2 PH, involves progressive pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. However, mechanisms involved in the activation of SMCs remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of peroxynitrite and phosphatase-and-tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in vascular SMC proliferation and remodeling in the LHF-induced PH (LHF-PH). LHF was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in rats for 4 weeks. MRI, ultrasound, and hemodynamic measurements were performed to confirm LHF and PH. Histopathology, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to identify key molecular signatures. Therapeutic intervention was demonstrated using an antiproliferative compound, HO-3867. LHF-PH was confirmed by significant elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (mean pulmonary artery pressure/mm Hg: 35.9±1.8 versus 14.8±2.0, control; P<0.001) and vascular remodeling. HO-3867 treatment decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure to 22.6±0.8 mm Hg (P<0.001). Substantially higher levels of peroxynitrite and significant loss of PTEN expression were observed in the lungs of LHF rats when compared with control. In vitro studies using human pulmonary artery SMCs implicated peroxynitrite-mediated downregulation of PTEN expression as a key mechanism of SMC proliferation. The results further established that HO-3867 attenuated LHF-PH by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing PTEN expression in the lung. In conclusion, peroxynitrite and peroxynitrite-mediated PTEN inactivation seem to be key mediators of lung microvascular remodeling associated with PH secondary to LHF. PMID:23339168

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Left-heart Failure Involves Peroxynitrite-induced Downregulation of PTEN in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Yazhini; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Naidu, Shan K.; Meduru, Sarath; Citro, Lucas A.; Bognár, Balázs; Khan, Mahmood; Kálai, Tamás; Hideg, Kálmán; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) that occurs after left-heart failure (LHF), classified as Group 2 PH, involves progressive pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. However, mechanisms involved in the activation of SMCs remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of peroxynitrite and phosphatase-and-tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in vascular SMC proliferation and remodeling in the LHF-induced PH (LHF-PH). LHF was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in rats for 4 weeks. MRI, ultrasound, and hemodynamic measurements were performed to confirm LHF and PH. Histopathology, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to identify key molecular signatures. Therapeutic intervention was demonstrated using an antiproliferative compound, HO-3867. LHF-PH was confirmed by significant elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean pulmonary artery pressure/mm?Hg: 35.9±1.8 versus 14.8±2.0, control; P<0.001) and vascular remodeling. HO-3867 treatment decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure to 22.6±0.8 mm?Hg (P<0.001). Substantially higher levels of peroxynitrite and significant loss of PTEN expression were observed in the lungs of LHF rats when compared with control. In vitro studies using human pulmonary artery SMCs implicated peroxynitrite-mediated downregulation of PTEN expression as a key mechanism of SMC proliferation. The results further established that HO-3867 attenuated LHF-PH by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing PTEN expression in the lung. In conclusion, peroxynitrite and peroxynitrite-mediated PTEN inactivation seem to be key mediators of lung microvascular remodeling associated with PH secondary to LHF. PMID:23339168

  17. Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This site provides an in-depth look at mineral properties and identification. An alphabetical listing of common minerals allows the user to see a picture and view physical properties of the particular mineral. Properties of minerals are explained, including cleavage, hardness, crystal form, and luster. There are also downloadable labs for crystal models and mineral data sheets. Dichotomous and hardness keys are given for easier mineral identification.

  18. Relative mesothelioma induction in rats by mineral fibers: Comparison with residual pulmonary mineral-fiber number and epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Coffin, D.L.; Cook, P.M.; Creason, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Large differences in mesothelioma induction by various minerals were demonstrated in rats on the basis of tumor to fiber ratios. Erinoite was 500-800 times more tumorigenic and crocidolite 30-60 times more tumorigenic than chysotile. Erionite was relatively more potent when introduced intratrachealy than either asbestos. The data rank similarly to human exposure to the same mineral fibers. The authors propose that a factor here termed intrinsic potency probably related to surface activity overrides both fiber number and geometric configuration when fibers of strongly different tumorigenicity are compared. The potency difference may be related to differing tendencies of the respective surfaces to coordinate endogenous iron and release free radicals via the Fenton reaction during the reduction from the ferric to the ferrous state. It is suggested that such potency differences may explain the failure of certain man-made fibers to induce mesothelioma from inhalation exposure because of insufficient dose reaching the mesothelium. (Copyright (c) 1992 by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.)

  19. Iloprost improves hemodynamics in patients with severe chronic cardiac failure and secondary pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Sablotzki; Elke Czeslick; Susann Schubert; Ivar Friedrich; Jörg Mühling; Marius G. Dehne; Stefan Grond; Thomas Hentschel

    2002-01-01

    Purpose  Significant pulmonary hypertension is a predictor of postoperative right heart insufficiency and increased mortality in patients\\u000a undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation. Since the use of iv vasodilators is limited by their systemic effects, we evaluated\\u000a the pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic effects of inhaled aerosolized iloprost (IP) in heart transplant candidates with elevated\\u000a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-nine male heart transplant candidates

  20. Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2003-06-01

    This project, renewal of a previous EMSP project of the same title, is in its first year of funding at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The purpose is to continue investigating rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals found in the Hanford subsurface and leaked waste tank solutions. The goals are to understand processes that result in (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. A post-doctoral scientist, Dr. Sherry Samson, has been hired and two masters of science students are beginning to conduct experimental research. One research project that is underway is focused on measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms. The first set of experiments is being conduced at room temperature. Subsequent experiments will examine the role of temperature because tank solutions in many cases were near boiling when leakage is thought to have occurred and temperature gradients have been observed beneath the SX and BX tank farms. The dissolution experiments are being conducted in stirred-flow kinetic reactors using powdered labradorite feldspar from Pueblo Park, New Mexico.

  1. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1±7.3years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50th percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared with those with higher (>50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced aBMD in some patients with COPD. PMID:26003953

  2. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOMEDIASTINUM SECONDARY TO PRIMARY PULMONARY PATHOLOGY IN A DALMATIAN DOG.

    PubMed

    Agut, Amalia; Talavera, Jesus; Buendia, Antonio; Anson, Agustina; Santarelli, Giorgia; Gomez, Serafin

    2014-11-12

    A 1.5-year-old, 23 kg intact male Dalmatian dog was evaluated for acute respiratory insufficiency without a previous history of trauma or toxic exposition. Imaging revealed pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, diffuse unstructured interstitial pulmonary pattern, pulmonary interstitial emphysema, and pneumoretroperitoneum. Histopathological evaluation of the lungs revealed perivascular and peribronchial emphysema, mild lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia with atypical proliferation of type II pneumocytes in bronchioles and alveoli. A lung disease resembling fibrosing interstitial pneumonia in man and cats has been previously reported in Dalmatians and should be included as a differential diagnosis for Dalmatians with this combination of clinical and imaging characteristics. PMID:25388364

  3. Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Create a poster about minerals! Directions: Make a poster about minerals. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about minerals. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at ...

  4. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100?gL(-1) As; >1000?gL(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities). PMID:25898346

  5. 9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

  6. Correlations between primary and secondary Fe-bearing minerals identified in rocks in Gusev Crater by the MER Mössbauer spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroder, C.; Klingelhofer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D. S.

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit identified six different rock classes during its traverse from the landing site across the plains and into the Columbia Hills to the top of Husband Hill [1, 2]. The classification is based on the rocks' chemical composition [3, 4], and can be further divided into several subclasses on the basis of mineralogical composition from Mössbauer spectra [5]. Rocks in Gusev Crater show various degrees of alteration, both between different rock classes and within individual rock classes. The degree of alteration can be estimated from the mineral content, i.e., the ratio between primary and secondary minerals, or the degree of oxidation, i.e., the Fe3+ /FeT otal ratio as determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Spirit's Mössbauer spectrometer [6] identified eight different Fe-bearing mineral phases [5]: The primary minerals olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, and magnetite as well as the secondary minerals hematite, goethite, an unspecified nanophase ferric oxide phase, and a ferric sulfate. Correlations between primary and secondary minerals and correlations between primary minerals and Fe3+ /FeT otal ratios show that olivine is the mineral undergoing alteration in all rock classes encountered, whereas evidence for the alteration of pyroxene is only present in the more severely weathered rocks found only in the Columbia Hills. Whereas the slow alteration of olivine seems to be an ongoing process, the alteration of pyroxene does not seem to proceed under the current conditions. [1] S.W. Squyres et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res. 111, E02S11, doi:10.1029/2005JE002562. [2] H.Y. McSween et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res. 111, E02S10, doi:10.1029/2005JE002477. [3] D.W. Ming et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res. 111, E02S12, doi:10.1029/2005JE002560. [4] R. Gellert et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res. 111, E02S05, doi:10.1029/2005JE002555. [5] R.V. Morris et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res. 111, E02S13, 1 doi:10.1029/2005JE002584. [6] G. Klingelhöfer et al. (2003), J. Geophys. Res. 108(E12), 8067, doi:10.1029/2003JE002138. 2

  7. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Comparison of microstructure of superplastically deformed synthetic materials and ultramylonite: Coalescence of secondary mineral grains via grain boundary sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Tasaka, M.; Yoshida, H.

    2011-12-01

    Using very fine-grained aggregates of forsterite containing ~10vol% secondary mineral phase such as periclase and enstatite, we have been able to demonstrate their superplascity, that is, achievement of more than a few 100 % tensile strain (Hiraga et al. 2010). Superplastic deformation is commonly considered to proceed via grain boundary sliding (GBS) which results in grain switching in the samples. Hiraga et al. (2010) succeeded in detecting the operation of GBS from observing the coalescence of grains of secondary phase in superplastically deformed samples. The secondary phase pins the motion of grain boundaries of the primary phase; however, the reduction of the number of the grains of secondary phase due to their coalescence allows grain growth of the primary phase. We analyzed the relationships between grain size of the primary and secondary phases, between strain and grain size, and between strain and the number of coalesced grains in the superplastically deformed samples. The results supports participation of all the grains of the primary phase in grain switching process indicating that the grain boundary sliding accommodates almost entire strain during the deformation. Mechanical properties of these materials such as their stress and grain size exponents of 1-2 do not conflict this conclusion. We applied the relationships obtained from analyzing superplastic materials to the microstructure of the natural samples, which has been considered to have deformed via grain boundary sliding, that is, ultramylonite. The microstructure of greenschist-grade ultramylonite reported by Fliervoet et al. (1997) was analyzed. Distributions of the mineral phases (i.e., quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite) show distinct coalescence of the same mineral phases in the direction almost perpendicular to the foliation of the rock. The number of coalesced grains indicates that the strain that rock experienced is > 2. [reference] Hiraga et al. (2010) Nature 468, 1091-1094; Fliervoet et al. (1997) Journal of Structural Geology 19, 1495-1520

  9. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  10. Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) and its mineral structure: implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L

    2015-01-25

    Austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm(-1) are assigned to the ?2, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3-) unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm(-1) correspond to the ?1, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3(-) unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm(-1) for IR and 3270 cm(-(1) both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals. PMID:25087167

  11. Minerals and rocks, what a passion! A CLIL unit in an Italian lower secondary class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Piera; Fiorineschi, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    CLIL means Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since September 2014 the teaching of a discipline in a foreign language has been compulsory in the final year of all high schools of Italy and recommended in lower secondary schools. So I decided to take part in a training course about "CLIL in Sciences teaching " that ANISN (Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Scienze Naturali ) was being held in Bologna from October to December 2014. There I learned that CLIL is much more than the translation of a traditional lecture to a foreign language. It is actually a set of new methodologies, largely based on Bloom's taxonomy, and making use of many kinds of technical support often referred to as "scaffolding" . It provides a context to improve communication because "natural language is never learned divorced from meaning". But CLIL is even more effective in order to learn the content, which is more important here than in immersion methodology. In the course we had to chose a subject , develop it in a structured unit, experiment the unit in a class of ours, using just English, and finally present it to the colleagues in Bologna. I decided to do the activity with 13 year old students. We had started the science lessons with chemistry, this year and I needed a subject consistent with that. So the choice was: Minerals! Because they belong to chemistry, being chemical compounds. Subsequently, even when the course in Bologna had come to an end, we continued with: Rocks! Since the pupils were pleased to do it and I was satisfied with their results. I worked together with my colleague who teaches English in the same class. We developed the subject following the instructions I had been given at the course: we showed the students videos found on line, providing them with the script; we made the text easier for them; we made them work in couples; I organized lab activities to improve learning skills to which they could apply their knowledge . Cross - curricolar links are an important advantage of such a unit; minerals and rocks are linked to physics, chemistry, geomorphology, and also to geography , history, econonomics, and maths. The follow up activities were even more interesting. When we found that the weathering of feldspars to clay can increase the probability of a landslide, I gave the students an example of one of the most famous landslides in the world, Vajont. The students were so interested that they looked by themselves for further information about that tragedy, and the context in which it was possible to happen. Another concept which turned out to be fascinating to the students was how rocks can tell us the geological history of a region . The results of the activities were quite good in Sciences and good in English; the students accepted the challenge, they played along with us and had fun explaining their activities during the open labs devoted to the families of younger students.

  12. A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.

    2012-12-01

    A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

  13. Secondary Mineral Deposits and Evidence of Past Seismicity and Heating of the Proposed Repository Horizon at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, Josheph F.

    2004-01-01

    The Drift Degradation Analysis (DDA) (BSC, 2003) for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, describes model simulations of the effects of pre- and post-closure seismicity and waste-induced heating on emplacement drifts. Based on probabilistic seismic hazard analyses of the intensity and frequency of future seismic events in the region (CRWMS M&O, 1998), the DDA concludes that future seismicity will lead to substantial damage to emplacement drifts, particularly those in the lithophysal tuffs, where some simulations predict complete collapse of the drift walls. Secondary mineral studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1995 indicate that secondary calcite and silica have been deposited in some fractures and lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain during at least the past 10 million years (m.y.), and probably since the tuffs cooled to less than 100?C. Tuff fragments, likely generated by past seismic activity, have commonly been incorporated into the secondary mineral depositional sequences. Preliminary observations indicate that seismic activity has generated few, if any, tuff fragments during the last 2 to 4 m.y., which may be inconsistent with the predictions of drift-wall collapse described in the DDA. Whether or not seismicity-induced tuff fragmentation occurring at centimeter to decimeter scales in the fracture and cavity openings relates directly to failure of tuff walls in the 5.5-m-diameter waste emplacement drifts, the deposits do provide a potential record of the spatial and temporal distribution of tuff fragments in the UZ. In addition, the preservation of weakly attached coatings and (or) delicate, upright blades of calcite in the secondary mineral deposits provides an upper limit for ground motion during the late stage of deposition that might be used as input to future DDA simulations. Finally, bleaching and alteration at a few of the secondary mineral sites indicate that they were subjected to heated gases at approximately the temperatures expected from waste emplacement. These deposits provide at least limited textural and mineralogic analogs for waste-induced, high-humidity thermal alteration of emplacement drift wall rocks.

  14. Secondary alteration of the impactite and mineralization in the basal Tertiary sequence, Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Doreen E.; Kjarsgaard, Ingrid M.; Pope, Kevin O.; Dressler, Burkhard; Pilkington, Mark

    2004-07-01

    The 65 Ma Chicxulub impact crater formed in the shallow coastal marine shelf of the Yucatán Platform in Mexico. Impacts into water-rich environments provide heat and geological structures that generate and focus sub-seafloor convective hydrothermal systems. Core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) hole, drilled by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), allowed testing for the presence of an impact-induced hydrothermal system by: a) characterizing the secondary alteration of the 100 m-thick impactite sequence; and b) testing for a chemical input into the lower Tertiary sediments that would reflect aquagene hydrothermal plume deposition. Interaction of the Yax-1 impactites with seawater is evident through redeposition of the suevites (unit 1), secondary alteration mineral assemblages, and the subaqueous depositional environment for the lower Tertiary carbonates immediately overlying the impactites. The least-altered silicate melt composition intersected in Yax-1 is that of a calc-alkaline basaltic andesite with 53.4-56 wt% SiO2 (volatile-free). The primary mineralogy consists of fine microlites of diopside, plagioclase (mainly Ab 47), ternary feldspar (Ab 37 to 77), and trace apatite, titanite, and zircon. The overprinting alteration mineral assemblage is characterized by Mg-saponite, Kmontmorillonite, celadonite, K-feldspar, albite, Fe-oxides, and late Ca and Mg carbonates. Mg and K metasomatism resulted from seawater interaction with the suevitic rocks producing smectite-Kfeldspar assemblages in the absence of any mixed layer clay minerals, illite, or chlorite. Rare pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite occur near the base of the impactites. These secondary alteration minerals formed by low temperature (0-150 °C) oxidation and fixation of alkalis due to the interaction of glass-rich suevite with down-welling seawater in the outer annular trough intersected at Yax-1. The alteration represents a cold, Mg-K-rich seawater recharge zone, possibly recharging higher temperature hydrothermal activity proposed in the central impact basin. Hydrothermal metal input into the Tertiary ocean is shown by elevated Ni, Ag, Au, Bi, and Te concentrations in marcasite and Cd and Ga in sphalerite in the basal 25 m of the Tertiary carbonates in Yax-1. The lower Tertiary trace element signature reflects hydrothermal metal remobilization from a mafic source rock and is indicative of hydrothermal venting of evolved seawater into the Tertiary ocean from an impact generated hydrothermal convective system.

  15. minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildner, Manfred; Giester, Gerald; Kersten, Monika; Langer, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Polarized electronic absorption spectra of colourless chalcocyanite, CuSO4, have been measured using microscope-spectrometric techniques. The spectra are characterized by a structured and clearly polarized band system in the near-infrared spectral range with components centred at 11,720, 10,545, 9,100, and 7,320 cm-1, which have been assigned to crystal field d- d transitions of Cu2+ cations in pseudo-tetragonally elongated CuO6 polyhedra with point symmetry C i (). The polarization behaviour is interpreted based on a D 2( C 2?) pseudo-symmetry. Crystal field calculations were performed for the actual triclinic point symmetry by applying the Superposition Model of crystal fields, as well as in terms of a `classic' pseudo-tetragonal crystal field approach yielding the parameters Dq (eq) = 910, Dt = 395, and Ds = 1,336 cm-1, corresponding to a cubically averaged Dq cub = 679 cm-1. A comparative survey on crystal fields in Cu2+ minerals shows that the low overall crystal field strength in chalcocyanite, combined with a comparatively weak pseudo-tetragonal splitting of energy levels, is responsible for its unique colourless appearance among oxygen-based Cu2+ minerals. The weak crystal field in CuSO4 can be related to the lower position of the SO4 2- anion compared to, e.g. the H2O molecule in the spectrochemical series of ligands.

  16. Collagen type-I leads to in vivo matrix mineralization and secondary stabilization of Mg-Zr-Ca alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Mushahary, Dolly; Wen, Cuie; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Lin, Jixing; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter; Pande, Gopal; Li, Yuncang

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-zirconia-calcium (Mg-Zr-Ca) alloy implants were coated with Collagen type-I (Coll-I) and assessed for their rate and efficacy of bone mineralization and implant stabilization. The phases, microstructure and mechanical properties of these alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and compression test, respectively, and the corrosion behavior was established by their hydrogen production rate in simulated body fluid (SBF). Coll-I extracted from rat tail, and characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, was used for dip-coating the Mg-based alloys. The coated alloys were implanted into the femur bones of male New Zealand white rabbits. In vivo bone formation around the implants was quantified by measuring the bone mineral content/density (BMC/BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osseointegration of the implant and new bone mineralization was visualized by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Upon surface coating with Coll-I, these alloys demonstrated high surface energy showing enhanced performance as an implant material that is suitable for rapid and efficient new bone tissue induction with optimal mineral content and cellular properties. The results demonstrate that Coll-I coated Mg-Zr-Ca alloys have a tendency to form superior trabecular bone structure with better osteoinduction around the implants and higher implant secondary stabilization, through the phenomenon of contact osteogenesis, compared to the control and uncoated ones in shorter periods of implantation. Hence, Coll-I surface coating of Mg-Zr-Ca alloys is a promising method for expediting new bone formation in vivo and enhancing osseointegration in load bearing implant applications. PMID:25179112

  17. The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2013-06-03

    The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

  18. Syntrophic Effects in a Subsurface Clostridial Consortium on Fe(III)-(Oxyhydr)oxide Reduction and Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Madhavi; Lin, Chu-Ching; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Xiuhong; Wang, Yangping; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2013-12-02

    In this study, we cultivated from subsurface sediments an anaerobic Clostridia 25 consortium that was composed of a fermentative Fe-reducer Clostridium species (designated as 26 strain FGH) and a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium belonging to the Clostridia family 27 Vellionellaceae (designated as strain RU4). In pure culture, Clostridium sp. strain FGH mediated 28 the reductive dissolution/transformation of iron oxides during growth on peptone. When 29 Clostridium sp. FGH was grown with strain RU4 on peptone, the rates of iron oxide reduction 30 were significantly higher. Iron reduction by the consortium was mediated by multiple 31 mechanisms, including biotic reduction by Clostridium sp. FGH and biotic/abiotic reactions 32 involving biogenic sulfide by strain RU4. The Clostridium sp. FGH produced hydrogen during 33 fermentation, and the presence of hydrogen inhibited growth and iron reduction activity. The 34 sulfate-reducing partner strain RU4 was stimulated by the presence of H2 gas and generated 35 reactive sulfide which promoted the chemical reduction of the iron oxides. Characterization of 36 Fe(II) mineral products showed the formation of magnetite during ferrihydrite reduction, and 37 the precipitation of iron sulfides during goethite and hematite reduction. The results suggest an 38 important pathway for iron reduction and secondary mineralization by fermentative sulfate-39 reducing microbial consortia is through syntrophy-driven biotic/abiotic reactions with biogenic 40 sulfide.

  19. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obi?an, Sarah G; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subset of pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by an underlying disorder of the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Pulmonary hypertension can also occur secondarily to structural cardiac disease, autoimmune disorders, and toxic exposures. Although pregnancies affected by pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension are rare, the pathophysiology exacerbated by pregnancy confers both high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In light of new treatment modalities and the use of a multidisciplinary approach to care, maternal outcomes may be improving. PMID:25037519

  20. Risk of pulmonary tuberculosis relative to silicosis and exposure to silica dust in South African gold miners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Hnizdo; J Murray

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the following questions. (1) Is silica dust on its own, without the presence of silicosis, associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in workers exposed to silica dust? (2) In the absence of silicosis is the excess risk dose related? (3) What is the predominant chronological sequence between the development of PTB and the development

  1. Differential therapy with calcium antagonists in pulmonary hypertension secondary to COPD. Hemodynamic effects of nifedipine, diltiazem, and verapamil.

    PubMed

    Gassner, A; Sommer, G; Fridrich, L; Magometschnigg, D; Priol, A

    1990-10-01

    In 53 patients with COPD and precapillary pulmonary hypertension, we investigated the effect of three typical calcium antagonists on hemodynamics at rest and during bicycle ergometer exercise. In the responders, the decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance following nifedipine was 23 percent at rest (p less than 0.0005) and 35 percent during exercise (p less than 0.0005); following diltiazem, it was 10 percent at rest (p less than 0.05) and 23 percent during exercise (p less than 0.025); following verapamil, it was 22 percent at rest (p less than 0.005) and 11 percent during exercise (p less than 0.025). The cardiac index rose significantly at rest and under exercise only after the administration of nifedipine (+16 percent and +8 percent, resp). Nifedipine caused the most distinctive peripheral vasodilation. The heart rate increased slightly following nifedipine and decreased slightly following diltiazem and verapamil. After long-term therapy with nifedipine (13 +/- 5 months), the decrease in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance was no longer significant. In our opinion, the different hemodynamic action profiles will have consequences for the differential therapy in patients with COPD and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:2209138

  2. A case of antiphospholipid syndrome refractory to secondary anticoagulating prophylaxis after deep vein thrombosis-pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kang Mo; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won

    2014-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by a combination of clinical criteria, including vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity and elevated antiphospholipid antibody titers. It is one of the causes of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that can be critical due to the mortality risk. Overall recurrence of thromboembolism is very low with adequate anticoagulation prophylaxis. The most effective treatment to prevent recurrent thrombosis is long-term anticoagulation. We report on a 17-year-old male with APS, who manifested blue toe syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and cerebral infarction despite adequate long-term anticoagulation therapy. PMID:25580146

  3. A Case of Antiphospholipid Syndrome Refractory to Secondary Anticoagulating Prophylaxis after Deep Vein Thrombosis-Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Kang Mo; Shin, Jong Wook

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by a combination of clinical criteria, including vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity and elevated antiphospholipid antibody titers. It is one of the causes of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that can be critical due to the mortality risk. Overall recurrence of thromboembolism is very low with adequate anticoagulation prophylaxis. The most effective treatment to prevent recurrent thrombosis is long-term anticoagulation. We report on a 17-year-old male with APS, who manifested blue toe syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and cerebral infarction despite adequate long-term anticoagulation therapy. PMID:25580146

  4. Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Hammarstrom; R SEALII; A. L. Meier; J. M. Kornfeld

    2005-01-01

    Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were

  5. Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: Implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Evans; W. C. Steinkampf; D. G. Horton; G. C. Solomon; L. D. White

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of ¹⁸O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Handford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filing vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the ¹⁸O

  6. Pulmonary angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... narrowing of the pulmonary vessels Pulmonary artery aneurysms Pulmonary hypertension -- high blood pressure in the arteries of the ... the lungs (pulmonary embolism) Narrowed blood vessel Primary pulmonary hypertension Tumor in the lung

  7. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Aerosolized Iloprost in Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension in Children With Congenital Heart Disease Vasodilator Capacity and Cellular Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Rimensberger; Isabelle Spahr-Schopfer; Michel Berner; Edgar Jaeggi; Afksendiyos Kalangos; Beat Friedli; Maurice Beghetti

    Background—Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used to assess the vasodilator capacity of the pulmonary vascular bed in children with congenital heart disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Inhaled iloprost is a pulmonary vasodilator for the long-term treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Because these 2 vasodilators act through different pathways (release of cGMP or cAMP, respectively), we compared the pulmonary

  8. Osteological and biomolecular evidence of a 7000-year-old case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy secondary to tuberculosis from neolithic hungary.

    PubMed

    Masson, Muriel; Molnár, Erika; Donoghue, Helen D; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Wu, Houdini H T; Lee, Oona Y-C; Bull, Ian D; Pálfi, György

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hódmez?vásárhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults. Several cases showed potential signs of tuberculosis, particularly the remains of the individual HGO-53. This is an important finding that has significant implications for our understanding of this community. The aim of the present study was to seek biomolecular evidence to confirm this diagnosis. HGO-53 was a young male with a striking case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), revealing rib changes and cavitations in the vertebral bodies. The initial macroscopic diagnosis of HPO secondary to tuberculosis was confirmed by analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific cell wall lipid biomarkers and corroborated by ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. This case is the earliest known classical case of HPO on an adult human skeleton and is one of the oldest palaeopathological and palaeomicrobiological tuberculosis cases to date. PMID:24205173

  9. Osteological and Biomolecular Evidence of a 7000-Year-Old Case of Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy Secondary to Tuberculosis from Neolithic Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Muriel; Molnár, Erika; Donoghue, Helen D.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Minnikin, David E.; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Lee, Oona Y-C.; Bull, Ian D.; Pálfi, György

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hódmez?vásárhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults. Several cases showed potential signs of tuberculosis, particularly the remains of the individual HGO-53. This is an important finding that has significant implications for our understanding of this community. The aim of the present study was to seek biomolecular evidence to confirm this diagnosis. HGO-53 was a young male with a striking case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), revealing rib changes and cavitations in the vertebral bodies. The initial macroscopic diagnosis of HPO secondary to tuberculosis was confirmed by analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific cell wall lipid biomarkers and corroborated by ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. This case is the earliest known classical case of HPO on an adult human skeleton and is one of the oldest palaeopathological and palaeomicrobiological tuberculosis cases to date. PMID:24205173

  10. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in secondary sulfate minerals in soils of mined areas in Southeast Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Carmona; Á. Faz Cano; J. M. Arocena

    2009-01-01

    Soils in mined areas in southeastern Spain are commonly characterized by extreme acidity, high salinity, and metals. These present challenges to establish vegetation as a management option for these environmentally-problematic landscapes. We collected salt efflorescence and the corresponding soil materials to better understand the geochemical cycling of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils of mined areas. Mineral composition was

  11. Reaction path modelling used to explore the relationship between secondary mineral precipitation and low Si content in the meltwaters of a polythermal surge-type glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, J. W.; Flowers, G. E.; Kirste, D. M.; Hagedorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    The subglacial chemical weathering environment is characterized by low temperatures and the hydrolysis and carbonation of freshly comminuted mineral surfaces. Such conditions motivate the hypothesis that relatively low silica fluxes should be found in glacierized basins. Additionally, it is often assumed that glacier meltwaters are far from saturation and that the water chemistry is controlled solely by the dissolution of primary silicates and trace quantities of sulphide and carbonate minerals. Alternatively, we propose that the formation of secondary minerals and precipitates in the delayed drainage system play an important role in controlling the low silica fluxes observed in subglacial envrionments. Borehole and proglacial meltwater samples were collected from a polythermal surge-type glacier overlying granodiorite bedrock in the St. Elias Mountains of Yukon, Canada. The meltwater chemistry, along with the mineralogy of the bedrock and suspended sediments indicate the presence of mineral precipitation accompanied by substantial basal freeze-on. This is supported by field evidence of debris rich basal ice at the terminus and at the base of a borehole. The surplus of Cl- above the supraglacial input is used to calculate the amount of basal freeze-on in the delayed drainage system, and the amount of mixing between the delayed and fast drainage systems. We use Geochemist's Workbench for reaction path modelling with a focus on the silica composition to simulate the chemical evolution of glacial meltwater from (1) the initial water rock contact, (2) basal freeze on, and (3) mixing and post mixing reactions. Unless there is a substantial degree of non-stoichiometric dissolution, we find that the observed proglacial water chemistry at the terminus is largely controlled by the hydrochemistry of water in the delayed drainage system. Lastly, we use this model to explore the relationship between the proglacial water chemistry and the daily glacier surface velocities for the period of July, 2013, with an eye to identifying a relationship between water chemistry and short-term glacier dynamics.

  12. Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Kornfeld, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

  13. Dyspnea due to pulmonary vessel arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Suzana M; Dominelli, Giulio S; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Levy, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arteritis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. Causes of pulmonary arteritis can be divided into primary and secondary, as well as classified according to vessel size. Only large vessel vasculitis is associated with pulmonary hypertension; primary forms include Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis. The diagnosis of pulmonary arteritis can be challenging and the associated morbidity is serious without prompt, directed treatment. The authors present a case involving a 48-year-old First Nations man presenting with a six-month history of exertional dyspnea and severe stenosis of the left pulmonary artery, who was ultimately diagnosed with pulmonary arteritis related to large vessel vasculitis. PMID:24524110

  14. Autoimmune disease leading to pulmonary AL amyloidosis and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, Claire M; McLean, Catriona; Williams, Trevor J; Snell, Gregory I; Whitford, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with past history of Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus presented with dyspnea and syncope secondary to pulmonary hypertension. After progressive symptoms over 4 years, she received bilateral lung transplantation. Histopathology of the explanted lungs showed isolated pulmonary amyloid light-chain amyloidosis and pulmonary cysts. No evidence of systemic amyloidosis was found at the time of transplantation. Seven years post lung transplantation, she remains well with no evidence of systemic amyloidosis recurrence. PMID:26090118

  15. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 ?m) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  16. HISTOLOGIC STRUCTURE AND MINERAL COMPONENTS OF SECONDARY DENTIN FORMED BY ENDOCHONDRAL BONE MATRIX GELATIN IMPLANTATION IN RABBIT PULP CAVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Sobhani; A. Shoa-Kazemi; B. Niknafs; A. Hedaiatpour

    Many investigators use bone matrix gelatin for bone induction but it is used rarely for repair of teeth defects. This study was designed to evaluate secondary dentin formation by endochondral bone matrix gelatin (E-BMG) in rabbit. E-BMG was prepared from tibia and femur of 4 Deutsche-Poland rabbits with average ages of 4-6 months. The prepared E-BMG was implanted in right

  17. Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Edward J; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M

    2010-06-15

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. "Fast" Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having "low" cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with "high" cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction. PMID:20476735

  18. Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P., Jr.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Horton, D.G.; Solomon, G.C.; White, L.D.; Evans, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of 18O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Hanford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filling vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the 18O content of ground water at the time the mineral assemblage formed. A fossil profile of ??18O values projected for ground water in a 1500 m vertical section beneath the reservation suggests that the vertical mixing of shallow and deep ground water indicated by present-day hydrochemical data was also occurring during Neogene time. These data also suggest that a unidirectional depletion of 18O and deuterium recorded in Pleistocene ground waters may have extended considerably further back in time. This shift is tentatively attributed to the orographic depletion of 18O associated with the progressive uplift of the Cascade Range since the middle Miocene. -Authors

  19. DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn L. Nagy

    2009-05-04

    The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or ... symptoms. Rate This Content: NEXT >> August 2, 2011 Pulmonary Hypertension Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  1. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  2. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease can benefit as well. What is Pulmonary Rehabilitation? Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education and ... to take? How much time does a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program take? The amount of time it takes ...

  3. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  4. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  5. Evaluation of Bone Height and Bone Mineral Density Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography After Secondary Bone Graft in Alveolar Cleft.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dai-Zun; Xiao, Wen-Lin; Zhou, Rong; Xue, Ling-Fa; Ma, Long

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the optimal timing of subsequent dental implant placement and orthodontics after alveolar bone grafting (ABG) in patients with unilateral complete clefts of the alveolar process. Iliac bone graft surgery was performed on 60 patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) and height of the ABG areas were assessed using cone beam computed tomography at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The heights of the labial and palatal bone graft areas were classified using the modified Bergland classification. The study found that there was no change in BMD between 3 months (mean?±?SD: 406.51?±?71.28 Hounsfield units [HU]) and 6 months (409.53?±?46.37?HU; P?=?0.381). Significant changes in the distribution of bone height classifications were observed in the labial and palatal sides of the ABG between 3 and 6 months (P?=?0.025 for labial bone height, P?=?0.008 for palatal bone height). These results indicate that the alveolar density remained stable between 3 and 6 months, whereas bone height level declined during that period after ABG, the latter indicating bone graft absorption over time. It is, therefore, suggested that subsequent orthodontic or dental implants be placed 3 months after ABG rather than at 6 months or later. PMID:26114510

  6. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  7. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return presenting with adult-onset pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Edmund H.; Aliotta, Jason M.; Klinger, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a rare cause of adult onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that can present with a wide spectrum of severity from early childhood throughout adult life. We present two patients with PAH secondary to PAPVR who reflect this range of disease. The diagnosis and treatment of PAPVR and its role in pulmonary vascular disease is discussed. Cardiac and pulmonary physicians should be aware of this entity and its diagnosis and management options. PMID:22837866

  8. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePLUS

    Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... pulmonary embolus is most often caused by a blood clot in a vein. The most common blood ...

  9. Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of Bosentan Dose Optimization in Symptomatic Heart Failure Patients with Severe Systolic Dysfunction, Associated with Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension – A MultiCenter Randomized Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edo Kaluski; Gad Cotter; Marina Leitman; Olga Milo-Cotter; Ricardo Krakover; Isaac Kobrin; Tina Moriconi; Maurizio Rainisio; Avraham Caspi; Leonardo Reizin; Reuven Zimlichman; Zvi Vered

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Toevaluate the effects of bosentan on echo-derived hemodynamic measurements, and clinical variables in symptomatic heart failure (HF) patients. Method: Multi- center, double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study comparing bosentan (8–125 mg b.i.d.) to placebo in patients with New York Heart Association class IIIb–IV HF, left ventricular ejection fraction <35% and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) >40 mm Hg. Primary and

  10. Pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Lally, Lindsay; Spiera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis encompasses inflammation in the pulmonary vasculature with involved vessels varying in caliber from large elastic arteries to capillaries. Small pulmonary capillaries are the vessels most commonly involved in vasculitis affecting the lung. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, which include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome), are the small vessel vasculitides in which pulmonary vasculitis is most frequently observed and are the major focus of this review. Vasculitic involvement of the large pulmonary vessels as may occur in Behçet syndrome and Takayasu arteritis is also discussed. PMID:25836645

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue diseases, and interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease is the name ...

  12. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

  13. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  14. Estimation of pulmonary vascular resistance with Doppler diastolic gradients.

    PubMed

    Atiq, Mehnaz; Tasneem, Habiba; Aziz, Kalimuddin

    2008-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the diastolic Doppler echocardiographic correlates of pulmonary vascular resistance calculated on cardiac catheterization in patients with secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with congenital heart disease, pulmonary artery hypertension and pulmonary regurgitation were studied. Continuous-wave Doppler-derived pulmonary artery diastolic gradients were measured at 3 points on the pulmonary regurgitant diastolic velocity slope: peak diastolic, end-diastolic (at the R wave on the electrocardiogram), and mid-diastolic (midway between the peak and end-diastolic points). Catheterization data included oximetry, measurements of pressure in the cardiac chambers and great arteries, and calculation of pulmonary vascular resistance index. Doppler-derived peak, mid, and end-diastolic pulmonary regurgitation gradients correlated best with catheterization-measured pulmonary artery systolic, mean and diastolic pressures, respectively. The best Doppler correlate of pulmonary vascular resistance index was the pulmonary artery end-diastolic gradient. Clinically useful information can be obtained from Doppler pulmonary artery diastolic gradients measured on the pulmonary regurgitant diastolic velocity slope, which can estimate the pulmonary arterial pressure as well as pulmonary vascular resistance obtained on cardiac catheterization. PMID:18515672

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Houtchens, Jeanne; Martin, Douglas; Klinger, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease, which requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose when patients initially present. Initial symptoms can be nonspecific and include complaints such as fatigue and mild dyspnea. Once the disease is suspected, echocardiography is used to estimate the pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure and to exclude secondary causes of elevated PA pressures such as left heart disease. Right heart catheterization with vasodilator challenge is critical to the proper assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics and to determine whether patients are likely to benefit from vasodilator therapy. Pathologically, the disease is characterized by deleterious remodeling of the distal pulmonary arterial and arteriolar circulation, which results in increased pulmonary vascular resistance. In the last fifteen years, medications from three different classes have been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These include the prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. PMID:21941650

  16. Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Thomas, Maria Joana; Daniels, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block. PMID:25861484

  17. Complete heart block with diastolic heart failure and pulmonary edema secondary to enlarging previously diagnosed thrombosed aneurysm of sinus of valsalva in a patient with history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Amor, Martin Miguel; Thomas, Maria Joana; Daniels, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block. PMID:25861484

  18. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Related Topics How the Lungs Work Lung Transplant Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Rehabilitation Respiratory Failure Send a link to ... is respiratory failure . Other causes of death include pulmonary hypertension (HI-per-TEN-shun), heart failure , pulmonary embolism ( ...

  19. Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru - Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Gobac, Željka Žigove?ki; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Lana, Cristiano; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The mineral coquimbite has been analysed using a range of techniques including SEM with EDX, thermal analytical techniques and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral originated from the Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru. The chemical formula was determined as ()?2.00()3·9HO. Thermal analysis showed a total mass loss of ˜73.4% on heating to 1000 °C. A mass loss of 30.43% at 641.4 °C is attributed to the loss of SO3. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of sulphate tetrahedra, aluminium oxide/hydroxide octahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. The Raman spectrum shows well resolved bands at 2994, 3176, 3327, 3422 and 3580 cm-1 attributed to water stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with thermal analysis provides insight into the structure of coquimbite.

  20. [Pulmonary-renal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Risso, Jorge A; Mazzocchi, Octavio; De All, Jorge; Gnocchi, César A

    2009-01-01

    The pulmonary-renal syndrome is defined as a combination of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. The coexistence of these two clinical conditions is due to diseases with different pathogenic mechanisms. Primary systemic vasculitis and Goodpasture syndrome are the most frequent etiologies. Systemic lupus erythematosus, connective tissue diseases, negative anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis and those secondary to drugs are far less common causes. An early diagnosis based on clinical, radiologic, laboratory and histologic criteria enables early treatment, thus diminishing its high morbidity-mortality rate. Therapy is based on high doses of corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and plasmapheresis. PMID:20053612

  1. Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Zhang; Mengyang Deng; Shiwen Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has potent properties for the treatment of a variety of vascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke and pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, there are few data about the role of TMP in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage. This study examined the effect of TMP on hypoxia-induced pulmonary

  2. Pulmonary pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne E. deMello

    2004-01-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis.

  3. Secondary amenorrhea

    MedlinePLUS

    Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... In addition to having no menstrual periods, other symptoms can ... Weight gain or weight loss Discharge from the breast or change ...

  4. When to refer a patient with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension for pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago; de Perrot, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is much more frequent than previously estimated, potentially occurring with an incidence of several thousand cases per year in Canada. Refinements in the surgical technique of pulmonary endarterectomy, the development of medical therapy and, more recently, the introduction of balloon pulmonary angioplasty have provided an increasing array of therapeutic options for this disease. CTEPH is related to the presence of chronic thromboembolic disease and the development of a secondary vasculopathy that leads to worsening pulmonary hypertension despite adequate anticoagulation, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate referral to achieve optimal therapeutic results. It is increasingly recognized that patients with CTEPH can present with acute on chronic pulmonary emboli. Recognition of the underlying chronic disease at the time of the acute presentation is important to ensure that these patients are adequately managed and followed with ventilation-perfusion scan and echocardiogram after their initial diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli. Chronic thromboembolic disease should be suspected in the presence of idiopathic and/or recurrent pulmonary emboli, larger perfusion defects, longer times between symptom onset and diagnosis, a systolic pulmonary artery pressure > 50 mm Hg on echocardiogram and the presence of organized mural thrombi, mosaic parenchymal perfusion, and/or arterial web or bands on the computed tomography scan. Pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of choice for CTEPH. The surgery leads to major long-term clinical improvement and is curative in a large proportion of patients with resolution of the pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25840100

  5. Minerals Yearbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.

  6. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction.

    PubMed

    Bray, T J P; Mortensen, K H; Gopalan, D

    2014-12-01

    The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. PMID:25241050

  7. Pulmonary manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Kanathur, Naveen; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2010-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder, can present with articular and extra-articular features. It can affect the tracheobronchial tree and the lung parenchyma, and respiratory complications include chest wall restriction, apical fibrobullous disease with or without secondary pulmonary superinfection, spontaneous pneumothorax, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ankylosing spondylitis is a common cause of pulmonary apical fibrocystic disease; early involvement may be unilateral or asymmetrical, but most cases eventually consist of bilateral apical fibrobullous lesions, many of which are progressive with coalescence of the nodules, formation of cysts and cavities, fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. Mycobacterial or fungal superinfection of the upper lobe cysts and cavities occurs commonly. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common pathogen isolated, followed by various species of mycobacteria. Prognosis of patients with fibrobullous apical lesions is mainly determined by the presence, extent, and severity of superinfection. Pulmonary function test results are nonspecific and generally parallel the severity of parenchymal involvement. A restrictive ventilatory impairment can develop in patients with ankylosing spondylitis because of either fusion of the costovertebral joints and ankylosis of the thoracic spine or anterior chest wall involvement. Chest radiographic findings may mirror the severity of clinical involvement. Pulmonary parenchymal disease is typically progressive, and cyst formation, cavitation, and fibrosis are seen in advanced cases. No treatment has been shown to alter the clinical course of apical fibrobullous disease. Although several antiinflammatory agents, such as infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab, are being used to treat ankylosing spondylitis, their effects on pulmonary manifestations are unclear. PMID:20692546

  8. Ore Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

  9. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  10. [Pulmonary hamartoma].

    PubMed

    Briccoli, A; Farinetti, A; Del Prete, P; Rizzente, A G; Saviano, M S; Guernelli, N

    1993-08-01

    Pulmonary hamartoma is a rare benign tumor often found by chance. Only in 10% of cases are some calcifications like "pop corn". Fibrobroncho-scopy is help only in endobronchial forms; they don't reach 10% of cases. Computed Tomography and transparietal biopsy can be diagnostic. In the uncertain cases and in presence of symptoms, thoracotomy with exeresis of tumor is justified. PMID:8247291

  11. Pulmonary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R; Turk, E P

    1980-09-01

    Two cases are reported of the incidental finding of pulmonary schistosomiasis in the victims of a fatal aircraft accident. The presence of this disease had no bearing on the causation of the accident, but it gives insight into the potential hazards of dissemination of diseases by travellers. The finding also emphasises the value of routine postmortems and histology in all aircraft accident victims. PMID:7417181

  12. Pulmonary rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemie M. W. J. Schols; Emiel F. M. Wouters

    \\u000a Rehabilitation has been practised for several decades, but its application in respiratory disease is relatively recent. Although\\u000a by definition chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterised by the presence of a progressive\\u000a and irreversible airflow obstruction, the primary treatment traditionally consists of pharmacological modulation of the airflow\\u000a limitation by bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory agents. Despite symptomatic relief after

  13. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that group 1 is called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and groups 2 through 5 are called pulmonary ... hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no known cause. PAH ...

  14. Cognitive, emotional, and quality of life outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne White; Ramona O Hopkins; Eric W Glissmeyer; Natalie Kitterman; C Gregory Elliott

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on cardiovascular and physical function are well documented. Limited information exists regarding the effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on cognitive function despite patient reports of problems with memory and attention. Our primary purpose was to determine if a prospectively identified cohort of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients had cognitive sequelae. Our secondary purpose was

  15. Relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Asker, Muntecep; Asker, Selvi; Kucuk, Ugur; Kucuk, Hilal Olgun; Ozbay, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension and whether pulmonary hypertension is an additional risk factor for the presence and extent of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension, and undergone diagnostic coronary angiography for evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease constituted the study group. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease and compared for age, gender, accompanying chronic disease, and pulmonary function tests. A total of 95 patients were recruited in the study. Comparison of the groups revealed that two groups were significantly different on gender (p=0.029), presence of hypertension (p=0.027), and biomass (p=0.040). Correlation analysis of variables revealed that male gender (rs=0.224, p=0.029), hypertension (rs=0.227, p=0.07) were positively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=-0.253, p=0.013) and sPAP (rs=-0.215, p=0.037) were negatively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. High prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found. However, no correlation between the presence and severity of coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension was detected. PMID:25664116

  16. Mineral Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem set challenges students to determine the chemical classification of minerals based on their chemical formula (provided). For oxygen-bearing minerals, students must also provide the valences of the various cations.

  17. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Mineral Chart KidsHealth > Teens > Miscellaneous > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size Type ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  18. Mineral Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mineralogy 4 Kids

    This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

  19. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Auger; Nick H. Kim; Terence K. Trow

    2010-01-01

    hronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) has emerged as one of the leading causes of severe pulmonary hypertension. The disease is notoriously underdiagnosed, and the true prevalence is still unclear. CTEPH is characterized by intraluminal thrombus organiza- tion and fibrous stenosis or complete obliteration of pulmo- nary arteries.1 The consequence is an increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in pulmonary hypertension and

  20. Identifying Minerals from Their Infra-red Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a British secondary school's use of a spectrometer to identify minerals. Discusses the origins of mineral spectra, the preparation of the specimen, the actual spectroscopic scanning, and the interpretation of the spectra. (TW)

  1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: a clot in question.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavin; Pakala, Aneesh; Aronson, Willard; Magharyous, Hany; Brown, Brent

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a group of disorders characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right heart failure and premature death. We present an unusual case of PAH diagnosed initially as Idiopathic PAH (IPAH) after secondary causes were excluded which was successfully managed for a number of years with vasodilators and anticoagulation. Over the months after stopping anticoagulation (because of recurring small bowel hemorrhaging) patient developed progressive findings of right heart failure, which failed to respond to escalating doses of prostacyclin. The patient died and an autopsy revealed the surprising finding of extensive organized central pulmonary artery thrombi as is seen in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We discuss the question of whether these thrombi are generally embolic or develop in situ and recommend that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for central thrombi in patients with IPAH were anticoagulation is contraindicated. PMID:25223151

  2. Singing the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Blues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil S. Cherniack

    2002-01-01

    Because little progress has been made in devising interventions that reverse or slow the progressive destruction of lung tissue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) we can treat only its secondary effects such as hypoxemia. Long-term oxygen therapy directed at overcoming chronic hypoxemia in COPD (the COPD blues) prolongs the life of patients whose arterial PO2 is less than 55

  3. Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Doroudinia, Abtin; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-08-01

    The accurate measurement of bone mineral density using noninvasive methods can be of value in the detection and evaluation of primary and secondary causes of decreased bone mass. This includes primary osteoporosis and secondary disorders, such as hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, multiple myeloma, diffuse metastases, and glucocorticoid therapy or intrinsic excess.By far, the largest patient population is that encompassed by primary osteoporosis with increased susceptibility to fractures in the absence of other recognizable causes of bone loss.Primary osteoporosis is a common clinical disorder and a major public health problem because of the significant number of related bone fractures occurring annually. Because the risk of vertebral and femoral neck fractures rises dramatically as bone mineral density falls, fracture risk in individual patients may be estimated. Furthermore, in estrogen-deficient women, bone mineral density values may be used to make rational decisions about hormone replacement therapy, or other bone mineral therapies, and as follow-up in assessing the success of such treatment.In this article, we discuss different methods of bone densitometry and will focus on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with discussing the factors which should be considered for interpretation of DXA scan. PMID:26147459

  4. Failure of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in carcinoid pulmonary stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S C; Scarffe, J H; Levy, R D; Brooks, N H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Carcinoid heart disease typically results in pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid incompetence. Percutaneous balloon dilatation is an effective treatment for congenital pulmonary stenosis and has been applied successfully to tricuspid stenosis caused by carcinoid heart disease. The value of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in carcinoid pulmonary stenosis was assessed. METHODS--Two patients with severe congestive heart failure secondary to carcinoid heart disease and with documented pulmonary stenosis had balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. In both cases tricuspid regurgitation was also present together with reduced cardiac output. RESULTS--The procedure was technically successful in both patients. One patient experienced symptomatic benefit for two months and the other experienced no improvement. Both patients subsequently required combined tricuspid and pulmonary valve replacement from which good results and symptomatic improvement were obtained. CONCLUSION--Though balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve is technically feasible it is unlikely to provide useful palliation in carcinoid heart disease. Valve surgery should be considered in patients in whom the malignancy is controlled but carcinoid heart disease is producing drug resistant congestive heart failure. PMID:1622693

  5. Pulmonary pathology.

    PubMed

    deMello, Daphne E

    2004-08-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis. These pathological changes result from inherited disorders of surfactant proteins or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Abnormal lung vascular development is the basis for another cause of fatal neonatal respiratory distress, alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without associated misalignment of veins. Diagnosis of these genetically transmitted disorders is important because of the serious implications for future siblings. There is also a critical need for establishing an archival tissue bank to permit future molecular biological studies. PMID:15251148

  6. Mineral Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    This lesson discusses the question 'What is a mineral?' in the context of the guessing game 'Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral?'. It introduces a definition of the term, discusses the criteria used in the definition, and presents the common physical properties used in mineral identification. The lesson includes an activity in which students observe and record the physical properties of ten specimens and attempt to identify them using an online reference for practice.

  7. Mineral Densities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students are given cubic cell edge dimensions and asked to calculate mineral densities and vice versa. The final question of this homework assignment provides students with a mineral density and unit cell edge length in order to determine the number of formula units per cell.

  8. Mineral Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    In this activity, students use written and online materials to answer a set of questions on the general properties and identification of minerals. They will learn about physical properties such as color, hardness, and cleavage; special properties such as fluorescence and effervescence; and complete a chart listing properties for a selection of minerals. Links to the necessary information are provided.

  9. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  10. Mineral Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners search for various kinds of items made from minerals around their home or school, including toothpaste, wall paint, kitty litter, and bricks. The PDF contains a check off list as well as recommended sites for more information on minerals.

  11. Long term inhalation of iloprost in a child with primary pulmonary hypertension: an alternative to continuous infusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Beghetti; M Berner; P C Rimensberger

    2001-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease in childhood associated with a poor prognosis. However, during the past 10 years, pulmonary vasodilator treatment has somewhat improved its prognosis. Long term continuous infusion of prostacyclin (epoprostenol) has been shown to improve physical capacity and to reduce mortality in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. It has been reported in adults that daily

  12. Mystery Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Morgan

    In this activity, students will discover that minerals have specific characteristics that help to identify them. They will learn that minerals are formed by inorganic processes, are crystalline solids with an internal orderly arrangement of atoms, have specific chemical compositions, and have specific physical and chemical characteristics. They will also learn that minerals are commonly identified by the physical properties they possess, such as hardness, color, crystal shape, specific gravity, and streak. In addition, they will discover some other useful properties such as reaction with hydrochloric acid or a characteristic taste. They should also understand that color is not always a useful property for identifying minerals because it can vary. The students will also develop listening and observational skills and learn the uses of a few common minerals.

  13. Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education Resources Accomplishments About Us Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis 10866 W. Washington Blvd #343 • Culver City, CA ... their respective owners. ©2001 – 2011 Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis Site Last Updated: June 3, 2015

  14. What Causes Pulmonary Embolism?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Causes Pulmonary Embolism? Major Causes Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually begins as a blood clot in a ... other tissue travels to the lungs and causes PE. Also, if a large bone in the body ( ...

  15. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  16. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  17. Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Pulmonary rehabilitation program How often is it covered? Medicare covers a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program if you have moderate to very severe ...

  18. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene M. Lang; Walter Klepetko

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a poorly understood disorder. It is characterized by pulmonary hypertension\\u000a associated with an apparent failure to resolve extensive, typically major-vessel pulmonary thromboemboli. Although CTEPH is\\u000a believed to be a thromboembolic disease, the typical risk factors for venous thromboembolism are absent. According to the\\u000a 2003 Venice classification of pulmonary hypertension, CTEPH represents group IV of

  19. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Shannon; E. B. Grantmyre; W. D. Reid; A. S. Wotherspoon

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis are described in neonates. One case represents an isolated form of the condition. The second example illustrates an association with complex cardiac disease, including total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, and the asplenia syndrome. The radiological features of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis are discussed.

  20. Pulmonary calcifications: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. BENDAYAN; Y. BARZIV; M. R. KRAMER

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary calcification is a common asymptomatic finding, usually discovered on routine chest X-ray or at autopsy.Pulmonary calcifications are caused mainly by two mechanisms: the dystrophic form and the metastatic form (1). Despite the different aetiologies, the pulmonary function and clinical manifestations are quite similar in both forms. We present a review of the clinical and radiology findings of the different

  1. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

  2. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  3. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Vavera, Zden?k

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a growing interest in diseases of pulmonary circulation. It is due to the development of specific drug therapy for pulmonary hypertension (PH), improving the availability and performance of endarterectomy techniques of pulmonary artery. This technique has been established as method of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, the crucial issue is early indication of treatment, right diagnosis and determination of exact type of pulmonary hypertension. Modern therapeutic approaches provide better prognosis, quality of life and even possibility to cure the patients, especially suffering from CTEPH. This article discusses the issue of CTEPH. PMID:25873119

  4. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections.

    PubMed

    Katre, Rashmi; Burns, Stephanie K; Murillo, Horacio; Lane, Michael J; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2012-12-01

    Developmental lung anomalies are classified into 3 main categories: bronchopulmonary (lung bud) anomalies, vascular anomalies, and combined lung and vascular anomalies. These anomalies are uncommon, and patients are at times asymptomatic; hence, identifying a developmental lung anomaly in the adult can be a challenge. Pulmonary vascular anomalies include interruption or absence of the main pulmonary artery, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery, anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (partial or complete), and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Systemic vascular anomalies comprise persistent left superior vena cava, anomalies of azygos and hemiazygos systems, and anomalies of the thoracic aorta and its major branches. In this article, we present embryology, classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and imaging features of anomalous pulmonary venous connections, with special emphasis on multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. These state-of-art imaging techniques have facilitated accurate and prompt diagnosis of these anomalies. PMID:23168060

  5. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoeper, Marius M; Madani, Michael M; Nakanishi, Norifumi; Meyer, Bernhard; Cebotari, Serghei; Rubin, Lewis J

    2014-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but debilitating and life-threatening complication of acute pulmonary embolism. CTEPH results from persistent obstruction of pulmonary arteries and progressive vascular remodelling. Not all patients presenting with CTEPH have a history of clinically overt pulmonary embolism. The diagnostic work-up to detect or rule out CTEPH should include ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, which has high sensitivity and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. CT angiography usually reveals typical features of CTEPH, including mosaic perfusion, part or complete occlusion of pulmonary arteries, and intraluminal bands and webs. Patients with suspected CTEPH should be referred to a specialist centre for right-heart catheterisation and pulmonary angiography. Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for CTEPH and is associated with excellent long-term results and a high probability of cure. For patients with inoperable CTEPH, various medical and interventional therapies are being developed. PMID:24898750

  6. Pulmonary hypertension complicating connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A; Saggar, Rajeev; Fishbein, Michael C; Saggar, Rajan

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may complicate connective tissue disease (CTD), particularly systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma), and markedly increases mortality. More than 70% of cases of PH complicating CTD occur in SSc, which is the major focus of this article. Pulmonary complications (i.e., interstitial lung disease [ILD] and PH) are the leading causes of scleroderma-related deaths. "Isolated" PH (i.e., without ILD) complicates SSc in 7.5 to 20% of cases; secondary PH may also occur in patients with SSc-associated ILD. Several clinical markers and specific autoantibody profiles have been associated with PH in SSc. The role of PH-specific therapy is controversial, as prognosis and responsiveness to therapy are worse in SSc-associated PH compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We discuss medical therapies for CTD-associated PH and the role of lung transplantation for patients failing medical therapy. PMID:24037627

  7. Inhaled iloprost to control residual pulmonary hypertension following pulmonary endarterectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Kramm; Balthasar Eberle; Stefan Guth; Eckhard Mayer

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the standard therapy for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In the immediate postoperative period, persistent pulmonary hypertension increases the risk of acute respiratory or right heart failure. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, prostanoid inhalation has been found to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, right ventricular function, gas exchange, and clinical outcome. We report the results of

  8. Overview of current therapeutic approaches for pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Jason A.; Risbano, Michael G.; Mathier, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    There have been tremendous strides in the management of pulmonary hypertension over the past 20 years with the introduction of targeted medical therapies and overall improvements in surgical treatment options and general supportive care. Furthermore, recent data shows that the survival of those with pulmonary arterial hypertension is improving. While there has been tremendous progress, much work remains to be done in improving the care of those with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension, who constitute the majority of patients with this disorder, and in the optimal treatment approach in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will review general and targeted medical treatment, along with surgical interventions, of those with pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22034603

  9. [Acute pulmonary edema, new complication of sclerosing mediastinitis].

    PubMed

    Serraj, M; Kamaoui, I; El Marzguioui, N; Amara, B; El Biaze, M; Tizniti, S; Benjelloun, M C

    2012-10-01

    Sclerosing mediastinitis is a rare and benign disease, which can cause obstruction of mediastinal structures, this determines the clinical presentation and prognosis. The obstruction of pulmonary venous structures secondary to mediastinal fibrosis has been rarely reported, clinically it mimics mitral stenosis. We describe the clinical case of a young patient with idiopathic sclerosing mediastinitis. The radiologic exams found stenosis of the right pulmonary artery, the right bronchus and pulmonary veins. Through this observation, we discuss this rare entity that although benign, can also be deadly. We study the different etiologies, clinical and therapeutic possibilities. PMID:22763333

  10. Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Troosters; Rik Gosselink; Daniel Langer; Marc Decramer

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation has become part of the evidence-based care in patients with COPD who remain symptomatic and have reduced participation in everyday life, after optimal medical treatment. Pulmonary rehabilitation is—by definition—a multidisciplinary intervention. By consequence the assessment of patients before entering a rehabilitation program includes both physiological and psychosocial assessment. In addition nutritional status and physical activity participation needs to

  11. Pulmonary hypertension caused by pulmonary venous hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) on the pulmonary circulation is extraordinarily variable, ranging from no impact on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to a marked increase. The reasons for this are unknown. Both acutely reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction and pathological remodeling (especially medial hypertrophy and intimal hyperplasia) account for increased PVR when present. The mechanisms involved in vasoconstriction and remodeling are not clearly defined, but increased wall stress, especially in small pulmonary arteries, presumably plays an important role. Myogenic contraction may account for increased vascular tone and also indirectly stimulate remodeling of the vessel wall. Increased wall stress may also directly cause smooth muscle growth, migration, and intimal hyperplasia. Even long-standing and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) usually abates with elimination of PVH, but PVH-PH is an important clinical problem, especially because PVH due to left ventricular noncompliance lacks definitive therapy. The role of targeted PH therapy in patients with PVH-PH is unclear at this time. Most prospective studies indicate that these medications are not helpful or worse, but there is ample reason to think that a subset of patients with PVH-PH may benefit from phosphodiesterase inhibitors or other agents. A different approach to evaluating possible pharmacologic therapy for PVH-PH may be required to better define its possible utility. PMID:25610595

  12. Acute myocardial infarction secondary to thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Timurkaynak, Timur; Aydogdu, Gulten; Cengel, Atiye

    2002-12-01

    Angina and myocardial infarction have been reported in hyperthyroidism with normal coronary arteries, presumably secondary to thyroid-induced coronary artery spasm. We report the case of a very young female patient with an atypical presentation of acute myocardial infarction mimicking pulmonary embolization secondary to thyrotoxicosis. Hyperthyroidism should be kept in mind in younger patients in the differential diagnosis of coronary artery disease. PMID:12542124

  13. A case of low bone mineral density with vitamin d deficiency due to prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung; Kim, Koon Soon

    2015-02-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m(2). She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized. PMID:25774364

  14. Ultrasonic Estimation of Mechanical Properties of Pulmonary Arterial Wall Under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kendall R.; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2005-04-01

    Secondary pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a disease that could benefit from improved ultrasonic diagnostic techniques. We perform high-frequency in vitro ultrasound measurements (25 MHz to 100 MHz) on fresh and fixed pulmonary arterial walls excised from normoxic and hypoxic Long-Evans rat models. Estimates of the elastic stiffness coefficients are determined from measurements of the speed of sound. Preliminary results indicate that hypoxia leads to up to increase of 20 % in stiffening of the pulmonary arterial wall.

  15. The Role of Surgical Therapy for Pulmonary Vein Atresia in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shuhaiber; M. Rehman; K. Jenkins; F. Fynn-Thompson; E. Bacha

    2011-01-01

    The outcome for children with pulmonary vein atresia has been historically poor. This report describes clinical outcomes after\\u000a surgical treatment of primary and secondary pulmonary vein atresia. All patients undergoing surgery for pulmonary vein atresia\\u000a at Children’s Hospital Boston from 1 January 2005 to 1 January 2009 were identified. The data available for analysis included\\u000a demographic characteristics, findings based on

  16. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dartevelle; E. Fadel; S. Mussot; A. Chapelier; P. Herve; M. de Perrot; J. Cerrina; F. L. Ladurie; D. Lehouerou; M. Humbert; O. Sitbon; G. Simonneau

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe disease that has been ignored for a long time. However, over the past 20 yrs chest physicians, cardiologists and thoracic,surgeons,have,shown,increasing interest in this disease because,of the development of new therapies, that have improved both the outcome and quality of life of patients, including pulmonary transplantation and prostacyclin therapy. Chronic thromboembolic,pulmonary,arterial hypertension,(CTEPH) can be

  17. Pulmonary rehabilitation: future directions.

    PubMed

    Nici, Linda; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is now an established standard of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although pulmonary rehabilitation has no appreciable direct effect on static measurements of lung function, it arguably provides the greatest benefit of any available therapy across multiple outcome areas important to the patient with respiratory disease, including dyspnea, exercise performance, and health-related quality of life. It also appears to be a potent intervention that reduces COPD hospitalizations, especially when given in the periexacerbation period. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation within the larger schema of integrated care represents a fruitful area for further research. PMID:24874138

  18. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Sometimes doctors can find out what is causing pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring). For example, exposure to environmental pollutants ...

  19. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ... of them each day. What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system, ...

  20. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS? HOW MUCH DO I ... HARMFUL? FOR MORE INFORMATION WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? Vitamins and minerals are sometimes called micronutrients. ...

  1. Pulmonary nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Pulmonary Nuclear Medicine; Radionuclide Venography as an Adjunct to V-P Imaging in the Assessment of Thromboembolic Disease; Assessment of Mucous Transport in the Respiratory Tract by Radioisotopic Techniques; Radiolabeled Blood Cells and Tracers in the Study of Acute Pulmonary Injury and ARDS; and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lungs.

  2. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Ries; Barry J. Make; John J. Reilly

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an established treatment for patients with chronic lung disease. Benefits include improvement in exercise tolerance, symptoms, and quality of life, with a reduction in the use of health care resources. As an adjunct to surgical programs, such as lung volume reduction surgery, pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important role not just in preparing patients for surgery and faci-

  3. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and aluminum dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.R.; Churg, A.M.; Hutcheon, M.; Lom, S.

    1984-08-01

    A 44-yr-old male presented shortness of breath, diffuse X-ray infiltrates, and physiologic evidence of a restrictive lung disease. Biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The patient had worked for the previous 6 yr as an aluminum rail grinder in a very dusty environment. Analysis of his lung tissue revealed greater than 300 X 10(6) particles of aluminum/g dry lung; all of the particles appeared as spheres of less than 1 mu diameter. We believe that this case represents an example of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis induced by inhalation of aluminum particles; this finding confirms animal studies which suggest that proteinosis can be produced by very large doses of many types of finely divided mineral dust.

  4. Secondary smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, P. A.

    1993-06-01

    The open literature on secondary smoke formation, prediction, and classification is briefly reviewed. This review was limited to the open literature in order to promote the widest possible discussion within the AGARD engineering community. The recently completed PEP WG 21 proposal for smoke classification is presented. Secondary smoke is defined and the physics of condensation of vapor onto droplets is reviewed. The basis for the existing droplet condensation models is discussed and the existing methodology for predicting secondary smoke light attenuation and scattering is presented. Test data taken to establish the initial conditions for heterogeneous nucleation in rocket plumes is presented. Comparisons between secondary smoke predictions and flight data are presented. The state of the art of secondary smoke modeling is discussed and suggestions are made for improvements.

  5. Mineral Commodities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This exercise introduces mineral commodities (elements). Students consider the elements aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, uranium, lead, gold, mercury and tin and match them with their definintions in a table. Then they use minable grade (minable weight percent) and normal crustal abundance (crustal weight percent) to calculate the concentration factor for several commodities to determine their economic minability. Students then graph their calculations and explain their trend.

  6. Severe Pulmonary Hypertension and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari Chaouat; Anne-Sophie Bugnet; Nabila Kadaoui; Roland Schott; Irina Enache; Alain Ducolone; May Ehrhart; Romain Kessler; Emmanuel Weitzenblum

    Rationale: Severe pulmonary hypertension occurs occasionally in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but no detailed description of these patients is available. Objectives: To identifyandcharacterizepatientswithCOPDandseverepulmonary hypertension. Methods: Retrospective study of 27 patients with COPD with severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery mean pressure (Ppa), 40 mm Hg) among 998 patients who underwent right heart catheterization between 1990 and 2002 as

  7. Changes in Large Pulmonary Arterial Viscoelasticity in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    Changes in Large Pulmonary Arterial Viscoelasticity in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension Zhijie Wang1, Wisconsin, United States of America Abstract Conduit pulmonary artery (PA) stiffening is characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is an excellent predictor of mortality due to right ventricular

  8. Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    richrigby

    2010-02-23

    Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

  9. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy. PMID:25962202

  10. [Hydatic pulmonary embolism: a rare complication of hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Serraj, M; Smahi, M; Kamaoui, I; El Houari, A; Sahnoune, F; Ouadnouni, Y; Amara, B; El Biaze, M; Tizniti, S; Benjelloun, M C

    2013-03-01

    Hepato-pulmonary hydatidosis is a parasitic disease common in Mediterranean countries. Hydatid pulmonary embolism is extremely rare and is due to rupture of a cardiac hydatid cyst or, more rarely, rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst. We report three cases of hydatid pulmonary embolism secondary to rupture of a hydatid cyst into the inferior vena cava. Thoracic imaging, mainly CT angiography and MRI, was important for both the diagnosis and decisions on treatment. The prognosis of intra-arterial pulmonary hydatid cyst is poor because of the risk of acute fatal complications such as anaphylactic shock and vascular rupture and also of chronic progression to cor pulmonale and respiratory failure. The therapeutic management is difficult and often only partially effective hence the importance of focusing on preventative treatment. PMID:23497931

  11. [Secondary rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Secondary rhinoplasty is very usual. Some patients are not satisfied by the previous surgery because the result is poor with obvious defaults but, sometimes, the result is good but the patient expects perfection. These two different situations will not lead to the same answer from the surgeon. Techniques of secondary rhinoplasty are the same than primary, but are often more difficult to perform because of scar tissue, retraction and loss of lining. The authors analyse the more frequent deformities in secondary rhinoplasty and the way they fix them. PMID:25213488

  12. Riociguat: Something new in pulmonary hypertension therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Elangovan; Jena, Amrita; George, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to be a disease that is associated with woeful outcomes. The search for an ideal drug molecule for PH led to the discovery of riociguat, which is a first-in-class drug molecule that activates soluble guanylate cyclase. We conducted a systematic literature search using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar to gather evidence generated from published clinical trials on the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and regulatory status of riociguat. CHEST-1 and the PATENT-1 were phase-3 pivotal clinical trials that showed that riociguat was able to significantly improve the 6-min walk distance with 16 weeks of therapy as compared with the placebo arm. The drug also showed improvement in secondary outcome measures such as improvement in the pulmonary vascular resistance, N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide levels, World Health Organization functional class, time to clinical worsening and Borg dyspnea score. The drug had a modest safety profile, with hypotension being the most bothersome adverse effect. These findings led to various regulatory agencies around the world granting approval for riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The entry of a new class of drug for PAH and CTEPH therapy portends some hope for patients with a disease that is traditionally linked with a poor prognosis. PMID:25709345

  13. Swan-Ganz catheter induced pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, R V; Marcelli, G; Di Marco, R F; Bekoe, S; Grant, K; Marrangoni, A G

    1987-01-01

    In over 3500 consecutive open heart procedures using Swan-Ganz catheterization at our institution, we have experienced three major pulmonary artery injuries secondary to this procedure. Pulmonary artery hemorrhage is a rare but frequently fatal complication and a mortality rate as high as fifty percent has been reported. In two of these cases, major retraction of the heart was needed for adequate exposure of the cardiac pathology. The Swan-Ganz catheter inadvertently was advanced into the wedge position for prolonged intervals of time, and periodic overdistention of the balloon occurred. The third case occurred in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The need for aggressive surgical approach has been demonstrated. The authors have recommended steps to be taken when massive hemoptysis occurs and Swan-Ganz catheter perforation of the pulmonary artery is suspected. Re-evaluation of the "routine" use of the Swan-Ganz catheter may be necessary and overutilization may be a distinct possibility. When the use of this catheter is deemed appropriate, a more exact positioning of the distal portion of the catheter is mandatory if pulmonary artery perforation is to be avoided. PMID:3667678

  14. Riociguat: Something new in pulmonary hypertension therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Elangovan; Jena, Amrita; George, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to be a disease that is associated with woeful outcomes. The search for an ideal drug molecule for PH led to the discovery of riociguat, which is a first-in-class drug molecule that activates soluble guanylate cyclase. We conducted a systematic literature search using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar to gather evidence generated from published clinical trials on the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and regulatory status of riociguat. CHEST-1 and the PATENT-1 were phase-3 pivotal clinical trials that showed that riociguat was able to significantly improve the 6-min walk distance with 16 weeks of therapy as compared with the placebo arm. The drug also showed improvement in secondary outcome measures such as improvement in the pulmonary vascular resistance, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, World Health Organization functional class, time to clinical worsening and Borg dyspnea score. The drug had a modest safety profile, with hypotension being the most bothersome adverse effect. These findings led to various regulatory agencies around the world granting approval for riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The entry of a new class of drug for PAH and CTEPH therapy portends some hope for patients with a disease that is traditionally linked with a poor prognosis. PMID:25709345

  15. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H; Delcroix, Marion; Jenkins, David P; Channick, Richard; Dartevelle, Philippe; Jansa, Pavel; Lang, Irene; Madani, Michael M; Ogino, Hitoshi; Pengo, Vittorio; Mayer, Eckhard

    2013-12-24

    Since the last World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in 2008, we have witnessed numerous and exciting developments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Emerging clinical data and advances in technology have led to reinforcing and updated guidance on diagnostic approaches to pulmonary hypertension, guidelines that we hope will lead to better recognition and more timely diagnosis of CTEPH. We have new data on treatment practices across international boundaries as well as long-term outcomes for CTEPH patients treated with or without pulmonary endarterectomy. Furthermore, we have expanded data on alternative treatment options for select CTEPH patients, including data from multiple clinical trials of medical therapy, including 1 recent pivotal trial, and compelling case series of percutaneous pulmonary angioplasty. Lastly, we have garnered more experience, and on a larger international scale, with pulmonary endarterectomy, which is the treatment of choice for operable CTEPH. This report overviews and highlights these important interval developments as deliberated among our task force of CTEPH experts and presented at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice, France. PMID:24355646

  16. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H; Delcroix, Marion; Jenkins, David P; Channick, Richard; Dartevelle, Philippe; Jansa, Pavel; Lang, Irene; Madani, Michael M; Ogino, Hitoshi; Pengo, Vittorio; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Since the last World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in 2008, we have witnessed numerous and exciting developments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Emerging clinical data and advances in technology have led to reinforcing and updated guidance on diagnostic approaches to pulmonary hypertension, guidelines that we hope will lead to better recognition and more timely diagnosis of CTEPH. We have new data on treatment practices across international boundaries as well as long-term outcomes for CTEPH patients treated with or without pulmonary endarterectomy. Furthermore, we have expanded data on alternative treatment options for select CTEPH patients, including data from multiple clinical trials of medical therapy, including 1 recent pivotal trial, and compelling case series of percutaneous pulmonary angioplasty. Lastly, we have garnered more experience, and on a larger international scale, with pulmonary endarterectomy, which is the treatment of choice for operable CTEPH. This report overviews and highlights these important interval developments as deliberated among our task force of CTEPH experts and presented at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice, France. (J Am Coil Cardiol 2013;62:D92-9) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. PMID:25697039

  17. Non-cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema in Vascular Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Pararajasingam; M. L Nicholson; P. R. F Bell; R. D Sayers

    1999-01-01

    Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, an early manifestation of the adult respiratory disease syndrome, is a serious complication following major vascular surgery. Hypovolaemia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, massive blood transfusion, transient sepsis and transient endotoxaemia are insults responsible for initiating the process in vascular surgical patients. Free radicals, cytokines and humoral factors released secondary to the above insults activate neutrophils and facilitate their interaction

  18. Secondary Headaches

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migraine and Other Headaches Headache Journal - Public Site Art Gallery Art Gallery Support the AMF American Migraine Foundation The ... but there are usually clues in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can ...

  19. Diltiazem reduces pulmonary arterial pressures in recurrent pulmonary hypertension associated with pulmonary hypoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saleem Islam; Peter Masiakos; Jay J Schnitzer; Daniel P Doody; Daniel P Ryan

    1999-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Recurrent pulmonary hypertension in the neonatal population is an unusual event with dire consequences. Pulmonary hypertension seen in association with pulmonary hypoplasia may be refractory to conventional medical management. The effect of the calcium channel antagonist diltiazem was studied in five patients with severe pulmonary hypertension.Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital records was performed to determine the efficacy

  20. Acute right ventricular failure caused by concomitant coronary and pulmonary embolism: successful treatment with endovascular coronary and pulmonary thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sasha; Roijer, Anders; Holmqvist, Jasminka; Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Öhlin, Bertil; Erlinge, David

    2013-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in approximately 25% of the general population. PFO is characterized by intermittent shunting of blood from the right to the left atrium, especially in the context of increased right-sided filling pressures, with risk of paradoxical embolism. We describe a 69-year-old woman presenting with acute chest pain, severe dyspnoea, and acute inferolateral ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. The patient was diagnosed with myocardial infarction and failure of the right cardiac ventricle, which was considered to be secondary to extensive pulmonary embolism leading to increased filling pressures and paradoxical coronary embolism. The patient underwent emergent percutaneous interventions with coronary thrombus extraction and pulmonary thrombus fragmentation and local thrombolysis. The patient was free of symptoms at follow up 6 months later and echocardiography showed substantially improved right ventricular function. We discuss issues related to the diagnosis, treatment, and secondary prevention for patients with concomitant pulmonary and coronary arterial thrombosis. PMID:24222822

  1. Secondary atomization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Guildenbecher; C. López-Rivera; P. E. Sojka

    2009-01-01

    When a drop is subjected to a surrounding dispersed phase that is moving at an initial relative velocity, aerodynamic forces\\u000a will cause it to deform and fragment. This is referred to as secondary atomization. In this paper, the abundant literature\\u000a on secondary atomization experimental methods, breakup morphology, breakup times, fragment size and velocity distributions,\\u000a and modeling efforts is reviewed and

  2. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Gill, S S; Roddie, M E; Shovlin, C L; Jackson, J E

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are abnormal communications between the pulmonary arteries and veins, which result in a right-to-left (R-L) shunt with resultant hypoxemia, the severity of which will depend upon the size and number of lesions. Most PAVMs occur in individuals with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and are a cause of serious morbidity and mortality largely related to cerebrovascular complications secondary to paradoxical embolization. The importance of their recognition and treatment by embolization, even in the absence of symptoms, is well known. Their appearances on chest radiographs are often, but not always, characteristic and the CT appearances are diagnostic; however, there are a number of both vascular and non-vascular diseases that can cause confusion. This review serves to highlight these PAVM "mimics". PMID:25443645

  3. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 424. Brown JW, Ruzmetov M, Vijay P, Rodefeld MD, Turrentine MW. Surgical treatment of absent pulmonary valve syndrome associated with bronchial obstruction. Ann Thoracic Surg , 2006; ...

  4. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the condition ... diseases and conditions also can cause group 1 PAH. Examples include HIV infection, congenital heart disease , and ...

  5. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  6. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Mangesh; Sapre, Ashish; Garekar, Swati; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate. PMID:22529601

  7. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Mangesh; Sapre, Ashish; Garekar, Swati; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate. PMID:22529601

  8. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, J.M.; Paterson, I.S.; Mannick, J.A.; Valeri, C.R.; Shepro, D.; Hechtman, H.B. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-02-17

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B{sub 4} and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability.

  9. About Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or sibling) have the diagnosis of an Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia (IIP) and at least one of the family members has the most common form of IIP, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). However, family members can be second degree ...

  10. Pharmacotherapy of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. While it can occur idiopathically, it is more commonly associated with other cardiac or lung diseases. While most of the available therapies were tested in adult populations, and most therapies in children remain off-label, new reports and randomized trials are emerging that inform the treatment of pediatric populations. This review discusses currently available therapies for pediatric pulmonary hypertension, their biologic rationales, and evidence for their clinical effectiveness. PMID:23036248

  11. Recurrent amiodarone pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chendrasekhar, A; Barke, R A; Druck, P

    1996-01-01

    Amiodarone, a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, is associated with pulmonary toxicity, with an estimated mortality of 1% to 33%. Standard treatment for amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) has been discontinuance of the drug and steroid therapy. We report a case of APT that recurred after withdrawal of steroids and failed to respond to reinstatement of steroid therapy. Recurrent APT is a rare clinical entity that has been reported only twice in recent literature. PMID:8545700

  12. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Auger; Peter F. Fedullo

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important form of pulmonary hypertension to detect because prompt\\u000a treatment can lead to a surgical cure. The true incidence is unknown, but it is estimated to occur in 1% to 3% of patients\\u000a following acute thromboembolism. Detection may be difficult, because symptoms are nonspecific and other diagnoses are often\\u000a made before that of

  13. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara M. Wittine; William R. Auger

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  The pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart dysfunction that results from chronic thromboembolic involvement of the pulmonary\\u000a vascular bed is potentially curable with surgical endarterectomy. Over the past several decades, growing clinical experience\\u000a has brought about increased recognition of this treatable form of PH. Moreover, advances in cardiothoracic surgical techniques\\u000a have given an increasing number of patients with chronic

  14. Arginase and pulmonary diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harm Maarsingh; Tonio Pera; Herman Meurs

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that arginase, which converts l-arginine into l-ornithine and urea, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. In asthma, chronic obstructive\\u000a pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis, increased arginase activity in the airways may contribute to obstruction and\\u000a hyperresponsiveness of the airways by inducing a reduction in the production of bronchodilatory nitric

  15. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, E B; Schinina, V; Bellussi, A; De Santis, A; Mazzuoli, G; Giosué, S; Bibbolino, C

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy. PMID:11274838

  16. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wittine, Lara M; Auger, William R

    2010-04-01

    The pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart dysfunction that results from chronic thromboembolic involvement of the pulmonary vascular bed is potentially curable with surgical endarterectomy. Over the past several decades, growing clinical experience has brought about increased recognition of this treatable form of PH. Moreover, advances in cardiothoracic surgical techniques have given an increasing number of patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) a surgical remedy with decreasing perioperative morbidity and mortality risks. The availability of pulmonary hypertensive-specific medical therapy for CTEPH patients with surgically inaccessible disease also has been a positive therapeutic advance over the past several years. However, despite this progress, chronic thromboembolic disease as a sequela of acute pulmonary emboli continues to be underappreciated. Furthermore, even if CTEPH has been appropriately diagnosed, misinterpretation of diagnostic information may lead to the inappropriate exclusion of patients from surgical consideration. This may result in the prescription of pulmonary hypertensive medical therapy in CTEPH patients with potentially surgically correctable disease. This difficulty arises from a lack of objective criteria as to what constitutes surgical chronic thromboembolic disease, which primarily is a result of the variability in surgical experience in specialty centers in the United States. Consequently, clinicians must be wary about using pulmonary hypertensive medications in CTEPH patients. Before prescription, it is important to exclude patients from surgical consideration by consulting a specialized center with expertise in this discipline. PMID:20376164

  17. [Secondary achalasia].

    PubMed

    Arnon, R; Fich, A; Bar-Ziv, J

    1993-08-01

    Achalasia is usually a primary disorder of esophageal motility, but has been described in association with other pathological processes, such as malignancy. A 79-year-old man with achalasia secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma is presented. The differential diagnosis of secondary achalasia includes infectious and infiltrative disease and neuropathy, but mainly malignant diseases. The clinical criteria found for achalasia secondary to malignancy included older age at diagnosis, brief duration of symptoms, and weight loss. While upper gastrointestinal x-rays and computerized tomographic scanning may be helpful, the most reliable diagnostic tool is esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. This is a terminal disease with short life expectancy. Yet making the correct diagnosis can save the patient from futile treatment with muscle relaxants and endoscopic balloon dilatation, the accepted therapeutic measures in primary achalasia. PMID:8225085

  18. Inhibition of pulmonary antibacterial defense by interferon-g during recovery from influenza infection

    E-print Network

    , suppresses innate protection against extracellular bacterial pathogens in the lung. Influenza virus infection Keer Sun & Dennis W Metzger Secondary bacterial infection often occurs after pulmonary virus bacterial pneumonia than from the primary virus infection3,4. The fact that secondary bacterial infections

  19. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  20. Mineral Sands Down Under

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

  1. Minerals and Fossils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    mineraltown.com

    This site is dedicated to rock and mineral collecting. It contains information for worldwide mineral and fossil collectors with articles, mineral photos, videos, a search engine and free classified ads.

  2. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  3. Minerals yearbook vol. I: metals and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    0000-01-01

    This volume, covering metals and minerals, contains chapters on approximately 90 commodities. In addition, this volume has chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on statistical surveying methods used by Minerals Information, plus a statistical summary.

  4. High-resolution computed tomographic imaging and pathologic features of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: a review of three patients.

    PubMed

    Ozsoyoglu, Aliye A; Swartz, Justin; Farver, Carol F; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare and severe form of pulmonary hypertension that is often difficult to differentiate from primary pulmonary hypertension. Differentiating these two entities before medical treatment is critical, as therapy commonly indicated for patients with primary pulmonary hypertension can be harmful and even fatal in patients with PVOD. In the setting of known pulmonary hypertension, computed tomography findings that are highly suggestive of PVOD include extensive, patchy centrilobular ground-glass opacities, ill-defined nodular densities, and interlobular septal thickening. Definitive diagnosis requires lung biopsy, demonstrating fibrous obliteration of the pulmonary venules and small veins of the lobular septa, with secondary medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary arteries. The purpose of this article is to review reported radiographic clues to the diagnosis of PVOD, as well as to illustrate these high-resolution computed tomography findings along with pathologic correlation. PMID:17084237

  5. Science: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews and compares five recent secondary science texts: Addison-Wesley Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Prentice-Hall Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Scott Foresman Biology (Gr. 9-12); Biology: Living Systems (Gr. 10-12); and Biology: The Science of Life (Gr. 10-12). (SJL)

  6. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  7. POMEN ENDOTELIJSKE DISFUNKCIJE ZA RAZVOJ PLJU?NE ARTERIJSKE HIPERTENZIJE IN NOVE MOŽNOSTI ZDRAVLJENJA THE IMPORTANCE OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PULMONARY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND NEW THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Salobir; Sonja Praprotnik

    Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Background. Pulmonary arterial hypertension may exist as a primary condition or as a secondary conditi- on, most commonly with collagen vascular disease. Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension usually have bad pro- gnosis as the effectiveness of conventional treatment is poor. New knowledge about importance of endothelial dysfunction in development of pulmonary arterial

  8. Localised pulmonary metastatic calcification associated with pulmonary artery obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bloodworth; J F Tomashefski

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic pulmonary calcification, a complication of uraemia and disordered calcium metabolism, may be diffuse or localised. The factors that determine calcium precipitation are complex, but tissue alkalosis is thought to be important. As obstruction of the pulmonary artery theoretically causes local alkalosis a retrospective necropsy study was carried out to examine the relation between metastatic pulmonary calcification and vascular

  9. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed? Pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed based on your medical history, a ... emergency room often are the ones to diagnose PE with the help of a radiologist. A radiologist ...

  10. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes PH that's inherited, that has no known ... certain drugs or conditions. Treatments for group 1 PAH include medicines and medical procedures. Medicines Your doctor ...

  11. Unusual cause of pulmonary emboli.

    PubMed

    Vitums, V C

    1984-10-01

    Pulmonary emboli resulted due to intravasation of iophendylate during myelography the previous day. Findings consistent with pulmonary emboli in nonambulatory patients after myelography should not always be diagnosed as thromboembolic disease from blood clots. PMID:6478908

  12. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bresser; P. F. Fedullo; W. R. Auger; R. N. Channick; I. M. Robbins; K. M. Kerr; S. W. Jamiesonz; L. J. Rubin

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological findings in chronic,thromboembolic,pulmonary hypertension,(CTEPH) have suggested,that a secondary,small vessel arteriopathy may,contribute to the haemodynamic,impairment,observed,in these patients. It was hypothesised that this element of the elevated vascular resistance may,be responsive to continuous intravenous epoprostenol therapy. Retrospectively, the clinical and haemodynamic responses to continuous intravenous epoprostenol,were,evaluated,in nine CTEPH patients who,subsequently,underwent pulmonary,thromboendarterectomy,(PTE). Cardiopulmonary,haemodynamics,were determined prior to the initiation of epoprostenol, while

  13. Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Frigiola, Alessandra; Nordmeyer, Johannes; Bonhoeffer, Philipp

    2009-05-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation helps in prolonging the lifespan of surgically placed right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduits, and represents a less invasive alternative to repeat open-heart surgery. The clinical indications for treatment match those of surgery. As far as the suitability is concerned, the current ideal substrate is a degenerated RV-PA conduit, because of the presence of a certain degree of calcification that offers a safe anchoring point. So far, patients have been treated with low morbidity and mortality that were further improved with increasing experience. After percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, patients experience a subjective improvement, mirrored by an objective increase of measured exercise capacity parameters and by reduced RV-PA gradient, regurgitant fraction, and RV volumes. New developments in the experimental field should result in an extension of indications in the future. PMID:19322077

  14. Trophoblastic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Alsuleiman, S A; Bishop, H; Kassar, N S; Jonas, H S

    1981-08-01

    Trophoblastic embolism is subclinical in normal pregnancy, pronounced in eclampsia, and massive in hydatidiform mole. Self-limited acute respiratory distress arises in 3% to 10% of molar pregnancies at the time of uterine evacuation. Infrequently death occurs; the principal findings are trophoblastic emboli in the pulmonary arterioles, edema of the lungs, and dilatation of the right side of the heart. Hyperthyroidism may develop, and fibrin may line the alveolar walls. Pathogenetic mechanisms include heart failure, hyperthyroidism, dilutional anemia, and pulmonary arteriolar blockage. Infusions of fluid and whole blood tend to cause pulmonary overload, which may precipitate right-sided heart failure. Preferred therapy consists of diuresis and ventilatory support, especially with oxygen under positive end-expiratory pressure. PMID:6267719

  15. Surgical outcome of pulmonary aspergilloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaa Brik; Abdel Meged Salem; Al Rady Kamal; Mohamed Abdel-Sadek; Mohamed Essa; Mamdoh El Sharawy; Ahmed Deebes; Khaled Abdel Bary

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical resection offers the only realistic chance of permanent cure for pulmonary aspergilloma. This prospective study was designed to evaluate our indications and surgical outcome of pulmonary aspergilloma with analysis of postoperative complications. Patients and methods: Between 2001 and 2008, 42 patients underwent surgical treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma at Zagazig University Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups,

  16. Surgical outcome of pulmonary aspergilloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaa Brik; Abdel Meged Salem; Rady Kamal; Mohamed Abdel-Sadek; Mohamed Essa; Mamdoh El Sharawy; Ahmed Deebes; Khaled Abdel Bary

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical resection offers the only realistic chance of permanent cure for pulmonary aspergilloma. This prospective study was designed to evaluate our indications and surgical outcome of pulmonary aspergilloma with analysis of postoperative complications. Patients and methods: Between 2001 and 2008, 42 patients underwent surgical treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma at Zagazig University Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups,

  17. Secondary hypoadrenalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Reimondo; Silvia Bovio; Barbara Allasino; Massimo Terzolo; Alberto Angeli

    2008-01-01

    Secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a clinical disorder that results from hypothalamic or hypophyseal damage or from\\u000a prolonged administration of supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids. Since glucocorticoids are widely used for a variety\\u000a of diseases, the prevalence of SAI is by far exceeding that of primary adrenal insufficiency. Although the presentation of\\u000a adrenal insufficiency may be insidious and difficult to recognize,

  18. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Peter S; Kerr, Kim M; Auger, William R

    2013-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease with high mortality and few treatment options. This article reviews the epidemiology of CTEPH and identifies risk factors for its development. The pathobiology and the progression from thromboembolic events to chronically increased right-sided pressures are discussed. The diagnosis and assessment of CTEPH requires several modalities and the role of these is detailed. The pre-operative evaluation assesses peri-operative risk and determines the likelihood of benefit from PTE. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) remains the treatment of choice in appropriate patients. Nonsurgical therapies for CTEPH may provide benefit in patients who cannot be offered surgery. PMID:24267304

  19. Calculating a Mineral's Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrea Distelhurst

    2011-10-05

    Students will use the Density=Mass/Volume formula to calculate the density of an unknown mineral. By using water displacement and a triple beam balance students will collect measurements of volume and mass for an unknown mineral. With this data, they will calculate the mineral's density then identify the mineral based on calculated density.

  20. Mineral Scavenger Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Museum of Natural History

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners participate in a scavenger hunt, searching for and recognizing minerals and products that contain minerals. They make note of their finds on a Mineral Scavenger Hunt checklist. Learners search for the materials in their classroom, at home, or even in stores. This resource includes discussion questions to encourage learner reflection about how minerals play a role in daily life.

  1. Introduction to Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity can be used as the introduction for a unit on mineral or crystal structure. It requires the students to create shapes cooperatively and put them together. This is analogous to individual crystals forming or to minerals forming. They will understand that minerals are made up of structures in certain patterns, and that these structures determine some of the properties of the minerals.

  2. Minerals in our environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weathers, Judy; Galloway, John; Frank, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Minerals are found everywhere in our daily lives. This poster depicts numerous items found throughout a home, and the mineral(s) or mineral resources used in the ingredients of, or construction/manufacturing of those items. Designed for K-8 Teachers this poster can be scaled and is printable at 36" x 60" and legible at 11" x 17" in size.

  3. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    minerals in ancient interstellar dust grains to the thousands of mineral species on the present-day EarthEarth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research

  4. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: the End Result of Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Witkin, Alison S; Channick, Richard N

    2015-08-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) occurs when a pulmonary embolism fails to undergo complete thrombolysis leading to vascular occlusion and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the fact that CTEPH is a potential consequence of pulmonary embolism, diagnosis requires a high degree of vigilance as many patients will not have a history of thromboembolic disease. The ventilation perfusion scan is used to evaluate for the possibility of CTEPH although right heart catheterization and pulmonary artery angiogram are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is the first-line treatment for patients who are surgical candidates. Recently, riociguat has been approved for patients with nonsurgical disease or residual pulmonary hypertension despite surgical intervention. This review describes the pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of CTEPH. PMID:26099554

  5. Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

    2011-02-01

    The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

  6. Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces R. G. Ford Metal sorption to clay minerals may lead to the formation of secondary precipitates, by enhanced dissolution of the clay mineral structure as indicated by enhanced levels of dissolved silica

  7. Stratified Pulmonary Blood Flow: Some Consequences in Emphysema and Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Read, John

    1969-01-01

    Both ventilation and blood flow in the secondary lobule of the lung are stratified; each unit of lung tissue in the proximal portion of the lobule receives up to four times the blood flow of units in the peripheral portion. Questions of the limiting role of gas diffusion within the small airways become virtually irrelevant in the face of this stratification of function. The central portion of the lobule, with its high ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange, is very vulnerable; small lesions at this site will produce disproportionately large disturbances of gas exchange and of pulmonary vascular resistance. This may well account for some of the phenomena of conditions such as centrilobular emphysema and pulmonary microembolism. PMID:5776220

  8. Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

  9. Minerals 4 Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy McMillan

    Minerals 4 Kids contains four Web-based activities offered for K-12 Education by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA). These activities are entitled: Minerals in Your House, Mineral Groups, Mineral Properties, and All About Crystals. Also included are links to Mineral Games, the Rock Cycle diagram that leads to descriptions of the three rock types, and Ask-A-Mineralogist that enables the user to submit a mineralogical question. Many of these activities are linked to other mineralogy-related Web sites. Minerals in Your House is designed to introduce the concept of how minerals are present in common household items found in the bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen. Mineral Groups introduces mineral classification according to chemical composition. The learner can explore each of the seven major chemical groups and several minor chemical groups. Mineral Properties introduces learners to the physical properties of minerals such as hardness, cleavage, streak, color, luster, specific gravity, as well as other miscellaneous properties (i.e., magnetic, effervescence, striations, etc.). Mineral Properties, additionally, contains a five-step Mineral Identification process that uses the physical properties to narrow down a mineral's identity that, ultimately, leads to a Mineral Identification Chart. All About Crystals enables the learner to become familiar with symmetry, crystal symmetry, crystal chemistry, and crystal forms. This activity includes online 3-D models, an activity that enables the user to draw and explore symmetry patterns, a variety of detailed descriptions with figures, and an extensive vocabulary

  10. Cardiac and Pulmonary Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George C. Velmahos; Muhammad U. Butt

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary injuries present major chal- lenges in diagnosis and treatment. Distinct differences between penetrating and blunt trauma of these or- gans exist. Outcomes for severe injuries are still grave. Organized trauma systems can provide optimal care by minimizing prehospital time, allowing easy access to imaging modalities, and offering state-of-the-art treatment strategies. A multidisciplinary approach, including surgeons, intensivists, and

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Singh

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation, and strongly associated with tobacco smoking, is estimated to cause >2.5 million deaths per year worldwide. Active smokers have more acute exacerbations, which correlate with long-term decline in lung function. The diagnosis, severity assessment and monitoring of COPD rely heavily but not exclusively on spirometry. Smoking cessation reduces exacerbation

  12. Immunoreactivity in pulmonary echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Dakov, I.; Kosturkova, M.; Tenev, S.; Dimitrov, A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison was made of the diagnostic value of five immunological tests—complement fixation (CF), latex agglutination (LA), bentonite flocculation (BF), passive haemagglutination (PHA), and intradermal (ID)—in patients operated on for pulmonary echinococcosis. The sensitivity of all five tests was significantly lower in the patients with pulmonary echinococcosis than in a comparable group with liver echinococcosis. Some 252 patients with miscellaneous nonhydatid diseases and parasitic infections were also tested; nonspecific reactions were highest in the ID and CF tests and lowest in the LA and BF tests. None of the serological tests was significantly more sensitive than the others, although the CF test was somewhat less sensitive and therefore probably has the least diagnostic value in pulmonary echinococcosis. The ID test showed a significantly higher sensitivity than any of the serological tests. The difficulties encountered in the immunodiagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease are discussed and it is recommended that at least two serological methods (PHA and either LA or BF) and the ID test should be used in each case. PMID:317251

  13. Traumatic ventricular septal defect resulting in severe pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, Joseph G.; Nacev, Benjamin A.; Upham, Trevor; Azoury, Saïd C.; Eil, Robert; Cameron, Duke E.; Haider, Adil H.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a widely-recognized complication of both penetrating and blunt trauma. Most cases are repaired operatively without the long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure that are associated with unrepaired congenital VSD in the pediatric population. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with a traumatic VSD who declined surgical repair at the time of injury and subsequently developed long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. With nearly 20 years of follow-up, this case demonstrates that the absence of surgical treatment in asymptomatic adult patients at the time of injury can lead to long-term complications associated with VSD. This case also shows that aggressive surgical treatment in patients with severe pulmonary vascular disease and heart failure secondary to traumatic VSD can be performed safely and should be considered in cases refractory to efficacious medical interventions. PMID:25326917

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in a patient with Schmidt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Walid R; Rock, Wasseem; Elias, Mazen

    2009-10-01

    We describe a 26-year-old patient with long-standing autoimmune hypothyroidism. She was doing well until she developed Addisonian crisis accompanied by severe metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia. Subsequently she developed a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia due to QT prolongation secondary to electrolyte imbalance. The association of autoimmune hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency in our patient suggests the diagnosis of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II or Schmidt syndrome. An echocardiography that was performed detected pulmonary hypertension without apparent cardiac or lung pathology. The association of pulmonary hypertension and Schmidt syndrome is rare and may be explained by a generalized immune activation leading to pulmonary endothelial damage or dysfunction. PMID:19857444

  15. A rare nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism after vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Bansal, Ojas; Townley, Theresa A

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is used to treat osteoporotic compression fractures and bone loss due to malignancy. The cement used can serve as a potential nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). An 87-year-old woman with recent L2 vertebroplasty presented with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Thoracoabdominal CT scan revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli associated with a 9 cm cement fragment in the inferior vena cava (IVC) extending proximally from the level of the right superior renal vein, likely secondary to cement leak from the vertebral plexus into the IVC. She refused catheter extraction was managed conservatively. There are 51 reported cases of cement pulmonary embolism. IVC foreign bodies serving as a nidus for PTE have been reported with IVC filters with an incidence of 6.2%. This is the second reported case of vertebroplasty cement serving as a nidus for PTE. Treatment depends on time interval between the procedure and the symptom onset. PMID:24154998

  16. Textures of Secondary Alteration Zones in Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Longazo, T. G.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Gibson, E. K.

    2001-01-01

    Textures of secondary minerals in cracks in Nakhla are described and illustrated with high resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and BSE. Some Nakhla textures resemble alteration textures of glass in seafloor basalts. Criteria for inorganic vs. biogenic alteration are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  18. Persistent fetal circulation: An evolving clinical and radiographic concept of pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Merten; B. W. Goetzman; R. P. Wennberg

    1977-01-01

    The roentgenographic presentations of 11 newborn infants with hypoxemia secondary to pulmonary vasospasm and subsequent right-to-left shunting of blood through the foramen ovale and\\/or ductus arteriosus (persistent fetal circulation) are described (P. F. C. Syndrome). One infant had radiographically normal lungs, while ten had pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities including hyaline membrane disease [4], meconium aspiration syndrome [4], or an ill defined

  19. Mineral Spectroscopy Server

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    George Rossman

    This server is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on mineral absorption in the visible, infrared, Raman and Mossbauer spectra. Both data coordinates and images of the spectra are available for selected minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs, but individuals throughout the world also contribute to this ever growing community resource. In addition to data files, the site provides an extensive list of references to papers on mineral optical spectroscopy. Citations are available sorted both by mineral name and by first authors of papers.

  20. Review of current therapies for secondary hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Nguyen; Mehrnaz Hojjati

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a disabling condition that may occur secondarily to primary lung cancer. It is characterized\\u000a by digital clubbing, arthralgia\\/arthritis, and periostosis of the tubular bones. The pain associated with HOA can be disabling\\u000a and often refractory to conventional analgesics. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database\\u000a on treatment modalities available for HOA.

  1. Dense pulmonary opacification in neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Schlesinger; J. D. Cornish; D. M. Null

    1986-01-01

    Chest radiographic findings in three neonates with respiratory failure secondary to meconium aspiration treated with extracorporeal\\u000a membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are described. The degree of pulmonary opacification on the chest radiographs failed to correlate\\u000a with the patients' clinical status as measured by the arterial oxygen levels but correlated well with the peak airway pressure\\u000a (PAP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

  2. Primary pulmonary botryomycosis: a late complication of foreign body aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tuggey, J; Hosker, H; DaCosta, P

    2000-01-01

    Primary pulmonary botryomycosis is a rare cause of haemoptysis and can enter the differential diagnosis of a mass on the plain chest radiograph. The case history is presented of a 63 year old man with botryomycosis which was initially thought to be a bronchial carcinoma. When the diagnosis was made several years later it was found to be secondary to persisting vegetable material in the bronchial tree following previous aspiration.?? PMID:11083895

  3. Pulmonary effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Patel, D R; Homnick, D N

    2000-10-01

    The problems of tobacco addiction have evolved over centuries. The possible relationship between smoking and oral cancer was recognized as early as the 19th century. The use of tobacco results in an estimated 4 million deaths each year worldwide. Approximately 3,000 adolescents start smoking every day; 4.5 million children and adolescents smoke cigarettes; 1 million use smokeless tobacco. This article reviews the effects of environmental tobacco smoke and primary smoking on lung health and maturation and the pathophysiology of smoking-related pulmonary disease. Smoking prevention and timely smoking cessation will significantly reduce the risk of not only lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, chronic bronchitis, asthma, etc.) but also suboptimal lung growth during preadolescent and adolescent years. PMID:11060554

  4. Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Da; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can cause morbidity and mortality in children. Although adult and pediatric PAH share many similarities, many differences have been found in children. Thus, a new classification for pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease has been proposed. Both child and adult gene mutation carriers with PAH tend to have worse prognoses. Pediatric patients present with better preserved functional class, and parents should pay high attention to any children with unexplained shortness of breath, fatigue or syncope, as symptoms of PAH in children are often misleading. Right heart catheterization is necessary for diagnosis. Although there are few medications approved for pediatric PAH and evidence-based treatment algorithms for children are still lacking, the survival of pediatric patients has been improved significantly since targeted therapies approved for adults were introduced to pediatric patients. PAH in children is unique, and further studies are needed to have a better understanding of it. PMID:24163011

  5. [Primary and pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Toujani, S; Ben Salah, N; Cherif, J; Mjid, M; Ouahchy, Y; Zakhama, H; Daghfous, J; Beji, M; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Louzir, B

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Indeed, a third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and more than 8 million new cases of tuberculosis each year. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common location. Its diagnosis is difficult and often established with a delay causing a spread of infection. The diagnosis of tuberculosis infection is mainly based on immunological tests represented by the tuberculin skin test and detection of gamma interferon, while the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is suspected on epidemiological context, lasting general and respiratory symptoms, contrasting usually with normal lung examination, and a chest radiography showing suggestive lesions. The radioclinical feature may be atypical in patients with extreme ages and in case of immunodeficiency. Confirmation of tuberculosis is bacteriological. Conventional bacteriological methods remain the reference. Innovative tests using the technique of molecular biology have improved the diagnosis of tuberculosis in terms of sensitivity and especially speed. However, those techniques are of limited use. PMID:25749628

  6. Inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is an “umbrella term” used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24739042

  7. Infant Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie D.

    2011-01-01

    Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

  8. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  9. MINERAL FACILITIES MAPPING PROJECT

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    -Sam Minerals Information Team (MIT) USGS Summer Internship 2009 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological #12;#12;ALGERIA Algeria Mineral Facilities Northwest of Africa Scale: 1:9 km #12;IRAN Northwest

  10. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  11. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Odell, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection PMID:24624285

  12. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Margaret M; Odell, John A

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection. PMID:24624285

  13. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Wu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed. PMID:20054434

  14. Endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Yelle; Lakshmi Kugathasan; Robin E. MacLaren; Duncan J. Stewart

    \\u000a Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease caused by functional and structural abnormalities in distal pulmonary\\u000a arterioles that result in progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance, often leading to right heart failure and\\u000a death. Endothelial dysfunction, defined as a shift in the balance of production of endothelial vasodilator factors (i.e.,\\u000a nitric oxide and prostacyclin), and vasoconstrictor and proliferative factors

  15. Sedimentary and Related Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of sedimentary minerals and rocks. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine a tray of Halides, Carbonates, Borates, and Clays and record their physical properties, composition, habit, and occurence. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences of the minerals. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe sedimentary minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

  16. What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation Most pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs last a few months. At the ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> August 1, 2010 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  17. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray.

  18. Angioscopy Is Useful In The Evaluation Of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shure, Deborah; Gregoratos, Gabriel; Moser, Kenneth M.

    1984-10-01

    We have previously described a fiberoptic angioscope for diagnostic use in the right heart and pulmonary arteries. The instrument has a 4 mm 0.D., a proximal flexion control lever, and a 0.8 mm inner channel used to inflate a polyurethane balloon attached to the distal end of the instrument. A conventional xenon light source provides illumination. The instrument is inserted through a right jugular venotomy and passed into the right heart and pulmonary arteries using direct vision and fluoroscopic guidance. The procedure has been performed in 4 patients with pulmonary hypertension suspected to be caused by chronic pulmonary emboli. Chronic emboli were found in two patients and central (resectable) emboli could be distinguished from peripheral ones. The third patient had normal pulmonary arterial intima and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension was made. The fourth patient had extrinsic compression of pulmonary arteries by enlarged mediastinal nodes secondary to fibrosing mediastinitis. No complications occurred. We conclude that angioscopy appears to be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries.

  19. INTRODUCTION TO MINERALS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2005-10-23

    DESK Standard: Understand the basic properties of minerals. . DATES: You can begin this activity on December 11. You should complete it by December 15. OBJECTIVE: You will visit Web sites to learn more about minerals. You will record 10 interesting facts about minerals on a blank sheet of paper. After visiting the last Web ...

  20. American Strategic Minerals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mangone

    1984-01-01

    American Strategic Minerals brings together seven contributors in the fields of marine studies, mining engineering, earth sciences, and economics to discuss and analyze strategic minerals. The future demands of the United States upon limited sources of supply are examined and there is an analysis of alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed, including copper, nickel, manganese, and cobalt. The

  1. Minerals in our Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This downloadable poster (36 in. by 60 in.) describes how minerals are used in household substances and objects, listed by name, with numbers corresponding to locations in a typical house. For example, in the kitchen, appliances contain steel and copper, clay minerals are found in china, and table salt contains the mineral halite.

  2. Mineral Properties Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Hirsch

    These sheets are designed to give students a framework for making observations of minerals in hand specimen and (for selected minerals) in thin section. I place most of the emphasis on the distinguishing properties, rather than requiring an exhaustive list. Students use hand specimen observation, thin section observation (for selected minerals) and references to complete the forms.

  3. Mineral Fast Ion Conductors and Mineral Solid Electrolyte Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenji Wang

    2002-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a review of the recent situation and advances in the studies of mineral fast ion conductors and mineral solid electrolyte batteries. The reviews involve the following parts: The definition of both mineral fast ion conductor and mineral solid electrolyte battery; Comments on mineral fast ion conductors: Describe some very useful starting mineral materials for

  4. Virtual Pulmonary Valve Replacement Interventions with a Personalised Cardiac Electromechanical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansi, Tommaso; André, Barbara; Lynch, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Delingette, Hervé; Boudjemline, Younes; Ayache, Nicholas

    Pulmonary valve replacement Heart <Secondary>pulmonary valve replacementSecondary> (PVR) is a pivotal treatment for patients who suffer from chronic pulmonary valve Heart <Secondary>valve> regurgitation Heart <Secondary>regurgitation> s. Two PVR techniques are becoming prevalent: a minimally invasive approach and an open-heart surgery Heart <Secondary>surgery> with direct right ventricle volume reduction. However, there is no common agreement about the postoperative outcomes of these PVR techniques and choosing the right therapy for a specific patient remains a clinical challenge. We explore in this chapter how image processing algorithms, electromechanical Modelling <Secondary>cardiac> models of the heart and real-time surgical simulation Simulation <Secondary>surgery> platforms can be adapted and combined together to perform patient-specific simulations of these two PVR therapies. We propose a framework where (1) an electromechanical model of the heart is personalised from clinical MR images and used to simulate the effects of PVR upon the cardiac function and (2) volume reduction surgery is simulated in real time by interactively cutting, moving and joining parts of the anatomical model. The framework is tested on a young patient. The results are promising and suggest that such advanced biomedical technologies may help in decision support and surgery planning for PVR.

  5. Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

  6. Paricalcitol for secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trillini, Matias; Cortinovis, Monica; Ruggenenti, Piero; Reyes Loaeza, Jorge; Courville, Karen; Ferrer-Siles, Claudia; Prandini, Silvia; Gaspari, Flavio; Cannata, Antonio; Villa, Alessandro; Perna, Annalisa; Gotti, Eliana; Caruso, Maria Rosa; Martinetti, Davide; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto

    2015-05-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 ?g/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (P<0.001) but not on nonparicalcitol therapy. At 6 months, levels significantly differed between treatments (P<0.001 by analysis of covariance). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased on paricalcitol therapy only and significantly differed between treatments at 6 months (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 6 months, urinary deoxypyridinoline-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria level decreased only on paricalcitol (P<0.05). L3 and L4 vertebral mineral bone density, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorption, significantly improved with paricalcitol at 6 months (P<0.05 for both densities). Paricalcitol was well tolerated. Overall, 6-month paricalcitol supplementation reduced parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria, attenuated bone remodeling and mineral loss, and reduced eGFR in renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25194004

  7. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension after Pulmonary Embolism, Thrombolysis, Catheter Fragmentation, and Embolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wiedenroth, Christoph B.; Guth, Stefan; Rolf, Andreas; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    A 21-year-old male patient with massive acute pulmonary embolism was treated by thrombolysis, interventional thrombus fragmentation, and surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Within the following 2 years, the patient developed progressive dyspnea at exertion. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed by right-heart catheter, VQ scan, magnetic resonance, and conventional pulmonary angiography. A normalization of the patient's exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics could be achieved by pulmonary endarterectomy and patch reconstruction of the right main pulmonary artery. PMID:25798364

  8. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism, thrombolysis, catheter fragmentation, and embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Wiedenroth, Christoph B; Guth, Stefan; Rolf, Andreas; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-12-01

    A 21-year-old male patient with massive acute pulmonary embolism was treated by thrombolysis, interventional thrombus fragmentation, and surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Within the following 2 years, the patient developed progressive dyspnea at exertion. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed by right-heart catheter, VQ scan, magnetic resonance, and conventional pulmonary angiography. A normalization of the patient's exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics could be achieved by pulmonary endarterectomy and patch reconstruction of the right main pulmonary artery. PMID:25798364

  9. Fluoxetin-induced pulmonary granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    de Kerviler, E; Trédaniel, J; Revlon, G; Groussard, O; Zalcman, G; Ortoli, J M; Espié, M; Hirsch, A; Frija, J

    1996-03-01

    A patient treated with fluoxetin for a manic depressive disorder developed pulmonary inflammatory nodules with noncaseating giant cell granulomas, interstitial pneumonia and non-necrotizing vasculitis, whilst remaining asymptomatic. A progressive resolution of pulmonary nodules occurred after withdrawal of the offending agent, and the chest radiograph returned to normal in 9 months. The diagnosis was assessed by an open lung biopsy. PMID:8730028

  10. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis: 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.; Mittman, C. (City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the topic of pulmonary emphysema. Included are the following chapters: Abnormality of secretion of Z Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Proteases, antiproteases, and oxidants in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, Alveolar Leukocytes and protease responses with continuous vs. intermittent exposures to NO{sub 2}.

  11. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1984-01-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

  12. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

  13. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ?1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  14. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  15. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  16. [Infectious pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D

    2014-11-01

    Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

  17. Biological impact on mineral dissolution: Application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Jillian F.; Barker, William W.; Welch, Susan A.; Taunton, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Microorganisms modify rates and mechanisms of chemical and physical weathering and clay growth, thus playing fundamental roles in soil and sediment formation. Because processes in soils are inherently complex and difficult to study, we employ a model based on the lichen–mineral system to identify the fundamental interactions. Fixed carbon released by the photosynthetic symbiont stimulates growth of fungi and other microorganisms. These microorganisms directly or indirectly induce mineral disaggregation, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral formation. Model polysaccharides were used to investigate direct mediation of mineral surface reactions by extracellular polymers. Polysaccharides can suppress or enhance rates of chemical weathering by up to three orders of magnitude, depending on the pH, mineral surface structure and composition, and organic functional groups. Mg, Mn, Fe, Al, and Si are redistributed into clays that strongly adsorb ions. Microbes contribute to dissolution of insoluble secondary phosphates, possibly via release of organic acids. These reactions significantly impact soil fertility. Below fungi–mineral interfaces, mineral surfaces are exposed to dissolved metabolic byproducts. Through this indirect process, microorganisms can accelerate mineral dissolution, leading to enhanced porosity and permeability and colonization by microbial communities. PMID:10097050

  18. Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of a number of lung and heart diseases that is characterized by peripheral vascular structural remodeling and loss of vascular tone. Nitric oxide can modulate vascular injury and interrupt elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance selectively; however, it can also produce cytotoxic oxygen radicals and exert cytotoxic and antiplatelet effects. The balance between the protective and adverse effects of nitric oxide is determined by the relative amount of nitric oxide and reactive radicals. Nitric oxide has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of congenital heart disease, mitrial valvular disease combined with pulmonary hypertension and in orthotropic cardiac transplantation patients. Additionally, new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, natriuretic peptides and aqueous nitric oxide are also effective for treatment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. PMID:20498805

  19. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return.

    PubMed

    Broy, Charles; Bennett, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality that occurs in 0.4 to 0.7% of postmortem examinations. Ninety percent of these anomalies are associated with an atrial septal defect. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return occurs more commonly on the right than the left and is manifested by abnormal return of the pulmonary veins to the central venous circulation. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms are present they are due to shunting of oxygenated blood to the venous circulation. We submit the case of a recently activated solider who presented with dyspnea on exertion refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and an 8.5-mm solitary pulmonary nodule. Further diagnostic imaging revealed PAPVR. Our case appears to be the first report of a solitary pulmonary nodule as the initial presentation of a right upper lobe PAPVR with return to the superior vena cava in the absence of associated atrial septal defect. PMID:18595412

  20. Diseases of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Wert, Susan E; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  1. Acute Exercise Activates Pulmonary eNOS and Lowers Pulmonary Pressure in Rats with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Acute Exercise Activates Pulmonary eNOS and Lowers Pulmonary Pressure in Rats with Pulmonary is impaired in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Exercise may be beneficial in PAH, just and activity. However, exercise-induced cardiac stress in PAH could also promote detrimental RV inflammation

  2. O and Pb isotopic analyses of uranium minerals by ion microprobe and UPb ages from the Cigar Lake deposit

    E-print Network

    Fayek, Mostafa

    O and Pb isotopic analyses of uranium minerals by ion microprobe and U­Pb ages from the Cigar Lake intergrown uranium minerals and oxygen isotopic analyes of uraninite from the unconformity-type Cigar Lake uranium deposit. Secondary uranium minerals intergrown with uraninite, such as coffinite, USiO4ÁnH2O

  3. Pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Adatia; Tom Kulik; Mary Mullen

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary venous hypertension may be caused by increased pressure anywhere between the intraparenchymal pulmonary veins and the left ventricle. Pulmonary venous hypertension has different causes in children compared with adults. In adults the most common cause of pulmonary venous hypertension is left ventricular diastolic disease. In children, congenital heart diseases, acquired and congenital cardiomyopathies are the usual causes of pulmonary

  4. Immunoreactivity in pulmonary echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Rai?ev, I.; Tenev, S.; Kosturkova, M.; Dakov, I.; Dimitrov, A.

    1979-01-01

    The part played by certain factors in determining the antibody response in pulmonary echinococcosis has been studied. Five immunodiagnostic procedures were used—complement fixation, latex agglutination, bentonite flocculation, passive haemagglutination, and intradermal tests—and parasitological and pathological examinations were carried out. The number of hydatid cysts had only a small influence on the qualitative nature of the immune response while the quantitative effect was considerable. The immune response did not vary significantly in relation to the size of hydatid cysts but it was affected by changes within the cysts and the surrounding lung tissue. In patients with cysts full of clear hydatid fluid the proportions with negative results and relatively low antibody titres were highest. In these patients the size of hydatid cyst appeared to be significant—the smaller the size, the lower the antibody level. The immune response is weak or completely absent when the hydatid cyst has a thick fibrous capsule. When suppurative changes are present in the hydatid fluid and/or in the fibrous capsule, and when there is inflammatory involvement of the surrounding lung tissue an easily detectable immune response may be seen at an early stage, sometimes even with a high antibody level, but later it usually decreases and may disappear completely. A hypothesis for the explanation of immunological reactivity in pulmonary hydatid disease is discussed. ImagesFig. 7Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:317252

  5. Some secondary ore formation features of the Sar-Cheshmeh porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Kerman, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shahabpour

    1991-01-01

    New secondary mineral features and the control of secondary molybdenum enrichment have now been recognized at the Sar-Cheshmeh copper deposit. In part of the deposit, copper is locally concentrated within a subvolcanic unit — the so-called Late Fine Porphyry in amounts that seem too great to have come from the primary phase of the same unit. Clay minerals are believed

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension in Advanced Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Ghio

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension is easy during routine evaluation of patients with chronic heart failure by means of Doppler echocardiography. However, one must remember that an accurate hemodynamic characterization of the pulmonary circulation requires right heart catheterization to measure pulmonary vascular resistance and, if necessary, to test the reversibility of pulmonary hypertension. In addition, the importance of combining the

  7. Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Wilson; T A Wynn

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms

  8. Minerals in Our Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Minerals are all around us. They're in our kitchens and bathrooms, our classrooms and school buildings, and our cars and bicycles. This interactive feature lets users discover which minerals are found in items they probably encounter every day. Rolling the cursor over items in an illustrated room accesses pop-ups that describe what mineral products may be found in them. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

  9. Review of pulmonary effects of poly(vinyl chloride) and vinyl chloride exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, R

    1981-01-01

    The contributions of several recent reports to the definition of pulmonary effects of PVC dust inhalation are reviewed. Granulomatous reaction, with inclusion of PVC particles in macrophages and histocytes, and associated interstitial pulmonary fibrosis have been found to lead to exertional dyspnoea, diffuse micronodular chest radiographic opacities and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. The effects of vinyl chloride (VC) monomer (gas) on proteins and the immunologic mechanisms triggered by the altered protein are possible mechanisms for the development in some cases of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis secondary to VC exposure. Vinyl chloride, a confirmed carcinogen, has been associated with, among other malignant tumors, a significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been completely evaluated. PMID:7333234

  10. Emergent Unilateral Renal Artery Stenting for Treatment of Flash Pulmonary Edema: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asaad Akbar; McFadden, Eugene Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Flash pulmonary edema is characteristically sudden in onset with rapid resolution once appropriate therapy has been instituted (Messerli et al., 2011). Acute increase of left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure is the usual cause of sudden decompensated cardiac failure in this patient population. Presence of bilateral renal artery stenosis or unilateral stenosis in combination with a single functional kidney in the susceptible cohort is usually blamed for this condition. We describe a patient who presented with flash pulmonary edema in the setting of normal coronary arteries. Our case is distinct as our patient developed flash pulmonary edema secondary to unilateral renal artery stenosis in the presence of bilateral functioning kidneys. Percutaneous stent implantation in the affected renal artery resulted in rapid resolution of pulmonary edema. PMID:25793128

  11. Minerals by Chemical Composition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive periodic table displays a listing of minerals by element, sorted by percent of the element. Clicking on a symbol on the table leads users to information on the element (atomic mass and number, name origin, year of discovery, and a brief description), and to a table listing each mineral known to contain the element in decreasing order by percentage. Each mineral name in the table is linked to additional information on the mineral, such as formula and composition, images, crystallography, physical properties, and many others.

  12. Canadian Minerals Yearbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Part of Natural Resources Canada Minerals and Metals Sector, the Canadian Minerals Yearbook Web site provides mineral industry information from 1994 to 2001. Downloadable files from each year include a Year in Review, Reserves of Selected Major Metals, Recent Production Decisions, and a Mineral and Metal Commodity Review. An example of the information provided comes from the 2001 Review: "In 2000, Canadian reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, molybdenum, silver and gold decreased because there were no decisions to bring new mines into production and the amount of new ore discovered at existing mining operations was insufficient to replace the quantity of ore that was mined during the year."

  13. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division De Ciencias e Ingenerias, Leon Gto., Mex (Mexico); Zavala, G. [Universidad de Guanajuato, DCEA, Guanajuato Gto., Mex (Mexico)

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  14. Association of man-made mineral fibre exposure and sarcoidlike granulomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. DRENT; P. H. H. BOMANS; R. J. VAN SUYLEN; R. J. S. LAMERS; A. BAST; E. F. M. WOUTERS

    2000-01-01

    It is assumed that sarcoidosis is caused by inhalation of air borne agents in susceptible persons triggering the inflammatory reaction. The association of metallic dust exposure, such as beryllium and aluminium, and sarcoidlike pulmonary disorders is well known. The ability of man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) to cause granulomatous lung disease has not been appreciated until now. Recently, we observed the

  15. Mechanical ventricular support lowers pulmonary vascular resistance in a patient with congential heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A Petrofski; Charles W Hoopes; Thomas M Bashore; Stuart D Russell; Carmelo A Milano

    2003-01-01

    Severely elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is a relative contraindication to orthotopic heart transplantation. A potential novel strategy to reverse elevated PVR may be implantation of a chronic left ventricular assist device with subsequent left ventricular unloading. We present a patient with elevated PVR secondary to congenital heart disease who was listed for heart-lung transplant. The patient underwent placement of

  16. Medical therapies for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: an evolving treatment paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Bresser; Joanna Pepke-Zaba; Xavier Jais; Marc Humbert; Marius M. Hoeper

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonaryendarterectomy(PEA)isrecommendedasthetreatment of choice for eligible patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmo- nary hypertension (CTEPH). However, only a proportion of patients fulfill the criteria for surgical intervention. In addition, operated patients with CTEPH may experience a gradual hemodynamic and symptomatic decline related to a secondary hypertensive arteriopa- thy in the small precapillary pulmonary vessels. It has also been questioned what can be

  17. Tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, B. A.; Chamberlain, D. W.; Goldstein, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberous sclerosis produced interstitial disease in a woman with normal-sized lungs; numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages were found in the fluid obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage. The pathological changes seen in the lungs were identical to those of pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis, in which the constellation of clinical signs usually found in tuberous sclerosis is absent. The two conditions are sufficiently similar in clinical presentation, pathological changes and prognosis to be considered variants of the same disease. The recent findings of progestin receptors in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis will likely direct future management towards hormonal manipulation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6692213

  18. Elevated Pulmonary Artery Pressure Is a Risk Factor for Primary Graft Dysfunction Following Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Adam; Studer, Sean; Kawut, Steven M.; Ahya, Vivek N.; Lee, James; Wille, Keith; Lama, Vibha; Ware, Lorraine; Orens, Jonathan; Weinacker, Ann; Palmer, Scott M.; Crespo, Maria; Lederer, David J.; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Demissie, Ejigayehu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often associated with elevations in pulmonary artery pressures. Although primary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been associated with primary graft dysfunction (PGD), the role of secondary PAH in mediating PGD risk in patients with IPF is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and PGD among patients with IPF. Methods: We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study of 126 lung transplant procedures performed for IPF between March 2002 and August 2007. The primary outcome was grade 3 PGD at 72 h after lung transplant. The mPAP was measured as the initial reading following insertion of the right-sided heart catheter during lung transplant. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding variables. Results: The mPAP for patients with PGD was 38.5 ± 16.3 mm Hg vs 29.6 ± 11.5 mm Hg for patients without PGD (mean difference, 8.9 mm Hg [95% CI, 3.6-14.2]; P = .001). The increase in odds of PGD associated with each 10-mm Hg increase in mPAP was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.18-2.26; P = .003). In multivariable models, this relationship was independent of confounding by other clinical variables, although the use of cardiopulmonary bypass partially attenuated the relationship. Conclusions: Higher mPAP in patients with IPF is associated with the development of PGD. PMID:20864607

  19. Technical advances of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Hagl; Nawid Khaladj; Tina Peters; Marius M. Hoeper; Frank Logemann; Axel Haverich; Paolo Macchiarini

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To minimize the side-effects of circulatory arrest times and profound hypothermia in patients undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: Between March 2000 and June 2002, 30 patients (in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV) were operated for CTEPH using our modified technique. It includes moderate hypothermic (28–32°C), total cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)

  20. PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Graham

    2011-10-13

    This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

  1. [Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease, which affects more frequently subjects older than 60 years, males, and smokers or ex-smokers. The diagnosis is based on a pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia at high resolution computed tomography of the chest and/or at the video- assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy, and by multidisciplinary discussion in a specialized center, after ruling out possible causes and specific contexts (as connective tissue disease). The disease progresses inexorably to chronic respiratory insufficiency, occasionally with episodes of acute exacerbation, and death after a median of 3 years. Treatment with pirfenidone in patients with mild to moderate disease slows the progression of disease, and reduces the risk of death at one year, with skin and gastro-intestinal adverse events. Drug therapy should be part of a global care management. Several approaches are considered for an earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25362769

  2. Postoperative pulmonary complications updating.

    PubMed

    Langeron, O; Carreira, S; le Saché, F; Raux, M

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are a major contributor to the overall risk of surgery. PPCs affect the length of hospital stay and are associated with a higher in-hospital mortality. PPCs are even the leading cause of death either in cardiothoracic surgery but also in non-cardiothoracic surgery. Thus, reliable PPCs risk stratification tools are the key issue of clinical decision making in the perioperative period. When the risk is clearly identified related to the patient according the ARISCAT score and/or the type of surgery (mainly thoracic and abdominal), low-cost preemptive interventions improve outcomes and new strategies can be developed to prevent this risk. The EuSOS, PERISCOPE and IMPROVE studies demonstrated this care optimization by risk identification first, then risk stratification and new care (multifaceted) strategies implementation allowing a decrease in PPCs mortality by optimizing the clinical path of the patient and the care resources. PMID:25168300

  3. Bosentan in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a comparison between congenital heart disease and chronic pulmonary embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. J. Duffels; M. N. van der Plas; S. Surie; M. M. Winter; B. J. Bouma; M. Groenink; A. P. J. van Dijk; E. S. Hoendermis; R. M. F. Berger; P. Bresser; B. J. M. Mulder

    2009-01-01

    Background. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, it is unknown whether the treatment effect of bosentan is dependent on the duration\\u000a of pulmonary vessel changes. Therefore, we studied the response to bosentan in patients with life-long pulmonary vessel changes\\u000a (pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to congenital heart disease (CHD)) and in patients with subacutely induced pulmonary\\u000a vessel changes (chronic thromboembolic pulmonary

  4. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Nihat; Peker, Erdal; Ece, ?brahim; Kaba, Sultan; A?engin, Kemal; Tuncer, O?uz

    2015-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil. PMID:26078906

  5. Vitamin and mineral requirements

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table and mineral requirements in human nutrition : report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand REQUIREMENTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION iv 2.2.4 Risk factors 22 2.2.5 Morbidity and mortality 23 2.3 Units

  6. Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

  7. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  8. Minerals, Crystals and Gems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.

  9. Minerals in Our Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frank, Dave

    This color poster shows how we use minerals in our everyday life. It depicts common household items (furniture, appliances, plumbing fixtures, personal products, etc.) which are keyed by number to short descriptions that provide information on the minerals used in the manufacture of these items.

  10. VITAMINS AND MINERALS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-03-05

    DESK Standard: Specify key vitamins and minerals and their functions. . DATES: You can begin this activity on May 21. You should complete it by May 25. OBJECTIVE: A healthy body needs vitamins and minerals. You\\'ve probably heard these words before, but do you really know what they mean? This activity will help you better understand the ...

  11. Pulmonary segmentectomy: results and complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R Jones; Brendon M Stiles; Chadrick E Denlinger; Philip Antippa; Thomas M Daniel

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundSegmentectomy is an anatomic pulmonary parenchymal-sparing resection performed for certain benign lesions and on selected patients with lung cancer. We reviewed our experience with segmentectomy in this highly select group of patients.

  12. Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga H.; Kim, Nick H.; Mandel, Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Schistosomiasis, a parasite-borne disease, is highly prevalent in Africa and Asia; it is estimated that close to 20 million people worldwide have a severe form of the disease. The chronic form can affect the gastrointestinal system and lead to hepatosplenic disease, and it may cause cardiopulmonary complications, including pulmonary hypertension. The exact pathogenesis of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension (Sch-PH) remains unclear, although several mechanisms, including parasitic arterial embolization, pulmonary arteriopathy, and portopulmonary hypertension–like pathophysiology, have been suggested. The immunopathology of the disease is also unclear, although there are similarities with the immunology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Finally, the treatment of Sch-PH has not been well studied. There is some evidence on treating the underlying infection, with unclear effect on Sch-PH, and advanced PAH therapies are now being suggested, but more studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. PMID:25610596

  13. USGS: Energy & Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-20

    The Energy and Minerals Mission Area of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) "conducts research and assessments on the location, quantity, and quality of material and energy resources, including the economic and environmental effects of resource extraction and use." Visitors to the site can click on thematic sections such as Energy Resources and Mineral Resources. Each of these areas contains information about each program, along with fact sheets, databases, and detailed geospatial maps. The Program News area contains links to documents such as "Understanding the Global Distribution of Nonfuel Mineral Resources" and a host of summary documents on mineral commodities. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Mineral Resources Products area. Here, visitors can look into hundreds of statistical reports, bulletins, and data sets intended for scientists, journalists, and members of the general public.

  14. Sudden Death from Pulmonary Causes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris S. Cunningham; Michael S. Pollanen

    \\u000a This chapter seeks to survey many of the common pathological entities identified in the lungs at autopsy and the potential\\u000a role of pulmonary disease in formulating an opinion regarding the cause of death. Appreciation of pulmonary pathology in the\\u000a medicolegal context is important as it frequently contributes to the immediate or underlying mechanisms of death. The primacy\\u000a of the lungs

  15. Liposomes for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janani Swaminathan; Carsten Ehrhardt

    \\u000a Liposomes have been widely used in pulmonary drug delivery for ­multiple applications including solubilization, sustained\\u000a release, cellular and intracellular ­targeting, minimization of toxicity, and facilitation of absorption. In this chapter,\\u000a formulation aspects, aerosolization, and an extensive overview of the use of pulmonary drug delivery of liposomes for disease\\u000a and drug classes are provided. Specifically, this chapter examines liposomes from in

  16. Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger W. Byard; John D. Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), where the pulmonary venous circulation drains into the systemic venous\\u000a circulation rather than into the left atrium, may present a number of problems at autopsy. A 5-week-old infant is reported\\u000a who died suddenly and unexpectedly who was found at autopsy to have infradiaphragmatic TAPVC into the portal vein. The only\\u000a associated anomalies were a

  17. [Multiple pulmonary emboli complicating infective endocarditis in a child with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Ajdakar, S; Elbouderkaoui, M; Rada, N; Drais, G; Bouskraoui, M

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare condition, associated with high mortality. Clinical presentation is nonspecific. Pulmonary embolism may present initially similar to bacterial endocarditis of the right heart, septic thrombophlebitis, or osteomyelitis. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who had dyspnea over the four months before consultation, complicated three months later by hemoptysis. She was diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis secondary to group D Streptococcus, developed upon a ventricular septal defect. Two weeks later, the child had sudden chest pain and tachypnea. Lung scintigraphy showed multiple pulmonary embolisms. The therapeutic approach was to continue antibiotics without anticoagulant treatment. The outcome was favorable with apyrexia and stabilization on the respiratory level. Pulmonary embolism is a rare disease in children with an incidence of 3.7%. Classically, it presents with fever, hemoptysis, and nonspecific infiltrates on chest X-ray. These signs were noted in our patient, although the infiltrates on the chest X-ray were hidden by the pulmonary edema associated with heart failure. The persistence of these left basal opacities after antidiuretic treatment suggested an infectious origin. Subsequently, lung scintigraphy showed that it was a pulmonary infarct. The therapy of septic pulmonary embolism is the same as that for infective endocarditis. Antibiotic treatment alone was maintained without anticoagulants because of the high risk of bleeding at the seat of the pulmonary embolism and the insubstantial significant benefit of this therapy. Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare disease, but its incidence is underestimated. Better knowledge on its actual impact and etiologies in children is necessary. Multicenter studies are needed to establish recommendations. PMID:25725970

  18. N-acetylcysteine improves established monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcome of patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are predominantly determined by the response of the right ventricle to the increase afterload secondary to high vascular pulmonary resistance. However, little is known about the effects of the current available or experimental PAH treatments on the heart. Recently, inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PAH. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known safe anti-oxidant drug, has immuno-modulatory and cardioprotective properties. We therefore hypothesized that NAC could reduce the severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats exposed to monocrotaline (MCT), lowering inflammation and preserving pulmonary vascular system and right heart function. Methods Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and NAC treated rats (day 14–28) were evaluated at day 28 following MCT for hemodynamic parameters (right ventricular systolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output), right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular morphometry, lung inflammatory cells immunohistochemistry (monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells), IL-6 expression, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. Results The treatment with NAC significantly decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling, lung inflammation, and improved total pulmonary resistance (from 0.71?±?0.05 for MCT group to 0.50?±?0.06 for MCT?+?NAC group, p?pulmonary vascular and right heart function in experimental PH. PMID:24929652

  19. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of kilometres from the initial reaction site to form ore deposits. The coupling of dissolution and precipitation has important consequences for all reactions between fluids and rocks and understanding this coupling has applications well beyond mineralogy, for example, in developing new methods of materials synthesis, for carbon removal from the atmosphere and for safe storage of nuclear waste.

  20. Use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Torrent-Vernetta, Alba; de Mir Messa, Inés; Rovira Amigo, Sandra; Gran Piña, Ferran; Gartner, Silvia; Albert Brotons, Dimpna

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in children is a serious disorder, for which the major goal of treatment is to prevent progressive vascular remodeling, and improve clinical status and survival. Iloprost is approved for the treatment of PH in adults; however, few studies have evaluated its effects in children. The objective of this study is to analyze the long-term effects of inhaled iloprost treatment in children with PH. A retrospective study was conducted in patients treated with iloprost between 2000 and 2012. Patients with left-right cardiac shunt and persistent PH of the newborn were excluded. The cohort comprised 22 patients (15 females) with a median age of 2.6 years. Twelve patients had pulmonary arterial hypertension including idiopathic (n?=?6), hereditary (n?=?2) and associated (congenital heart disease [n?=?3], and schistosomiasis [n?=?1]). One patient had pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, six patients had PH secondary to lung disease and three had multifactorial PH. Median mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 55?mmHg and median pulmonary vascular resistance was 15.5?Wood units. Good tolerability was observed, with the exception of one case of recurring abdominal pain. PH resolved in two patients, with functional capacity improvement in 10 patients and stabilization in three patients. The clinical condition of six patients deteriorated; two died, and two received lung transplants. In conclusion, the results of this uncontrolled study showed that iloprost was effective and well tolerated in children. However, further research is needed to support this study, as PH is a serious condition that can require organ transplantation or result in death. PMID:24729548

  1. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  2. Adrenomedullin alleviates pulmonary artery collagen accumulation in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lulu; Qi, Jianguang; Gao, Yang; Jin, Hongfang; Du, Junbao

    2014-04-01

    Collagen accumulation is one of the important pathologic changes in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Previous research showed that adrenomedullin (ADM) mitigates the development of pulmonary hypertension. The present study explored the role of ADM in the development of pulmonary artery collagen accumulation induced by high pulmonary blood flow, by investigating the effect of ADM [1.5 ?g/(kg h)] subcutaneously administered by mini-osmotic pump on pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary vascular structure and pulmonary artery collagen accumulation and synthesis in rats with high pulmonary blood flow induced by aortocaval shunting. The results showed that ADM significantly decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and the ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricular plus septal mass [RV/(LV+SP)], attenuated the muscularization of small pulmonary vessels and relative medial thickness (RMT) of pulmonary arteries in rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Meanwhile, ADM ameliorated pulmonary artery collagen deposition represented by a decrease in lung tissue hydroxyproline, collagens I and III content and pulmonary artery collagens I and III expression, reduced collagen synthesis represented by a decrease in lung tissue procollagens I and III mRNA expression. The results suggest that ADM plays a protective role in the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow, by inhibiting pulmonary procollagen synthesis and alleviating pulmonary artery collagen accumulation. PMID:24480725

  3. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE MINERAL MINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a multimedia (air, liquid and solid wastes) environmental assessment of the domestic mineral mining industry. The primary objective of the study was to identify the major pollution problems associated with the industry. A secondary objective was to define res...

  4. Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the right ventricular functions, pulmonary arterypressure and pulmonary vascular resistance

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Canan; Demir, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis secondary to infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of themost common causes of viral hepatitis worldwide. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection have been recognized. In this study we aimed to examine right ventricular systolic functions and pulmonary artery pressure in HCV patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 HCV patients (mean age; 34 ± 12 years) and 50 other persons (mean age; 28 ± 11 years) as control group. Transthorasic echocardiography was performed in all the participants. Right ventricle systolic parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared between these two groups. Results: In the group of the patients with HCV, the right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE) and RV myocardial systolic velocity (St) values were lower than control group (31 ± 10 vs 48 ± 12%; 13.5 ± 1.5 vs 19.2 ± 3.4 mm and 8.3 ± 1.1 vs 17.7 ± 3.3 cm/s all P < 0.001, respectively); the right atrium (RA) and RV diameters were higher than controls (4.8 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.6 cm, P < 0.001; 4.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.3 ± 0.5 cm P < 0.001, respectively); additionally systolic pulmonary artery pressure and PVR were higher than control (36.3 ± 9.9 vs 23 ± 7.8 mmHg, 3.5 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 0.8; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The findings showed that HCV infection may be associated with right ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25232427

  5. Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

  6. Congestive hepatopathy secondary to large renal arteriovenous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Khalife, Mohammad; Faraj, Walid; Salah, Fatima; Haydar, Ali A

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset dyspnoea, and was found to have signs of pulmonary congestion on clinical examination. Imaging revealed cardiomegaly and coincident congestive hepatopathy, secondary to a left renal arteriovenous malformation. The presence of a high flow vascular shunt in the left kidney was possibly the causative factor behind both the high-output cardiac failure and congestive hepatopathy. PMID:23349173

  7. Congestive hepatopathy secondary to large renal arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Khalife, Mohammad; Faraj, Walid; Salah, Fatima; Haydar, Ali A

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset dyspnoea, and was found to have signs of pulmonary congestion on clinical examination. Imaging revealed cardiomegaly and coincident congestive hepatopathy, secondary to a left renal arteriovenous malformation. The presence of a high flow vascular shunt in the left kidney was possibly the causative factor behind both the high-output cardiac failure and congestive hepatopathy. PMID:23349173

  8. [Postpartum pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Escalante, Juan Pablo; Diez, Ana; Figueroa Casas, Marcelo; Lasave, Alejandro; Cursack, Guillermo; Poy, Carlos; Rodríguez, María Soledad; Galuppo, Marcela; Zapata, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pregnancy is a rare disorder that carries a high risk to mother and child, and as such, it is considered a contraindication to becoming pregnant. However, there are few published reports related to the diagnosis of this condition after delivery. We describe three PH cases diagnosed after their normal pregnancies and deliveries. Although the causes are unknown, several mechanisms such as hypercoagulation, placental hypoxia or amniotic fluid embolism have been considered as possible causes. It is difficult to define whether a PH diagnosed in the postpartum period, relates to an earlier asymptomatic PH period that was triggered by the physiological stress of labor or if it is a recently acquired condition. Despite the lack of data to support the absence of PH previous to pregnancy in our three patients, lack of events during this period, asymptomatic and normal deliveries, lead us to believe that they did not suffer this disease prior to pregnancy; considering that high hemodynamic demands impair a ventricle with little reserve, and its subsequent appearance at time of delivery. PMID:25637900

  9. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine is increased in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nika Skoro-Sajer; Friedrich Mittermayer; Adelheid Panzenboeck; Diana Bonderman; Roela Sadushi; Robert Hitsch; Johannes Jakowitsch; Walter Klepetko; Meinhard P Kneussl; Michael Wolzt; Irene M Lang

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a potent endoge- nous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, is increased in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and associated with unfavorable outcome. Objectives: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), although principally amenable to surgical removal of ma- jor pulmonary arterial obstructions by pulmonary endarterectomy, may show a small-vessel pulmonary arteriopathy similar to idio- pathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We

  10. Managing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: pharmacological treatment options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Lang

    2009-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening condition in which organised thrombi obstruct the pulmonary vessels, causing increased pulmonary vascular resistance, progressive pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart failure. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy, which restores pulmonary haemodynamics with acceptable periprocedural mortality rates in the majority of suitable patients. However, CTEPH may be inoperable owing to surgically

  11. Arginine metabolic endotypes in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kao, Christina C; Wedes, Samuel H; Hsu, Jean W; Bohren, Kurt M; Comhair, Suzy A A; Jahoor, Farook; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-03-01

    Decreased synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases (NOS) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Multiple factors may contribute to decreased NO bioavailability, including increased activity of arginase, the enzyme that converts arginine to ornithine and urea, which may compete with NOS for arginine; inadequate de novo arginine production from citrulline; and increased concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NOS. We hypothesized that PAH patients with the lowest arginine availability secondary to increased arginase activity and/or inadequate de novo arginine synthesis might have a slower rate of NO synthesis and greater pulmonary vascular resistance. Nine patients with group 1 PAH and 10 healthy controls were given primed, constant intravenous infusions of (15)N2-arginine, (13)C,(2)H4-citrulline, (15)N2-ornithine, and (13)C-urea in the postabsorptive state. The results showed that, compared with healthy controls, PAH patients had a tendency toward increased arginine clearance and ornithine flux but no difference in arginine and citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis, or NO synthesis. Arginine-to-ADMA ratio was increased in PAH patients. Two endotypes of patients with low and high arginase activity were identified; compared with the low-arginase group, the patients with high arginase had increased arginine flux, slower NO synthesis, and lower plasma concentrations of ADMA. These results demonstrate that increased breakdown of arginine by arginase occurs in PAH and affects NO synthesis. Furthermore, there is no compensatory increase in de novo arginine synthesis to overcome this increased utilization of arginine by arginase. PMID:25992277

  12. Private Mineral Gallery Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    Students make and display posters of the mineral they researched throughout the semester. The instructor and TA review the posters while students answer questions as they walk around and examine each other's posters.

  13. Biological effects of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    In general, clay materials exhibit a range of biological activities, from apparently inactive or slightly active, such as hematite, to highly fibrogenic and carcinogenic, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite). The zeolites also exhibit such as range, with some mordenite being slightly active and erionite being highly active; however, erionite is the only zeolite that has been studied extensively. The diversity of mineral species holds great potential for probing these mechanisms, especially when mineralogical data are integrated with biological data. Unfortunately, many of the studies reporting data on the biological effects of clays and zeolites fail to report detailed mineralogical information; hence, it is difficult at present to interpret the biological activities of minerals in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Important mineralogical data that are only rarely considered in biological research include exact mineralogy of the specimen (i.e., identification and abundance of contaminants), physical and chemical properties of minerals, and surface properties of minerals. 141 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  14. Ken's Fluorescent Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kenneth Colosky

    This web site provides photos of fluorescent minerals photographed under long wave (LW) or short wave (SW) ultraviolet light. Links to additional resources, and a list of books and information sources are also included.

  15. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

  16. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  17. Ice is a Mineral

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the characteristics of ice as a mineral and how it compares to other minerals with respect to hardness. Learners will observe ice crystals, develop a hardness scale and position ice on it. Learners will also practice working collaboratively in a team. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 3 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

  18. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Kowatsch

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three\\u000a types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along\\u000a with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within\\u000a the

  19. Microbial control of mineral weathering kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Hiebert, F.K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of native microorganisms on mineral dissolution and precipitation kinetics was examined in a petroleum contaminated aquifer. In situ microcosms containing clean mineral fragments (calcite, dolomite, quartz, albite, microcline, anorthite, muscovite, biotite) were allowed to colonize and react over 1 year periods, and the surfaces then examined for microbial colonization patterns and weathering features. These experiments revealed distinct patterns of colonization, and weathering associated with microbial metabolism. Feldspar surfaces were widely colonized, and the colonized surfaces were deeply weathered, while secondary clays precipitated on uncolonized surfaces. Calcite surfaces were sparsely colonized, but deeply pitted around microbial colonies. Distinctive precipitation features were otherwise observed on all other surfaces, with overgrowth morphology related to crystal orientation. The rates of calcite dissolution was directly controlled at the microscopic level by microbial activity around colonies, while precipitation rate is probably related to microbial perturbation of the meso-scale inorganic geochemistry, and may be limited by dolomite dissolution rate.

  20. Enhanced expression of transient receptor potential channels in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Fantozzi, Ivana; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Landsberg, Judd W.; Kunichika, Naomi; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Tigno, Donna D.; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy caused by excessive pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is a major cause for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Increased Ca2+ influx is an important stimulus for PASMC proliferation. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel genes encode Ca2+ channels that are responsible for Ca2+ entry during cell proliferation. Normal human PASMC expressed multiple canonical TRP (TRPC) isoforms; TRPC6 was highly expressed and TRPC3 was minimally expressed. The protein expression of TRPC6 in normal PASMC closely correlated with the expression of Ki67, suggesting that TRPC6 expression is involved in the transition of PASMC from quiescent phase to mitosis. In lung tissues and PASMC from IPAH patients, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC3 and -6 were much higher than in those from normotensive or secondary pulmonary hypertension patients. Inhibition of TRPC6 expression with TRPC6 small interfering RNA markedly attenuated IPAH-PASMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that expression of TRPC channels correlates with the progression of the cell cycle in PASMC. TRPC channel overexpression may be partially responsible for the increased PASMC proliferation and pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy in IPAH patients. PMID:15358862

  1. Secondary electron emission studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shih; J. Yater; C. Hor; R. Abrams

    1997-01-01

    Secondary-electron-emission processes under electron bombardment play an important role in the performance of a variety of electron devices. While in some devices, the anode and the grid require materials that suppress the secondary-electron-generation process, the crossed-field amplifier (CFA) is an example where the cathode requires an efficient secondary-electron-emission material. Secondary-electron-emission processes will be discussed by a three-step process: penetration of

  2. Inhaled iloprost in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: effects before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Kramm; Balthasar Eberle; Frank Krummenauer; Stefan Guth; Hellmut Oelert; Eckhard Mayer

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundIn primary pulmonary hypertension, aerosolized prostanoids selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and improve right ventricular function. In this study, hemodynamic effects of inhaled iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue, were evaluated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) before and early after pulmonary thromboendarterctomy (PTE).

  3. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease as a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Ihsan; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Padilla, Osvaldo; Syed, Saad H.; Lowder, Kevin; Azimova, Komola; Fan, Jerry; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) represents a rare form of precapillary pulmonary arterial hypertension. We present a young patient hospitalized with progressive dyspnea, with initial workup suggestive of pulmonary hypertension and unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. His subsequent clinical course was consistent with the diagnosis of PVOD.

  4. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease as a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Al-Bayati, Ihsan; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Padilla, Osvaldo; Syed, Saad H; Lowder, Kevin; Azimova, Komola; Fan, Jerry; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) represents a rare form of precapillary pulmonary arterial hypertension. We present a young patient hospitalized with progressive dyspnea, with initial workup suggestive of pulmonary hypertension and unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. His subsequent clinical course was consistent with the diagnosis of PVOD. PMID:26130886

  5. [Pulmonary hypertension in liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Savale, Laurent; Sattler, Caroline; Sitbon, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined by the combination of portal hypertension and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mPAP ? 25 mmHg, PCWP < 15 mmHg and PVR > 3 Wood units). PoPH is characterised by pathobiological mechanisms that are similar to other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prevalence of PoPH is estimated at 0.5-5% among patients with portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. Treatment strategies most commonly employed for PoPH patients are based on recommendations for idiopathic PAH management. Indeed, the choice of specific PAH treatment must take account the severity of the underlying liver disease. Prognosis of PoPH patients is dependent on both the severity of PAH and of the underlying liver disease. PoPH may be a contraindication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) if mean pulmonary arterial pressure is > 35 mmHg associated with severe right ventricular dysfunction or high level of pulmonary vascular resistance (> 3-4 Wood units). Bridge therapy with specific PAH therapies should be considered in those patients in an attempt to improve pulmonary hemodynamic and thereby allow OLT with acceptable risk. Recent data suggest that stabilize, improve or cure PoPH seems to be possible by combining specific PAH therapies and liver transplantation in selected patients. Clinical and experimental evidences suggest that IFN therapy may be a possible risk factor for PAH. PMID:25148949

  6. Pulmonary Vascular Angioscopy - Current Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shure, Deborah; Buchbinder, Maurice; Peterson, Kirk

    1988-06-01

    We performed angioscopy on 31 patients with suspected chronic pulmonary arterial ob-struction using three prototype angioscopes. The instruments varied in length (80, 90, and 120 cm), outside diameter (3.2 and 4 mm), and distal tip deflection (70, 90, and 180 degrees). All had a distal viewing balloon. Conventional diagnostic studies were performed and decisions about diagnosis and operability were made prior to angioscopy. An independent assessment of diagnosis and operability was then made based on the results of angioscopy. Surgical confirmation was obtained in most cases and clinical or autopsy data were obtained in the remainder. Angioscopy led to a change in the diagnosis of 6 patients (19%). Four of 25 patients with chronic pulmonary emboli were felt to be inoperable based on the angioscopic findings. Two of these 4 underwent surgery and were found to be inoperable. 21 of the remaining 25 patients were felt to have operable disease and 19 underwent surgery. In 14 of these 19 (74%), the conventional studies were either negative or equivocal with respect to operability and the decision to operate was based on angioscopic data. We conclude that good visualization of the central pulmonary arteries can be achieved with the optical balloon technique; that the procedure can be performed safely in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension; and that the information obtained by angioscopy can significantly affect clinical decisions in patients with chronic pulmonary artery obstruction.

  7. Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis 

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with ...

  8. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: animal models.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie

    2013-05-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening disease due to pulmonary artery obstruction by persistent organised clots related to one or more episodes of acute pulmonary embolism. To date, the pathogenesis of CTEPH remains unexplained. Pulmonary endarterectomy removes obstruction from pulmonary vessels and can cure patients. However, some unreachable distal pulmonary obstruction and/or associated distal pulmonary vasculopathy could induce persistent pulmonary hypertension, the main postoperative complication. The pathophysiology of CTEPH is not fully understood and improving knowledge of this disease could improve our future surgical and medical management. Many attempts, conducted over several decades, have failed to reproduce this chronic disease in animals. However, several animal models have provided insights into the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of CTEPH. Here, we review all the animal models that have improved the comprehension of CTEPH and hold promise for further investigations. This short review analyses strengths and weaknesses of all animal models available to study the pathophysiology of CTEPH. PMID:23314897

  9. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the Health Topics Oxygen Therapy article. Pulmonary Rehabilitation PR is now a standard treatment for people ... more information, go to the Health Topics Pulmonary Rehabilitation article. Lung Transplant Your doctor may recommend a ...

  10. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  11. Mineral impurities in coal combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raask

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses the many and varied problems associated with coal combustion and suggests remedial measures to assist in producing electrical energy from coal more efficiently. Contents include: influence of coal mineral matter on boiler design; mineral impurities in coal; quality of coal utilized in power stations; coal grinding, abrasive fuel minerals and plant wear; particulates silicate minerals in boiler

  12. Mineral Physical Properties and Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Harwood

    2011-01-01

    This Physical Geology 101 lab consists of a chart which defines the physical properties and provides the means for determining the physical property of a mineral sample. Also presented is a table listing some of the aspects of the common lab minerals. Armed with an image of a mineral and a series of physical properties tests, students are asked to identify each mineral.

  13. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  14. Statins for Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Faul; Peter N. Kao; Toshihiko Nishimura; Arthur Sung; Hong Hu; Ronald G. Pearl

    By virtue of their multiple actions, including anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and pro-apoptotic traits and the ability\\u000a to restore endothelial vasoactive mediator production, statins have been proposed as potential therapies for pulmonary hypertension.\\u000a In experimental studies in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced either by either monocrotaline or hypoxia, statins have\\u000a blunted the severity of pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular

  15. Group B streptococcal phospholipid causes pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jerri; Kim, Geumsoo; Wehr, Nancy B.; Levine, Rodney L.

    2003-04-01

    Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension, which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and identified them as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary hypertension in newborns with Group B streptococcal infection opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Sleep in Patients With Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Harding

    Sleep complaints are very prevalent in the patients with pulmonary disease. This review will examine sleep effects on respiration,\\u000a explore ventilatory responses during sleep in normal individuals, and examine mechanisms of hypoxemia in patients with pulmonary\\u000a disease. Sleep disorders in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease\\u000a (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma, and restrictive parenchymal disease will

  17. [Pulmonary changes in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Kohout, A; Resl, M; Bácová, M

    2001-07-01

    A 78-year-old smoker with a medical history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosed 23 years before death and treated for 10 years by sulfasalazine followed by 7 years of therapy by purine antimetabolite (AZAMUN, Leiras Co.). Two years before his death chemotherapy was added to treat a low grade malignant lymphoma. Pulmonary changes revealed during autopsy consisted of diffuse interstitial fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage in its acute to subacute phase, and massive multiple bilateral ossifications. The possible side effect of RA treatment on pulmonary tissue is discussed. Post mortem low-voltage X-ray examination appears as a method which may contribute to the accurate distribution and correct diagnosis of multiple pulmonary ossification. PMID:11669018

  18. Surgical treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Júnior, Raul Lopes; de Oliveira, Frederico Henrique Sobral; Piotto, Bruno Luiz Burgos; Muniz, Felipe Antunes e Silva de Souza Lopes; Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Cataneo, Antonio José Maria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the outcome of surgical treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma. To that end, we evaluated 14 adult patients so treated between 1981 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine University Hospital, in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. Data were collected from the medical records of the patients. Ten patients (71%) presented with simple pulmonary aspergilloma, and 4 (29%) presented with complex pulmonary aspergilloma. Hemoptysis was the most common symptom, and tuberculosis was the most prevalent preexisting lung disease. Two patients (14%) underwent surgery on more than one occasion. There were no intraoperative deaths. Half of the patients developed postoperative complications, prolonged air leak and empyema being the most common. PMID:21225182

  19. [Fetal uropathies and pulmonary hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2003-05-11

    The author discusses the role of fetal uropathies in the development of pulmonary hypoplasia. The predisposing abnormalities may occur at various locations, including the kidneys and the efferent urinary ducts (ureters, urocyst, urethra). Following a brief general overview of the normal development of the urinary system, the developmental abnormalities are discussed. These anomalies interfere with the secretion of urine or, alternatively, may hinder or obstruct its elimination through the urinary ducts, thus leading to oligohydramnios. Inadequate production of amniotic fluid hinders the respiratory movements and unfavourable affects or even arrests pulmonary development. The stage of lung maturity at the time of birth offers a key to the determination of the time of initial occurrence of pulmonary hypoplasia. Regretfully, the therapeutic options are rather limited, due to the substantial maternal and fetal risks of in utero fetal surgery. In case of valvula urethrae posterior, a vesico-amniotic shunt offers a realistic chance for success. PMID:12809071

  20. Pulmonary rehabilitation: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Brian W

    2009-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a standard of care for patients with chronic lung disease. Through appropriate patient selection and assessment, exercise training, educational and psychosocial intervention, nutritional counseling, and breathing retraining, many benefits (e.g., reduction in level of dyspnea, improvement in exercise tolerance, improvement in health-related quality of life, and reduction in health care resource utilization) are gained by patients who have undergone rehabilitation. From the initial finding of improved patient's capabilities, to times of extreme skepticism and doubt, to the state of being a standard of care, pulmonary rehabilitation has undergone many periods of transformation over the last several decades. This review expands upon previous reviews of the history behind modern-day pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:19941220

  1. Adalimumab-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Takashi; Nagano, Teruaki; Tomita, Masuhiro; Suehiro, Yasuo; Nakatsuka, Shin-Ichi; Kimura, Hayato; Sakaki, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report of adalimumab-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis. A 56-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis without a history of pulmonary disease was simultaneously administered adalimumab (40 mg/2 wks), methotrexate (4 mg/wk), and isoniazid (200 mg/day). Five months later, chest radiography revealed a small spiculated pulmonary nodule, and the laboratory test results, including levels of tumor markers and plasma ?-D-glucan, were within normal ranges. Since the lesion continued to grow, even after discontinuing adalimumab, it was surgically resected. Grocott staining of the tissue sample revealed black-brown fungi, identified as Cryptococcus neoformans in culture. The patient now remains well, without adalimumab therapy. PMID:21881327

  2. Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

    1983-09-01

    The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

  3. Mortality in patients treated for pulmonary embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph S. Alpert; Roger E. Smith; C. Jeffrey Carlson; Ira S. Ockene; Lewis Dexter; James E. Dalen

    1976-01-01

    The hospital course of 144 consecutive patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) demonstrated by pulmonary angiography was reviewed to determine the mortality of patients with treated PE. Twelve patients (8%) died of PE, and eight died of causes other than PE; 124 (86%) survived. Pulmonary embolism was the primary cause of death in only four of the 12 patients who died

  4. Presentation and attrition in complex pulmonary atresia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Bull; Jane Somerville; Ed Ty; David Spiegelhalter

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. This study summarized patterns of presentation and attrition in complex pulmonary atresia.Methods. We performed a retrospective review of age at presentation, referral source, pulmonary artery and collateral anatomy and surgical history of 218 patients from two institutions dealing with congenital heart disease throughout life.Results. Approximately 65% of pulmonary atresia appears in infancy, with 50% of patients severely symptomatic from

  5. [Health impact of indoor mineral particle pollution].

    PubMed

    Vincent, M; Chemarin, C

    2011-04-01

    Mineral particle air pollution consists of both atmospheric pollution and indoor pollution. Indoor pollution comes from household products, cosmetics, combustion used to heat homes or cook food, smoking, hobbies or odd jobs. There is strong evidence that acute respiratory infections in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women are associated with indoor biomass smoke. Detailed questioning is essential to identify at risk activities and sampling of airborne particles may help with the identification of pollution risks. Particle elimination depends on the standard of ventilation of the indoor environment. Five per cent of French homes have levels of pollution greater than 180 ?g/m³ for PM 10 and 2% for PM 2.5. The principal mineral particle air pollutants are probably silica, talc, asbestos and carbon, whereas tobacco smoke leads to exposure to various ultrafine particles. The toxicity of these particles could be more related to surface exchange than to density. Tissue measurements by electron microscopy and microanalysis of particle samples may identify an uptake of particles similar to those in the environmental sample. PMID:21549904

  6. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. S. Teotia; Mohini Teotia

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of 20 patients with skeletal fluorosis showed that five had clear evidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The hyperactivity of the parathyroid glands in skeletal fluorosis in the presence of decreased solubility of the bone mineral (fluoroapatite) strongly suggests that it is a compensatory attempt to maintain a normal extracellular ionized calcium equilibrium. Further study of the parathyroid glands and of

  7. The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names: procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature, 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Nickel; J. D. Grice

    1998-01-01

    Summary An author wishing to introduce a new mineral name into the literature, or to redefine, discredit or rename an existing mineral, must obtain prior approval of the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. This paper outlines the procedure to be followed in the preparation and submission of a proposal for approval, and describes how such proposals are

  8. Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Loubani, Mahmoud; Morice, Alyn H.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is the elegant theory put forward more than six decades ago to explain regional variations in perfusion within the lung in certain animal species in response to localised restrictions in oxygenation. Although considerable progress has been made to describe the phenomenon at the macroscopic level and explain it at the microscopic level, we are far from a universal agreement about the process in humans. This review attempts to highlight some of the important evidence bases of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in humans and the significant gaps in our knowledge that would need bridging. PMID:24024204

  9. Right or Left: The Role of Nanoparticles in Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuefei; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Chunying; Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of the nanotechnology industry in the last decade, nanoparticles (NPs) are omnipresent in our everyday life today. Many nanomaterials have been engineered for medical purposes. These purposes include therapy for pulmonary diseases. On other hand, people are endeavoring to develop nanomaterials for improvement or replacement of traditional therapies. On the other hand, nanoparticles, as foreign material in human bodies, are reported to have potential adverse effects on the lung, including oxidase stress, inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity. Further, these damages could induce pulmonary diseases and even injuries in other tissues. It seems that nanoparticles may exert two-sided effects. Toxic effects of nanomaterials should be considered when their use is developed for therapies. Hence this review will attempt to summarize the two-side roles of nanoparticles in both therapies for pulmonary diseases and initiation of lung diseases and even secondary diseases caused by lung injuries. Determinants of these effects such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticles will also be discussed. PMID:25268624

  10. Mineral hydrolysis kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Arnold, G.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casey, W.H. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Land, Air, and Water Resources

    1993-07-01

    Dissolution rate laws for silicate mineral weathering can be related to kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions. This relation is being tested with an experimental/analytical/theoretical program for measuring the dissolution kinetics of orthosilicate minerals for use in ionic modeling and molecular dynamics computer simulations of solid, aqueous solution, and solid/liquid interface. To date, dissolution rate have been measured for a suite of endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals (both olivine and willemite structures) as well as a few inosilicate minerals (pyroxenes). Dissolution rates appear to correlate well with solvent exchange rates around the hydrated divalent cations. Siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds are relatively unreactive at low pH`s close to zero point of neutral charge for quartz. The correlation suggests that silicic acid would be released from the reacting surfaces after protonation and hydration of bonds between divalent metals and structural oxygens; congruent dissolution is confirmed by Rutherford backscattered analysis of the near-surface of an acid-reacted forsterite. In the ionic modeling, except for liebenbergite, there is a general trend of increasing lattice energy with decreasing dissolution rate for endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals at pH 2. 3 figs, 4 refs.

  11. The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cynthia A. Kearns

    Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

  12. Pulmonary effects and complications of snakebites.

    PubMed

    Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka

    2014-11-01

    This review is on the pulmonary complications of snakebites, which can have fatal consequences. We identified three common themes as reported in the literature regarding envenomation: generalized neuromuscular paralysis affecting airway and respiratory muscles, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hemorrhages or thrombosis due to coagulopathy. Respiratory paralysis and pulmonary edema can be due to either elapid or viper bites, whereas pulmonary complications of coagulopathy are exclusively reported with viper bites. The evidence for each complication, timeline of appearance, response to treatment, and details of pathophysiology are discussed. PMID:25367476

  13. Hybrid Melody pulmonary valve replacement in an adult with severe pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Derk, Gwendolyn; Laks, Hillel; Aboulhosn, Jamil

    2013-11-01

    A 48-year-old female with D-TGA, ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection underwent hybrid intervention for a pulmonary artery (PA) aneurysm and replacement of a dysfunctional pulmonary valve (PV). She underwent a hemi-Mustard procedure at 9 years of age but remained cyanotic. She developed atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and functional decline at 43 years of age. A chest CT demonstrated a 6 cm PA aneurysm that upon re-imaging at 48 years had increased to 11 cm. A catheterization procedure revealed severe PS, PR, residual VSD, severe PAH with a pulmonary vascular resistance of 30 Wood units. She was evaluated and turned down for heart-lung transplantation at another institution. She was subsequently referred to our institution for heart-lung transplantation but was felt to be at unacceptably high risk given the complexity of her anatomy, imaging suggesting liver cirrhosis and liver biopsy with extensive fibrosis. After extensive discussion of risk and benefits, the patient agreed to proceed with a hybrid intervention, consisting of surgical aneurysm resection/PA repair, tricuspid valve repair; PV replacement with a Melody valve, and VSD closure. There were no complications and she was discharged home within 2 weeks. Six months post procedure, she is not on oxygen, her resting room air saturation is 94%, and echocardiography shows stable Melody valve function. This case highlights the utility of a hybrid approach in the treatment of an adult with complex congenital heart disease, heart failure and severe PAH, considered at the highest risk for adverse surgical outcomes. The short-term efficacy of the Melody valve in severe PAH is reassuring. PMID:23404953

  14. Growth of the pulmonary arteries after systemic-pulmonary shunt.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Takahashi, T; Sato, Y; Suzuki, M; Murakami, J; Hasegewa, Y; Mohara, J; Oshima, K; Ohtaki, A; Morishita, Y

    2001-12-01

    Pulmonary artery growth after a systemic-pulmonary shunt was angiographically evaluated in 19 out of 35 patients. The mean age of the subjects at the time of the initial operation was 18+/-18 months including 12 patients under a year old. The preoperative diagnosis was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in 10 patients, TOF plus pulmonary atresia in five and transposition of great arteries in four. A Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS) operation was performed in 16 patients (15 classical and 1 modified) and a central shunt was performed in three patients as an initial operation. The preoperative pulmonary artery index (PAI) was 129+/-42 in all patients and there were no significant differences between patients under or over a year old (139+/-42 vs. 115+/-49). Postoperative angiography was performed 32+/-13 months after the surgery. Room air arterial O2 pressure increased significantly from 29+/-5 mmHg to 42+/-5 mmHg just after an initial palliative shunt operation. PAI change in patients under a year old was 214+/-73%, which was higher than 145+/-27% in patients over a year old after a palliative shunt operation. On the ipsilateral side, PAI change was almost the same between patients under and over a year old. On the contralateral side, PAI change in patients under a year old was 216+/-68%, which was significantly higher than the 116+/-21% in patients over one year old. There was a significant negative correlation (r=-0.65, p<0.05) between PAI change and arterial O2 pressure as measured just after a palliative shunt operation. In conclusion, a palliative shunt operation prior to a year old is desirable in order to produce sufficient and bilateral pulmonary artery growth. PMID:11888472

  15. CT diagnosis of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Eva; Gallardo, Xavier; Ballesteros, Eva; Andreu, Marta; Pallardó, Yolanda; Mata, Josep Maria; Riera, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism is mainly a consequence of incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboembolism. Increased vascular resistance due to obstruction of the vascular bed leads to pulmonary hypertension. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is clearly more common than previously was thought, and misdiagnosis is common because patients often present with nonspecific symptoms related to pulmonary hypertension. Computed tomography (CT) is a useful alternative to conventional angiography not only for diagnosing chronic pulmonary thromboembolism but also for determining which cases are treatable with surgery and confirming technical success postoperatively. The vascular CT signs include direct pulmonary artery signs (complete obstruction, partial obstruction, eccentric thrombus, calcified thrombus, bands, webs, poststenotic dilatation), signs related to pulmonary hypertension (enlargement of main pulmonary arteries, atherosclerotic calcification, tortuous vessels, right ventricular enlargement, hypertrophy), and signs of systemic collateral supply (enlargement of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries). The parenchymal signs include scars, a mosaic perfusion pattern, focal ground-glass opacities, and bronchial anomalies. The presence of one or more of these radiologic signs arouses suspicion and allows diagnosis of this entity. Early recognition of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism may help improve the outcome, since the condition is potentially curable with pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. PMID:19168835

  16. Pulmonary vascular disease in fatal meconium aspiration.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J D; Vawter, G F; Reid, L M

    1984-05-01

    Although not proved, it is generally accepted that pulmonary vasospasm is responsible for the persistent pulmonary hypertension frequently associated with meconium aspiration. We have studied the pulmonary vasculature in 11 consecutive infants with fatal meconium aspiration, applying morphometric techniques to pulmonary arteries distended with barium gelatin before fixation. In 10 of the 11 infants, persistent pulmonary hypertension was evident clinically, with right-to-left shunting through the foramen ovale or ductus arteriosus. In all but one, severe structural abnormal muscularization of the smallest intra-acinar arteries was present. These changes must have developed before birth. In only one infant was the structure of the intra-acinar precapillary arteries virtually normal, as would be expected if vasospasm alone had caused the hypertension. The persistent pulmonary hypertension associated with fatal meconium aspiration may be the result of a structurally abnormal pulmonary microcirculation. PMID:6716223

  17. Pulmonary eosinophilia associated with carbamazepine.

    PubMed Central

    Tolmie, J; Steer, C R; Edmunds, A T

    1983-01-01

    An 8 year old girl treated with carbamazepine developed eczema, wheeze, and evidence of pulmonary eosinophilia. Single dose challenge confirmed allergy to this drug. This reaction should be considered in patients being treated with carbamazepine who develop respiratory symptoms. Images Figure PMID:6639136

  18. Alcohol abuse and pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Boé, Darren M.; Vandivier, R. William; Burnham, Ellen L.; Moss, Marc

    2009-01-01

    ARDS is a severe form of lung injury characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane, diffuse alveolar damage, the accumulation of proteinaceous interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, and the presence of hyaline membranes. These pathological changes are accompanied by physiological alterations, including severe hypoxemia, an increase in pulmonary dead space, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Approximately 200,000 individuals develop ARDS in the United States each year [1], and nearly 50% of these patients have a history of alcohol abuse. We have identified alcohol abuse as an independent risk factor for the development of ARDS [2345], and more recent studies have validated these findings in patients following lung resection and blood transfusion [2, 3]. In ARDS survivors, alcohol abuse is also associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation and prolonged ICU length of stay [5]. Despite studies aimed at improving outcomes in patients with ARDS, the mortality remains high at >40% [6]. For those who abuse alcohol, the mortality is even higher, at 65% [4]. In this review, we will discuss the relationship between alcohol abuse and ARDS, the effects of alcohol abuse on pulmonary function, and future directions and potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse, which impairs immune function, decreases pulmonary antioxidant capacity, decreases alveolar epithelial cell function, alters activation of the renin angiotensin system, and impairs GM-CSF signaling. These pathways represent potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse. PMID:19602670

  19. Genes and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Sztrymf; Azzedine Yaïci; Barbara Girerd; Marc Humbert

    2007-01-01

    Familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) was first described more than 50 years ago. Before the availability of modern genetic tools, studies of the genealogies demonstrated that these cases segregated as an autosomic dominant trait, with an incomplete penetrance and a genetic anticipation phenomenon by which age at onset of the disease is decreasing in the subsequent generations. Germline mutations in

  20. Cardiomyopathy Induced by Pulmonary Sequestration in a 50-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Shaun; Comp, Robert A.; Grace, R. Randal

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old black man presented at the emergency department with midsternal, nonradiating chest pressure and chronic dyspnea on exertion. Four years before the current admission, he had been diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at another facility. After our complete evaluation, we suspected that his symptoms arose from left-to-left shunting in association with pulmonary sequestration, a congenital malformation. Our preliminary diagnosis of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed by normalization of the patient's ventricular size and function after lobectomy. To our knowledge, this patient is the oldest on record to present with cardiomyopathy consequent to pulmonary sequestration. His case is highly unusual because of his age and the rapid resolution of his symptoms after lobectomy. We believe that pulmonary sequestration should be included in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25873803

  1. Recent Development in Pulmonary Valve Replacement after Tetralogy of Fallot Repair: The Emergence of Hybrid Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Tariq; Kavinsky, Clifford J.; Skerritt, Clare; Kenny, Damien; Ilbawi, Michael N.; Caputo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with tetralogy of Fallot require repeat surgical intervention for pulmonary valve replacement secondary to pulmonary regurgitation. Catheter-based interventions have emerged as an attractive alternative to surgery in this patient population but it is limited by patient size or the anatomy of the right ventricular outflow tract. Hybrid approaches involving both cardiac interventionists and surgeons are being developed to overcome these limitations. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in the hybrid field of pulmonary valve replacement, summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of the “traditional” surgical and the new catheter-based techniques and discuss the direction future research should take to determine the optimal management for individual patients.

  2. Minerals from Macedonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petre Makreski; Gligor Jovanovski; Sandra Dimitrovska

    2005-01-01

    The following six sulfate minerals: anhydrite, CaSO4; brochantite, Cu4(SO4)(OH)6; jarosite, KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6; potassium alum, KAl(SO4)2·12H2O; chalcanthite, CuSO4·5H2O and epsomite, MgSO4·7H2O collected from different localities of Macedonia (Debar, Alšar, Bu?im, Bukovik), are studied and identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The difficulties related to the contamination, identification and characterization of the mentioned minerals are discussed. The identification is based

  3. Properties of Minerals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Rapp

    Mineral chemistry as a science was established in the early years of the nineteenth century by Joseph-Louis Proust’s proposal\\u000a of the Law of Constant Composition in 1799, John Dalton’s Atomic Theory in 1805, and the development of accurate methods of\\u000a chemical analysis. By definition, a mineral has a characteristic composition expressed by its formula, e.g., halite (NaCl)\\u000a or quartz (SiO2).

  4. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O ? (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily implemented and economically efficient alternative to other technologies currently under development for mineral sequestration. Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC (2008) Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19, 235-240. Ferris FG, Wiese RG, Fyfe WS (1994) Precipitation of carbonate minerals by microorganisms: Implications of silicate weathering and the global carbon dioxide budget. Geomicrobiology Journal, 12, 1-13. Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL, Jr., Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy, 20, 1153-1170. Power IM, Wilson SA, Thom JM, Dipple GM, Gabites JE, Southam G (2009) The hydromagnesite playas of Atlin, British Columbia, Canada: A biogeochemical model for CO2 sequestration. Chemical Geology, 206, 302-316. Thompson JB, Ferris FG (1990) Cyanobacterial precipitation of gypsum, calcite, and magnesite from natural alkaline lake water. Geology, 18, 995-998.

  5. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  6. Rocks and Minerals Of Kentucky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Kentucky rocks highlighted on this website are chiefly sedimentary, such as limestone and dolostone, since sedimentary rocks cover approximately 99 percent of the state. You will find an extensive list of minerals and mineral groups, such as oxides or halides, and mineral property descriptions that cover hardness, cleavage, color, crystal system, streak, and more. These properties are also discussed in relation to their use in identifying unknown minerals. Igneous and metamorphic rocks are covered in relation to gold and silver deposits, and the legend of the Jonathon Swift Silver mines. Information on Kentucky's state rock and mineral, museums, rock clubs, and mineral deposits are included.

  7. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  8. [Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis].

    PubMed

    Jouneau, S; Kerjouan, M; Briens, E; Lenormand, J-P; Meunier, C; Letheulle, J; Chiforeanu, D; Lainé-Caroff, C; Desrues, B; Delaval, P

    2014-12-01

    Alveolar proteinosis (AP) is a rare disease characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant components, which impairs gas exchange. AP is classified into three groups: auto-immune AP defined by the presence of plasma autoantibodies anti-GM-CSF, the most frequent form (90% of all AP); secondary AP, mainly occurring as a consequence of haematological diseases, or following on from toxic inhalation or infections, and genetic AP, which affects almost exclusively children. AP diagnosis is suspected where chest CT-scan demonstrates interstitial lung disease with a crazy paving aspect; and confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage, which has a milky appearance and contains periodic acid Schiff positive proteinaceous alveolar deposits. The use of surgical lung biopsy to confirm AP is less frequent nowadays. In this context, positive antibodies against GM-CSF indicates an auto-immune etiology of the AP. Concerning management, whole lung lavage is the gold standard therapy. In refractory AP, new treatments are available such as subcutaneous or inhaled GM-CSF supplementation, or rituximab infusions. The clinical course is unpredictable. Spontaneous improvement or even cure can occur, and the 5-year actuarial survival is 95%. The most frequent complications are infectious etiology. PMID:25496792

  9. Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Howard, Luke S G E; Watson, Geoffrey M J; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A; Kiely, David G; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J Simon R; Wilkins, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy. PMID:23662181

  10. Bioleaching of Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  11. Mineral Characterization for Combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R. Ward

    The material referred to as “mineral matter” in coal has been to the combustion engineer a close to random association of chemical elements. These “random” elements are transformed in the combustion process to ash, react to form boiler deposits (slagging); abrade the internal parts of the boiler (erosion), and produce vapor phases that react with the metals in the boiler

  12. Marine Mineral Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fren N. Spiess

    1988-01-01

    This book is the forty-first in the Elsevier Oceanography Series, and with it the series has come full circle. Its first title, published in 1964, was John Mero's landmark study The Mineral Resources of the Sea [Mero, 1964]. Looking back at that first major treatise and comparing it with this and other recent books on the topic [e.g., Teleki et

  13. ARM: Automatic Rule Miner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slim Abdennadher; Abdellatif Olama; Noha Salem; Amira Thabet

    2006-01-01

    Rule-based formalisms are ubiquitous in computer science. However, a difficulty that arises frequently when specifyingor program- ming the rules is to determine which effects should be propagated by these rules. In this paper, we present a tool called ARM (Automatic Rule Miner) that generates rules for relations over finite domains. ARM offers a rich functionality to provide the user with

  14. Mineral mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, H.

    1980-11-25

    A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

  15. TRACE MINERAL DEFICIENCIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of trace element deficiencies of human health and well-being is presented in an abridged form. The general biological roles, mechanisms involved in homeostasis, factors affecting the manifestation of deficiency signs, and treatments for deficiencies of trace mineral elements are described...

  16. Mixtures and mineral reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, S.; Ganguly, J.

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the physicochemical evolution of natural rocks through systematic analysis of the compositional properties and phase relations of their mineral assemblages. This book brings together concepts of classical thermodynamics, solution models, and atomic ordering and interactions that constitute a basis of such analysis, with examples of application to subsolidus petrological problems.

  17. Energy and Mineral Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 16 questions on the topic of energy and mineral resources, which covers energy sources, resource types, and uses of resources. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

  18. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of “organic” carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  19. Engineering and Mineral Resources

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    News ????????????????? ® College of Engineering and Mineral Resources Winter 2008 table of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 wvCROSSROADS DepartmentofCivilandEnvironmentalEngineering Civil engineering exchange program and environmental engineering with a focus in transportation will have the opportunity to study abroad as part

  20. MINERAL WATERS OF BOHEMIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Zhevlakov

    1961-01-01

    Mineral waters of Bohemia are characterized by a considerable variety of chemical gaseous composition. They may be subdivided chemically into: calcium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, and ferruginous sulfate. Carbonated-water springs are chiefly developed along the periphery of the Bohemian massif. The conditions of formation of such springs in Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lázn? and Mariánské Lazne and Luga?evice

  1. International minerals: a national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, A.F. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Seven authors bring a variety of perspectives to the subject of minerals availability. In the domestic area, an overview of the US strategic mineral situation is followed by a discussion of changes in one state's mineral policy decisions over a 200-year period. Later chapters describe the potential of Alaska's mineral resources, with a focus on the immediate need for a thorough inventory of this vast area, and the nature and sources of mineral information available to Canadian policymakers as useful models in making inventories. In the international area, there is a discussion of the key role of South Africa in the world mineral picture and the strategic importance to the Soviet Union of the mineral wealth of Afghanistan. The volume concludes with a review of the history of US mineral policies. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  2. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  3. Vitamins and Minerals during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... added to your dashboard . Vitamins and minerals during pregnancy Your body uses vitamins, minerals and other nutrients ... certain foods. Which nutrients are most important during pregnancy? All nutrients are important, but these six play ...

  4. Noninvasive pulmonary artery wave intensity analysis in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Quail, Michael A; Knight, Daniel S; Steeden, Jennifer A; Taelman, Liesbeth; Moledina, Shahin; Taylor, Andrew M; Segers, Patrick; Coghlan, Gerry J; Muthurangu, Vivek

    2015-06-15

    Pulmonary wave reflections are a potential hemodynamic biomarker for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and can be analyzed using wave intensity analysis (WIA). In this study we used pulmonary vessel area and flow obtained using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to implement WIA noninvasively. We hypothesized that this method could detect differences in reflections in PH patients compared with healthy controls and could also differentiate certain PH subtypes. Twenty patients with PH (35% CTEPH and 75% female) and 10 healthy controls (60% female) were recruited. Right and left pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA) flow and area curves were acquired using self-gated golden-angle, spiral, phase-contrast CMR with a 10.5-ms temporal resolution. These data were used to perform WIA on patients and controls. The presence of a proximal clot in CTEPH patients was determined from contemporaneous computed tomography/angiographic data. A backwards-traveling compression wave (BCW) was present in both LPA and RPA of all PH patients but was absent in all controls (P = 6e(-8)). The area under the BCW was associated with a sensitivity of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 63-100%] and specificity of 91% (95% CI 75-98%) for the presence of a clot in the proximal PAs of patients with CTEPH. In conclusion, WIA metrics were significantly different between patients and controls; in particular, the presence of an early BCW was specifically associated with PH. The magnitude of the area under the BCW showed discriminatory capacity for the presence of proximal PA clot in patients with CTEPH. We believe that these results demonstrate that WIA could be used in the noninvasive assessment of PH. PMID:25659483

  5. Noninvasive pulmonary artery wave intensity analysis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Quail, Michael A.; Knight, Daniel S.; Steeden, Jennifer A.; Taelman, Liesbeth; Moledina, Shahin; Taylor, Andrew M.; Segers, Patrick; Coghlan, Gerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary wave reflections are a potential hemodynamic biomarker for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and can be analyzed using wave intensity analysis (WIA). In this study we used pulmonary vessel area and flow obtained using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to implement WIA noninvasively. We hypothesized that this method could detect differences in reflections in PH patients compared with healthy controls and could also differentiate certain PH subtypes. Twenty patients with PH (35% CTEPH and 75% female) and 10 healthy controls (60% female) were recruited. Right and left pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA) flow and area curves were acquired using self-gated golden-angle, spiral, phase-contrast CMR with a 10.5-ms temporal resolution. These data were used to perform WIA on patients and controls. The presence of a proximal clot in CTEPH patients was determined from contemporaneous computed tomography/angiographic data. A backwards-traveling compression wave (BCW) was present in both LPA and RPA of all PH patients but was absent in all controls (P = 6e?8). The area under the BCW was associated with a sensitivity of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 63–100%] and specificity of 91% (95% CI 75–98%) for the presence of a clot in the proximal PAs of patients with CTEPH. In conclusion, WIA metrics were significantly different between patients and controls; in particular, the presence of an early BCW was specifically associated with PH. The magnitude of the area under the BCW showed discriminatory capacity for the presence of proximal PA clot in patients with CTEPH. We believe that these results demonstrate that WIA could be used in the noninvasive assessment of PH. PMID:25659483

  6. Private Mineral Project - Part 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this semester-long private mineral project, students become experts on one mineral. They write a paper about their mineral and use key information about it to publish a web page. Information should include provenance, physical properties, composition, recent related literature, photos of samples, optical properties, x-ray pattern, crystallography, economic value, atomic structure, other closely related minerals, associated myths, and a complete list of references based on GSA format.

  7. Physics for Secondary Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold P. Knauss

    1958-01-01

    A modernized course in physics for secondary schools being prepared by the Physical Science Study Committee is undergoing classroom development in eight schools during 1957-1958. This paper describes the collaboration of university physicists, secondary school teachers, and others in working out details of the course, and reports on developments and convictions growing out of classroom experience.

  8. The Secondary Emission Phototube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Iams; B. Salzberg

    1935-01-01

    A type of phototube is described in which the secondary electron emission from an auxiliary cathode (bombarded by the photo-electrons) is utilized to obtain amplification of the primary photocurrent. Phenomena of secondary emission, particularly as applied to the vacuum phototube, are discussed. The operating performance of a typical developmental embodiment is illustrated, and it is shown that its static sensitivity

  9. Efflorescent minerals associated with coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuhfer

    1967-01-01

    A study of efforescent coal minerals was made which included the identification, description, and mode of occurrence of coal associated mineral efflorescenses found in the bituminous coal mining area surrounding Morgantown, West Virginia. Samples of efflorescences were collected from road cuts, strip mines, entrances to underground mines, and mine discharge pumps and were analyzed for mineral and chemical composition by

  10. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  11. Are pulmonary artery pulsatility indexes able to differentiate chronic pulmonary thromboembolism from pulmonary arterial hypertension? An echocardiographic and catheterization study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Palecek; Pavel Jansa; David Ambroz; Zuzana Hlubocka; Jan Horak; Marcela Skvarilova; Michael Aschermann; Ales Linhart

    2011-01-01

    The differentiation between chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension (CTEPH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)\\u000a remains a clinical challenge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of both echocardiographically and invasively\\u000a derived pulmonary artery pulsatility indexes in the etiologic differentiation of patients with CTEPH and PAH. We retrospectively\\u000a analyzed the results of echocardiographic and invasive hemodynamic examinations in 125

  12. High and low temperature alteration of uranium and thorium minerals, Um Ara granites, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamdy H. Abd El-Naby

    2009-01-01

    The Um Ara area, in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt contains a number of uranium occurrences related to granitic rocks. U-rich thorite, thorite and zircon are the main primary uranium- and thorium-bearing minerals found in mineralized zones of the Um Ara alkali-feldspar granites; uranophane is the most common secondary uranium mineral. U-rich thorite contains blebs of galena, has rims

  13. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  14. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema induced by direct suctioning of endotracheal tube adapter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Wu Paaag; Da-Peng Chang; Ching-Hsiung Lin; Min-Ho Huang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose  Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPE) is a well-recognized but rare complication secondary to upper airway obstruction\\u000a such as laryngeal spasm during emergence from general anaesthesia. Cauterization of the second and third thoracic sympathetic\\u000a ganglia is a treatment for hyperhidrosis of the hands. We report a case of NPPE induced by direct suctioning of the endotracheal\\u000a tube adapter during thoracic sympathetic

  15. Smoking Alters Alveolar Macrophage Recognition and Phagocytic Ability Implications in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Hodge; Greg Hodge; Jessica Ahern; Hubertus Jersmann; Mark Holmes; Paul N. Reynolds

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with defective efferocytosis (apoptosis and alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytic function) that may lead to secondary necrosis and tissue damage. We investigated ex vivo AM phagocytic ability and recog- nition molecules (CD36, integrin aVb3, CD31, CD91, CD44) using flowcytometry.Thetransferrinreceptor(CD71)wasmeasuredasan indicatorofmonocyte-macrophagedifferentiationinbronchoalveo- lar lavage (BAL). Proliferation was assessed with Ki-67. Based on evidence of systemic involvement

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis of Left Pulmonary Artery-to-Pulmonary Vein Fistula and Its Successful Surgical Repair in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Kurkevych, Andrii; Bohuta, Lyubomyr; Yalynska, Tetyana; Raad, Tammo; Lewin, Mark; Yemets, Illya

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is a rare disease. To the best of our knowledge, prenatal diagnosis of a fistula between the left pulmonary artery and the left pulmonary vein has not been described in the medical literature. We report a case of the prenatal diagnosis of a left pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary vein fistula, followed by successful neonatal surgical repair. PMID:25873833

  17. Use of pulmonary arterial hypertension–approved therapy in the treatment of non–group 1 pulmonary hypertension at US referral centers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a frequent complication of left heart disease and parenchymal lung disease, and it portends increased mortality. A growing number of medications are approved for the treatment of World Health Organization (WHO) group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, they are not well studied in PH of other etiologies (WHO groups 2–5). We sought to assess treatment approaches used by PAH referral centers in this diverse group of patients. We developed a semiquantitative online survey designed to evaluate the use of PAH-approved therapy by pulmonary vascular disease centers in the United States for management of non–group 1 PH. Thirty of 50 centers completed the survey. Almost all centers (93%) reported using PAH therapy for patients with non–group 1 PH, including 77% with group 2 PH and 80% with group 3 PH. Elevated transpulmonary gradient or pulmonary vascular resistance and the presence of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction were commonly cited as supporting use of PAH therapy in patients with PH secondary to left heart disease. For patients with PH and concomitant parenchymal lung disease, degree of pulmonary function impairment and RV dysfunction were most important in influencing use of PAH therapy. In conclusion, pulmonary vascular disease treatment centers use PAH-approved therapy for patients with WHO group 2–5 PH, mostly relying on hemodynamics and assessment of RV function to identify candidates for therapy. Clinical trials designed to test the efficacy of PAH therapy in PH due to left heart and lung disease are needed, as clinical practice has extended beyond the evidence for these etiologies of PH. PMID:26064462

  18. Mineralogic correlates of fibrosis in chrysotile miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wright, J.L.; DePaoli, L.; Wiggs, B.

    1989-04-01

    To determine which mineral parameters relate to the degree of interstitial fibrosis (asbestosis) in the lungs of chrysotile miners and millers, we graded fibrosis histologically and correlated fibrosis grades with fiber concentration and mean size, surface area, and mass, and with total sample fiber length, surface area, and mass in 21 cases. A positive correlation of fibrosis grade with tremolite concentration and a lesser correlation with chrysotile concentration was found for whole lungs, specific sites within lungs, and, for tremolite, single microscopic fields. No correlations were found for measures of chrysotile fiber size, surface area, or mass, but tremolite mean fiber length, aspect ratio, and surface area were, surprisingly, negatively correlated with fibrosis grade. Measures based on total rather than on mean case or site parameters failed to show correlations with fibrosis. We conclude that: (1) degree of pulmonary fibrosis reflects fiber concentration at both a bulk and a microscopic level; (2) mean fiber length and parameters related to mean fiber length also correlate with fibrosis grade, but, contrary to predictions from animal studies, this correlation is negative, suggesting that short fibers may be more important in the genesis of pulmonary fibrosis than is commonly believed; (3) there is no evidence that parameters such as total fiber length, surface area, or mass provide predictors of degree of fibrosis.

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section...the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.8 Prospecting...mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness....

  20. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section...the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.8 Prospecting...mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness....

  1. Clinical update on pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kele?o?lu, Arif; Ard?ç, Sad?k

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality and financial burden that affects the community. The diagnosis of PE can be difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms, which include cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Hereditary and acquired risk factors are associated with PE. Incidence of PE is increasing, associated with the development in the diagnostic methods. Evidence-based algorithms can help clinicians diagnose PE. Serum D-dimer level, computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA), ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy or echocardiography help to establish clinical probability and the severity of PE. Anticoagulation is the standard treatment for PE. However, thrombolytic treatment is a significant alternative in high risk of PE as it provides rapid clot resolution. This article reviews the risk factors, diagnostic algorithms, and methods of treatment in PE in the light of current information. PMID:25097588

  2. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Berkelhamer, Sara K.; Mestan, Karen K.; Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of neonatal respiratory diseases including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and recent studies have increased awareness that PH worsens the clinical course, morbidity and mortality of BPD. Recent evidence indicates that up to 18% of all extremely low birth weight infants will develop some degree of PH during their hospitalization, and the incidence rises to 25–40% of infants with established BPD. Risk factors are not yet well understood, but new evidence shows that fetal growth restriction is a significant predictor of PH. Echocardiography remains the primary method for evaluation for BPD-associated PH, and the development of standardized screening timelines and techniques for identification of infants with BPD-associated PH remains an important ongoing topic of investigation. The use of pulmonary vasodilator medications such as nitric oxide, sildenafil, and others in the BPD population is steadily growing, but additional studies are needed regarding their long-term safety and efficacy. PMID:23582967

  4. [Medical treatment of pulmonary hypertension: what's new?].

    PubMed

    Richter, M J; Gall, H; Tello, K; Sommer, N; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F; Ghofrani, H A

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary circulation of multifactorial causes. The current diagnostic classification of PH distinguishes five main groups, which have as a common feature an increased pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary resistance. The classification differentiates pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), PH due to left heart disease, PH in lung diseases and/or hypoxia, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and PH with unclear/multifactorial mechanisms. Recent advances in basic research with the approval of new drugs and the establishment of therapeutic strategies, mainly in PAH and CTEPH, require a differentiated view of the disease, a careful diagnosis and initiation of therapy, and regular follow-ups. In this article, we provide an overview of the complex drug therapy currently available for PAH patients. PMID:25924799

  5. Pulmonary absorption of liposomal levonorgestrel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aliasgar Shahiwala; Ambikanandan Misra

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to achieve desired bioavailability after pulmonary administration of Levonorgestrel (LN)\\u000a and to provide prolonged effective concentration of the drug in plasma and to reduce reported side effects of orally administered\\u000a drug. The plain drug suspension, physical mixture (plain drug with liposomal constituents), and drug-encapsulated liposomes\\u000a containing 10 ?g of drug were instilled intratracheally in

  6. Echocardiography in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jone, Pei-Ni; Ivy, D. Dunbar

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be a rapidly progressive and fatal disease. Although right heart catheterization remains the gold standard in evaluation of PH, echocardiography remains an important tool in screening, diagnosing, evaluating, and following these patients. In this article, we will review the important echocardiographic parameters of the right heart in evaluating its anatomy, hemodynamic assessment, systolic, and diastolic function in children with PH. PMID:25429362

  7. Severe amiodarone induced pulmonary toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nacca, Nicholas; Yuhico, Luke S; Pinnamaneni, Sowmya; Szombathy, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    A known complication of Amiodarone therapy is Amiodarone induced Pulmonary Toxicity (APT). Several features of this adverse effect make it difficult to diagnosis and treat. The case of a 63-year-old male with classic radiographic and histologic findings of APT is discussed. Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic findings, and treatment strategies are reviewed. The patient was successfully managed with pulse high dose steroid therapy. PMID:23205299

  8. HIV-Related Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ATIKUN LIMSUKON; ALI IMRAN SAEED; VIMALA RAMASAMY; JHANSI NALAMATI; SUNIL DHUPER

    2006-01-01

    With the availability of better treatment and prophylactic regimens for the infectious complications of human immunod- eficiency virus (HIV), the non-infectious complications are gaining greater attention. HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is one of these. The incidence of HIV-PAH is estimated at 0.5% of HIV-infected individuals. The pathogenesis remains unclear. Patients present with symptoms as diverse as progressive shortness of

  9. Non-Invasive Estimation of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Spiropoulos; N. Charokopos; T. Petsas; G. Trakada; D. Dougenis; A. Mazarakis; J. Christodoulou; A. Peristerakis; P. Ginopoulos; N. Mastronikolis; D. Alexopoulos

    1999-01-01

    .   The feasibility and reliability of the combination of several noninvasive methods using a multivariate method of analysis\\u000a to predict pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is evaluated in 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These\\u000a methods comprised arterial blood gases (Pao\\u000a 2, Paco\\u000a 2), pulmonary functional parameters (FEV1), echo-Doppler parameters (tricuspid regurgitation jets, acceleration time on pulmonary valve), computed tomography

  10. Pulmonary gas exchange in diving.

    PubMed

    Moon, R E; Cherry, A D; Stolp, B W; Camporesi, E M

    2009-02-01

    Diving-related pulmonary effects are due mostly to increased gas density, immersion-related increase in pulmonary blood volume, and (usually) a higher inspired Po(2). Higher gas density produces an increase in airways resistance and work of breathing, and a reduced maximum breathing capacity. An additional mechanical load is due to immersion, which can impose a static transrespiratory pressure load as well as a decrease in pulmonary compliance. The combination of resistive and elastic loads is largely responsible for the reduction in ventilation during underwater exercise. Additionally, there is a density-related increase in dead space/tidal volume ratio (Vd/Vt), possibly due to impairment of intrapulmonary gas phase diffusion and distribution of ventilation. The net result of relative hypoventilation and increased Vd/Vt is hypercapnia. The effect of high inspired Po(2) and inert gas narcosis on respiratory drive appear to be minimal. Exchange of oxygen by the lung is not impaired, at least up to a gas density of 25 g/l. There are few effects of pressure per se, other than a reduction in the P50 of hemoglobin, probably due to either a conformational change or an effect of inert gas binding. PMID:19008484

  11. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up. PMID:23481509

  12. Pulmonary artery aneurysm: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Candales, A; Kleiger, R E; Aleman-Gomez, J; Kouchoukos, N T; Botney, M D

    1995-12-01

    Aneurysms involving the main pulmonary artery and its branches are rare. Clinical experience is limited and current knowledge is mainly derived from autopsy findings. This case report describes a patient with a pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with a previous, partially corrected stenotic pulmonary valve. The patient presented with symptoms suggestive of aneurysm dissection three decades after commissurotomy. The diagnostic approach and therapeutic intervention are emphasized with a review of the literature. PMID:8608676

  13. Possible Behçet's disease revealed by pulmonary aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jerray, M; Benzarti, M; Rouatbi, N

    1991-05-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem disease which may affect many organ systems in addition to the originally described triple symptom complex. Pulmonary aneurysm is one of the rare complications of the disease. We report a case of bilateral pulmonary aneurysm in which usual criteria for the clinical diagnosis of BD were absent and we believe that pulmonary aneurysm could be the first appearance of the disease. PMID:2019195

  14. Silicosis in barium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R

    1986-01-01

    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  15. Taxation of mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, R.F.; Hool, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the level of taxation imposed on mining firms by state and local governments. This increase can be attributed to three factors: (1) a heightened awareness that resources are limited in quantity; (2) environmental damage resulting from mining operations has brought demands for just compensations; and (3) significant price increases for some minerals have often been viewed by states as an opportunity to collect additional tax revenue. The broad aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive economic analysis of the effects of mining taxation on the extraction of mineral resources and to offer a set of recommendations for tax policy. The primary objective of this design is to minimize the distortionary incentives created by the taxation. From a practical standpoint, however, one must also recognize the degrees of difficulty in the administration of the various taxes. 90 references, 1 figure, 14 tables.

  16. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M. [Tetra Technical Inc, Denver, CO (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR AND BLOOD COAGULATION EFFECTS OF PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily, from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Mal...

  18. Leptin and regulatory T lymphocytes in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Leptin and regulatory T lymphocytes in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension Alice Huertas1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) genesis and/or progression but the pathophysiology is still unclear of IPAH. Key words: dysimmunity, endothelial dysfunction, leptin, pulmonary arterial hypertension

  19. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Are the Benefits and Risks of Pulmonary Rehabilitation? Benefits Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can't cure your lung disease or ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> August 1, 2010 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  20. NEW PATTERNS OF ABNORMAL PULMONARY PERFUSION ASSOCIATED WITH PULMONARY EMBOLI. I. SCINTIGRAPHIC MANIFESTATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Boyd Eaton; A. Everette James; Reginald E. Greene; Joseph H. Lyons; Majic S. Potsaid; Felix G. Fleischner

    1969-01-01

    Isotope radiography has established itself as a sim pie, safe and reliable method for showing pulmonary perfusion abnormalities, particularly those associated with pulmonary embolism. The “characteristic” scm tigraphic pattern of this pathology is a discrete, io calized area of decreased radioactivity. In some instances the isotopic pattern complements the roent genographic signs of pulmonary infarction as orig inally described by

  1. Active search for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension does not appear indicated after acute pulmonary embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sulaiman Surie; Nadine S. Gibson; Victor E. A. Gerdes; Berto J. Bouma; Harry R. Buller; Paul Bresser

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionChronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life threatening but often, by pulmonary endarterectomy, curable disease. The incidence of CTEPH after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) appears to be much higher than previously thought. Systematic follow-up of patients after PE might increase the number of diagnosed CTEPH patients.

  2. Increased pulmonary prostacyclin synthesis in rats with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich C. Blumberg; Cornelia Lorenz; Konrad Wolf; Peter Sandner; Gunter A. J. Riegger; Michael Pfeifer

    Objective: The regulation of pulmonary prostacyclin synthesis is not completely understood. We tested the hypothesis that prostacyclin production is predominantly stimulated by hemodynamic factors, such as increased shear-stress, and is thus increased in rats with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Methods: To this end, we determined pulmonary prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) gene expression, circulating levels of the stable prostacyclin metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin

  3. Alteration of Pulmonary Artery Integrin Levels in Chronic Hypoxia and Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Umesh; Omkar Paudel; Yuan-Ning Cao; Allen C. Myers; James S. K. Sham

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with vascular remodeling and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. While the contribution of ECM in vascular remodeling is well documented, the roles played by their receptors, integrins, in pulmonary hypertension have received little attention. Here we characterized the changes of integrin expression in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries (PAs) and aorta of chronic hypoxia as well as

  4. Mineral Requirements of Sheep.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1918-01-01

    constituents in feed, residues, and excrements were estimated. In connection with other digestion experiments, estimates were made of certain ash constituents in feeds, excrements and urine. The results of this work throw light upon the mineral requirements...,11 grams phosphoric acid. The ratio of lime to phosphoric acid in tri- calcium phosphate is 1 :0.80. Table 7.-Average magnesia eaten and digested. BALANCE EXPEBIMENTS In twenty tests with ten rations, the urine was analyzed in addition to the feeds...

  5. The Clay Minerals Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The Clay Minerals Society (CMS) is an international community of scientists who promote research in and disseminate information on clay science and technology." The website provides downloads of materials dealing with various aspects of mineralogy, geochemistry, and petrology. Researchers can find out about annual meetings, awards and grants, and publications. Students and educators can find information on teaching materials, clay science workshops, and games. The website offers physical and chemical data for Source and Special Clays.

  6. Evidence of unilateral metastatic pulmonary calcification with a prolonged Fever and arthralgia caused by acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a chronic dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Saraya, Takeshi; Sada, Mitsuru; Ohkuma, Kosuke; Sakuma, Sho; Tsujimoto, Naoki; Yoshida, Shigehiko; Fujiwara, Masachika; Tsukahara, Yayoi; Kurai, Daisuke; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime; Goto, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with unilateral lung lesions, a persistent fever and vague chest pain with arthralgia lasting for three months. He had been treated for end-stage renal disease with hemodialysis for 15 years and had a medical history of recurrent subcutaneous calciphylaxis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Transbronchial biopsied specimens demonstrated metastatic pulmonary calcification, and a bone marrow biopsy showed Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although metastatic calcification often lacks specific symptoms, the lungs is a primary site for deposition. This is the first report of unilateral metastatic pulmonary calcification associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:25742896

  7. Rapid regression of primary pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, C; Kadkin, J; Nihill, M

    2001-01-01

    A 14 month old child presented for investigation of tachypnoea. No parenchymal lung disease was shown on chest x ray. On echocardiography there was normal intracardiac anatomy with significant pulmonary hypertension. At cardiac catheterisation the presence of primary pulmonary hypertension was confirmed, with a partial response to inhaled nitric oxide (80 ppm) and 100% oxygen. The child was referred for assessment for heart-lung transplantation while maintained on oxygen, inhaled nitric oxide, and nifedipine. Repeat cardiac catheterisation two months after presentation showed complete normalisation of the pulmonary artery pressures.???Keywords: pulmonary hypertension; infancy; resolution PMID:11410578

  8. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: The Clinical Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yen-Chun; Potoka, Karin C.; Champion, Hunter C.; Mora, Ana L.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder in which endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling obstruct small pulmonary arteries, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary pressures. This leads to reduced cardiac output, right heart failure, and ultimately death. In this review, we attempt to answer some important questions commonly asked by patients diagnosed with PAH pertaining to the disease, and aim to provide an explanation in terms of classification, diagnosis, pathophysiology, genetic etiologies, demographics, and prognostic factors. Furthermore, important molecular pathways that are central to the pathogenesis of PAH are reviewed, including nitric oxide, prostacyclin, endothelin-1, reactive oxygen species, and endothelial and smooth muscle proliferation. PMID:24951762

  9. Approaching atrial septal defects in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schwerzmann, Markus; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are one of the most frequent congenital cardiac malformations, accounting for about 8-10% of all congenital heart defects. The prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults with an ASD is 8-10%. Different clinical PAH scenarios can be encountered. At one end of the spectrum are adults with no or only mild pulmonary vascular disease and a large shunt. These are patients who can safely undergo shunt closure. In the elderly, mild residual pulmonary hypertension after shunt closure is the rule. At the other end of the spectrum are adults with severe, irreversible pulmonary vascular disease, shunt reversal and chronic cyanosis, that is, Eisenmenger syndrome. These are patients who need to be managed medically. The challenge is to properly classify ASD patients with PAH falling in between the two ends of the spectrum as the ones with advanced, but reversible pulmonary vascular disease amenable to repair, versus the ones with progressive pulmonary vascular disease not responding to shunt closure. There are concerns that adults with progressive pulmonary vascular disease have worse outcomes after shunt closure than patients not undergoing shunt closure. Due to the correlation of pulmonary vascular changes and pulmonary hemodynamics, cardiac catheterization is used in the decision-making process. It is important to consider the hemodynamic data in the context of the clinical picture, the defect anatomy and further noninvasive tests when evaluating the option of shunt closure in these patients. PMID:25982879

  10. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  11. Precipitation and Transformation of Secondary Fe Oxyhydroxides in a Histosol Impacted by Runoff from a Lead Smelter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Gao; Darrell G. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    Secondary Fe(III) oxyhydroxides play a key role in controlling the mobility and bioavailability of trace metals in acidic, sulfate-rich soils, such as mining and smelter sites. Schwertmannite, jarosite, goethite, and ferrihydrite are the most common mineral phases identified in such soils. A good understanding of the precipitation and transformation of these minerals in soils is very important for predicting the

  12. Prevalence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism. Prevalence of CTEPH after pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Guérin, L; Couturaud, F; Parent, F; Revel, M-P; Gillaizeau, F; Planquette, B; Pontal, D; Guégan, M; Simonneau, G; Meyer, G; Sanchez, O

    2014-09-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) has been estimated to occur in 0.1-0.5% of patients who survive a pulmonary embolism (PE), but more recent prospective studies suggest that its incidence may be much higher. The absence of initial haemodynamic evaluation at the time of PE should explain this discrepancy. We performed a prospective multicentre study including patients with PE in order to assess the prevalence and to describe risk factors of CTEPH. Follow-up every year included an evaluation of dyspnea and echocardiography using a predefined algorithm. In case of suspected CTEPH, the diagnosis was confirmed using right heart catheterisation (RHC). Signs of CTEPH were searched on the multidetector computed tomography (CT) and echocardiography performed at the time of PE. Of the 146 patients analysed, eight patients (5.4%) had suspected CTEPH during a median follow-up of 26 months. CTEPH was confirmed using RHC in seven cases (4.8%; 95%CI, 2.3 - 9.6) and ruled-out in one. Patients with CTEPH were older, had more frequently previous venous thromboembolic events and more proximal PE than those without CTEPH. At the time of PE diagnosis, patients with CTEPH had a higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure and at least two signs of CTEPH on the initial CT. After acute PE, the prevalence of CTEPH appears high. However, initial echocardiography and CT data at the time of the index PE suggest that a majority of patients with CTEPH had previously unknown pulmonary hypertension, indicating that a first clinical presentation of CTEPH may mimic acute PE. PMID:24898545

  13. Pulmonary hemodynamics modify the rat pulmonary artery response to injury. A neointimal model of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Bernstein, M.; Zhang, W.; Patterson, G. A.; Botney, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Hemodynamic factors have profound influences on blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that hemodynamic conditions modify the pattern of remodeling in response to injury, monocrotaline (MCT) injury in Sprague-Dawley rats was followed 1 week later by left pneumonectomy to increase blood flow to the right lung. Right pulmonary artery remodeling in these MCT plus pneumonectomy animals was compared with animals receiving MCT or pneumonectomy alone. Neointimal changes developed in more than 90% of all right lung intra-acinar vessels 5 weeks after MCT injury (4 weeks after pneumonectomy). Neointimal lesions did not develop in untreated animals or in animals receiving MCT or pneumonectomy only. Animals with a neointimal pattern of remodeling developed severe right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) whereas animals with a medial hypertrophy pattern of remodeling (MCT only) developed moderate RVH compared with control animals. Neointimal lesions and RVH were similar whether injury preceded pneumonectomy or vice versa. To exclude the possibility that neointimal lesions resulted from injury plus post-pneumonectomy compensatory lung growth, rather than injury plus increased flow, a left subclavian-pulmonary artery anastomosis was substituted for pneumonectomy. Neointimal lesions and severe RVH developed in these animals but were not seen in animals receiving either MCT or anastomosis only. These studies demonstrate an important role for hemodynamics in determining the pattern of pulmonary vascular remodeling after injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:9327735

  14. Pulmonary hemodynamics modify the rat pulmonary artery response to injury. A neointimal model of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Okada, K; Tanaka, Y; Bernstein, M; Zhang, W; Patterson, G A; Botney, M D

    1997-10-01

    Hemodynamic factors have profound influences on blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that hemodynamic conditions modify the pattern of remodeling in response to injury, monocrotaline (MCT) injury in Sprague-Dawley rats was followed 1 week later by left pneumonectomy to increase blood flow to the right lung. Right pulmonary artery remodeling in these MCT plus pneumonectomy animals was compared with animals receiving MCT or pneumonectomy alone. Neointimal changes developed in more than 90% of all right lung intra-acinar vessels 5 weeks after MCT injury (4 weeks after pneumonectomy). Neointimal lesions did not develop in untreated animals or in animals receiving MCT or pneumonectomy only. Animals with a neointimal pattern of remodeling developed severe right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) whereas animals with a medial hypertrophy pattern of remodeling (MCT only) developed moderate RVH compared with control animals. Neointimal lesions and RVH were similar whether injury preceded pneumonectomy or vice versa. To exclude the possibility that neointimal lesions resulted from injury plus post-pneumonectomy compensatory lung growth, rather than injury plus increased flow, a left subclavian-pulmonary artery anastomosis was substituted for pneumonectomy. Neointimal lesions and severe RVH developed in these animals but were not seen in animals receiving either MCT or anastomosis only. These studies demonstrate an important role for hemodynamics in determining the pattern of pulmonary vascular remodeling after injury. PMID:9327735

  15. Personalizing Secondary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    1974-01-01

    To facilitate "personalizing" and individualizing secondary school curriculum, the author presents eight conceptual aspects of individualization and discusses the relationship of these concepts to program design and implementation of an individual learning program. (HMD)

  16. Secondary Storage in LISP

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Daniel J.

    1963-12-01

    A principal limitation of LISP processors in many computations is that of inadequate primary random-access storage. This paper explores several methods of using a secondary storage medum (such as drums, disk files or magetic ...

  17. Are colors Secondary Qualities?

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Alex

    Introduction: Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century discussions of the senses are often thought to contain a profound truth: some perceptible properties are secondary qualities, dispositions to produce certain sorts of ...

  18. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation or movement in a part of the body ... weakness. Many medications may affect the development of neuropathy, including: Heart or blood pressure medications Amiodarone Hydralazine ...

  19. Pulmonary hemodynamic profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Karina; Torralba, Yolanda; Blanco, Isabel; Burgos, Felip; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Rios, Jose; Roca, Josep; Barberà, Joan A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few data are available in regards to the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the broad spectrum of COPD. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of PH in a cohort of COPD patients across the severity of airflow limitation, and reporting the hemodynamic characteristics at rest and during exercise. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on COPD patients who underwent right-heart catheterization in our center with measurements obtained at rest (n=139) and during exercise (n=85). PH was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ?25 mmHg and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure <15 mmHg. Exercise-induced PH (EIPH) was defined by a ratio of ?mPAP/?cardiac output >3. Results PH was present in 25 patients (18%). According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification, PH prevalence in GOLD 2 was 7% (3 patients); 25% (14 patients) in GOLD 3; and 22% (8 patients) in GOLD 4. Severe PH (mPAP ?35 mmHg) was identified in four patients (2.8%). Arterial partial oxygen pressure was the outcome most strongly associated with PH (r=?0.29, P<0.001). EIPH was observed in 60 patients (71%) and had a similar prevalence in both GOLD 2 and 3, and was present in all GOLD 4 patients. Patients with PH had lower cardiac index during exercise than patients without PH (5.0±1.2 versus 6.7±1.4 L/min/m2, respectively; P=0.001). Conclusion PH has a similar prevalence in COPD patients with severe and very-severe airflow limitation, being associated with the presence of arterial hypoxemia. In contrast, EIPH is highly prevalent, even in moderate COPD, and might contribute to limiting exercise tolerance.

  20. Pulmonary rehabilitation and exercise in pulmonary arterial hypertension: An underutilized intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sonu; Capozzi, Barbara; Iftikhar, Asma; Sgouras, Vasiliki; Ojrzanowski, Marcin; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and devastating disease characterized by progressive increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance which eventually leads to right ventricular failure and death. Early thought process was that exercise and increased physical activity may be detrimental to PAH patients however many small cohort trials have proven otherwise. In addition to the many pharmaceutical options, exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation have also been shown to increase exercise capacity as well as various aspects of psychosomatic health. As pulmonary and exercise rehabilitation become more widely used as an adjuvant therapy patient outcomes improve and physicians should consider this in the therapeutic algorithm along with pharmacotherapy. PMID:25960979

  1. [Bilateral pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: the youngest case in our region].

    PubMed

    Olguntürk, Rana; Çevik, Ayhan; Kula, Serdar; Y?ld?zeli, Bedrettin

    2013-06-01

    The insertion of ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus is associated with the development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension occurs in patients with recurrent or chronic pulmonary embolism, and is a rare but, potentially devastating disease in children. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is an important curative therapy for patients with CTEPH. Herein, we present a case of a 14 year-old male patient with CTEPH that developed after a VA shunt procedure. After successful PTE, systolic pulmonary artery pressure was decreased from 75 mmHg to 30 mmHg. PTE is recommended in the pediatric CTEPH population. PMID:23760123

  2. Bacteriophage secondary infection.

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2015-02-01

    Phages are credited with having been first described in what we now, officially, are commemorating as the 100(th) anniversary of their discovery. Those one-hundred years of phage history have not been lacking in excitement, controversy, and occasional convolution. One such complication is the concept of secondary infection, which can take on multiple forms with myriad consequences. The terms secondary infection and secondary adsorption, for example, can be used almost synonymously to describe virion interaction with already phage-infected bacteria, and which can result in what are described as superinfection exclusion or superinfection immunity. The phrase secondary infection also may be used equivalently to superinfection or coinfection, with each of these terms borrowed from medical microbiology, and can result in genetic exchange between phages, phage-on-phage parasitism, and various partial reductions in phage productivity that have been termed mutual exclusion, partial exclusion, or the depressor effect. Alternatively, and drawing from epidemiology, secondary infection has been used to describe phage population growth as that can occur during active phage therapy as well as upon phage contamination of industrial ferments. Here primary infections represent initial bacterial population exposure to phages while consequent phage replication can lead to additional, that is, secondary infections of what otherwise are not yet phage-infected bacteria. Here I explore the varying meanings and resultant ambiguity that has been associated with the term secondary infection. I suggest in particular that secondary infection, as distinctly different phenomena, can in multiple ways influence the success of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria, also known as, phage therapy. PMID:25595214

  3. Development of confocal immunofluorescence FRET microscopy to Investigate eNOS and GSNOR localization and interaction in pulmonary endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shagufta; Brown-Steinke, Kathleen; Palmer, Lisa; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2015-03-01

    Confocal FRET microscopy is a widely used technique for studying protein-protein interactions in live or fixed cells. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) are enzymes involved in regulating the bioavailability of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in the pulmonary endothelium and have roles in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Labeling of endogenous proteins to better understand a disease process can be challenging. We have used immunofluorescence to detect endogenous eNOS and GSNOR in primary pulmonary endothelial cells to co-localize these proteins as well as to study their interaction by FRET. The challenge has been in selecting the right immunofluorescence labeling condition, right antibody, the right blocking reagent, the right FRET pair and eliminating cross-reactivity of secondary antibodies. We have used Alexa488 and Alexa568 as a FRET pair. After a series of optimizations, the data from Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) demonstrate co-localization of eNOS and GSNOR in the perinuclear region of the pulmonary endothelial cell primarily within the cis-Golgi with lower levels of co-localization seen within the trans-Golgi. FRET studies demonstrate, for the first time, interaction between eNOS and GSNOR in both murine and bovine pulmonary endothelial cells. Further characterization of eNOSGSNOR interaction and the subcellular location of this interaction will provide mechanistic insight into the importance of S-nitrosothiol signaling in pulmonary biology, physiology and pathology.

  4. Secondary psychoses: an update

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S; Kaneko, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic disorders due to a known medical illness or substance use are collectively termed secondary psychoses. In this paper, we first review the historic evolution of the concept of secondary versus primary psychosis and how this distinction supplanted the earlier misleading classification of psychoses into organic and functional. We then outline the clinical features and approach to the diagnosis of secondary psychotic disorders. Features such as atypical presentation, temporal relation to detectable medical cause, evidence of direct physiological causal relationship to the etiological agent, and the absence of evidence of a primary psychotic illness that may better explain the presentation suggest consideration of a secondary psychosis. Finally, we discuss how careful studies of secondary psychotic disorders can help elucidate the pathophysiology of primary, or idiopathic, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. We illustrate this issue through a discussion of three secondary psychotic disorders — psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, velocardiofacial syndrome, and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis — that can, respectively, provide neuroanatomical, genetic, and neurochemical models of schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:23471787

  5. In situ thrombosis of small pulmonary arteries in pulmonary hypertension developing after chemotherapy for malignancy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kay; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yamaki, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    A few reports have provided histopathological insight into pulmonary hypertension developing after antitumor chemotherapy. In general, plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy is a commonly observed finding in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. We herein report a novel pathological finding that may characterize the histopathological change occurring in patients with pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy for malignancy. Lung biopsy or autopsy was performed in 7 patients with pulmonary hypertension that developed during or after chemotherapy between 2006 and 2013 to examine the pulmonary vascular changes or to determine the cause of death. Pathological findings included in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries in 4 of 7 patients. In 2 of 4 patients, pulmonary hypertension was controlled by anticoagulants and antithrombotic agents. One patient who had organized thrombi attained spontaneous remission with oxygen therapy. The other patient died of sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during chemotherapy. Autopsy showed complete occlusion of the peripheral small pulmonary arteries and veins by thrombi. These results demonstrate that in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries could cause pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy. PMID:25692040

  6. In Situ Thrombosis of Small Pulmonary Arteries in Pulmonary Hypertension Developing after Chemotherapy for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kay; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yamaki, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    A few reports have provided histopathological insight into pulmonary hypertension developing after antitumor chemotherapy. In general, plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy is a commonly observed finding in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. We herein report a novel pathological finding that may characterize the histopathological change occurring in patients with pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy for malignancy. Lung biopsy or autopsy was performed in 7 patients with pulmonary hypertension that developed during or after chemotherapy between 2006 and 2013 to examine the pulmonary vascular changes or to determine the cause of death. Pathological findings included in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries in 4 of 7 patients. In 2 of 4 patients, pulmonary hypertension was controlled by anticoagulants and antithrombotic agents. One patient who had organized thrombi attained spontaneous remission with oxygen therapy. The other patient died of sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during chemotherapy. Autopsy showed complete occlusion of the peripheral small pulmonary arteries and veins by thrombi. These results demonstrate that in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries could cause pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy. PMID:25692040

  7. Pulmonary endarterectomy: part I. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Banks, Dalia A; Pretorius, Gert Victor D; Kerr, Kim M; Manecke, Gerard R

    2014-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) results from recurrent or incomplete resolution of pulmonary embolism. CTEPH is much more common than generally appreciated. Although pulmonary embolism (PE) affects a large number of Americans, chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains underdiagnosed. It is imperative that all patients with PH be screened for the presence of CTEPH since this form of PH is potentially curable with pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) surgery. The success of this procedure depends greatly on the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team approach that includes pulmonary medicine, cardiothoracic surgery, and cardiac anesthesiology. This review, based on the experience of more than 3000 pulmonary endarterectomy surgeries, is divided into 2 parts. Part I focuses on the clinical history and pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and intraoperative echocardiography. Part II focuses on the surgical approach, anesthetic management, postoperative care, and complications. PMID:24958718

  8. Effect of Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support on the Use and Yield of CT Pulmonary Angiographic Imaging in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Ruth M; Ip, Ivan K; Abbett, Sarah; Gershanik, Esteban F; Raja, Ali S; Hunsaker, Andetta; Khorasani, Ramin

    2015-07-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of clinical decision support (CDS) on the use and yield of inpatient computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study with waiver of informed consent included all adults admitted to a 793-bed teaching hospital from April 1, 2007, to June 30, 2012. The CDS intervention, implemented after a baseline observation period, informed providers who placed an order for CT pulmonary angiographic imaging about the pretest probability of the study based on a validated decision rule. Use of CT pulmonary angiographic and admission data from administrative databases was obtained for this study. By using a validated natural language processing algorithm on radiology reports, each CT pulmonary angiographic examination was classified as positive or negative for acute PE. Primary outcome measure was monthly use of CT pulmonary angiography per 1000 admissions. Secondary outcome was CT pulmonary angiography yield (percentage of CT pulmonary angiographic examinations that were positive for acute PE). Linear trend analysis was used to assess for effect and trend differences in use and yield of CT pulmonary angiographic imaging before and after CDS. Results In 272 374 admissions over the study period, 5287 patients underwent 5892 CT pulmonary angiographic examinations. A 12.3% decrease in monthly use of CT pulmonary angiography (26.0 to 22.8 CT pulmonary angiographic examinations per 1000 admissions before and after CDS, respectively; P = .008) observed 1 month after CDS implementation was sustained over the ensuing 32-month period. There was a nonsignificant 16.3% increase in monthly yield of CT pulmonary angiography or percentage of CT pulmonary angiographic examinations positive for acute PE after CDS (P = .65). Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based CDS for inpatients was associated with a 12.3% immediate and sustained decrease in use of CT pulmonary angiographic examinations in the evaluation of inpatients for acute PE. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25686367

  9. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T. [Sperian Hearing Protection (United States)

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  10. Hantaviruses and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Maranhão, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.; Medeiros, Daniele B. de Almeida; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Mendes, Wellington S.; Vidigal, José R.B.; de Oliveira, Renata C.; D’Andrea, Paulo S.; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.

    2010-01-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhão, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region. PMID:21122229

  11. Noninvasive cardiac imaging in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sallach, Susan M; Peshock, Ron M; Reimold, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension is a rare disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Initial and serial noninvasive assessment of these patients can be accomplished with transthoracic echocardiography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. These complementary techniques provide the structural and functional information required to care for patients with pulmonary artery hypertension and are discussed in this review. PMID:17303996

  12. Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumours: Indolent but Not Benign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara De Dosso; Emilio Bajetta; Giuseppe Procopio; Diego Cortinovis; Roberto Buzzoni; Laura Catena; Marco Platania; Elena Verzoni

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the malignant behaviour of low-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) treated at our institution. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs). Results: At diagnosis,

  13. Invited Review Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Invited Review Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange Steven C. George,1,2 Marieann Hogman,3, Steven C., Marieann Hogman, Solbert Permutt, and Philip E. Silkoff. Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange. J Appl Physiol 96: 831­839, 2004; 10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2003.--Nitric oxide (NO) was first

  14. Original article Pulmonary intravascular macrophages in deer

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Pulmonary intravascular macrophages in deer L Carrasco JC Gómez-Villamandos MJ found in the septal capillaries of deer lungs. Lung samples from adult deer were fixed in 2 respectively). lung / macrophage / pulmonary intravascular macrophage / intercellular junction / deer Résumé

  15. Pulmonary involvement in zinc fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmeier, C.; Koenig, G.B.; Bencze, K.; Fruhmann, G.

    1987-11-01

    A patient with the clinical history of recurring zinc fume fever underwent an experimental welding exposure; this resulted in a systemic reaction and a distinct self-limiting response in the periphery of the lung, demonstrated by pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage. These pulmonary changes observed for the first time in man were reproducible.

  16. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Gibson

    2001-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The expiratory airflow obstruction that characterises chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is usually progressive over time and caused by emphysema, obliterative bronchiolitis, and mucus hypersecretion. Stopping smoking is the only measure that slows the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smokers should be encouraged to stop at all stages of the disease. The effects of medication are limited, and

  17. Haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Silke; Platzek, Ivan; Zöphel, Klaus; Weise, Matthias; Kolditz, Martin; Halank, Michael; Hoeffken, Gert

    2014-06-01

    Haemoptysis is a potentially life-threatening condition with the need for prompt diagnosis. In about 10-20% of all cases the bleeding source remains unexplained with the standard diagnostic approach. The aim of this article is to show the necessity of widening the diagnostic approach to haemoptysis with consideration of pulmonary venous stenosis as a possible cause of even severe haemoptysis and haemoptoe. A review of the literature was performed using the Medline/PubMed database with the terms: "pulmonary venous stenosis", "pulmonary venous infarction" and "haemoptysis". Further references from the case reports were considered. 58 case reports and case collections about patients with haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis were detected. This review gives an overview about the case reports and discusses the underlying pathophysiology and the pros and cons of different imaging techniques for the detection of pulmonary venous stenosis. Several conditions predispose to the obstruction of the mediastinal pulmonary veins. Clinical findings are unspecific and may be misleading. Pulmonary venous stenosis can be detected using several imaging techniques, yet three-dimensional magnetic resonance-angiography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced computed tomography are the most appropriate. Pulmonary venous stenosis should be considered in patients with haemoptysis. PMID:24881072

  18. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region. PMID:21122229

  19. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  20. High-altitude pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Erik R; Bärtsch, Peter

    2012-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a not uncommon form of acute altitude illness, can occur within days of ascent above 2500 to 3000 m. Although life-threatening, it is avoidable by slow ascent to permit acclimatization or with drug prophylaxis. The critical pathophysiology is an excessive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance or hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) leading to increased microvascular pressures. The resultant hydrostatic stress causes dynamic changes in the permeability of the alveolar capillary barrier and mechanical injurious damage leading to leakage of large proteins and erythrocytes into the alveolar space in the absence of inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage and hemodynamic pressure measurements in humans confirm that elevated capillary pressure induces a high-permeability noninflammatory lung edema. Reduced nitric oxide availability and increased endothelin in hypoxia are the major determinants of excessive HPV in HAPE-susceptible individuals. Other hypoxia-dependent differences in ventilatory control, sympathetic nervous system activation, endothelial function, and alveolar epithelial active fluid reabsorption likely contribute additionally to HAPE susceptibility. Recent studies strongly suggest nonuniform regional hypoxic arteriolar vasoconstriction as an explanation for how HPV occurring predominantly at the arteriolar level causes leakage. In areas of high blood flow due to lesser HPV, edema develops due to pressures that exceed the dynamic and structural capacity of the alveolar capillary barrier to maintain normal fluid balance. This article will review the pathophysiology of the vasculature, alveolar epithelium, innervation, immune response, and genetics of the lung at high altitude, as well as therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to reduce the morbidity and mortality of HAPE. PMID:23720264

  1. North american erionite-associated mesothelioma with pleural plaques and pulmonary fibrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kliment, Corrine R; Clemens, Kristen; Oury, Tim D

    2009-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral, has been categorized as a class I carcinogenic agent for its causative role in mesothelioma. In select villages in Turkey, erionite is the cause of more than 50% of mesotheliomas. In contrast, in the United States mesotheliomas are frequently associated with asbestos exposure. We describe the first reported case of a patient with erionite-associated pleural mesothelioma with classic pathologic changes typical of asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural pathology. This case report indicates that in addition to Turkey, erionite-associated disease can occur in North America and that subjects with erionite exposure are not only at risk of developing mesothelioma, but may develop interstitial fibrosis and additional pulmonary pathology impacting lung function and patient survival. PMID:19158938

  2. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Horn, Kevin D.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema including the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these diseases. It also reviews the anatomy of the respiratory system. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  4. Arrhythmias in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rajdev, Archana; Garan, Hasan; Biviano, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Such patients manifest a substrate resulting from altered autonomics, repolarization abnormalities, and ischemia. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and flutter are associated with worsened outcomes, and maintenance of sinus rhythm is a goal. Sudden death is a relatively common issue, though the contribution of malignant ventricular arrhythmias versus bradyarrhythmias differs from non-PAH patients. Congenital heart disease patients with PAH benefit from catheter ablation of medically refractory arrhythmias. Clinical studies of defibrillator/pacemaker therapy for primary prevention against sudden death in PAH patients are lacking. PMID:23009914

  5. Novel approaches to pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gisli; Goodwin, Amanda

    2014-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating condition with a poor prognosis and few treatment options. However, recent research into this condition has led to considerable insights into the pathophysiology of the disease, resulting in the identification of potential biomarkers to aid diagnosis and stratification of patients and the development of novel therapies. In this review we will discuss the recent developments in this field and review how this knowledge has been translated into clinical trials and a paradigm shift in our approach to patients with IPF. PMID:25468919

  6. Pulmonary embolism, part II: Management

    PubMed Central

    B?lohlávek, Jan; Dytrych, Vladimír; Linhart, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) bears a significant burden on health and survival. Rapid and accurate risk stratification and management are of paramount importance to ensure the highest quality of care. This present article summarizes currently available and emerging management strategies for the disease. The authors not only review current evidence regarding early therapy of acute PE, including supportive care, anticoagulation, thrombolysis, surgical and catheter-based treatment, but also the possible role of mechanical circulatory support in PE. The authors also discuss complications related to PE and its management. PMID:23940439

  7. Treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Colleen B.; Hooper, Jay; Mertz, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Viruses in the genus Hantavirus can cause one of two serious illnesses when transmitted from rodents to humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Of the two diseases, HPS is more severe with an approximate 40% mortality across the Americas. The high rate of mortality could be reduced if effective therapeutics could be discovered for treatment of this illness. Herein we review approaches being explored for the discovery of therapeutics for HPS and how they could be employed in treatment and prevention of disease. PMID:18093668

  8. Stapling techniques in pulmonary surgery.

    PubMed

    Walshaw, R

    1994-03-01

    There are only a few reports in the veterinary literature describing the use of stapling equipment and techniques for pulmonary surgery. These reports indicate that complications associated with these procedures are minimal. Although pulmonary lobectomy procedures originally described independent isolation and ligation of the hilar vessels, it became apparent that, with the use of the smaller staples, especially the ones designed for vascular use, this was unnecessary. Therefore, en bloc hilar stapling is the procedure of choice. This makes the surgical procedure extremely quick to perform. Similarly, there is no indication to routinely oversew staple lines when performing a partial lobectomy. This is a tedious procedure and may actually increase the chance of air leakage. If point areas of leakage do occur, these can be independently occluded either with sutures or individual vascular clips. Selecting the correct size of TA stapler and staples to create the correct length of staple line is critical. It is important that all the tissue to be ligated lie comfortably within the staple line. It is better to use a stapler that is too long and collect the extra staples on a sponge than to use one that is too short that results in leakage from nonstapled tissue. In general, the 4.8-mm staples should not be used for pulmonary surgery in the dog and cat. They do not compress the tissue enough to prevent leakage. For most complete lobectomies, where the hilus of the lung can be adequately isolated, the TA 30 V3 is the stapler of choice. When performing a partial lobectomy, a longer stapler is often required. If a TA 55 or TA 90 is necessary, it should be used with 3.5-mm staples. Even though stapling techniques have made pulmonary surgical procedures safe, easy, and quick to perform, they are not totally free of problems and complications. Experience in the use of the equipment is essential, as is good surgical judgment as to when to use or not to use these techniques. The absence of reported clinical complications, either short- or long-term, attests to the success of these techniques. PMID:8197674

  9. Pulmonary complications of inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelly A; Glassberg, Marilyn K; Ascherman, Dana P

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary complications cause significant morbidity and mortality in the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Advances in biomarker discovery have facilitated clinical phenotyping, allowing investigators to better define at-risk patient subsets and to potentially gauge disease activity. This serologic characterization has complemented more traditional assessment tools. Pharmacologic management continues to rely on the use of corticosteroids, often in combination with additional immunosuppressive agents. The rarity of myositis-associated interstitial lung disease and lack of controlled trials have limited analyses of treatment efficacy, mandating the development of standardized outcome measures and improvement of data sharing between disciplines. PMID:25836641

  10. The impact of emphysema in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    Several groups have described a syndrome in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) coexists with pulmonary emphysema. This comes as no surprise since both diseases are associated with a history of exposure to cigarette smoke. The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is characterised by upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Physiological testing of these patients reveals preserved lung volume indices contrasted by markedly impaired diffusion capacity. The incidence of CPFE remains unknown but several case series suggest that this subgroup may comprise up to 35% of patients with IPF. CPFE is a strong determinant of associated pulmonary hypertension (PH). In addition, CPFE has major effects on measures of physiological function, exercise capacity and prognosis, and may affect the results of pulmonary fibrosis trials. Further studies are needed to ascertain the aetiology, morbidity, mortality and management of the CPFE syndrome, with or without PH, and to evaluate novel therapeutic options in CPFE. PMID:23728869

  11. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozsu, Savas; Cinarka, Halit

    2013-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is responsible for significant levels of morbidity and mortality. The estimated cumulative incidence of CTEPH is 2-4% among patients presenting with acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Currently, at the time of CTEPH diagnosis, 37.9% of the patients in an international registry were receiving at least one pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy. Advanced medical therapy is considered in patients with inoperable disease, as a bridge to pulmonary endarterectomy or in those with persistent or recurrent pulmonary hypertension. PAH-specific medical therapies include endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and prostacyclin analogues. The present article will focus on recent developments in the pharmacological treatment of CTEPH. PMID:24015333

  12. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Hill, Nicholas S

    2014-01-01

    Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies reacting with proteins bound to phospholipids, leading to thrombosis and gestation abnormalities. Prothrombotic states and impaired clot dissolution are believed to contribute to the occurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in APS. Whether preventive anticoagulation therapy in patients with antiphospholipid autoantibodies without a history of thrombosis reduces the risk of thrombosis is currently unclear. The diagnosis and treatment of CTEPH in APS is similar to CTEPH complicated by other predisposing conditions, with surgical treatment being the most effective. However, not every patient with CTEPH is suitable for pulmonary thromboendartarectomy and such individuals may benefit from pharmacotherapy of pulmonary hypertension, given the presence of pulmonary microvascular abnormalities similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of management because of the high risk of recurrent embolization and local in-situ thrombosis. PMID:23565637

  13. The Impact of Immunosenescence on Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Michelle A.; Chotirmall, Sanjay H.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is aging with significant gains in life expectancy particularly in the developed world. Consequently, greater focus on understanding the processes that underlie physiological aging has occurred. Key facets of advancing age include genomic instability, telomere shortening, epigenetic changes, and declines in immune function termed immunosenescence. Immunosenescence and its associated chronic low grade systemic “inflamm-aging” contribute to the development and progression of pulmonary disease in older individuals. These physiological processes predispose to pulmonary infection and confer specific and unique clinical phenotypes observed in chronic respiratory disease including late-onset asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. Emerging concepts of the gut and airway microbiome further complicate the interrelationship between host and microorganism particularly from an immunological perspective and especially so in the setting of immunosenescence. This review focuses on our current understanding of the aging process, immunosenescence, and how it can potentially impact on various pulmonary diseases and the human microbiome. PMID:26199462

  14. Pediatric tubular pulmonary heart valve from decellularized engineered tissue tubes.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Jay M; Syedain, Zeeshan H; Haynie, Bee H T; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric patients account for a small portion of the heart valve replacements performed, but a pediatric pulmonary valve replacement with growth potential remains an unmet clinical need. Herein we report the first tubular heart valve made from two decellularized, engineered tissue tubes attached with absorbable sutures, which can meet this need, in principle. Engineered tissue tubes were fabricated by allowing ovine dermal fibroblasts to replace a sacrificial fibrin gel with an aligned, cell-produced collagenous matrix, which was subsequently decellularized. Previously, these engineered tubes became extensively recellularized following implantation into the sheep femoral artery. Thus, a tubular valve made from these tubes may be amenable to recellularization and, ideally, somatic growth. The suture line pattern generated three equi-spaced leaflets in the inner tube, which collapsed inward when exposed to back pressure, per tubular valve design. Valve testing was performed in a pulse duplicator system equipped with a secondary flow loop to allow for root distention. All tissue-engineered valves exhibited full leaflet opening and closing, minimal regurgitation (<5%), and low systolic pressure gradients (<2.5 mmHg) under pulmonary conditions. Valve performance was maintained under various trans-root pressure gradients and no tissue damage was evident after 2 million cycles of fatigue testing. PMID:26036175

  15. Diagnosis and Rescue of a Kinked Pulmonary Artery Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Mouawad, Nicolas J.; Stein, Erica J.; Moran, Kenneth R.; Go, Michael R.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hemodynamic monitoring with a pulmonary catheter has been relatively routine in cardiovascular and complex surgical operations as well as in the management of critical illnesses. However, due to multiple potential complications and its invasive nature, its use has decreased over the years and less invasive methods such as transesophageal echocardiography and hemodynamic sensors have gained widespread favor. Unlike these less invasive forms of hemodynamic monitoring, pulmonary artery catheters require an advanced understanding of cardiopulmonary physiology, anatomy, and the potential for complications in order to properly place, manage, and interpret the device. We describe a case wherein significant resistance was encountered during multiple unsuccessful attempts at removing a patient's catheter secondary to kinking and twisting of the catheter tip. These attempts to remove the catheter serve to demonstrate potential rescue options for such a situation. Ultimately, successful removal of the catheter was accomplished by simultaneous catheter retraction and sheath advancement while gently pulling both objects from the cannulation site. In addition to being skilled in catheter placement, it is imperative that providers comprehend the risks and complications of this invasive monitoring tool.

  16. Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

  17. MICROBIOLOGY: How Bacteria Respire Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dianne K. Newman (California Institute of Technology; Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences)

    2001-05-18

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Some bacteria respire minerals; that is, they harvest energy from minerals through using them as electron acceptors. Many details of this respiration process have remained obscure. In her Perspective, Newman highlights the study by Lower et al., who have used a customized atomic force microscope to observe bacteria during mineral respiration.

  18. Mineral Time Capsules on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Like dinosaur-age insects trapped in amber, biomolecules sequestered in million-year-old sulfate minerals could provide a glimpse into the past, say researchers who've recently analyzed such minerals from N orth America. The same minerals have recently been discovered on Mars , so they may be a good place to look for traces of past life on the red planet, the researchers say.

  19. Guideline-based survey of outpatient COPD management by pulmonary specialists in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Glaab, Thomas; Vogelmeier, Claus; Hellmann, Andreas; Buhl, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role of guidelines for the practical management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by office-based pulmonary specialists. The aim of this study was to assess their outpatient management in relation to current guideline recommendations for COPD. Methods A nationwide prospective cross-sectional COPD questionnaire survey in the form of a multiple-choice questionnaire was sent to 1000 office-based respiratory specialists in Germany. The product-neutral questions focused on routine COPD management and were based on current national and international COPD guideline recommendations being consistent in severity classification and treatment recommendations. Results A total of 590 pulmonary specialists (59%) participated in the survey. Body plethysmography was considered the standard for diagnosis (65.9%), followed by spirometry (32%). Most respondents were able to cite the correct spirometric criteria for classifying moderate (87%) to very severe COPD (77%). A quarter of the respondents equated the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of chronic bronchitis with COPD. Notably, most participants preferred the updated national COPD guidelines (51.4%) to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines (40.2%). Improvement of functional exercise capacity and quality of life were considered the two most relevant treatment goals; whereas impact on mortality was secondary. Treatment of COPD largely complied with the guidelines. However, a significant percentage of the pulmonary specialists differed in their assessment of the benefits of various therapeutic measures from evidence-based results. Referral for pulmonary rehabilitation was uncommon, regardless of the severity of COPD. Conclusion The findings of this large national survey suggest that most pulmonary specialists adhere to the current COPD guideline recommendations in daily practice. However, physicians’ knowledge of guidelines is not sufficient as the sole benchmark when assessing their implementation in day-to-day practice. Necessary changes in the health care system must include more effective ways to transfer knowledge to clinical practice and to give access to interventions of proven clinical benefit. PMID:22371651

  20. Crosstalk between endothelial cell and thrombus in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: perspective.

    PubMed

    Sakao, Seiichiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2013-02-01

    It is generally accepted that chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) results from pulmonary emboli originating from deep vein thrombosis. However, this consensus opinion has been challenged, and the concept that some aspects of CTEPH exacerbation might result from a small-vessel disease leading to secondary thrombosis has been suggested. In addition to the effect of recurrent thrombo-embolism, a number of lines of clinical evidence indicate that progressive worsening is contributed to by remodeling in the small pulmonary arteries. Histopathological studies of the microvascular changes in CTEPH have identified vascular lesions similar to those seen in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Especially in in vitro and ex vivo experiments, pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) in pulmonary hypertensive diseases are suggested to exhibit an unusual hyperproliferative potential with decreased susceptibility to apoptosis, indicating that dysfunctional ECs may contribute to the progression of the diseases. Although the degree and mechanisms of EC dysfunction as a contributor to CTEPH are unclear, EC dysfunction may occur in small arteries. Indeed, the cells stimulated by the microenvironment created by the unresolved clot may release substances that induce EC dysfunction. The EC dysfunctions in CTEPH may lead to disorders of the anti-coagulation properties in ECs and may result in additional clots in situ. Moreover, these may lead to the progression, not only of distal thrombus, but also of proximal clotting. This article reviews the pathobiological concepts of CTEPH and explains a crosstalk between EC dysfunction and in situ thrombi which may contribute to the vascular lesions of CTEPH. PMID:23275302