Note: This page contains sample records for the topic secondary pulmonary mineralization from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Pulmonary complications in lead miners  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.

1989-07-01

2

Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to COPD  

PubMed Central

The development of pulmonary hypertension in COPD adversely affects survival and exercise capacity and is associated with an increased risk of severe acute exacerbations. Unfortunately not all patients with COPD who meet criteria for long term oxygen therapy benefit from it. Even in those who benefit from long term oxygen therapy, such therapy may reverse the elevated pulmonary artery pressure but cannot normalize it. Moreover, the recent discovery of the key roles of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in the pathogenesis of PH provides the rationale for considering specific pulmonary vasodilators that also possess antiproliferative properties and statins.

Shujaat, Adil; Bajwa, Abubakr A.; Cury, James D.

2012-01-01

3

[Secondary pulmonary embolism to right atrial myxoma].  

PubMed

A case of pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to atrial myxoma right. The myxoma is a primary cardiac tumor, namely, has his origin in the cardiac tissue. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, including myxomas, the most common type. Have a predilection for females and the most useful tool for diagnosis is echocardiography. About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium of the heart and rest are in the right atrium. Right atrial myxomas in some sometimes associated with tricuspid stenosis and atrial fibrillation. The most common clinical manifestations include symptoms of this neoplasm constitutional, and embolic phenomena resulting from the obstruction to the flow intracavitary. The treatment of this condition is surgical. PMID:24095171

Vico Besó, L; Zúñiga Cedó, E

2013-10-01

4

Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

Berkley, J. L.

1982-01-01

5

Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary hypertension

6

Nonasbestos pulmonary mineral fibers in the general population.  

PubMed

Total pulmonary nonasbestos mineral content was determined for a series of 20 patients who had no occupational dust exposure. To extract mineral fibers, lung tissue was dissolved in bleach and the treated sediment transferred to the electron microscope grid. Mineral fibers were identified using electron diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The mean number of nonasbestos fibers, 106 X 10(3)/g wet lung, was almost identical to the mean number of asbestos fibers, 102 X 10(3)/g. Thirteen different species or groups of nonasbestos minerals were found: apatite accounted for 18% of the total and talc for 16%. All other forms accounted for less than 8% each. Silica was found in every lung, and talc in 19 of 20 lungs. Of the fibers, 86% were shorter than 5 microns, and most of the fibers had aspect ratios less than 15. No correlations were seen between numbers or types of fibers and age, sex, or smoking. It is concluded that (1) substantial numbers of nonasbestos fibers are present in lungs of the general population. Most of these fibers are short and of low aspect ratio; and (2) by phase microscopy one is as likely to observe nonasbestos as asbestos fibers in these preparations, indicating that light microscopic methods are not suitable for this type of analysis. These data provide a baseline for comparison with patients believed to have a mineral fiber-related disease. PMID:6851981

Churg, A

1983-06-01

7

Raman Study of Secondary Minerals in a Recent Lava Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the technical adaptations made for a field use of a laboratory in situ Raman spectrometer, and the characterization of secondary mineral phases growing in a recent, still hot on some spots, lava tube (2007 Piton de la Fournaise).

Guimbretière, G.; Canizarès, A.; Finizola, A.; Delcher, E.; Raimboux, N.; Veron, E.; Simon, P.; Devouard, B.; Bertil, A.

2014-06-01

8

Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.

2011-05-18

9

Bisphosphonates do not Alter the Rate of Secondary Mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), ALN (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n=12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

R Fuchs; M Faillace; M Allen; R Phipps; L Miller; D Burr

2011-12-31

10

Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis  

SciTech Connect

Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

Lauf, R.J.

1997-07-01

11

Beraprost Therapy in Children with Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Congenital Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a report on children with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease who received 6 months\\u000a of beraprost therapy. The children had an increase in intracardiac left-to-right shunt and a reduction of the pulmonary-to-systemic\\u000a vascular resistance ratio, whereas the pulmonary artery pressure was not significantly changed.

A. Limsuwan; P. Pienvichit; P. Khowsathit

2005-01-01

12

Pulmonary hypertension secondary to neurofibromatosis: intimal fibrosis versus thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis has been known to involve blood vessels throughout the body. Pulmonary involvement with interstitial fibrosing alveolitis has been described but no case of pulmonary vascular involvement has been reported to date. A 51 year old patient with cutaneous neurofibromatosis is described who presented with severe pulmonary hypertension and radiographic, scintigraphic, and angiographic evidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Severe intimal fibrosis consistent with vascular involvement with neurofibromatosis was found on endarterectomy with no evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism. Neurofibromatosis of pulmonary arteries should be considered as a possible cause of pulmonary hypertension.??

Samuels, N.; Berkman, N.; Milgalter, E.; Bar-Ziv, J.; Amir, G.; Kramer, M.

1999-01-01

13

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from

J M Meijers; G M Swaen; J J Slangen

1997-01-01

14

Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low-temperature environments in which SO2 is scrubbed out by groundwater or where H2S is oxidized. Jarosite-group minerals associated with smectite in only slightly altered volcanic rock are formed largely from aqueous sulfate derived from supergene oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite above the water table. Soluble Al- and Fehydroxysulfates form in low-pH surface environments, especially around fumaroles, and from the oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite. Anhydrite/gypsum, often associated with native sulfur and occasionally with small amounts of barite, also commonly form around fumaroles. Some occurrences of anhydrite/gypsum may be secondary, derived from the dissolution and reprecipitation of soluble sulfate. Edifice collapse may also reveal deep veins of anhydrite/gypsum??barite that formed from the mixing of saline fluids with magmatic sulfate and dilute meteoric water. Alteration along structures associated with both hydrothermal and supergene sulfates, as well as the position of paleo-water tables, may be important factors in edifice collapse and resulting debris flows at some volcanoes. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zimbelman, D. R.; Rye, R. O.; Breit, G. N.

2005-01-01

15

A Case of Extrinsic Compression of the Left Main Coronary Artery Secondary to Pulmonary Artery Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) secondary to pulmonary artery dilatation is a rare syndrome. Most cases of pulmonary artery hypertension but no atherosclerotic risk factors rarely undergo coronary angiography, and hence, diagnoses are seldom made and proper management is often delayed in these patients. We describe a patient that presented with pulmonary hypertension, clinical angina, and extrinsic compression of the LMCA by the pulmonary artery, who was treated successfully by percutaneous coronary intervention. Follow-up coronary angiography showed patent stent in the LMCA in the proximity of the dilated main pulmonary artery. This case reminds us that coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention should be considered in pulmonary hypertension patients presenting with angina or left ventricular dysfunction.

Choi, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Jin-Sung; Park, Won-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo

2013-01-01

16

An emboligenic pulmonary abscess leading to ischemic stroke and secondary brain abscess  

PubMed Central

Background Ischemic stroke by septic embolism occurs primarily in the context of infective endocarditis or in patients with a right-to-left shunt and formation of a secondary cerebral abscess is a rare event. Erosion of pulmonary veins by a pulmonary abscess can lead to transcardiac septic embolism but to our knowledge no case of septic embolic ischemic stroke from a pulmonary abscess with secondary transformation into a brain abscess has been reported to date. Case presentation We report the case of a patient with a pulmonary abscess causing a septic embolic cerebral infarction which then transformed into a cerebral abscess. After antibiotic therapy and drainage of the abscess the patient could be rehabilitated and presented an impressive improvement of symptoms. Conclusion Septic embolism should be considered as cause of ischemic stroke in patients with pulmonary abscess and can be followed by formation of a secondary cerebral abscess. Early antibiotic treatment and repeated cranial CT-scans for detection of a secondary abscess should be performed.

2012-01-01

17

The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site were investigated by reacting quartz and Hanford sediment (Warden Soil) with caustic solution of high ionic strength (2 M NaNO3), high pH (~13), high temperature (~90oC), and dissolved Al(0.01 M Al(NO3)3). Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3-10 days reaction time. The presence of dissolved Al in the simulated tank fluid was found to depress the net Si dissolved concentration. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results, secondary precipitates (cancrinite) at the primary mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides of major concern at the Hanford Site such as 129I, 79Se, 99Tc, and 90Sr.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Samson, Sherry D.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

2004-06-27

18

Transcatheter treatment for pulmonary artery occlusion secondary to pulmonary embolism in an infant.  

PubMed

We report a case of successful recanalisation of the left pulmonary artery after occlusion due to embolic thrombi in a 9-month-old infant after surgical repair of a common atrioventricular canal with tetralogy of Fallot. A transhepatic approach was used because of caval vein thrombosis. After the failure of high-pressure balloon angioplasty, the left pulmonary artery was successfully recanalised with cutting balloons, followed by stent implantation with an excellent result. PMID:23902997

El Tahlawi, Mohammad; Assaidi, Anass; Fraisse, Alain

2014-08-01

19

Genomewide RNA expression profiling in lung identifies distinct signatures in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by pulmonary arteriolar remodeling. This investigation aimed to identify genes involved specifically in the pathogenesis of PAH and not other forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Using genomewide microarray analysis, we generated the largest data set to date of RNA expression profiles from lung tissue specimens from 1) 18 PAH subjects and 2) 8 subjects with PH secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 3) 13 normal subjects. A molecular signature of 4,734 genes discriminated among these three cohorts. We identified significant novel biological changes that were likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of PAH, including regulation of actin-based motility, protein ubiquitination, and cAMP, transforming growth factor-?, MAPK, estrogen receptor, nitric oxide, and PDGF signaling. Bone morphogenic protein receptor type II expression was downregulated, even in subjects without a mutation in this gene. Women with PAH had higher expression levels of estrogen receptor 1 than normal women. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed differential expression of the following genes in PAH relative to both normal controls and PH secondary to IPF: a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9, cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM, cytochrome b558 and ?-polypeptide, coagulation factor II receptor-like 3, A-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog 1, nuclear receptor coactivator 2, purinergic receptor P2Y, platelet factor 4, phospholamban, and tropomodulin 3. This study shows that PAH and PH secondary to IPF are characterized by distinct gene expression signatures, implying distinct pathophysiological mechanisms.

Rajkumar, Revathi; Konishi, Kazuhisa; Richards, Thomas J.; Ishizawar, David C.; Wiechert, Andrew C.; Kaminski, Naftali

2010-01-01

20

Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension and Right-Sided Heart Failure at Presentation in Grave's Disease.  

PubMed

A young female presented with evidence of right-sided heart failure and was subsequently found to have significant pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Because of her normal left ventricular function and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, the most probable site of etiology seemed to be the pulmonary vasculature. All the common possible secondary causes of PAH were ruled out, but during the investigations, she was found to have elevated thyroid function tests compatible with the diagnosis of Grave's disease. The treatment of Grave's disease, initially by medications and subsequently by radioiodine therapy, was associated with a significant reduction in the pulmonary artery systolic pressure. The purpose of this case report is to highlight one of the unusual and underdiagnosed presentations of Grave's disease. PMID:23198182

Ganeshpure, Swapnil Panjabrao; Vaidya, Gaurang Nandkishor; Gattani, Vipul

2012-01-01

21

Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SR?CT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SR?CT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SR?CT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

2014-03-01

22

The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub CAI, I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub CAI) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub CAI) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub CAI) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for CAI. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for CAI in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted CAIs by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "CAI age" thus determined, T(sub CAI,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub CAI) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub CAI, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub CAI)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5) and a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4558.6 Ma for the LEW86010 angrite. However. the (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of "intermediate" age D'Orbigny-clan angrites and Asuka 881394 are inconsistent with radioactive decay from CAI values with a Mn-55 half-life of 3.7+/-0.4 Ma. in spite of consistency between (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I). Nevertheless, it appears that the Mn-Cr method with I(Mn)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) can be used to date primary igneous events and also secondary mineralization on asteroid parent bodies. We summarize ages thus determined for igneous events on differentiated asteroids and for carbonate and fayalite formation on carbonaceous asteroids.

Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

2008-01-01

23

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Secondary to Ethanol Sclerotherapy for Renal Artery Embolization  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been reported as a major complication to consider and promptly manage in the use of ethanol sclerotherapy. Most of the available data on the development of PAH is derived from the use of ethanol for embolization of arteriovenous malformation, but it has been rarely reported in its other fields of application. We describe a case of outpatient renal artery embolization using ethanol, in which respiratory failure develops secondary to PAH despite adhering to safe practice protocols. We highlight the importance of pulmonary arterial pressure monitoring and the treatment steps to follow in order to avoid irreversible fatal outcomes.

Saba, Raya; Davis, James; Balavenkataraman, Arvind; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Barbaryan, Aram; Chalise, Shyam; Iroegbu, Nkemakolam

2014-01-01

24

Alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 3. Saturation states of product minerals and reaction paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the complex interplay between dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, we examined the hypothesis of partial equilibria between secondary mineral products and aqueous solutions in feldspar-water systems. Speciation and solubility geochemical modeling was used to compute the saturation indices (SI) for product minerals in batch feldspar dissolution experiments at elevated temperatures and pressures and to trace the reaction paths on activity-activity diagrams. The modeling results demonstrated: (1) the experimental aqueous solutions were supersaturated with respect to product minerals for almost the entire duration of the experiments; (2) the aqueous solution chemistry did not evolve along the phase boundaries but crossed the phase boundaries at oblique angles; and (3) the earlier precipitated product minerals did not dissolve but continued to precipitate even after the solution chemistry had evolved into the stability fields of minerals lower in the paragenesis sequence. These three lines of evidence signify that product mineral precipitation is a slow kinetic process and partial equilibria between aqueous solution and product minerals were not held. In contrast, the experimental evidences are consistent with the hypothesis of strong coupling of mineral dissolution/precipitation kinetics [e.g., Zhu C., Blum A. E. and Veblen D. R. (2004a) Feldspar dissolution rates and clay precipitation in the Navajo aquifer at Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. In Water-Rock Interaction (eds. R. B. Wanty and R. R. I. Seal). A.A. Balkema, Saratoga Springs, New York. pp. 895-899]. In all batch experiments examined, the time of congruent feldspar dissolution was short and supersaturation with respect to the product minerals was reached within a short period of time. The experimental system progressed from a dissolution driven regime to a precipitation limited regime in a short order. The results of this study suggest a complex feedback between dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, which needs to be considered in the interpretation of field based dissolution rates.

Zhu, Chen; Lu, Peng

2009-06-01

25

[Paroxysmal melanoptysis secondary to the cavitation of pulmonary pneumoconiosis conglomerate].  

PubMed

Progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) secondary to pneumoconiosis involves the formation of fibrotic masses that eventually cause death from multiple complications. We present a rare but potentially serious complication in a patient with coal pneumoconiosis with PMF, in whom the appearance of paroxysmal melanoptysis was attributed to the cavitation of one of the pneumoconiotic masses. We emphasize the need for differential diagnosis to exclude other more common causes, as well as the use of bronchoscopy for diagnosis and confirmation. Strict control is needed to prevent possible respiratory failure when melanoptysis is massive. PMID:8689018

Haro, M; Vizcaya, M; Sánchez, E; Coloma, R; Loeches, N; Arévalo, M

1996-04-01

26

Geopolymers from Algerian metakaolin. Influence of secondary minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of secondary phases (illite, quartz) on the geopolymerization reaction of metakaolin has been investigated by comparing two metakaolins, one prepared from a pure kaolinite and the other from illite- and quartz-containing Algerian kaolin from the Tamazert region, respectively. Geopolymerization was achieved by mixing the metakaolins with an alkaline sodium silicate solution at room temperature and curing at 50 °C.

Fatima Zibouche; Hacène Kerdjoudj; Jean-Baptiste d'Espinose de Lacaillerie; Henri Van Damme

2009-01-01

27

Sorption of trace constituents from aqueous solutions onto secondary minerals. II. Radium  

SciTech Connect

Radium sorption efficiencies as a function of temperature, Ra concentration, and secondary mineral sorbate were determined in a 0.01 M NaCl solution. Radium sorption on a characterized clinoptilolite, montmorillonite, nontronite, opal, silica gel, illite, kaolinite, and glauconite under comparable experimental conditions allowed determination of Ra sorption efficiency curves for each, through use of Freundlich constants, over the same temperature and initial Ra solution concentration range Similar sorption data for U on the same secondary minerals over the same temperatures allowed comparison of sorption efficiencies for Ra and U. Clinoptilolite, illite, and nontronite were the most efficient Ra sorbents, while opal and silica gel were the poorest Ra sorbents. Generally, Ra sorption on secondary minerals was much greater than U sorption under the same experimental conditions. 13 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

Ames, L.L.; McGarrah, J.E.; Walker, B.A.

1983-01-01

28

Secondary Fe–Mn-oxides in minerals heavily damaged by ?-recoil: possible implications for palaeomagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-micron Fe,Mn-oxides in columbite–tantalite minerals are bound to metamict domains in the host. These nano-oxides are secondary\\u000a minerals as the metamict zones formed through accumulation of damages from ?-recoil, each of which in a small volume destroys\\u000a the crystal lattice of the U and Th bearing columbite–tantalite host. Transmission electron microscope investigations demonstrate\\u000a that the oxides fall in the compositional

Rolf L. Romer; Norbert Nowaczyk; Richard Wirth

2007-01-01

29

Microstructural analysis of secondary pulmonary lobule imaged by synchrotron radiation micro CT using offset scan mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of abnormalities relative to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. The purpose of this study is to analyze microstructure of the lobular anatomy with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers to quantitatively describe relation between the architectures and abnormalities. Recent commercial micro CT scanners play a vital role in imaging the lung micro-architectures. However, only a limited number of attempts have been conducted because of difficulties to image the secondary pulmonary lobule beyond the scan field of view and the limited contrast lung parenchyma. This paper demonstrates the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SR?CT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobule. The inflated and fixed lung specimen was imaged with resolution of 5.87x5.87x5.87 ?m3 by using offset scan mode of the SR?CT (15 keV) at the synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8). The 3-D SR?CT image which was stacked 2624 slices (each slice:7287x7287 voxels) covered the secondary pulmonary lobule being included in the lung specimen. A proper threshold value for appropriate segmentation was interactively determined to the volume of interest representing the secondary pulmonary lobule. Following transformation of the segmented binary image to a skeletonized surface representation, each voxel was classified as a curve, surface, or junction. The interlobular septa region was extracted interactively by using the voxel classification result which offered geometrical information. Each component of lobular airway, artery, and vein were extracted by using a seeding technique, considering equal attenuation values and connectivity. The resulting volumetric image from the SR?CT using offset scan mode made 3-D microstructural analysis of the lobular anatomy possible.

Kawata, Y.; Kageyama, K.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Yada, K.; Ohamatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

2010-03-01

30

Secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum: A case report  

PubMed Central

Chordomas are low- to intermediate-grade malignant tumors that recapitulate the notochord. Chordomas belong to the dysontogenetic bone tumors and appear primarily in the region of the axial skeleton. Chordomas are divided into conventional, chondroid, sarcomatoid and dedifferentiated subtypes. The different subtypes of chordoma have varied survival periods. According to the literature to date, secondary pulmonary and lymph-node metastases occur most frequently, followed by liver, bone and skin metastases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of one subtype of chordoma metastasizing or transforming into another subtype with a different histopathology. This study presents a 24-year-old man with secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from a primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum. The patient was alive at the end of November, 2009 and the survival time exceeded eight years. This is the first case of a patient with primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum with complete remission in whom a secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arose from the primary cancer.

CHEN, JIA-HONG; CHEN, KUAN-YU; HUENG, DUENG-YUAN; JIN, JONG-SHIAW

2014-01-01

31

Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the incubation. Other possible mechanisms include the presence of soluble Fe as an alternative energy source in the goethite treatment, the presence of toxic soluble Al in the gibbsite treatment, the loss of available phosphorus in the secondary mineral treatments due to sorption by secondary mineral surfaces, and variations in mineral surfaces as microhabitats. These findings suggest that Al and Fe oxides, such as goethite or gibbsite, are a factor in determining microbial community structure.

Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

2011-12-01

32

Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite MIL 03346 as Detected by Raman Imaging Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a preliminary study of MIL 03346,168 thin section by using the Raman imaging spectroscopy. Our goal is to get the spatial relationship of secondary hydrated minerals in this meteorite and to seek evidences that may hint their origins.

Ling, Z. C.; Wang, A.

2014-06-01

33

[Spontaneous rupture of tricuspid valve papillary muscle in pulmonary hypertension secondary to HIV infection.Report of one case].  

PubMed

Acute primary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) secondary to papillary muscle rupture is an extremely rare clinical situation. We report a 42-year-old male with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) secondary to HIV infection, who presented with an acute TR due to spontaneous papillary muscle rupture. He remained in cardiogenic shock despite therapy with inotropic drugs and pulmonary vasodilator therapy. He was subjected to a tricuspid valve replacement. In the postoperative period the patient had severe PAH, which was successfully controlled with inhaled nitric oxide. Tricuspid valve replacement and adjunctive use of pulmonary vasodilator therapy can be a life saving and useful approach in this condition. PMID:24953114

Winter, José Luis; Castro, Pablo; Vega, Julián; Paredes, Alejandro; Gabrielli, Luigi; Revello, Javier; Córdova, Samuel; Baraona, Fernando; Verdejo, Hugo; González, Rodrigo

2014-02-01

34

The Paris CM chondrite: Secondary minerals and asteroidal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least-altered CM identified so far (Hewins et al.). Compared to other CMs, Paris exhibits (1) a higher concentration of Fe-Ni metal beads, with nickel contents in the range 4.1-8.1 wt%; (2) the systematic presence of thin lamellae and tiny blebs of pentlandite in pyrrhotite grains; and (3) ubiquitous tochilinite/cronstedtite associations with higher FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 ratios. In addition, Paris shows the highest concentration of trapped 36Ar reported so far for a CM chondrite (Hewins et al.). In combination with the findings of previous studies, our data confirm the reliability of (1) the alteration sequence based on the chemical composition of tochilinite/cronstedtite associations to quantify the fluid alteration processes and (2) the use of Cr content variability in type II ferroan chondrule olivine as a proxy of thermal metamorphism. In contrast, the scales based on (1) the Fe3+ content of serpentine in the matrix to estimate the degree of aqueous alteration and (2) the chemical composition of Fe-Ni metal beads for quantifying the intensity of the thermal metamorphism are not supported by the characteristics of Paris. It also appears that the amount of trapped 36Ar is a sensitive indicator of the secondary alteration modifications experienced by chondrites, for both aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Considering Paris, our data suggest that this chondrite should be classified as type 2.7 as it suffered limited but significant fluid alteration and only mild thermal metamorphism. These results point out that two separated scales should be used to quantify the degree of the respective role of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in establishing the characteristics of CM chondrites.

Marrocchi, Yves; Gounelle, Matthieu; Blanchard, Ingrid; Caste, Florent; Kearsley, Anton T.

2014-07-01

35

The Paris CM chondrite: Secondary minerals and asteroidal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least-altered CM identified so far (Hewins et al. ). Compared to other CMs, Paris exhibits (1) a higher concentration of Fe-Ni metal beads, with nickel contents in the range 4.1-8.1 wt%; (2) the systematic presence of thin lamellae and tiny blebs of pentlandite in pyrrhotite grains; and (3) ubiquitous tochilinite/cronstedtite associations with higher FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 ratios. In addition, Paris shows the highest concentration of trapped 36Ar reported so far for a CM chondrite (Hewins et al. ). In combination with the findings of previous studies, our data confirm the reliability of (1) the alteration sequence based on the chemical composition of tochilinite/cronstedtite associations to quantify the fluid alteration processes and (2) the use of Cr content variability in type II ferroan chondrule olivine as a proxy of thermal metamorphism. In contrast, the scales based on (1) the Fe3+ content of serpentine in the matrix to estimate the degree of aqueous alteration and (2) the chemical composition of Fe-Ni metal beads for quantifying the intensity of the thermal metamorphism are not supported by the characteristics of Paris. It also appears that the amount of trapped 36Ar is a sensitive indicator of the secondary alteration modifications experienced by chondrites, for both aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Considering Paris, our data suggest that this chondrite should be classified as type 2.7 as it suffered limited but significant fluid alteration and only mild thermal metamorphism. These results point out that two separated scales should be used to quantify the degree of the respective role of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in establishing the characteristics of CM chondrites.

Marrocchi, Yves; Gounelle, Matthieu; Blanchard, Ingrid; Caste, Florent; Kearsley, Anton T.

2014-06-01

36

Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. Objectives: To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations. Methods: We infected subjects with moderate COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected before and repeatedly after rhinovirus infection and virus and bacterial loads measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture. The antimicrobial peptides secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, ?-defensins and ?-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatants. Measurements and Main Results: After rhinovirus infection, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 60% of subjects with COPD, 9.5% of smokers, and 10% of nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Sputum virus load peaked on Days 5–9 and bacterial load on Day 15. Sputum neutrophil elastase was significantly increased and SLPI and elafin significantly reduced after rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Conclusions: Rhinovirus infections are frequently followed by secondary bacterial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicrobial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate these secondary bacterial infections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or enhancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus-induced COPD exacerbations.

Mallia, Patrick; Footitt, Joseph; Sotero, Rosa; Jepson, Annette; Contoli, Marco; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Oleszkiewicz, Gregory; Gray, Katrina; Message, Simon D.; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Kon, Onn M.; Johnson, Malcolm

2012-01-01

37

Simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

Thromboembolism presenting with malignancy is common in adults but rare in children. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy admitted to our hospital with syncope. Computed tomography revealed thromboembolism in both the lungs. Magnetic resonance imaging found thromboembolism in the inferior vena cava and a large heterogeneous mass in the pelvis. Pelvic osteosarcoma was confirmed by computed tomography-guided biopsy. Despite intensive chemotherapy and local radiation, only transient response was noted, the tumor remaining unresectable. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma in children. We also emphasize syncope as a unique feature of pulmonary thromboembolism. Accordingly, thromboembolism should be kept in mind as the first manifestation of occult malignancy, even in children. PMID:23274375

Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng; Chao, Yu-Hua; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chen, Pei-Yu; Wu, Han-Ping; Wu, Kang-Hsi

2013-11-01

38

Secondary mineralization and hydrothermal alteration in the Reydarfjordur drill core, eastern Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep crustal drilling in eastern Iceland has allowed study of a fossil hydrothermal system at a constructive plate margin. The drilled sequence consists of partly to completely altered subaerial lava flows, basaltic dikes, and minor clastic material. Alteration and secondary mineralization are most intense in the flow top breccias where water/rock ratios are presumed to have been the highest. In the upper portion of the cored sequence (to a depth of about 1200 m) alteration is characterized by the deposition of clay minerals ± calcite ± quartz ± laumontite into open spaces such as vugs and vesicles. Low-temperature zeolites, such as stilbite, epistilbite, mordenite, and heulandite, are also present but are restricted to the upper 500 m of the drill core. Below 1200 m, alteration is characterized by the dissolution and replacement of both primary minerals and earlier authigenic minerals, followed by partial filling of dissolution cavities. Early mineral assemblages consist of epidote ± quartz ± prehnite ± chlorite ± albite, and a later superimposed assemblage consists of calcite + laumontite ± anhydrite. Authigenic sphene, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pumpellyite, actinolite, and wairakite also occur sporadically in the cored sequence. Secondary mineral assemblages and temperature measurements of fluid inclusions suggest a maximum temperature of alteration of about 300°C. Fluid inclusion compositions indicate that the geothermal fluid was meteoric water with very low salinities and high calcium activities. Iron activities and oxygen fugacities were highest in the deeper portions of the systems. The mineral paragenesis suggests that the fluid composition, temperature, and PCO2 varied significantly with time. The thermal energy for the geothermal system was probably derived from a high-level magma chamber associated with nearby Thingmuli volcano. Local contact metamorphism, indicated by the formation of garnet, occurred during late stage emplacement of dikes into the lava pile. Chlorite ± calcite ± laumontite assemblages were also deposited along subvertical fractures at this time.

Mehegan, James M.; Robinson, Paul T.; Delaney, John R.

1982-08-01

39

Bone mineral density and fractures in older men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma  

PubMed Central

Summary In 5,541 community dwelling men, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma was associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and total hip and an increased risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures independent of age, body mass index, and smoking. Men prescribed with corticosteroids had the lowest BMD. Introduction It is unclear whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is independently associated with BMD and fractures. Methods In 5,541 men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, history of COPD or asthma, current treatment with corticosteroids, BMD, bone loss after 4.5 years and fractures were ascertained. Results Seven hundred fourteen (13%) men reported COPD or asthma, of which 103 were prescribed an oral steroid and 177 an inhaled steroid. Independent of confounders, men prescribed corticosteroids for COPD or asthma had the lowest BMD and a 2-fold increased risk of vertebral osteoporosis compared to men with no history of COPD or asthma (OR 2.13, 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.15–3.93 oral steroids; OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.27–3.31 inhaled steroids). During follow-up, BMD increased at the spine, but there was no difference in bone loss at the hip. However, men with COPD or asthma had a 2.6- and 1.4-fold increased risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, respectively. Conclusion Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma was associated with lower BMD at the spine and hip and increased risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures independent of age, clinic site, BMI, and smoking. A history of COPD or asthma may be a useful clinical risk factor to identify patients with osteoporosis.

Harrison, S.; Fink, H. A.; Ramsdell, J.; Barrett-Connor, E.

2009-01-01

40

Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a regional primary alteration being overprinted by a secondary mineralogy. The intense hydrothermal alteration at both sites shows significant differences in the secondary mineralogy. At Roman Ruins, the upper 25 m of hydrothermally altered rocks are characterized by a rapid change from secondary cristobalite to quartz, implying a high temperature gradient. From 10 to 120 mbsf the clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and chlorite. The chlorite formation temperature calculated from oxygen isotope data lies at 250° C in 116 mbsf which is similar to the present fluid outflow temperatures of 240-250° C (Douville et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 627-643). Drilling in the Snowcap field recovered evidence for several stages of hydrothermal alteration. Between 50 and 150 mbsf, cristobalite and chlorite are the most abundant alteration minerals while hydrothermal pyrophyllite becomes abundant in some places At 67 mbsf, the isotopic composition of pyrophyllite gives a temperature for ist formation at 260° C whereas at 77 and 116 mbsf the pyrophyllite displays the highest temperatures of formation (>300° C). These temperatures are close to the maximum measured borehole temperatures of 313° C. The appearance of assemblages of chlorite, chlorite-vermiculite, chlorite-vermiculite-smectite and illite-smectite as well as the local development of corrensite below 150 mbsf suggests that the alteration at Snowcap may be more complex than that beneath Roman Ruins. Detailed geochemical studies of the authigenic clay mineral phases will provide further insights into the chemical changes due to hydrothermal alteration.

Lackschewitz, K. S.; Kummetz, M.; Kummetz, M.; Ackermand, D.; Botz, R.; Devey, C. W.; Singer, A.; Stoffers, P.

2001-12-01

41

Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly applied in adults with acute refractory respiratory failure that is deemed reversible. Bleeding is the most frequent complication during ECMO support. Severe pre-existing bleeding has been considered a contraindication to ECMO application. Nevertheless, there are cases of successful ECMO application in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock or head trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. ECMO has proved to be life-saving in several cases of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hemorrhage of various causes, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's disease). We successfully applied ECMO in a 65-year-old woman with acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to diffuse massive pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, manifested as severe pulmonary-renal syndrome. ECMO sustained life and allowed disease control, together with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, corticoids, and renal replacement therapy. The patient was successfully weaned from ECMO, extubated, and discharged home. She remains alive on dialysis at 17 months follow-up. PMID:23926421

Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Petermann, Arndt; Visouli, Aikaterini; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Ketteler, Markus; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Brachmann, Johannes

2013-01-01

42

Secondary mineralization pathways induced by dissimilatory iron reduction of ferrihydrite under advective flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron (hydr)oxides not only serve as potent sorbents and repositories for nutrients and contaminants but also provide a terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. The microbial reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides and the subsequent secondary solid-phase transformations will, therefore, have a profound influence on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe as well as associated metals. Here we elucidate the pathways and mechanisms of secondary mineralization during dissimilatory iron reduction by a common iron-reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens (strain CN32), of 2-line ferrihydrite under advective flow conditions. Secondary mineralization of ferrihydrite occurs via a coupled, biotic-abiotic pathway primarily resulting in the production of magnetite and goethite with minor amounts of green rust. Operating mineralization pathways are driven by competing abiotic reactions of bacterially generated ferrous iron with the ferrihydrite surface. Subsequent to the initial sorption of ferrous iron on ferrihydrite, goethite (via dissolution/reprecipitation) and/or magnetite (via solid-state conversion) precipitation ensues resulting in the spatial coupling of both goethite and magnetite with the ferrihydrite surface. The distribution of goethite and magnetite within the column is dictated, in large part, by flow-induced ferrous Fe profiles. While goethite precipitation occurs over a large Fe(II) concentration range, magnetite accumulation is only observed at concentrations exceeding 0.3 mmol/L (equivalent to 0.5 mmol Fe[II]/g ferrihydrite) following 16 d of reaction. Consequently, transport-regulated ferrous Fe profiles result in a progression of magnetite levels downgradient within the column. Declining microbial reduction over time results in lower Fe(II) concentrations and a subsequent shift in magnetite precipitation mechanisms from nucleation to crystal growth. While the initial precipitation rate of goethite exceeds that of magnetite, continued growth is inhibited by magnetite formation, potentially a result of lower Fe(III) activity. Conversely, the presence of lower initial Fe(II) concentrations followed by higher concentrations promotes goethite accumulation and inhibits magnetite precipitation even when Fe(II) concentrations later increase, thus revealing the importance of both the rate of Fe(II) generation and flow-induced Fe(II) profiles. As such, the operating secondary mineralization pathways following reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite at a given pH are governed principally by flow-regulated Fe(II) concentration, which drives mineral precipitation kinetics and selection of competing mineral pathways.

Hansel, Colleen M.; Benner, Shawn G.; Neiss, Jim; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Fendorf, Scott

2003-08-01

43

Reduction of jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and secondary mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jarosite is a common mineral in a variety of environments formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide normally accompanying with the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) in mining areas or acid rock drainages (ARD) in many localities. Decomposition of jarosite by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) influences the mobility of many heavy metals generally accommodated in natural jarosite. This study examined the anaerobic reduction of synthesized jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a typical facultative bacteria. The release of ferrous and ferric ion, as well as sulfate and potassium, in the inoculated experimental group lasting 80 days is much higher than that in abiotic control groups. The detection of bicarbonate and acetate in experimental solution further confirms the mechanism of microbial reduction of jarosite, in which lactate acts as the electron donor. The produced ferrous iron stimulates the subsequent secondary mineralization, leading to precipitation and transformation of various iron-containing minerals. Green rust and goethite are the intermediate minerals of the microbial reduction process under anoxic conditions, and the end products include magnetite and siderite. In aerobic environments, goethite, magnetite and siderite were also detected, but the contents were relatively lower. While in abiotic experiments, only goethite has been detected as a product. Thus, the microbial reduction and subsequent mineral transformation can remarkably influence the geochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in supergene environments, as well as the mobility of heavy metals commonly accommodated in jarosite.

Bingjie, Ouyang; Xiancai, Lu; Huan, Liu; Juan, Li; Tingting, Zhu; Xiangyu, Zhu; Jianjun, Lu; Rucheng, Wang

2014-01-01

44

Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A x[(W,Fe)(O,OH) 3] ·yH 2O are described. Phyllotungstite ( A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3) Å, c=19.55(1) Å, space group P6 3/ mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia ( A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1) Å, c=50.49(1) Å, space group P-6 m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111) py pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111) py blocks have the same thickness, 6 Å, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12 Å. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111) py oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO 3.

Grey, Ian E.; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine; Mills, Stuart J.

2006-12-01

45

Secondary mineral phases of metallic lead in soils of shooting ranges from Örebro County, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some countries Pb-containing shotgun pellets have become one of the sources of soil contamination in shooting range areas. Pb pellets from eight shooting ranges in central Sweden were mineralogically analysed and the results show that when the Pb pellets come into contact with soil, about 10% of them are decomposed and transformed into secondary lead minerals as encrustations. The encrustation consists of two concentric rims: a 50 to 150 ?m wide outer rim of hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) and a 10 to 30 ?m wide inner-rim of massicot (PbO). Anglesite (PbSO4) occurs locally in the inner rim. The growing relationship between lead mineral phases suggests that replacement took place. The podzols of the shooting ranges studied are favorable for the formation of lead carbonate. Lead carbonate provides effective controls on the retention of lead in the upper soil layers.

Lin, Zhixun

1996-06-01

46

Secondary sulfate mineralization and basaltic chemistry of craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential martian analog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) basalts offer a reasonable analog to martian basalts, as they have elevated iron concentrations compared to traditional terrestrial analogs. Although secondary sulfate minerals on the evaporitic regions of Mars consist primarily of Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing sulfate minerals, recent orbiter spectroscopic data have suggested Na-sulfate minerals may be present. Secondary minerals in the basaltic caves of COM in southern Idaho are white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and localized mounds on the cave floors. These deposits were examined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (LD-FTICRMS). The secondary mineral assemblages were dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. Based on thermodynamic modeling results, formation of the deposits was attributed to leaching of basalt minerals by meteoritic water followed by evaporation of solutions. Such deposits could form under similar conditions in basaltic caves on Mars, making caves an excellent target for astrobiological investigations.

Doc Richardson, C.; Hinman, Nancy W.; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Michelle Kotler, J.; Knipe, Dawn L.; Scott, Jill R.

2012-05-01

47

Pulmonary function differences in patients with chronic right heart failure secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic left heart failure.  

PubMed

Background Pulmonary abnormalities are found in both chronic heart failure (CHF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The differences of pulmonary function in chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure are not fully understood. Material and Methods We evaluated 120 patients with stable CHF (60 with chronic left heart failure and 60 with chronic right heart failure). All patients had pulmonary function testing, including pulmonary function testing at rest and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Results Patients with right heart failure had a significantly lower end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2), higher end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PetO2) and minute ventilation/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) at rest. Patients with right heart failure had a lower peak PetCO2, and a higher peak dead space volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) ratio, peak PetO2, peak VE/VCO2, and VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. Patients with right heart failure had more changes in ?PetCO2 and ?VE/VCO2, from rest to exercise. Conclusions Patients with right heart failure had worse pulmonary function at rest and exercise, which was due to severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching, severe ventilation inefficiency, and gas exchange abnormality. PMID:24916204

Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Xue, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

2014-01-01

48

Pulmonary function differences in patients with chronic right heart failure secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic left heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary abnormalities are found in both chronic heart failure (CHF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The differences of pulmonary function in chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure are not fully understood. Material/Methods We evaluated 120 patients with stable CHF (60 with chronic left heart failure and 60 with chronic right heart failure). All patients had pulmonary function testing, including pulmonary function testing at rest and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Results Patients with right heart failure had a significantly lower end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2), higher end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PetO2) and minute ventilation/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) at rest. Patients with right heart failure had a lower peak PetCO2, and a higher peak dead space volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) ratio, peak PetO2, peak VE/VCO2, and VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. Patients with right heart failure had more changes in ?PetCO2 and ?VE/VCO2, from rest to exercise. Conclusions Patients with right heart failure had worse pulmonary function at rest and exercise, which was due to severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching, severe ventilation inefficiency, and gas exchange abnormality.

Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Xue, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

2014-01-01

49

Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail. PMID:20851443

Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

2011-01-01

50

Secondary-mineral formation during natural weathering of pyroxene: Review and thermodynamic approach  

SciTech Connect

Physical and chemical factors controlling natural weathering processes of pyroxenes through the formation of secondary minerals are reviewed. It has been shown that besides climate, mineralogy, and petrology of parent rocks, mineralogy and structural arrangement of secondary phases rule over the composition of the pyroxene-derived products during increased weathering. Drainage conditions, however, are the most critical factors in constraining weathering paths from the earlier stages of cation-depleted layer-silicate formation to the last stages of goethite/kaolinite formation. A succession of transitional phyllosilicates develops from Mg-endmembers to Fe- or Al-endmembers. The chemistry of natural percolating waters remains poorly known, and local pH and Eh are generally unknown and difficult to measure in situ. Nevertheless these agents should play an important role at the microscale in the formation of weathering products. Therefore, thermodynamic simulation is required for a better understanding of the natural secondary products formed at the expense of pyroxene. In this paper, computerized calculations were used to monitor the theoretical congruent dissolution, without kinetic effects, of a known mixture of minerals with a solution defined by initial pH, O[sub 2], and CO[sub 2] fugacities, temperature, and opening degree of the system. Results of this thermodynamic modeling generally agree with natural weathering paths, as, for example, successive replacements of pyroxene by Fe- and Al-bearing products such as goethite, kaolinite, and smectites. Changes of pO[sub 2] and Al-content strongly control the composition of the clay solid-solution. Consideration of kinetic effects, composition of weathering solutions in the field, and in situ oxygen fugacity measurement should rank high among future research priorities. 57 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Noack, Y.; Nahon, D.; Michaux, L. (Universite AIX-Marseille III (France)); Colin, F.; Delvigne, J. (ORSTOM, Paris (France))

1993-02-01

51

Evaluation of the Effects of Atorvastatin on the Treatment of Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Since pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) causes poor prognosis and inflammatory process involved in PH, it is supposed that Statins with anti-inflammatory effects might be useful in the treatment of PH. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Atorvastatin on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with COPD. Patients and Methods A registered (IRCT201108257411N1), triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed in Rasoule Akram hospital, Tehran, from 2009 to 2011. Forty five patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension due to COPD were recruited and randomized to two groups receiving either Atorvastatin 40 mg/d or placebo in addition to their current treatment for 6 months. The outcomes including systolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (SPAH), cardiac output (CO), right ventricular size (RVS), CRP, 6 min walk distance test (6MWD), and spirometry parameters were measured after 6 months. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. After 6 months, pulmonary hypertension changed from 48.5 ± 6.9 to 42.9 ± 9.3 mmHg for Atorvastatin users and from 49.7 ± 11.4 to 48.2 ± 14.6 mmHg for Placebo users (P = 0.19, CI - 13.57 - 2.89), 6MWD after 6 months was 339 ± 155 meters in case group versus 340 ± 106 meters in control group (P = 0.98, CI - 92.58 - 91.15). There were no significant changes in other outcomes including CRP, RVS, CO and spirometry parameters. Conclusions Although we found a trend towards decreasing SPAH and improving 6MWD, no statistically significant shift were detected in our outcomes due to inadequate sample size.

Moosavi, Seyed Ali Javad; Raji, Hanieh; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Yazdani, Rostam; Esmaeili, Mansour

2013-01-01

52

Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618.

Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

2011-01-01

53

Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B. (1991) EPSL, 101, 180-195. [12] Swindle T. D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2215-2227. [13]

Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

1995-09-01

54

Secondary Fe-Mn-oxides in minerals heavily damaged by alpha-recoil: possible implications for palaeomagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-micron Fe,Mn-oxides in columbite-tantalite minerals are bound to metamict domains in the host. These nano-oxides are secondary minerals as the metamict zones formed through accumulation of damages from alpha-recoil, each of which in a small volume destroys the crystal lattice of the U and Th bearing columbite-tantalite host. Transmission electron microscope investigations demonstrate that the oxides fall in the compositional

Rolf L. Romer; Norbert Nowaczyk; Richard Wirth

2007-01-01

55

The effect of erythropoietin to pulmonary injury and mast cells secondary to acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening necroinflammatory disease that is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute lung injury even in its very first days. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone considered as an antiapoptotic and cytoprotective with observed receptors of anti-inflammatory effect on organs apart from the liver and the kidneys. In this study, the effects of EPO on pulmonary mast cells and on secondary injury caused by acute pancreatitis are investigated. Methods Twenty one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups—sham, control, and EPO groups—with 7 rats per group. Pancreatitis was induced by administering 4.5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. A 1000 U/kg/day dosage (three times) of EPO was administered to the EPO group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, amylase, and troponin I in the serum were studied; and lung, kidney, brain, and heart tissues were examined histopathologically. Results There were no histopathological changes in the other organ tissues except for the lung tissue. Compared to the control group, the EPO group showed significantly reduced alveolar hemorrhage, septal neutrophil infiltration, lung wall thickness score, and mast cell count in the lung tissue. Conclusions Administration of EPO reduces the mast cell count and lung wall thickness, and it reduces the alveolar hemorrhage and septal infiltration induced by acute pancreatitis.

2014-01-01

56

Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This project, renewal of a previous EMSP project of the same title, is in its first year of funding at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The purpose is to continue investigating rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals found in the Hanford subsurface and leaked waste tank solutions. The goals are to understand processes that result in (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. A post-doctoral scientist, Dr. Sherry Samson, has been hired and two masters of science students are beginning to conduct experimental research. One research project that is underway is focused on measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms. The first set of experiments is being conduced at room temperature. Subsequent experiments will examine the role of temperature because tank solutions in many cases were near boiling when leakage is thought to have occurred and temperature gradients have been observed beneath the SX and BX tank farms. The dissolution experiments are being conducted in stirred-flow kinetic reactors using powdered labradorite feldspar from Pueblo Park, New Mexico.

Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchio, Neil C.

2003-06-01

57

Persistent eNOS activation secondary to caveolin-1 deficiency induces pulmonary hypertension in mice and humans through PKG nitration.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an unremitting disease defined by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right-sided heart failure. Using mice with genetic deletions of caveolin 1 (Cav1) and eNOS (Nos3), we demonstrate here that chronic eNOS activation secondary to loss of caveolin-1 can lead to PH. Consistent with a role for eNOS in the pathogenesis of PH, the pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH phenotype of Cav1-/- mice were absent in Cav1-/-Nos3-/- mice. Further, treatment of Cav1-/- mice with either MnTMPyP (a superoxide scavenger) or l-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) reversed their pulmonary vascular pathology and PH phenotype. Activation of eNOS in Cav1-/- lungs led to the impairment of PKG activity through tyrosine nitration. Moreover, the PH phenotype in Cav1-/- lungs could be rescued by overexpression of PKG-1. The clinical relevance of the data was indicated by the observation that lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension demonstrated increased eNOS activation and PKG nitration and reduced caveolin-1 expression. Together, these data show that loss of caveolin-1 leads to hyperactive eNOS and subsequent tyrosine nitration-dependent impairment of PKG activity, which results in PH. Thus, targeting of PKG nitration represents a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PH. PMID:19487814

Zhao, You-Yang; Zhao, Yidan D; Mirza, Muhammad K; Huang, Julia H; Potula, Hari-Hara S K; Vogel, Steven M; Brovkovych, Viktor; Yuan, Jason X-J; Wharton, John; Malik, Asrar B

2009-07-01

58

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Secondary to Anorexigens and Other Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several drugs and toxins have been shown to be associated with the development of pulmonary vascular hypertension. Pulmonary\\u000a hypertension (PH) related to these factors has been classified as primary PH (PPH), currently referred to as idiopathic pulmonary\\u000a arterial hypertension, because its morphological findings, clinical manifestations, hemodynamic measures, and pathological\\u000a changes were reported to be similar to those of PPH. In

Kim Bouillon; Yola Moride; Lamiae Bensouda-Grimaldi; Lucien Abenhaim

59

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides students with basic information on mineralogy. It explains how the term "mineral" is defined, the properties that are used to identify minerals, their importance in daily life, and some general facts. For each identifying property, an example mineral and photograph are provided. Addresses to websites with additional information are also included.

Passow, Michael

60

Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. Thi...

M. Whitbeck W. Glassley

1998-01-01

61

The behaviour of Li and Mg isotopes during primary phase dissolution and secondary mineral formation in basalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents lithium (Li) and magnesium (Mg) isotope data from experiments designed to assess the effects of dissolution of primary phases and the formation of secondary minerals during the weathering of basalt. Basalt glass and olivine dissolution experiments were performed in mixed through-flow reactors under controlled equilibrium conditions, at low pH (2-4) in order to keep solutions undersaturated (i.e. far-from equilibrium) and inhibit the formation of secondary minerals. Combined dissolution-precipitation experiments were performed at high pH (10 and 11) increasing the saturation state of the solutions (moving the system closer to equilibrium) and thereby promoting the formation of secondary minerals. At conditions far from equilibrium saturation state modelling and solution stoichiometry suggest that little secondary mineral formation has occurred. This is supported by the similarity of the dissolution rates of basalt glass and olivine obtained here compared to those of previous experiments. The ? 7Li isotope composition of the experimental solution is indistinguishable from that of the initial basalt glass or olivine indicating that little fractionation has occurred. In contrast, the same experimental solutions have light Mg isotope compositions relative to the primary phases, and the solution becomes progressively lighter with time. In the absence of any evidence for secondary mineral formation the most likely explanation for these light Mg isotope compositions is that there has been preferential loss of light Mg during primary phase dissolution. For the experiments undertaken at close to equilibrium conditions the results of saturation state modelling and changes in solution chemistry suggest that secondary mineral formation has occurred. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of the reacted mineral products from these experiments confirm that the principal secondary phase that has formed is chrysotile. Lithium isotope ratios of the experimental fluid become increasingly heavy with time, consistent with previous experimental work and natural data indicating that 6Li is preferentially incorporated into secondary minerals, leaving the solution enriched in 7Li. The behaviour of Mg isotopes is different from that anticipated or observed in natural systems. Similar to the far from equilibrium experiments initially light Mg is lost during olivine dissolution, but with time the ? 26Mg value of the solution becomes increasingly heavy. This suggests either preferential loss of light, and then heavy Mg from olivine, or that the secondary phase preferentially incorporates light Mg from solution. Assuming that the secondary phase is chrysotile, a Mg-silicate, the sense of Mg fractionation is opposite to that previously associated with silicate soils and implies that the fractionation of Mg isotopes during silicate precipitation may be mineral specific. If secondary silicates do preferentially remove light Mg from solution then this could be a possible mechanism for the relatively heavy ? 26Mg value of seawater. This study highlights the utility of experimental studies to quantify the effects of natural weathering reactions on the Li and Mg geochemical cycles.

Wimpenny, Josh; Gíslason, Sigurður R.; James, Rachael H.; Gannoun, Abdelmouhcine; Pogge Von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Burton, Kevin W.

2010-09-01

62

Utility of electrocardiogram in the assessment and monitoring of pulmonary hypertension (idiopathic or secondary to pulmonary developmental abnormalities) in patients ?18 years of age.  

PubMed

Electrocardiograms have utility in disease stratification and monitoring in adult pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We examined the electrocardiographic findings that are common in pediatric PAH and assessed for correlation with disease severity and progression. We retrospectively identified patients aged ?18 years followed at a single institution from January 2001 to June 2012 with catheterization-confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PAH and PAH secondary to pulmonary developmental abnormalities. Patients with an electrocardiography performed within 60 days of catheterization were included. Primary and secondary outcomes are the prevalence of abnormal electrocardiographic findings at the time of catheterization and the association between electrocardiographic and hemodynamic findings and electrocardiographic changes with disease progression on follow-up catheterization, respectively. Of the 100 electrocardiography-catheterization pairs derived from the 46 patients identified, 93% had an electrocardiographic abnormality: 78% had right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and 52% had right axis deviation (RAD) for age. In patients with idiopathic PAH, the presence of RVH and RAD correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance and transpulmonary gradient. RAD and RVH on baseline electrocardiogram was associated with an increased risk of disease progression on subsequent catheterization (odds ratio 11.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 96.2, p = 0.03) after adjusting for PAH subgroup. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of RAD and RVH on baseline electrocardiogram for disease progression were 92%, 48%, 33%, and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in pediatric PAH. RAD and RVH on electrocardiogram were associated with worse hemodynamics, whereas their absence is suggestive of a lack of disease progression. PMID:24878129

Lau, Kelvin C; Frank, David B; Hanna, Brian D; Patel, Akash R

2014-07-15

63

Pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis secondary to mycophenolate mofetil in a heart-transplant patient.  

PubMed

Immunosuppressive drugs are an integral part of therapy in organ transplantation. However, they are not without side effects, and although rare, these agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary complications in patients receiving transplants. We present a case of a patient who developed acute respiratory failure 7 days after orthotopic heart transplantation and who had been on both mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus agents. Lung biopsy revealed features of pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis. Considered as a possible etiology, MMF was withdrawn. There was immediate improvement of the patient's symptoms. The temporal relationship between MMF exposure and onset of pulmonary symptoms in the absence of other possible etiologies strongly suggests a causal relationship. Previously published reports of pulmonary toxicity from MMF included interstitial fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis because of administration of MMF. PMID:24168511

Gorgan, Maria; Bockorny, Bruno; Lawlor, Michael; Volpe, John; Fiel-Gan, Mary

2013-11-01

64

Effects of salinity and the extent of water on supercritical CO2-induced phlogopite dissolution and secondary mineral formation.  

PubMed

To ensure the viability of geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), we need a holistic understanding of reactions at supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock interfaces and the environmental factors affecting these interactions. This research investigated the effects of salinity and the extent of water on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of phlogopite [KMg2.87Si3.07Al1.23O10(F,OH)2], a model clay mineral in potential GCS sites. Salinity enhanced the dissolution of phlogopite and affected the location, shape, size, and phase of secondary minerals. In low salinity solutions, nanoscale particles of secondary minerals formed much faster, and there were more nanoparticles than in high salinity solutions. The effect of water extent was investigated by comparing scCO2-H2O(g)-phlogopite and scCO2-H2O(l)-phlogopite interactions. Experimental results suggested that the presence of a thin water film adsorbed on the phlogopite surface caused the formation of dissolution pits and a surface coating of secondary mineral phases that could change the physical properties of rocks. These results provide new information for understanding reactions at scCO2-saline water-rock interfaces in deep saline aquifers and will help design secure and environmentally sustainable CO2 sequestration projects. PMID:21222477

Shao, Hongbo; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

2011-02-15

65

9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

1998-12-01

66

Effect of secondary minerals on electrokinetic phenomena during water-rock interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main geophysical application of spontaneous potentials (SP) anomalies, i.e., electrical signal generated by hydroelectric coupling, is the mapping of hydrothermal zones. Laboratory studies of hydroelectric coupling as a function of temperature are scarce, because of experimental difficulties. Up today experiments carried out by Ishido and Mizutani [1981] with quartz-Al-K-NO3 system for temperatures ranging from 20°C to 80°C are not well understood. In this work, we show that Ishido and Mizutani [1981]'s solutions are oversaturated with aluminium, and that the precipitation of Al(OH)3s is expected. Triple Layer Model (TLM) calculations for a gibbsite-KNO3 system can account for Ishido and Mizutani [1981]'s measurements. These results highlight that (1) the precipitation of a secondary mineral can hide the electrical properties of the primary rock; (2) the geochemical fluid surveys should be taken into account to grasp the interfacial processes (precipitation/dissolution), and to interpret the SP measurements in the field.

Guichet, Xavier; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

2003-07-01

67

Volcanic stratigraphy and secondary mineralization of U. S. G. S. Pucci geothermal test well, Mount Hood, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-one sample splits of drill cuttings from approximately 6.1 m intervals in the 610 m hole that was completed in 1979 were provided for this study. An additional 225 sample splits (3.05 m intervals) from 536 m to the bottom of the drill hole at 1220 m were added to the study following the deepening of the drill hole. Stratigraphic and petrologic observations of the cuttings were made. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer examinations were made of alteration minerals. The lithology and secondary mineralization are discussed.

Gannett, M.W.; Bargar, K.E.

1981-01-01

68

An unusual presentation of spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to talc-induced pulmonary granulomatosis.  

PubMed

Talc-induced pulmonary granulomatosis is an unusual condition resulting from the intravenous administration of medications intended for oral use. A patient with this condition who presented with a spontaneous tension pneumothorax is reported. Although the radiographic findings of a diffuse reticulonodular pattern are typical, this patient was found to have diffuse, small cavitary pulmonary nodules. Surgeons should be aware of this rare condition and should have a low threshold for performing a thoracoscopic lung biopsy. PMID:19463632

Caceres, Manuel; Braud, Rebecca; Garrett, Harvey Edward

2009-06-01

69

Sorption and redox reactions of As(III) and As(V) within secondary mineral coatings on aquifer sediment grains.  

PubMed

Important reactive phenomena that affect the transport and fate of many elements occur at the mineral-water interface (MWI), including sorption and redox reactions. Fundamental knowledge of these phenomena are often based on observations of ideal mineral-water systems, for example, studies of molecular scale reactions on single crystal faces or the surfaces of pure mineral powders. Much less is understood about MWI in natural environments, which typically have nanometer to micrometer scale secondary mineral coatings on the surfaces of primary mineral grains. We examined sediment grain coatings from a well-characterized field site to determine the causes of rate limitations for arsenic (As) sorption and redox processes within the coatings. Sediments were obtained from the USGS field research site on Cape Cod, MA, and exposed to synthetic contaminated groundwater solutions. Uptake of As(III) and As(V) into the coatings was studied with a combination of electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques to assess concentration gradients and reactive processes, including electron transfer reactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microprobe (XMP) analyses indicated that As was primarily associated with micrometer- to submicrometer aggregates of Mn-bearing nanoparticulate goethite. As(III) oxidation by this phase was observed but limited by the extent of exposed surface area of the goethite grains to the exterior of the mineral coatings. Secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site, and may need to be included explicitly in reactive transport models. PMID:24041305

Singer, David M; Fox, Patricia M; Guo, Hua; Marcus, Matthew A; Davis, James A

2013-10-15

70

[Bronchial hyperreactivity as a factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development in the population of the Bogdanka coal miners].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the role of bronchial hyperreactivity in the development of chronic airflow obstruction in the population of the Bogdanka (Lublin Basin) coal miners. The population examined consisted of 1456 coal miners working underground in the Bogdanka colliery. The methods of the study included plethysmographic measurements of total airway resistance (Raw), spirometric measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and determination of forced expiratory flowa at 75, 50 and 25 per cent of vital capacity (FEF75, FEF50 and FEF25%VC). The measurements were repeated twice--before and after administration of 0.2% solution of methacholine (1 min inhalation). Pulmonary function tests were also performed 8 years after initial measurements. The increase in the Raw value above 0.6 kPa/l/s was observed in 5.5% of the population examined. In this group of subjects the skin prick tests with common allergens, measurements of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and determination of blood eosinophils count were performed. Only 12% of all hyperreactives (Raw increase > 0.6 kPa/l/s) showed features of atopy--positive skin prick tests, raised IgE levels, and increase in blood eosinophils count. Using a survival analysis as a statistical tool we evaluated for how long the pulmonary function tests remained within normal ranges in two groups: hyperreactives and controls. All hyperreactives (atopic and non-atopic) showed significantly higher risk of lung function decrease below the normal values as compared with the control group. PMID:10746240

Mosiewicz, J; My?li?ski, W; Ryczak, E; Dzida, G; Bi?an, A; Palusi?ski, R; Hanzlik, J

1999-01-01

71

Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

1998-10-23

72

Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

1998-02-01

73

Noninvasive assessment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease: A comparative study between five different Doppler indices  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is an important hemodynamic parameter in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Noninvasive estimation of PVR represents an attractive alternative to invasive measurements. Methods The study included 175 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to CHD. All patients underwent full echocardiographic study and invasive hemodynamic measurements. The study population was then subdivided into four subgroups. Each of the following Doppler indices was measured in one of these four subgroups: peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV), the ratio of the TRV to the velocity time integral of the right ventricular outflow tract (TRV/TVIRVOT), peak velocity of tricuspid annular systolic motion (TSm), heart rate corrected acceleration time and infliction time of the proximal left pulmonary artery (ATc, InTc). The data obtained was correlated with invasive PVR measurement. An ROC curve analysis was done to generate cutoff points with the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict PVR > 6WU/m2. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were compared with each other to determine the most reliable cutoff point in predicting elevated PVR > 6WU/m2. Results There was a significant correlation between both the TRV and TSm and invasive measurement of PVR (r = ?0.511, 0.387 and P value = 0.0002, 0.006 respectively). The TSm and TRV cutoff values were the most reliable to predict elevated PVR > 6 WU/m2. A TSm cutoff value of ?16.16 cm/s provided the best balanced sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (66.7%) to determine PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. A cutoff value less than 7.62 cm/s had 100% specificity to predict PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. A TRV cutoff value of >3.96 m/s provided the best balanced sensitivity (66.7%) and specificity (100%) to determine PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. Both TRV and TSm had the highest area under the ROC curve among the 5 DOPPLER indices studied. Conclusion Prediction of elevated PVR in children with PH secondary to CHD could be achieved noninvasively using a number of Doppler indices. Among the five Doppler indices examined in the current study, the peak TRV and the TSm of the lateral tricuspid annulus had the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict PVRI > 6 WU/m2.

Roushdy, Alaa Mahmoud; Ragab, Iman; Abd el Raouf, Wessam

2012-01-01

74

The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO 2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; White, Art F.; Stonestrom, Dave A.

2009-05-01

75

The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A. F.; Stonestrom, D. A.

2009-01-01

76

A case of pulmonary hemorrhage due to drug-induced pneumonitis secondary to ticagrelor therapy.  

PubMed

We report a case of significant pulmonary hemorrhage developing shortly after commencing ticagrelor and aspirin therapy and requiring coronary artery bypass grafting to safely cease the antiplatelet therapy. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with drug-induced lung injury. Clinicians should be aware of this significant adverse event with this drug class. PMID:24590025

Whitmore, Timothy J; O'Shea, John P; Starac, Diana; Edwards, Mark G; Waterer, Grant W

2014-03-01

77

A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

Goodfellow, Bradley W.

2012-12-01

78

[Cardiac arrest and secondary pulmonary oedema following accidental intramucosal injection of naphazoline in an adult].  

PubMed

During neurosurgery for hypophysary adenoma under general anaesthesia in a prone position, a 34 year-old-women received accidental 6 ml intramucosal injection of lidocaine with naphazoline. The patient presented a severe bradycardia associated with a major increase in arterial blood pression followed by a brief cardiac arrest. She also presented a prolonged awakening and a pulmonary oedema, which lead to mechanical ventilation. The patient rapidly recovered a normal clinical state. PMID:12831977

Villeret, I; Tellier, A C; Erhmann, S; Réa, D; Delalande, J P

2003-05-01

79

Secondary Mineral Deposits and Evidence of Past Seismicity and Heating of the Proposed Repository Horizon at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Drift Degradation Analysis (DDA) (BSC, 2003) for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, describes model simulations of the effects of pre- and post-closure seismicity and waste-induced heating on emplacement drifts. Based on probabilistic seismic hazard analyses of the intensity and frequency of future seismic events in the region (CRWMS M&O, 1998), the DDA concludes that future seismicity will lead to substantial damage to emplacement drifts, particularly those in the lithophysal tuffs, where some simulations predict complete collapse of the drift walls. Secondary mineral studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1995 indicate that secondary calcite and silica have been deposited in some fractures and lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain during at least the past 10 million years (m.y.), and probably since the tuffs cooled to less than 100?C. Tuff fragments, likely generated by past seismic activity, have commonly been incorporated into the secondary mineral depositional sequences. Preliminary observations indicate that seismic activity has generated few, if any, tuff fragments during the last 2 to 4 m.y., which may be inconsistent with the predictions of drift-wall collapse described in the DDA. Whether or not seismicity-induced tuff fragmentation occurring at centimeter to decimeter scales in the fracture and cavity openings relates directly to failure of tuff walls in the 5.5-m-diameter waste emplacement drifts, the deposits do provide a potential record of the spatial and temporal distribution of tuff fragments in the UZ. In addition, the preservation of weakly attached coatings and (or) delicate, upright blades of calcite in the secondary mineral deposits provides an upper limit for ground motion during the late stage of deposition that might be used as input to future DDA simulations. Finally, bleaching and alteration at a few of the secondary mineral sites indicate that they were subjected to heated gases at approximately the temperatures expected from waste emplacement. These deposits provide at least limited textural and mineralogic analogs for waste-induced, high-humidity thermal alteration of emplacement drift wall rocks.

Whelan, Josheph F.

2004-01-01

80

Using Handheld Raman Spectrometers for Discrimination of Secondary Sulfate Minerals at Outcrops: Potential and Limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we used two lightweight handheld Raman instruments (532 nm and 785 nm) to evaluate the possibility of in-situ identification of sulfates in complicated conditions (outdoor, poorly crystallized mineral phases).

Košek, F.; Culka, A.; Jehli?ka, J.

2014-06-01

81

Identification of secondary minerals crystallized by low and high temperature alteration in the Northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge volcanic rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor rocks were affected by hydrothermal alteration and low temperature seawater weathering display various elemental behaviors, necessitating detailed investigations to evaluate primary bulk rock compositions without the effect of elemental behaviors during alteration. Seafloor alteration entails primary minerals being changed into hydrous minerals. Bulk chemical compositions of seafloor igneous rocks are changed by high- temperature hydrothermal alteration and low-temperature seafloor weathering. In this study, I report the secondary mineral identifications by XRD analyses in the rocks from the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, and consider to condition of alteration processes. Volcanic rocks dredged from the Northern Kyushu Palau Ridge during cruise by Tansei-maru, ORI, University of Tokyo show petrological and geochemical characteristics of low and high temperature alterations. These rocks are classified into bulk water content, that is, low H2O- and LOI samples at the Miyazaki Seamount, high H2O- samples at the Nichinan Seamount, and high LOI samples at the Komahashi-Daini Seamount. The Nichinan Seamount samples show flesh phenocrysts, low altered groundmass minerals, and high degree alteration of groundmass glass, assumed to replace into clay minerals. These altered phenocrysts are identified by XRD to be serpentine, saponite, and talc. And these altered groundmasses are identified by XRD to be saponite with primary plagioclase and clinopyroxene. These results are assumed to replacement of glass into clay minerals under low temperature seafloor weathering. Nichinan Seamount rocks show high alkali-elements contents. The remarkable movement of bulk composition is not occur under the low temperature seafloor weathering except for K and Rb, and these enrichments reflect secondary deposition of celadonite, K-rich smectite (e.g. Nakamura, 2001). Saponite is typical identified, but celadonite is not identified in the Nichinan Seamount rocks. Therefore, the characteristics of bulk composition of the Nichinan Seamount rocks are assumed similarity to primary signature. On the other hand, the Komahashi-Daini Seamount samples show completely re-crystallization, and igneous textures are observed to pseudomorph. These are identified by XRD to be quartz, clinochlore (one of chlorite), and albite. Secondary mineral assemblage is homogeneous in these rocks. The temperature of replacement by chlorite accompanied by enrichment in MgO is estimated to be more than 150°C on the basis of experimental studies (e.g. Mottle 1983). And interpreted two types of albitization, low temperature (< 50°C) and high temperature (> 100°C), are identified on the basis of study of ODP Leg 123 Site 765 igneous rocks (Gillis et al. 1992). Therefore, it is considered that volcanic rocks from the Komahashi-Daini Seamount were under effect of hydrothermal alteration more than 150°C. Many elements show significant movement under high temperature hydrothermal alteration (e.g. Laverne et al. 1996). That is, re-crystallization of chlorite under high temperature hydrothermal alteration accompanied addition of magnesium from seawater and remarkable bulk MgO enrichment (e.g. Nakamura, 2001). Therefore, it is considered that the Komahashi-Daini Seamount rocks show significant MgO-enrichment because of secondary mineralization of chlorite, and assumed to significant movement of other elements. These observations suggest that geochemical investigation of highly altered rocks must be made with caution.

Haraguchi, S.

2008-12-01

82

[Prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (primary prevention and secondary prevention)].  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prevention of smoking initiation among teenagers and the encouragement of smoking cessation among smokers lead to preventing the onset and progression of COPD. Smoking cessation is the single most effective- and cost-effective-way to reduce the risk of developing COPD and stop its progression. Comprehensive tobacco control policies and programs, which involve some mix of public education, mass media campaigns, prevention of youth access to tobacco, school-based smoking prevention curricula, creation of smoke-free environment, and health professional training on cessation techniques should be delivered. PMID:14674312

Kawane, Hiroshi

2003-12-01

83

Environmental pulmonary health problems related to mineral dusts: Examples from central Anatolia, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of benign disorders including pleural thickening (PT), calcified pleural plaques (CPP), and malignant diseases such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in central Anatolia. Earlier studies suggested tremolite was the main cause, and there was no explanation why some of the population did not have malignant cases, and plaques were by far the most frequent manifestation of asbestos-induced injury. In this study, geological, mineralogical and environmental data were evaluated. While the prolonged continuous exposure to high or low doses of long (8-30 µm) and thin (less than 0.25 µm) mixed fibers such as chrysolite, and/or anthophyllite or tremolite, and also silica particles may be the cause of MPM in central Anatolia, two different reasons for the CPP and PT are suggested. The first one is short (less than 8 µm) and thin mixed-type mineral fibers. The second reason is low doses of long, but thick, splintery tremolite fibers.

Do?an, M.

2002-01-01

84

The correlation of chest radiograph and pulmonary function tests in asbestos miners and millers.  

PubMed

An environmental-cum-medical survey was carried out in asbestos mines and milling units at Pullivendalla, Cuddaph (A.P.) India. This was done in two mines and six milling units with 95% of the total work force being surveyed. Out of a total of 633 registered workers, 329 (52%, all males) were employed in mines while 135 (21.4%) workers of whom 114 (84%, all females) were employed in the milling units. All subjects underwent limited medical examination, spirometry and chest radiographs. The levels of asbestos fiber concentration was much below threshold limit value (TLV) in underground mines but several times higher than TLV in milling units. The percentage of workers with abnormal pulmonary function tests (PFT) and chest radiographs increased with duration of exposure in smokers as well as non-smokers. Restrictive pattern of lung functions (159 workers-16.27%) was more common than obstructive (33 workers-5.21%) and combined type (22 workers-3.4%). Similarly, the parenchymal changes (156 workers-24.6%) were more common than pleural (27 workers-4.3%). As most of the males were employed in mines, where the fiber levels were much below TLV, the number of male workers with normal PFT and chest radiographs were ten times (61.3%) more than male workers with both the parameters abnormal (6.3%). As most of the females (114 our of 120--95%) were employed in milling units, where the levels of fibers were several times higher than TLV, the number of females having both the parameters normal 29 (24.1%) or abnormal 35 (29.2%) were similar. PMID:8822641

Dave, S K; Bhagia, L J; Mazumdar, P K; Patel, G C; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

1996-01-01

85

Metastatic carcinoma in the ulna of a cat secondary to a suspected pulmonary tumour.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old male neutered Burmese cat presented for investigation of right fore limb lameness that was non-responsive to anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids. Thoracic radiography showed multiple pulmonary soft tissue nodules and a larger cavitated mass. Right elbow radiographs revealed marked peri-articular proliferation of new bone and periosteal reaction primarily affecting the ulna. Histopathological examination of an incisional biopsy of the right ulna revealed neoplastic proliferation of epithelial cells; this was confirmed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma with immunohistochemistry. Amputation of the right fore limb was performed at the owner's request. After surgery, radiographs of the limb showed progression of bone proliferation. Repeat pathological analysis confirmed a metastatic carcinoma. The cat deteriorated 3 days after surgery and was euthanased a week later as a result of severe respiratory distress. This case represents an unusual case of metastasis of a suspected primary lung tumour to the ulna in a Burmese cat. PMID:22453302

Salgüero, Raquel; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel; Warland, James; Brearley, Malcolm

2012-06-01

86

Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

Rochelle, C.A. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK). Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

1989-01-01

87

The value of hepatic diffusion-weighted MR imaging in demonstrating hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Congestive hepatomegaly might be the first sign for pulmonary hypertension. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained with quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is affected by liver fibrosis and perfusion. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of DW-MRI in cooperation with biochemical markers, ultrasonography (US) and echocardiography (TTE) in determining the degree of hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Methods 35 patients with PHT and 26 control subjects were included in the study. PHT was diagnosed if pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was measured above 35 mmHg with TTE. Study group was classified into mild and moderate PHT. DW-MRI was performed with b-factors of 0, 500 and 1000 sec/mm². Mean ADC, ADC-II (Average of the ADC values of right lobe anterior and posterior segments), US, TTE and blood biochemical parameters of both groups were compared. Results There exists a positive correlation between liver size and the diameters of vena cava inferior, right atrium, right hepatic vein(RHV), mid-hepatic vein(MHV), left hepatic vein(LHV) (p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between PASP and RHV, MHV, LHV. The patients had lower ejection fractions (p < 0.01) and higher LDH (p < 0.01) and ALP (p < 0.05) levels than the control group. The ADC values of the patients with moderate PASP were higher than those with a mild PASP (p < 0.05). Mean ADC was higher in patients with moderate PHT compared to control group (p = 0.009). There was a positive correlation between PASP and ADC values of right lobe posterior segment of the liver (p < 0.05). The ADC-II and mean ADC values of the patients with moderate PASP were higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusions Congestion due to moderate PHT might be diagnosed with DW-MRI. As PASP increase; mean ADC and ADC-II values increase.

2010-01-01

88

The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

2013-06-03

89

Secondary Recovery: Change of the Viscosity and Compressibility of Mineral Oils by Dissolved Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secondary and tertiary oil recovery methods for an enhancement of the production rate are mostly based on a reduction of the mobility ratio water/oil. This can be achieved e.g. by lowering of the oil viscosity by heat or dissolved gases. To investigate th...

E. Kuss H. Killesreiter

1981-01-01

90

Chronic granulomatous disease with pulmonary mass-like opacities secondary to hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic granulomatous disease, one of the primary immunodeficiency syndromes, is characterized by failure of phagocytic capacity due to loss of reactive oxygen species production, as well as formation of granulomas in organs. Clinically, dysregulated inflammation by excessive cytokine production due to loss of reactive oxygen species production is suggested as a cause of noninfectious inflammatory problems such as chronic granulomatous disease colitis. We experienced a rare case of a patient with chronic granulomatous disease with unique pathological and radiological presentations of hypersensitive pneumonitis, which to our knowledge has never been previously reported. Case presentation A 20-year-old Japanese man with chronic granulomatous disease was referred due to cough and abnormal chest imaging findings. Computed tomography of his chest showed diffuse, bilateral, centrilobular nodules and multiple mass lesions in lower lobes that do not fit a common image of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Pathological findings of both nodules and mass lesions on surgical lung biopsy were homogeneous, and excessive granulomas in the bronchioles and alveolar duct as well as lymphocytic alveolitis were seen, all consistent with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The radiological and laboratory abnormalities did not improve after antigen avoidance; however, they disappeared after high-dose steroid therapy. Conclusions When we encounter a case of hypersensitive pneumonitis showing atypical pulmonary mass-like opacities in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, we should consider hyperinflammatory status and excessive granuloma formation of chronic granulomatous disease and start with high-dose steroid therapy as treatment.

2014-01-01

91

Effect of nesiritide in isolated right ventricular failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Treatment of right ventricular failure (RVF) can be challenging due to the correlation between RVF and worsening renal function with diuretic therapy. Nesiritide has been studied in patients with left ventricular failure but has not been evaluated in isolated RVF. The authors retrospectively analyzed 140 patients admitted with RVF, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and preserved left ventricular systolic function. Seventy patients were treated with nesiritide while the remaining patients received only furosemide (no nesiritide group). Serum creatinine and GFR at baseline, 72?hours, discharge, and 1?month post-treatment, as well as hemodynamic data were compared between the groups. In the nesiritide group, there was a significant decrease in mean GFR (42.77±25.33, P<.001) at day of discharge and 1?month post-nesiritide infusion (41.17±24.94, P<.001) but not in the no nesiritide group. There was a significant difference in >25% decrease in GFR anytime through day 30 (47.14% vs. 25.71%, P=.036) between the two groups. On multivariate analysis, nesiritide remained an important predictor of renal function at discharge and at 1?month (P<.01) as well as a predictor of >25% decrease in GFR anytime through day 30 (P=.007). Thus, nesiritide is associated with worsening kidney function in patients with RVF in the setting of PH. PMID:22277173

Kelesidis, Iosif; Mazurek, Jeremy A; Saeed, Wajeeha; Chaudhari, Ronak; Velankar, Pradnya; Zolty, Ronald

2012-01-01

92

Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

PULMONARY ARTERY thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is a surgical procedure that offers the only cure for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (TPH), a progressive form of secondary pulmonary hypertension.•CURRENT ESTIMATES INDICATE that 1% to 5% of patients who survive a pulmonary embolus will develop chronic TPH with progressively worsening pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure.•THIS BILATERAL PROCEDURE is performed through a sternotomy incision

Susan Barrow; Cecile Cherry; Carol Hickey; Karen Sue Kelly

2005-01-01

93

Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important geochemical reactions occur at the mineral-water interface, including sorption and desorption reactions of contaminants. Fundamental knowledge of the kinetics of these processes is based primarily on experimental observations of reactions at faces of single crystals or macroscopic data from pure mineral powder suspensions. Sorption reactions at crystal faces are generally very fast, on the order of microseconds or less, with reaction times often limited only by film diffusion at the mineral-water interface. In well-stirred suspensions of aquifer sediments, however, sorptive equilibrium can take many hours or days to achieve steady-state concentrations. We have examined the potential reasons for sorption rate limitation using uranium(VI) sorption by sediments from a sandy aquifer in Savannah River, South Carolina (USA). U(VI) sorption by sand-sized grains from the aquifer is dominated by reaction with secondary mineral coatings on quartz and feldspar grains. The coatings studied were on the order of 15 microns in thickness (i.e., from quartz grain to aqueous solution) and composed primarily of clay minerals and hematite of varying particle size. Microfocused-XRF imaging of elemental concentrations (e.g., U, Fe) of polished cross-sections of the grain/coating contact showed strong spatial correlations of U and Fe within the coatings, regardless of the length of reaction time (30 minutes to 4 weeks). The spatial resolution of the ?-XRF technique is of the order of 2 microns in horizontal directions, but the uncertainty of the observed spatial gradients is high due to grain curvature away from the polished surface and fluorescence contributed from the entire 30 micron thickness of a typical grain/epoxy thin section. TEM characterization of focused-ion-beam (FIB), vertically-extracted samples of the grain-coating contact shows that complex pore networks exist within the coatings of variable dimensions and unknown connectivity. Using scanning TEM (STEM) tomography, it can be seen that there are large numbers of pore throat sizes less than 10 nm within the coatings. We hypothesize that diffusion through these pores, which likely have electrically charged surfaces, controls the observed macroscopic rates of U(VI) sorption in batch experiments with sand grains. Evidence to support this hypothesis was observed by studying U and Fe fluorescence spatial variation within FIB samples (1 micron thick) at 200 nm spatial resolution. With this greater spatial resolution, it is possible to see U concentration variations within the coatings that are dependent on the time of sorption reaction, and illustrates how the coating environment constitutes a diffusion constraint to achieve adsorptive equilibrium between an aqueous phase and the mineral surfaces. Including this diffusion constraint within conceptual models for reactive contaminant transport may be significant at the field scale, because secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site. This is important in resolving long-term transport predictions at DOE sites, such as Hanford and Savannah River, where equilibrium versus kinetic reactive transport models are being evaluated.

Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.

2012-12-01

94

Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.  

PubMed

The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ?5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

2014-07-01

95

Secondary mineralization pathways induced by dissimilatory iron reduction of ferrihydrite under advective flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (hydr)oxides not only serve as potent sorbents and repositories for nutrients and contaminants but also provide a terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. The microbial reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides and the subsequent secondary solid-phase transformations will, therefore, have a profound influence on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe as well as associated metals. Here we elucidate the pathways and mechanisms

Colleen M. Hansel; Shawn G. Benner; Jim Neiss; Alice Dohnalkova; Ravi K. Kukkadapu; Scott Fendorf

2003-01-01

96

Effect of mineral dust on secondary organic aerosol yield and aerosol size in ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is a significant contributor to atmospheric particles, the role of mineral dust in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been fully recognized. In this study, alumina was chosen as the surrogate to investigate the effect of mineral dust on ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation in a 2 m3 smog chamber at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH). Results showed that alumina seeds could influence both the SOA yield and the aerosol size in the photo-oxidation process. Compared to the seed-free system, the presence of alumina seeds resulted in a slight reduction of SOA yield, and also influenced the final concentration of O3 in the chamber. As an important oxidant of ?-pinene, the decrease in O3 concentration could reduce the formation of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) and consequently inhibited SOA formation. In addition, the size of aerosol was closely related with the mass loading of alumina seeds. At low alumina concentration, SVOCs condensed onto the pre-existing seed surface and led to aerosol size growth. When alumina concentration exceeded about 5 ?g m?3, SVOC species that condensed to each seed particle were dispersed by alumina seeds, resulting in the decrease in aerosol size.

Liu, Chang; Chu, Biwu; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; He, Hong; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming

2013-10-01

97

Migrating bullet: A case of a bullet embolism to the pulmonary artery with secondary pulmonary infarction after gunshot wound to the left globe  

PubMed Central

Bullet embolism is a rare phenomenon following gunshot injuries. We present a case of a 25-year-old male who sustained a gunshot wound to his left globe with the bullet initially lodged in his right transverse sinus. The bullet ultimately embolized to a left lower lobe pulmonary artery resulting in a pulmonary infarct. A discussion of select prior cases, pathophysiology, and management strategies follows.

Duke, Eugene; Peterson, Andrew A; Erly, William K

2014-01-01

98

Organic carbon and reducing conditions lead to cadmium immobilization by secondary Fe mineral formation in a pH-neutral soil.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is of environmental relevance as it enters soils via Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and endangers human health when taken up by crops. Cd is known to associate with Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in pH-neutral to slightly acidic soils, though it is not well understood how the interrelation of Fe and Cd changes under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Therefore, we investigated how the mobility of Cd changes when a Cd-bearing soil is faced with organic carbon input and reducing conditions. Using fatty acid profiles and quantitative PCR, we found that both fermenting and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were stimulated by organic carbon-rich conditions, leading to significant Fe(III) reduction. The reduction of Fe(III) minerals was accompanied by increasing soil pH, increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, and decreasing Cd mobility. SEM-EDX mapping of soil particles showed that a minor fraction of Cd was transferred to Ca- and S-bearing minerals, probably carbonates and sulfides. Most of the Cd, however, correlated with a secondary iron mineral phase that was formed during microbial Fe(III) mineral reduction and contained mostly Fe, suggesting an iron oxide mineral such as magnetite (Fe3O4). Our data thus provide evidence that secondary Fe(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed minerals could be a sink for Cd in soils under reducing conditions, thus decreasing the mobility of Cd in the soil. PMID:24191747

Muehe, E Marie; Adaktylou, Irini J; Obst, Martin; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Behrens, Sebastian; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

2013-12-01

99

Effect of doxercalciferol (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2) on PTH, bone turnover and bone mineral density in a hemodialysis patient with persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism post parathyroidectomy.  

PubMed

The efficacy and safety of the vitamin D analog, doxercalciferol (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2, 1alphaD2) in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients has been previously reported. We report these effect of 16-week 1alphaD2 treatment on mineral metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in a hemodialysis patient with persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism post parathyroidectomy, resistant to previous calcitriol treatment. Levels of iPTH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and serum type I collagen C telopeptide were above normal at baseline and were substantially decreased with 1alphaD2 treatment (-92%, -63% and -53%, respectively). BMD increased in all areas: total skeleton (+6.5%), lumbar spine (+6.9%) and total femur (+4.3%). The patient showed no hypercalcemia, and phosphorus levels remained between 3.3 and 6.2 mg/dl. PMID:12834181

Parisi, M S; Oliveri, B; Somoza, J; Mautalen, C

2003-06-01

100

Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hyperviscosity in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and acquired von Willebrand disease: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acquired von Willebrand disease is initiated by autoantibodies and hyperviscosity syndrome caused by a massive polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Acquired von Willebrand disease associated with autoimmune disease in addition to pulmonary hypertension during emergency room presentation is a rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case reported in the literature treated with success; the first one was reported in 1987. Case presentation A 28-year-old mestizo man with a 3-year history of inflammatory arthritis was admitted to our hospital. An overlap of rheumatoid arthritis with systemic lupus erythematosus was suspected; therefore methotrexate was initiated, and later changed to leflunomide because of liver toxicity. Prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin times were normal (11/10.4 seconds; 1.2; 31.1/26.9 seconds, respectively), von Willebrand factor activity was observed with low ristocetin cofactor at 33.6UI/dL, high von Willebrand factor antigen >200UI/dL, and a low von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor to von Willebrand factor antigen ratio. He was admitted to the emergency room with a 24-hour evolution of progressive dyspnea, cough, thoracic pain, and palpitations, 104 beats/min, 60/40 mmHg, temperature of 38°C, pulse oximetric saturation 88% and 30 breaths/minute. Cold, pale and mottled skin was also observed. He was then transferred to the intensive care unit. The placement of a pulmonary artery catheter was made. The initial patterns showed a precapillary pulmonary hypertension; acute pulmonary embolism was the first choice for diagnosis. Pulmonary angiography was conducted, and when no clot was discovered, pulmonary artery hypertension associated with connective tissue disease was considered. Serum protein electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a massive polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and no paraproteinemia or monoclonal cell population was found from the electrophoretic pattern of the patient’s plasma. Hypergammaglobulinemia was the cause of hyperviscosity syndrome associated with autoantibodies. Three sessions of plasma exchange therapy were made, and clinical improvement was observed. He was then discharged from the intensive care unit and hospital, respectively. He is now attended by an external consult and has no respiratory symptomatology. Conclusions Hyperviscosity syndrome with pulmonary arterial hypertension presentation in a patient with acquired von Willebrand disease in an autoimmune context is a rare condition that can be treated successfully with plasmapheresis and critical care support.

2013-01-01

101

Use of secondary mineralizing raw materials in cement production. A case study of a wolframite–stibnite ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that certain foreign elements, despite their low concentration in cement raw mix, improve the reactivity of the cement raw mix. The aim of this research is to investigate the possibility of introducing small amounts of minerals, containing these elements, into the cement raw mix. A stibnite–wolframite mineral was selected in order to introduce W, Sb and

G. Kakali; S. Tsivilis; K. Kolovos; N. Voglis; J. Aivaliotis; T. Perraki; E. Passialakou; M. Stamatakis

2005-01-01

102

Framework for estimating potential wastes and secondary resources accumulated within an economy – A case study of construction minerals in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material stocks in economic society are considered to represent a reserve for wastes and secondary resources. From the viewpoints of proper disposal and reutilization of stocked materials, accurate estimation of the amount of materials that will emerge as wastes or secondary resources in the future is important. We defined materials that have a high probability of emerging as wastes or

Seiji Hashimoto; Hiroki Tanikawa; Yuichi Moriguchi

2009-01-01

103

Pulmonary hypertension associated with sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary involvement is common in sarcoidosis, an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that is characterized by non-caseating granulomas in tissue. Sarcoid patients with advanced pulmonary disease, especially end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, risk developing pulmonary hypertension (World Health Organization group III pulmonary hypertension secondary to hypoxic lung disease). Increased levels of endothelin (ET)-1 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of some sarcoid patients suggest that

Robert P Baughman

2007-01-01

104

IFN-?, but not IL-17A, is required for survival during secondary pulmonary Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Stain infection.  

PubMed

IL-17 and IFN-? production by Th17 and Th1 cells, respectively, is critical for survival during primary respiratory infection with the pathogenic bacterium, Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS). The importance, however, of these T cell subsets and their soluble mediators is not well understood during a secondary or memory response. We measured the number of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-? or IL-17 in the spleen and lungs of vaccinated mice on day four of the secondary response using intracellular cytokine staining in order to identify protective T cell subsets participating in the memory response. Few bacteria were present in spleens of vaccinated mice on day four and a T cell response was not observed. In the lung, where more bacteria were present, there was a robust Th1 response in vaccinated mice but Th17 cells were not present at higher numbers in vaccinated mice compared to unvaccinated mice. These data show that the lung is the dominant site of the secondary immune response and suggest that Th17 cells are not required for survival during secondary challenge. To further investigate the importance of IFN-? and IL-17 during the secondary response to F. tularensis, we neutralized either IFN-? or IL-17 in vivo using monoclonal antibody treatment. Vaccinated mice treated with anti-IFN-? lost more weight and had higher bacterial burdens compared to vaccinated mice treated with isotype control antibody. In contrast, treatment with anti-IL-17A antibody did not alter weight loss profiles or bacterial burdens compared to mice treated with isotype control antibody. Together, these results suggested that IFN-? is required during both primary and secondary respiratory F. tularensis infection. IL-17, on the other hand, is only critical during the primary response to respiratory F. tularensis but dispensable during the secondary response. PMID:24837506

Roberts, Lydia M; Davies, John S; Sempowski, Gregory D; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

2014-06-17

105

EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion of the number of sites where reactions can occur. Results were also finalized on a component of a previous project related to the Hanford waste tanks that had the goal of measuring the incorporation of rhenium, an analogue of radioactive technetium, in iron and aluminum-oxides minerals as they aged in tank sludges at higher temperatures. Small amounts of rhenium were occluded in the iron-rich solids and the amount increased with aging time. Results from the quartz and biotite experiments are in a form that can be used in models of fluid flow in the Hanford subsurface. Results from the rhenium experiments can be used to understand aspects of closing certain of the Hanford tanks.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2004-04-22

106

Short-term hemodynamic effect of a new oral PGI 2 analogue, Beraprost, in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conclude that Beraprost appears to be an effective and possibly available substitute for intravenous vasodilators in the treatment of primary PH and secondary PH. This preliminary report may offer favorable hemodynamic effects of a new oral PGI2 analogue in patients with PH.

Tsutomu Saji; Yasufumi Ozawa; Takashi Ishikita; Hiroyuki Matsuura; Norio Matsuo

1996-01-01

107

Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

Hammarstrom, J. M.; Seal, II, R. R.; Meier, A. L.; Kornfeld, J. M.

2005-01-01

108

Mineral catalyzed organic synthesis in hydrothermal systems: An experimental study using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal fluids enriched in hydrocarbons of apparent abiotic origin vent from Fe-Ni sulfide bearing chimney structures on the seafloor at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges. Here we show results from a hydrothermal experiment using carbon isotope labeling techniques and mineral analytical data that indicate that pentlandite ((Fe2Ni7)S8) enhances formation of C2 and C3 alkanes, while also contributing to the formation of other more complex hydrocarbons, such as alcohols and carboxylic acids. ToF-SIMS data reveal the existence of isotopically anomalous carbon on the pentlandite surface, and thus, for the first time, provide unambiguous evidence that mineral catalyzed surface reactions play a role in carbon reduction schemes under hydrothermal conditions. We hypothesize that hydroxymethylene (-CHOH) serves as intermediary facilitating formation of more complex organic compounds. The experimental results provide an explanation for organic synthesis in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems on earth, and on other water-enriched planetary bodies as well.

Fu, Qi; Foustoukos, Dionysios I.; Seyfried, William E.

2008-04-01

109

Unusual Case of Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Truly reversible pulmonary hypertension is rare. Acquired systemic arteriovenous (A-V) fistulas following spinal surgery (laminectomy) are a less recognized cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension. We describe a patient who presented with symptoms and clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension and underwent endovascular correction of an acquired A-V fistula, which led to improvement according to clinical and noninvasive hemodynamic criteria.

L. Kolilekas; P. Gallis; N. Liasis; G. K. Anagnostopoulos; I. Eleftheriadis

2006-01-01

110

Unusual case of pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Truly reversible pulmonary hypertension is rare. Acquired systemic arteriovenous (A-V) fistulas following spinal surgery (laminectomy) are a less recognized cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension. We describe a patient who presented with symptoms and clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension and underwent endovascular correction of an acquired A-V fistula, which led to improvement according to clinical and noninvasive hemodynamic criteria. PMID:16043955

Kolilekas, L; Gallis, P; Liasis, N; Anagnostopoulos, G K; Eleftheriadis, I

2006-01-01

111

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats: evaluation of bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography.  

PubMed

Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands. After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. PMID:19997669

Dimopoulou, M; Kirpensteijn, J; Nielsen, D H; Buelund, L; Hansen, M S

2010-01-01

112

DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2009-05-04

113

Antifungal agents for secondary prophylaxis based on response to initial antifungal therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with prior pulmonary aspergillosis.  

PubMed

We performed a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of secondary antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) for patients with a history of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this study, the prophylactic agents used were chosen based on treatment response to initial antifungal therapy. One hundred and thirty-six patients undergoing allo-HSCT with prior IPA were enrolled in this multicenter study. The agents of SAP included itraconazole in 24, voriconazole in 74, caspofungin in 32, and liposomal amphotericin B in 6. Eighty-eight patients had stable IPA and 48 had active IPA at the time of transplantation. The success rate of SAP was 91.2%. Twelve patients developed breakthrough invasive fungal disease (IFD), and none discontinued antifungal agents because drug-related adverse events. The incidence of breakthrough IFD was neither different among the different antifungal agents (P = .675) nor between patients with active and stable IPA (P = .080). The 1-year cumulative incidence of IFD and IPA relapse was 27.3% ± 4.5% and 24.7% ± 4.4%, respectively. Our data indicate that SAP with antifungal agents based on initial antifungal therapy has favorable efficacy and safety in allo-HSCT recipients with prior IPA. Active IPA might not increase the risk of breakthrough IFD after transplantation. PMID:24769013

Liu, Qifa; Lin, Ren; Sun, Jing; Xiao, Yang; Nie, Danian; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Fen; Fan, Zhiping; Zhou, Hongsheng; Jiang, Qianli; Zhang, Fuhua; Zhai, Xiao; Xu, Dan; Wei, Yongqiang; Song, Jiayin; Li, Yiqing; Feng, Ru

2014-08-01

114

Efficacy of oral sildenafil in a beraprost-treated patient with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to type I glycogen storage disease.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare complication of glycogen storage disease (GSD), and several cases with a poor outcome have been reported. A 17-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with GSD at 1 year of age, complained of shortness of breath on exertion, and was diagnosed with PAH based on the echocardiographic findings. Beraprost sodium (BPS) was started, and his symptoms improved after 3 months of treatment. Eighteen months later, he experienced frequent episodes of syncope. Because increasing the dose of BPS was ineffective, he was admitted to hospital. The echocardiogram showed marked elevation of the right ventricular pressure and low cardiac output, and his symptoms deteriorated despite continuous infusion of olprinone hydrochloride. Because a single dose of sildenafil increased his cardiac output, treatment with 25 mg sildenafil twice daily was started. His symptoms gradually ameliorated, and 3 weeks later he left the hospital. Two months after starting sildenafil, the cardiac index and the serous B-type natriuretic peptide concentration had become normal. Sildenafil may be effective in patients with secondary PAH and in patients who have developed tolerance to BPS. PMID:19179780

Ueno, Michihiko; Murakami, Tomoaki; Takeda, Atsuhito; Kubota, Mitsuru

2009-10-01

115

Osteological and Biomolecular Evidence of a 7000-Year-Old Case of Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy Secondary to Tuberculosis from Neolithic Hungary  

PubMed Central

Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hódmez?vásárhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults. Several cases showed potential signs of tuberculosis, particularly the remains of the individual HGO-53. This is an important finding that has significant implications for our understanding of this community. The aim of the present study was to seek biomolecular evidence to confirm this diagnosis. HGO-53 was a young male with a striking case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), revealing rib changes and cavitations in the vertebral bodies. The initial macroscopic diagnosis of HPO secondary to tuberculosis was confirmed by analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific cell wall lipid biomarkers and corroborated by ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. This case is the earliest known classical case of HPO on an adult human skeleton and is one of the oldest palaeopathological and palaeomicrobiological tuberculosis cases to date.

Masson, Muriel; Molnar, Erika; Donoghue, Helen D.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Minnikin, David E.; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Lee, Oona Y-C.; Bull, Ian D.; Palfi, Gyorgy

2013-01-01

116

Pulmonary artery pressure variation in patients with connective tissue disease: 24 hour ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDThe specific contribution of secondary pulmonary hypertension to the morbidity and mortality of patients with underlying lung disease can be difficult to assess from single measurements of pulmonary artery pressure. We have studied patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension using an ambulatory system for measuring continuous pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). We chose to study patients with connective tissue disease because they

D A Raeside; G Chalmers; J Clelland; R Madhok; A J Peacock

1998-01-01

117

Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared 41 patients with angiographic proof of pulmonary embolism and clinical signs of pulmonary infarction (as evidenced by an infiltrate on x-ray study and pleuritic pain in the area of the embolus) with 24 patients with pulmonary embolism but without infarction. Only 18 of the 41 patients with pulmonary infarction had associated heart disease. Pulmonary infarction was uncommon when

James E. Dalen; Charles I. Haffajee; Joseph S. Alpert; John P. Howe; Ira S. Ockene; John A. Paraskos

1977-01-01

118

Fluid-Dacite Interaction in the PACMANUS Subseafloor Hydrothermal System - Preliminary Results From Secondary Mineral Chemistry and Geochemical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193, several holes (as deep as 386 meters below sea floor) intersected variably altered and veined dacites on Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus back-arc basin. The hydothermal alteration is complex and multi-stage, and includes pervasive alteration and alteration halos along anhydrite±pyrite±quartz veins. Our preliminary interpretation is that an early pervasive "chloritic" alteration (chlorite, chlorite/smectite, quartz, +/-albite, +/-magnetite) is overprinted locally by illite-pyrophyllite-anhydrite+/-diaspore alteration followed by silica (quartz and cristobalite) flooding. Two drill holes at Snowcap, a site of diffuse venting, reveal alteration profiles of strongly illite-pyrophyllite-anhydrite altered rocks in the shallow parts grading downwards into rocks that show dominant chloritic alteration. At Roman Ruins, a site of discrete venting, K-feldspar and illite-smectite mixed layer phases are abundant and magnetite is rare. K-feldspar appears to be part of the "chloritic" alteration assemblage. Anhydrite is locally abundant but generally less common than at Snowcap. There is a strong lateral heterogeneity in basement alteration as revealed by the differences between sites in the depths of cristobalite-quartz transition and the zones of prevailing alteration styles. Geochemical modeling suggests that the rocks have been altered at temperatures of about 250 to 300° C under variable fluid-to-rock ratios. While all the mineral assemblages are consistent with quartz/cristobalite saturation of the fluids, the formation of diaspore must be related to episodic interaction of the rocks with fluids highly undersaturated in quartz. The early stage of chloritic alteration represents interaction of the dacites with fluids of a fairly high pH ({>}4). In contrast, the occurrence of pyrophyllite and local diaspore suggests lower pH fluid ({<}3) during later hydrothermal stages. A zone of abundant alunite at 350 m deep in the basement at Snowcap may represent local ingress of very acidic fluids (pH{<}2). Our working hypothesis is that these low-pH fluids indicate significant contributions of a magmatic fluid component that is rich in H2SO4 and HF. Furthermore, the late-stage acidic alteration seems to be more common at Snowcap. Rare-earth element (REE) data from anhydrite veins are consistent with this interpretation. The majority of the anhydrite veins from the Snowcap site display REE patterns that suggest formation of aqueous fluoride and sulfate complexes was important. High F- activities can also be inferred from the presence of minor F-apatite in some anhydrite veins from Snowcap. In contrast, anhydrite from the Roman Ruins site, where evidence for acidic rock alteration style is scarse, shows uniformly light REE enriched patterns.

Yeats, C. J.; Bach, W.; Vanko, D. A.; Roberts, S.; Lackschewitz, K.; Paulick, H.

2001-12-01

119

Tumors of the Pulmonary Vascular Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary or secondary tumors of the lung can affect all levels of the pulmonary vascular bed, including the pulmonary arteries,\\u000a veins, and capillaries. Most primary tumors of the pulmonary vasculature are poorly differentiated, highly fatal sarcomas\\u000a of the large main pulmonary arteries and veins. Pulmonary arterial sarcoma (PAS) is far more prevalent than its venous counterpart,\\u000a although both arterial and

Eunhee S. Yi

120

Transformation of heavy metals and the formation of secondary iron minerals during pig manure bioleaching by the co-inoculation acidophilic thiobacillus.  

PubMed

Bioleaching of heavy metals from pig manure using a mixture of harmless iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in an air-lift reactor was conducted. The transformation of heavy metals and the formation of secondary Fe minerals during bioleaching were also investigated in the present study. The removal efficiencies of Zn, Cu, and Mn from pig manure were 95.1%, 80.9%, and 87.5%, respectively. Zn mainly existed in the form of Fe-Mn oxides in fresh pig manure; most of the pig manure-borne Cu was in organic matter form; Mn existed mainly in Fe-Mn oxides, carbonates, and residual forms. The pig manure can be applied to land more safely after bioleaching because the heavy metals mainly existed in stable forms. The removal efficiencies Zn, Cu, and Mn had good relationships with pH and oxidation reduction potential during bioleaching. A mixture ofjarosite and schwertmannite was found in the bioleached pig manure, which might have an adverse effect on the solubilization efficiency of toxic metals from pig manure. The bioleaching process using a mixture of harmless iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was shown to be a very feasible technology for the removal of heavy metals from pig manure. PMID:23437654

Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Deng, Wenjing

2012-12-01

121

Pulmonary Hypertension in Hemolytic Disorders  

PubMed Central

The inherited hemoglobin disorders sickle cell disease and thalassemia are the most common monogenetic disorders worldwide. Pulmonary hypertension is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia, and hemolytic disorders are potentially among the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic disorders is likely multifactorial, including hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, chronic hypoxemia, chronic thromboembolic disease, chronic liver disease, and asplenia. In contrast to patients with traditional forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, patients with hemolytic disorders have a mild-to-moderate degree of elevation in mean pulmonary pressures, with mild elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance. The hemodynamic etiology of pulmonary hypertension in these patients is multifactorial and includes pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary venous hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension secondary to a hyperdynamic state. Currently, there are limited data on the effects of any specific treatment modality for pulmonary hypertension in patients with hemolytic disorders. It is likely that maximization of treatment of the primary hemoglobinopathy in all patients and treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension would be beneficial. However, there is still a major need for large multinational trials of novel therapies for this patient population.

Gladwin, Mark T.

2010-01-01

122

Natural radionuclide mobility and its influence on U Th Pb dating of secondary minerals from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme U and Pb isotope variations produced by disequilibrium in decay chains of 238U and 232Th are found in calcite, opal/chalcedony, and Mn-oxides occurring as secondary mineral coatings in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These very slowly growing minerals (mm my -1) contain excess 206Pb and 208Pb formed from excesses of intermediate daughter isotopes and cannot be used as reliable 206Pb/ 238U geochronometers. The presence of excess intermediate daughter isotopes does not appreciably affect 207Pb/ 235U ages of U-enriched opal/chalcedony, which are interpreted as mineral formation ages. Opal and calcite from outer (younger) portions of coatings have 230Th/U ages from 94.6 ± 3.7 to 361.3 ± 9.8 ka and initial 234U/ 238U activity ratios (AR) from 4.351 ± 0.070 to 7.02 ± 0.12, which indicate 234U enrichment from percolating water. Present-day 234U/ 238U AR is ˜1 in opal/chalcedony from older portions of the coatings. The 207Pb/ 235U ages of opal/chalcedony samples range from 0.1329 ± 0.0080 to 9.10 ± 0.21 Ma, increase with microstratigraphic depth, and define slow long-term average growth rates of about 1.2-2.0 mm my -1, in good agreement with previous results. Measured 234U/ 238U AR in Mn-oxides, which pre-date the oldest calcite and opal/chalcedony, range from 0.939 ± 0.006 to 2.091 ± 0.006 and are >1 in most samples. The range of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.71156-0.71280) in Mn-oxides overlaps that in the late calcite. These data indicate that Mn-oxides exchange U and Sr with percolating water and cannot be used as a reliable dating tool. In the U-poor calcite samples, measured 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios have a wide range, do not correlate with Ba concentration as would be expected if excess Ra was present, and reach a value of about 1400, the highest ever reported for natural Pb. Calcite intergrown with opal contains excesses of both 206Pb and 207Pb derived from Rn diffusion and from direct ?-recoil from U-rich opal. Calcite from coatings devoid of opal/chalcedony contains 206Pb and 208Pb excesses, but no appreciable 207Pb excesses. Observed Pb isotope anomalies in calcite are explained by Rn-produced excess Pb. The Rn emanation may strongly affect 206Pb- 238U ages of slow-growing U-poor calcite, but should be negligible for dating fast-growing U-enriched speleothem calcite.

Neymark, L. A.; Amelin, Y. V.

2008-04-01

123

Pulmonary hypertension associated with sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Pulmonary involvement is common in sarcoidosis, an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that is characterized by non-caseating granulomas in tissue. Sarcoid patients with advanced pulmonary disease, especially end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, risk developing pulmonary hypertension (World Health Organization group III pulmonary hypertension secondary to hypoxic lung disease). Increased levels of endothelin (ET)-1 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of some sarcoid patients suggest that ET-1 may be driving pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension. Although a relationship between raised levels of ET-1 and clinical phenotype is yet to be identified, early evidence from studies of ET-1 blockade with drugs such as bosentan is encouraging. Such therapy possibly could be combined with standard anti-inflammatory agents to improve outcome. PMID:17767746

Baughman, Robert P

2007-01-01

124

Australian Mineral Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

Crowe, D. S.

1980-01-01

125

Pulmonary valve stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

126

High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 ?g L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 ?g L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 ?g L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 ?g L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the groundwater of marine origin are, in contrast, explained by relatively fast cation exchange reactions. As indicated by the field data and predicted by 1D solute transport modeling, alkali cations with low-energy hydration carried by intruding marine water are capable of (NH4+ in particular and K+ to some extent) replacing Cs+ on frayed edge (FES) sites on illite in the fracture coatings. The result is a rapid and persistent (at least in the order of decades) buildup of dissolved Cs concentrations in fractures where marine water flows downward. The identification of high Cs concentrations in young groundwater of marine origin and the predicted capacity of NH4+ to displace Cs from fracture solids are of particular relevance in the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock.

Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.

2014-05-01

127

Effects of bound phosphate on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3) and formation of secondary minerals.  

PubMed

Natural Fe(III) oxides typically contain a range of trace elements including P. Although solution phase and adsorbed P (as phosphate) have been shown to impact the bioreduction of Fe(III) oxides and the formation of "biogenic" secondary minerals, little is known about the potential effects of occluded/incorporated phosphate. We have examined the bioreduction of Fe(III) oxides (lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3)) containing 0-3 mass% P as "bound" (a term we use to include both adsorbed and occluded/incorporated) phosphate. Kinetic dissolution studies showed congruent release of Fe and P, suggesting that the phosphate in these materials was incorporated within the particles; however, 53% or 86% of the total phosphate associated with the lepidocrocites containing 0.7 or 3 mass% P, respectively, was extracted with 0.1 M NaOH and can be considered to be adsorbed, both to exterior surfaces and within micropores. In the absence of phosphate, lepidocrocite was rapidly reduced to magnetite by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and over time the magnetite was partially transformed to ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC). The presence of 0.2-0.7 mass% P significantly inhibited the initial reduction of lepidocrocite but ultimately resulted in greater Fe(II) production and the formation of carbonate green rust. The bioreduction of maghemite with and without bound phosphate resulted in solid-state conversion to magnetite, with subsequent formation of FHC. We also examined the potential redox cycling of green rust under alternating Fe(III)-reducing and oxic conditions. Oxidation of biogenic green rust by O2 resulted in conversion to ferric green rust, which was readily reduced back to green rust by S. putrefaciens CN32. These results indicate the potential for cycling of green rust between reduced and oxidized forms under redox dynamics similar to those encountered in environments that alternate between iron-reducing and oxic conditions, and they are consistent with the identification of green rust in soils/sediments with seasonal redox cycling. PMID:23909690

O'Loughlin, Edward J; Boyanov, Maxim I; Flynn, Theodore M; Gorski, Christopher A; Hofmann, Scott M; McCormick, Michael L; Scherer, Michelle M; Kemner, Kenneth M

2013-08-20

128

Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of Bosentan Dose Optimization in Symptomatic Heart Failure Patients with Severe Systolic Dysfunction, Associated with Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension – A MultiCenter Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Toevaluate the effects of bosentan on echo-derived hemodynamic measurements, and clinical variables in symptomatic heart failure (HF) patients. Method: Multi- center, double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study comparing bosentan (8–125 mg b.i.d.) to placebo in patients with New York Heart Association class IIIb–IV HF, left ventricular ejection fraction <35% and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) >40 mm Hg. Primary and

Edo Kaluski; Gad Cotter; Marina Leitman; Olga Milo-Cotter; Ricardo Krakover; Isaac Kobrin; Tina Moriconi; Maurizio Rainisio; Avraham Caspi; Leonardo Reizin; Reuven Zimlichman; Zvi Vered

2008-01-01

129

Enumeration of Thiobacilli within pH-Neutral and Acidic Mine Tailings and Their Role in the Development of Secondary Mineral Soil  

PubMed Central

The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicates, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 × 108 most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides (below 40 cm) to chlorides and phosphates (at the surface). Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings material prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy that they were being immobilized as bona fide fine-grain minerals containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone. Images

Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

1992-01-01

130

30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources...Control Precautions § 56.3400 Secondary breakage. Prior to secondary breakage operations, material to be broken,...

2010-07-01

131

30 CFR 57.3400 - Secondary breakage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 57.3400 Section 57.3400 Mineral Resources...Precautions-Surface and Underground § 57.3400 Secondary breakage. Prior to secondary breakage operations, the material to be broken,...

2010-07-01

132

Pulmonary Talcosis: Imaging Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms\\u000a of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis)\\u000a are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous\\u000a administration of talc, is

Edson Marchiori; Sílvia Lourenço; Taisa Davaus Gasparetto; Gláucia Zanetti; Cláudia Mauro Mano; Luiz Felipe Nobre

2010-01-01

133

Pulmonary embolus  

MedlinePLUS

Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... pulmonary embolus is most often caused by a blood clot in a vein. The most common blood ...

134

Pulmonary edema  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the air sacs of the lungs, which leads to ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump blood ...

135

The distribution of secondary mineral phases along an eroding hillslope and its effect on carbon stabilization mechanisms and the fate of soil carbon fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil redistribution processes can change soil carbon (C) dynamics drastically by moving carbon from high decomposition and re-sequestration environments at the eroding hillslope to low decomposition and burial at the depositional footslope and valley basin. This leads to not only spatially diverse soil carbon storage throughout the landscape, but also to qualitative changes of the transported carbon and the mineral phase. The interaction between those parameters and the effect on stabilization mechanisms for soil C are still a matter of debate. Here, we present an analysis that aims to clarify the bio/geo-chemical and mineralogical components involved in stabilizing C at various depths along an eroding cropped slope and how this affects the abundance of microbial derived carbon. We use the results of an incubation experiment combined with the abundance of amino sugars in different isolated soil C fractions as a tracer for the stability of the respective fraction. We applied further (i) a sequential extraction of the reactive soil phase using pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, and (ii) a qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, to analyze the changes in the mineral phase for the different isolated fractions along the slope transect. Our results emphasize the importance of physical protection within microaggregates to stabilize buried, chemically labile C. Our data further indicates that the stability of these aggregates is related to the presence of organo-mineral associations and poorly crystalline minerals. However, decreasing contents of these minerals with depth indicate a temporal limitation of this stabilization mechanism. Non-expandable clay minerals experience a relative enrichment at the depositional site while expandable clay minerals experience the same at the eroding site. These changes in clay mineralogy along the slope are partly responsible for the abundance of silt and clay associated C and the effectiveness of the clay fractions to stabilize C. In summary, our data clearly show that a variety of stabilization mechanisms together with changes in the organic and the mineral phase of soils need to be considered to understand this highly dynamic environment.

Doetterl, Sebastian; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Opfergelt, Sophie; Boeckx, Pascal; Bodé, Samuel; Six, Johan; Van Oost, Kristof

2014-05-01

136

Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.  

PubMed

This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

2013-05-22

137

Fourier transform infrared studies of secondary structure and orientation of pulmonary surfactant SPC and its effect on the dynamic surface properties of phospholipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

SP-C, a highly hydrophobic, 3.7-kDa protein constituent of lung surfactant, has been isolated from bovine lung lavage, purified, and reconstituted into binary lipid mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPC). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been applied to examine SP-C secondary structure, the average orientation of α-helical segments relative to the bilayer normal in membrane films, and the effect

Belinda Pastrana; R. Mendelsohn; A. J. Mautone

1991-01-01

138

Secondary structure and limited proteolysis give experimental evidence that the precursor of pulmonary surfactant protein B contains three saposin-like domains.  

PubMed

The 42 kDa precursor of surfactant protein B generates the 79 residue mature SP-B polypeptide, which belongs to the family of saposin-like proteins and has unique functional roles in pulmonary surfactant. From sequence comparisons it has been suggested that proSP-B, in addition to SP-B, contains two saposin-like domains, but their existence has until now not been experimentally verified. The 381 residue human proSP-B was now fused to an N-terminal poly-His tag, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified from inclusion bodies by resolubilisation with 2.5% (w/v) SDS and, after removal of SDS, subsequent metal affinity chromatography. Recombinant proSP-B thus obtained exhibits about 35% alpha-helical structure in sodium phosphate buffer and is proteolytically cleaved preferentially between the three saposin-like domains. These results experimentally support that proSP contains, in addition to SP-B, two further saposin-like domains. PMID:9506830

Zaltash, S; Johansson, J

1998-02-13

139

Pulmonary Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a After hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), up to 60% of patients develop pulmonary complications. In spite of antibacterial,\\u000a antiviral, and antifungal prophylaxis, reduced host defenses render the HSCT patient vulnerable to pulmonary and other infections\\u000a in the early weeks and even months post-transplantation. This chapter will suggest an integrative approach followed by a description\\u000a of the most common pulmonary syndromes

Tarek Eid; Alan F. Barker

140

Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.  

PubMed

Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

2010-04-01

141

[Pulmonary cryptococcosis].  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is a deep mycosis that develops in immunosuppressed individuals. Isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis is a rare disease. The authors describe an autopsy case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in a 69-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus suppressing the immune system. Pulmonary inflammatory changes were characterized by disseminated destructive changes, a weak exudative reaction and the formation of epithelioid cell granulomas with the presence of Pirogov-Langerhans giant multinucleate cells. Round fungal cells weakly stained with hematoxylin and eosin can be mistakenly taken as artifacts. The diagnosis of chronic pulmonary cryptococcosis was established only after histological study using the selective staining. PMID:19938707

Rogov, K A; Ivashneva, I L; Grishina, A V

2009-01-01

142

Pulmonary lymphangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) is a rare developmental disorder involving the lung and characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular, and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation. Both frequency and etiology are unknown. PL presents at birth with severe respiratory distress, tachypnea, and cyanosis, with a very high mortality rate at or within a few hours of birth. At birth, mechanical ventilation and pleural

Carlo BELLINI; Francesco BOCCARDO; Corradino CAMPISI

143

Pulmonary homograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Retrospective analysis was performed to determine the suitability of pulmonary homograft as an aortic valve substitute. Methods: From January 1994 through June 1999, 147 patients (mean age, 32.2 ± 17.3 years) underwent aortic valve replacement with either an aortic homograft (group 1: n = 103, 25 fresh antibiotic preserved and 78 cryopreserved) or a pulmonary homograft (group 2: n

Shiv Kumar Choudhary; Anita Saxena; Bharat Dubey; A. Sampath Kumar

2000-01-01

144

Pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic disorders: pulmonary vascular disease: the global perspective.  

PubMed

The inherited hemoglobin disorders sickle cell disease and thalassemia are the most common monogenetic disorders worldwide. Pulmonary hypertension is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia, and hemolytic disorders are potentially among the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic disorders is likely multifactorial, including hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, chronic hypoxemia, chronic thromboembolic disease, chronic liver disease, and asplenia. In contrast to patients with traditional forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, patients with hemolytic disorders have a mild-to-moderate degree of elevation in mean pulmonary pressures, with mild elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance. The hemodynamic etiology of pulmonary hypertension in these patients is multifactorial and includes pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary venous hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension secondary to a hyperdynamic state. Currently, there are limited data on the effects of any specific treatment modality for pulmonary hypertension in patients with hemolytic disorders. It is likely that maximization of treatment of the primary hemoglobinopathy in all patients and treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension would be beneficial. However, there is still a major need for large multinational trials of novel therapies for this patient population. PMID:20522578

Machado, Roberto F; Gladwin, Mark T

2010-06-01

145

Arginase and pulmonary diseases  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that arginase, which converts l-arginine into l-ornithine and urea, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. In asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis, increased arginase activity in the airways may contribute to obstruction and hyperresponsiveness of the airways by inducing a reduction in the production of bronchodilatory nitric oxide (NO) that results from its competition with constitutive (cNOS) and inducible (iNOS) NO synthases for their common substrate. In addition, reduced l-arginine availability to iNOS induced by arginase may result in the synthesis of both NO and the superoxide anion by this enzyme, thereby enhancing the production of peroxynitrite, which has procontractile and pro-inflammatory actions. Increased synthesis of l-ornithine by arginase may also contribute to airway remodelling in these diseases. l-Ornithine is a precursor of polyamines and l-proline, and these metabolic products may promote cell proliferation and collagen production, respectively. Increased arginase activity may also be involved in other fibrotic disorders of the lung, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, through its action of inducing reduced levels of vasodilating NO, increased arginase activity has been associated with primary and secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension. Drugs targeting the arginase pathway could have therapeutic potential in these diseases.

Pera, Tonio; Meurs, Herman

2008-01-01

146

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are abnormal vascular structures that most often connect a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, bypassing the normal pulmonary capillary bed and resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. As a consequence, patients with PAVM can have hypoxemia and paradoxical embolization complications, including stroke and brain abscess. PAVMs may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, and simple or complex. Most PAVMs are hereditary and occur in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, an autosomal dominant vascular disorder, and screening for PAVM is indicated in this subgroup. PAVMs may also be idiopathic, occur as a result of trauma and infection, or be secondary to hepatopulmonary syndrome and bidirectional cavopulmonary shunting. Diagnostic testing involves identifying an intrapulmonary shunt, with the most sensitive test being transthoracic contrast echocardiography. Chest CT scan is useful in characterizing PAVM in patients with positive intrapulmonary shunting. Transcatheter embolotherapy is the treatment of choice for PAVM. Lifelong follow-up is important because recanalization and collateralization may occur after embolization therapy. Surgical resection is rarely necessary and reserved for patients who are not candidates for embolization. Antibiotic prophylaxis for procedures with a risk of bacteremia (eg, dental procedures) is recommended in all patients with PAVM because of the risk of cerebral abscess. PMID:24008954

Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Swanson, Karen L; Krowka, Michael J

2013-09-01

147

Pediatric pulmonary tumors: primary and metastatic.  

PubMed

Pediatric pulmonary tumors are rare. There is often a significant delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tumors secondary to their rarity and nonspecific presenting physiologic and radiographic findings. A high index of suspicion in pediatric patients with recurrent or persistent pulmonary symptoms is of paramount importance in diagnosing pulmonary tumors at an early stage. Malignant pulmonary tumors are more frequently diagnosed than benign lesions, with metastatic cancers being the most common. Complete surgical resection remains the basis of therapy for primary lesions, and its role in secondary cancers is becoming more established. Adjuvant therapies are frequently employed depending on the precise tumor involved. Mortality rates vary greatly depending on tumor location, stage, and type. PMID:18158138

Weldon, Christopher B; Shamberger, Robert C

2008-02-01

148

Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... What will I learn in Pulmonary Rehabilitation? The education part of the program happens both in a classroom, one-on-one with the professional staff, and during each exercise session. During group meetings, you will learn new ways ...

149

Pulmonary atresia  

MedlinePLUS

... another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Persons with pulmonary atresia may ... artery and aorta. The vessel is called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Other treatments include: A thin, ...

150

Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Pulmonary Rehabilitation Reviewed on 9/09 By Nicole Smith, OTR Nicole Smith, OTR Occupational Therapist View full profile COPD: Treatment ... William J. Janssen Donald R. Rollins Daniel R. Smith Elaine M K Schwartz Michelle A. Beutz James ...

151

Pulmonary Blastoma  

PubMed Central

A case of rapidly growing solitary tumour of the right upper lobe of the lung in a 72-year-old man is presented. It shows the typical histological appearance of a pulmonary blastoma. Only 13 cases were published previously, none from Canada. It is a matter of opinion whether pulmonary blastoma should be classified as a separate entity or as a distinct form of carcinosarcoma. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4

Danziger, H.

1970-01-01

152

Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease, which requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose when patients initially present. Initial symptoms can be nonspecific and include complaints such as fatigue and mild dyspnea. Once the disease is suspected, echocardiography is used to estimate the pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure and to exclude secondary causes of elevated PA pressures such as left heart disease. Right heart catheterization with vasodilator challenge is critical to the proper assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics and to determine whether patients are likely to benefit from vasodilator therapy. Pathologically, the disease is characterized by deleterious remodeling of the distal pulmonary arterial and arteriolar circulation, which results in increased pulmonary vascular resistance. In the last fifteen years, medications from three different classes have been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These include the prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

Houtchens, Jeanne; Martin, Douglas; Klinger, James R.

2011-01-01

153

Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.  

PubMed

Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (? = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity at high shear rate seems to be associated with better secondary skin feeling. Products with higher Fischer-Tropsch wax content appear to be rated higher in terms of secondary skin feeling. PMID:23551222

Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

2013-08-01

154

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-11-14

155

High Altitude Pulmonary Edema.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A centrineurogenic etiology for the pulmonary changes of 'High Altitude Pulmonary Edema' (HAPE) has been established. Respiratory hypoxia leads to the pathological pulmonary complex in unprotected beagles. These pulmonary changes are induced by isolated c...

G. Moss

1973-01-01

156

Mineral Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine you are hiking with your family and this shiney looking crystal catches your eye. You bring it home and no one in your family is able to tell you what it is. How do you find out? First you need to practice. Identifying minerals. Click on the following link. Identify all five minerals. On your peice of paper tell me their Name Color Luster Cleavage/Fracture Hardness Glenco simple mineral identification Now try and identify 7 real minerals using a virtual key. Answer the following questions What properties do you use to identify the mineral? Which ...

Rmesser

2010-11-16

157

[The tape for pulmonary artery banding].  

PubMed

Pulmonary artery banding remains a useful procedure for special conditions. A 3-month-old girl diagnosed as Down syndrome with atrioventricular septal defect underwent pulmonary artery banding. We used polyester tape smeared with Bone Wax for this pulmonary artery banding. After 7 months period, the tape was easily dissected from surrounding tissue and removed at radical operation. Microscopic appearance showed that the tape was intact and no evidence of inflammation or mineralization. We believe Bone Wax smeared polyester tape accomplishes well as silicone impregnated one. PMID:16104566

Iwase, J; Maeda, M; Sasaki, S; Mizuno, A

2005-08-01

158

Reply to 'Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?', by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov  

SciTech Connect

Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon.

Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur

2005-03-14

159

Pulmonary Complications in Patients with Severe Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary complications are prevalent in the critically ill neurological population. Respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), pulmonary edema, pulmonary contusions and pneumo/hemothorax, and pulmonary embolism are frequently encountered in the setting of severe brain injury. Direct brain injury, depressed level of consciousness and inability to protect the airway, disruption of natural defense barriers, decreased mobility, and secondary neurological insults inherent to severe brain injury are the main cause of pulmonary complications in critically ill neurological patients. Prevention strategies and current and future therapies need to be implemented to avoid and treat the development of these life-threatening medical complications.

Lee, Kiwon; Rincon, Fred

2012-01-01

160

Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has potent properties for the treatment of a variety of vascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke and pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, there are few data about the role of TMP in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage. This study examined the effect of TMP on hypoxia-induced pulmonary

Le Zhang; Mengyang Deng; Shiwen Zhou

2011-01-01

161

Mineral slurries  

SciTech Connect

A pumpable slurry of mineral particles, e.g., coal, in water contains 50 to 85% by weight of mineral particles based on the combined weight of mineral particles and water. The mineral component contains at least 30% by weight of coarse particles having a particle size in the range 5 to 50 mm, 10 to 40% by weight of fine particles having a particle size less than 200 micron and the balance to 100% of intermediate sized particles. The slurry is stable without the use of additives and can be pumped through a pipeline.

Baker, P.J.; Brookes, D.A.; Johnson, M.

1985-06-25

162

Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... pressure." Pulmonary hypertension is an increase in blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. It is ... the narrowed arteries. This results in high blood pressure in the right side of your heart and in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Symptoms What ...

163

Secondary drowning in children.  

PubMed Central

Secondary drowning (and near-drowning) is one of the post-immersion respiratory syndromes. It is defined as deterioration of pulmonary function that follows deficient gas exchange due to loss or inactivation of surfactant. A review of 94 consecutive cases of near-drowning in childhood showed that this syndrome occurred in five (5%) cases. Its onset was usually rapid and characterised by a latent period of one to 48 hours of relative respiratory well-being. It occurred more rapidly after immersion in fresh water. The two children immersed in salt water died of secondary drowning, while the three immersed in fresh water recovered completely. If it is anticipated, recognised, and treated vigorously prognosis of secondary drowning is good in fresh water cases but bad after salt water immersion.

Pearn, J H

1980-01-01

164

Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

2012-07-01

165

Mineral Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use written and online materials to answer a set of questions on the general properties and identification of minerals. They will learn about physical properties such as color, hardness, and cleavage; special properties such as fluorescence and effervescence; and complete a chart listing properties for a selection of minerals. Links to the necessary information are provided.

Passow, Michael

166

Flourescent Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, hosted by Microscopy-UK, provides illustrations of flourescent minerals, each with accompanying text that shows how the color identifies the mineral. The site offers a brief explanation of flourescence and uses examples of calcite, willemite, and flourite to demonstrate this phenomenon. Numerous images, diagrams, and links are provided.

2009-01-28

167

Mineral Densities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given cubic cell edge dimensions and asked to calculate mineral densities and vice versa. The final question of this homework assignment provides students with a mineral density and unit cell edge length in order to determine the number of formula units per cell.

168

[Pulmonary thromboembolism with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Out of 77 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of pulmonary tuberculosis from January 2007 to October 2009, 3 patients (3.9%) suffered from pulmonary thrombotic embolism (PTE) and/or deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Case 1: An 80-year-old male with elevated D-dimer was diagnosed with PTE on the basis of an enhanced chest CT showing filling defects in the bilateral pulmonary arteries. Case 2: A 39-year-old male presented with prolonged high-grade fever even after administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs and complained of weakness. His D-dimer was high on admission and became still higher; then, edema was found on his left lower limb, and he was diagnosed with DVT on the basis of lower limb ultrasonography showing isoechoic thrombosis from the IVC to the left popliteal vein. An IVC filter was needed to treat his lesion. Case 3: A 69-year-old female with elevated D-dimer and edema on the right lower limb was diagnosed with PTE and DVT on the basis of chest CT findings. Since anti-coagulation therapy could not be continued due to intestinal bleeding, an IVC filter was placed. All 3 cases presented with no dyspnea and two of the three cases showed no hypoxemia. Even in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis without dyspnea, D-dimer seems to be useful for the early diagnosis of thromboembolism. PMID:21922781

Komazaki, Yoshitoshi; Sakakibara, Yumi; Sakashita, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Inase, Naohiko

2011-07-01

169

Pulmonary calcinosis.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and pathological features are described of a case of pulmonary calcinosis complicating cystic disease of the renal medulla. A histopathological study of the lung revealed calcification in the alveolar walls and in the blood vessels, predominantly in the pulmonary veins and venules. The calcified deposits were also studied by electron microscopy, and appearances suggestive of active growth of the deposits were recognised. Chemical analysis of the lung revealed a calcium content some 55 times greater than that of a normal lung. There was a five-fold increase in magnesium content. Reference is made to the literature demonstrating that the chemical composition of metastic calcification differs according to whether it is visceral or non-visceral in type. Images

Heath, D; Robertson, A J

1977-01-01

170

[Pulmonary paragonimiasis].  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by a trematode of the genus Paragonimus(1,2). Infestation is rare in Spain, but the influx of people from endemic areas should make us keep this condition in the differential diagnosis of our patients(2,5). We report the case a patient from Ecuador and resident in Spain for 7 years with active pulmonary tuberculosis on arrival in Spain and later diagnosed with of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to persistent haemoptysis. The diagnosis was established by surgical lung specimen showing granulomas containing parasite eggs and the macroscopic view of the fluke within a lung cavity. Initial tuberculosis treatment and current treatment with praziquantel controlled both conditions. PMID:21420222

Gómez-Seco, Julio; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Marcel José; Rodríguez-Nieto, María Jesús; Gómez-Escolar, Pablo Fernández; Presa-Abos, Teresa; Fortes-Alen, José

2011-12-01

171

Pulmonary rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rehabilitation has been practised for several decades, but its application in respiratory disease is relatively recent. Although\\u000a by definition chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterised by the presence of a progressive\\u000a and irreversible airflow obstruction, the primary treatment traditionally consists of pharmacological modulation of the airflow\\u000a limitation by bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory agents. Despite symptomatic relief after

Annemie M. W. J. Schols; Emiel F. M. Wouters

172

Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... may be prevented by surgery or irradiation therapy. Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema occurs when fluid builds up in the air ... the lungs and causes a shortness of breath. Pulmonary edema may be caused by exercise at very high ...

173

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... American Thoracic Society Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Normal blood vessel (blood ows freely) Pulmonary Hypertension (blood ow is slow) Main pulmonary artery Left atrium Blood Vessel Left ventricle Right ventricle Right atrium Online Version ...

174

CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Eight patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH) that had been demonstrated by perfusion lung scan, pulmonary arteriography, and right heart catheterization had their pulmonary circulation evaluated by CT. Eight subjects without lung pathology were also studied for comparison. High resolution CT from apex to base with 1 cm thick sections after intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed in each individual. Emboli lodged in main pulmonary arteries on arteriography were regularly shown by CT, whereas those in segmental or smaller arteries were not detected. Diameters of the main pulmonary arteries measured on CT correlated with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (p < 0.001). The ratio between diameters of segmental arteries and the corresponding bronchi (A/B ratio) on CT was > 1 in 72 of 144 examined pulmonary segments (18 segments for each patient) in patients with CTPH. The ratio was > 1 in only 10 of 144 examined segments in normal control subjects. Dilatation of bronchial arteries was present in four of eight patients with CTPH. The parenchymal density in patients with CTPH was significantly higher in the axial than in the middle or peripheral lung compartments. In conclusion, CT may help with the diagnosis of CTPH by detecting thrombi of main arteries and by showing characteristic findings; moreover, it is accurate in estimating pulmonary arterial pressure secondary to thromboembolic obstruction. PMID:1430438

Falaschi, F; Palla, A; Formichi, B; Sbragia, P; Petruzzelli, S; Giuntini, C; Bartolozzi, C

1992-01-01

175

Dysfunctional Voltage-Gated K1 Channels in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Primary Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare disease of unknown cause. Although PPH and secondary pulmonary hypertension (SPH) share many clinical and pathological characteristics, their origins may be disparate. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), the activity of voltage-gated K1 (KV) channels governs membrane potential (Em) and regulates cytosolic free Ca21 concentration ((Ca21)cyt). A rise in (Ca21)cyt is a

Jason Xiao-Jian Yuan; Ann M. Aldinger; Magdalena Juhaszova; Jian Wang; John V. Conte; Sean P. Gaine; Jonathan B. Orens; Lewis J. Rubin

176

Pulmonary artery sarcoma diagnosed using intravascular ultrasound images  

PubMed Central

Primary and secondary malignant intravascular tumours of the pulmonary artery occur infrequently and the diagnosis is usually delayed as symptoms and findings from conventional examinations are non-specific. The case is presented of a patient with a pulmonary artery sarcoma, probably arising from ribs resected some years previously, in which intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provided important diagnostic findings.??

Okano, Y.; Satoh, T.; Tatewaki, T.; Kunieda, T.; Fukuyama, S.; Miyazaki, N.; Beppu, Y.

1999-01-01

177

Mineral bioprocessing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-...

A. E. Torma

1993-01-01

178

Pulmonary embolism and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis has a high prevalence in Tunisia, but pulmonary embolism is rarely reported in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We describe 3 cases of pulmonary embolism associated with severe pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary embolism occurred within 2 to 13 days of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. Clinical, bacteriological, and radiological evolutions were noted within 6 months for pulmonary tuberculosis, but controlling the international normalized ratio was difficult in 2 cases, and low-molecular-weight heparin was prescribed for 6 months in one case. The association between tuberculosis and pulmonary embolism is rare, but it should be systematically investigated, particularly in those with severe pulmonary or disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:24771743

Kwas, Hamida; Habibech, Sonia; Zendah, Ines; Elmjendel, Imen; Ghedira, Habib

2014-05-01

179

Pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains one of the most challenging medical diseases in the emergency department. PE is a potentially life threatening diagnosis that is seen in patients with chest pain and/or dyspnea but can span the clinical spectrum of medical presentations. In addition, it does not have any particular clinical feature, laboratory test, or diagnostic modality that can independently and confidently exclude its possibility. This article offers a review of PE in the emergency department. It emphasizes the appropriate determination of pretest probability, the approach to diagnosis and management, and special considerations related to pregnancy and radiation exposure. PMID:22487110

Ouellette, David W; Patocka, Catherine

2012-05-01

180

Unusual ventilation perfusion scintigram in a case of immunologic pulmonary edema clinically simulating pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

A case of immunologic pulmonary edema secondary to hydrochlorothiazide allergy developed in a 55-year-old woman that clinically simulated pulmonary embolism. The patient had abnormal washin images with normal washout images on an Xe-133 ventilation study. On the perfusion study, large bilateral central and posterior perfusion defects were present that showed an unusual mirror image pattern on the lateral and posterior oblique views. Resolution of radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred over a 3-day period in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy.

Campeau, R.J.; Faust, J.M.; Ahmad, S.

1987-11-01

181

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) is a rare developmental disorder involving the lung, and characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation. The prevalence is unknown. PL presents at birth with severe respiratory distress, tachypnea and cyanosis, with a very high mortality rate at or within a few hours of birth. Most reported cases are sporadic and the etiology is not completely understood. It has been suggested that PL lymphatic channels of the fetal lung do not undergo the normal regression process at 20 weeks of gestation. Secondary PL may be caused by a cardiac lesion. The diagnostic approach includes complete family and obstetric history, conventional radiologic studies, ultrasound and magnetic resonance studies, lymphoscintigraphy, lung functionality tests, lung biopsy, bronchoscopy, and pleural effusion examination. During the prenatal period, all causes leading to hydrops fetalis should be considered in the diagnosis of PL. Fetal ultrasound evaluation plays a key role in the antenatal diagnosis of PL. At birth, mechanical ventilation and pleural drainage are nearly always necessary to obtain a favorable outcome of respiratory distress. Home supplemental oxygen therapy and symptomatic treatment of recurrent cough and wheeze are often necessary during childhood, sometimes associated with prolonged pleural drainage. Recent advances in intensive neonatal care have changed the previously nearly fatal outcome of PL at birth. Patients affected by PL who survive infancy, present medical problems which are characteristic of chronic lung disease.

Bellini, Carlo; Boccardo, Francesco; Campisi, Corradino; Bonioli, Eugenio

2006-01-01

182

Endothelial cells and pulmonary arterial hypertension: apoptosis, proliferation, interaction and transdifferentiation  

PubMed Central

Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, whether idiopathic or secondary, is characterized by structural alterations of microscopically small pulmonary arterioles. The vascular lesions in this group of pulmonary hypertensive diseases show actively proliferating endothelial cells without evidence of apoptosis. In this article, we review pathogenetic concepts of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and explain the term "complex vascular lesion ", commonly named "plexiform lesion", with endothelial cell dysfunction, i.e., apoptosis, proliferation, interaction with smooth muscle cells and transdifferentiation.

2009-01-01

183

[Pulmonary vascular disease].  

PubMed

This review article discusses three topics related to pulmonary vascular disease: 1) pulmonary vascular changes associated with portal hypertension, 2) ANCA-associated pulmonary vasculitis, and 3) Takayasu's arteritis. Hepatopulmonary syndrome and pulmonary hypertension have recently been reported as pulmonary vascular changes accompanied with portal hypertension. Endogenous vasoactive agents that reach the pulmonary circulation through porto-systemic shunt vessels are thought to contribute to these vascular changes. In ANCA-associated vasculitis, hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonitis, and nodular lesions are common manifestations in the lung. In Takayasu's arteritis, CT occasionally demonstrates mosaic attenuation owing to pulmonary arteritis and peripheral reticulolinear changes probably due to thromboembolism. PMID:11321813

Takahashi, K

2001-03-01

184

Secondary parkinsonism  

MedlinePLUS

Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson's disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain problems, such ...

185

Postoperative pulmonary edema in young, athletic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary edema secondary to postextubation laryn gospasm is a potentially life-threatening problem, de manding early diagnosis and prompt treatment. We believe that this problem has been grossly underesti mated in its incidence, as only seven adults have been reported in the English literature, whereas seven adults have been observed at our institution in only a 24 month period. All were

James R. Holmes; Robert N. Hensinger; Edward W. Wojtys

1991-01-01

186

Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), formerly referred to as primary pulmonary hypertension, is a disease in\\u000a which there is a persistent elevation of pulmonary artery pressure without demonstrable cause. There is expert agreement that\\u000a the definition of pulmonary hypertension, as was required for entry into the Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Registry of the\\u000a US National Institutes of Health (NIH), and for

Jane E. Lewis; Richard N. Channick

187

Pulmonary Strongyloidiasis  

PubMed Central

Strongyloides stercoralis is a unique parasite. It can complete its life cycle entirely within the human host. As a result, an autoinfection cycle is set up. As long as there is an intact immune system, the host can control the parasitic burden, and the organism may persist for years after the initial inoculum. Most infected individuals experience mild gastrointestinal or pulmonary symptoms that may fluctuate for years. When cell-mediated immunity becomes impaired (ie, corticosteroid use, malignancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the parasite burden will grow, disseminate, and cause hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis is endemic in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world; additionally, it is also endemic in the southeastern United States. Strongyloidiasis is associated with asthma, preexisting lung disease, and immunosuppression, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Eosinophilia is not a prerequisite; therefore, the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis requires a high index of suspicion.

Mokhlesi, Babak; Shulzhenko, Oksana; Garimella, Prasad S.; Kuma, Leslie; Monti, Catherine

2009-01-01

188

Pulmonary sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory granulomatous disease that is characterized by diverse organ system manifestations, a variable clinical course, and a predilection for affecting relatively young adults worldwide. Abnormalities on chest radiographs are detected in 85% to 95% of patients who have sarcoidosis. Approximately 20% to 50% of patients who have sarcoidosis present with respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, chest pain, and tightness of the chest. The clinical course and manifestations of pulmonary sarcoidosis are protean: spontaneous remission occurs in approximately two thirds of patients; up to 30% of patients have chronic course of the lung disease, resulting in progressive, (sometimes life-threatening) loss of lung function. Morbidity that correlates to sarcoidosis occurs in 1% to 4% of patients. PMID:18539238

Mihailovic-Vucinic, Violeta; Jovanovic, Dragana

2008-09-01

189

[Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis].  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis is an acute, generally mild, respiratory disease that rarely becomes chronic or disseminated and fatal. The aetiologic agent is Coccidioides immitis, a dimorphic fungus growing in soil. The fungus is endemic in hot semi-arid areas in the USA and South America. Human beings and animals become infected by inhaling dust with arthroconidia. The fungus gives rise to either a purulent or a granulomatous inflammation or both. Clinically and radiologically, it can be confused with neoplasms and tuberculosis. The disease may be fatal in immuno-deprived persons who are also at risk of reactivation of a latent infection. Coccidioidomycosis can be detected serologically. The standard treatment of severe illness is Amphotericin B. The authors present the first histologically and serologically verified case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in Denmark. An increased number of coccidioidomycosis can be expected with increased travelling and an increased number of immuno-deprived persons. PMID:8317018

Wiebe, B M; Stenderup, J; Grode, G W; Jacobsen, G K

1993-05-31

190

Clay minerals from diallage in a warm and humid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of chemical weathering, rockforming minerals release constituent ions changing into secondary minerals by alteration or recrystallization. Minerals formed in this way are primarily of colloidal nature, and are the most active portion in soils together with humus. The chemical weathering has dual meaning for soil fertility, that is, it provides soils with nutrients released and inorganic colloids

Shigenori Aomine; Nobufumi Miyauchi

1962-01-01

191

[Secondary osteoporosis or secondary contributors to bone loss in fracture. causes and pathophysiology of secondary osteoporosis].  

PubMed

Cases of osteoporosis that have a specific cause are defined as secondary osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis may be caused by various diseases and drugs, malnutrition, and other factors. Because secondary osteoporosis can be dramatically improved by treating the primary disease, it is extremely important to differentiate secondary osteoporosis at the time of diagnosis of primary osteoporosis. Because the pathophysiological condition that causes secondary osteoporosis varies by case, the degree to which low bone mineral density is involved in fracture risk also varies. Drug-induced secondary osteoporosis is caused by the side effects of treatment drugs used for the primary disease, and its management requires initiation of treatment with simultaneous prevention of the effects of drugs on bone. As with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, there is an increasing awareness that simultaneous management of osteoporosis is necessary when performing estrogen or androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:23999359

Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

2013-09-01

192

Hemorrhagic pleural effusion secondary to sarcoidosis: A brief review  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion is considered to be a rare manifestation of pulmonary sarcoidosis, but hemorrhagic effusion secondary to it is a very uncommon clinical presentation. This case is reported due to the rare manifestation in pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting clinically as hemorrhagic pleural effusion.

Kumar, Santosh; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Rajni; Prasad, Rajendra

2009-01-01

193

Mineral bioprocessing  

SciTech Connect

In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

Torma, A.E.

1993-05-01

194

Giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma.  

PubMed

We present a very unusual case of giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma presenting as a large solitary pulmonary mass. This was successfully managed with surgical resection. Histological examination revealed that the mass was positive for GLUT-1 receptor, a marker for infantile hemangioma. To our knowledge only a few cases of pulmonary hemangioma have been described previously in the literature. Pulmonary hemangiomas are very rare lesions, most of them presenting as a pulmonary mass. This case emphasizes the fact that this rare lesion should be considered in the differential of an enhancing pulmonary mass in an infant. PMID:20461368

Pandya, Rajul; Tummala, Venkat

2010-12-01

195

Mineral Commodities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise introduces mineral commodities (elements). Students consider the elements aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, uranium, lead, gold, mercury and tin and match them with their definintions in a table. Then they use minable grade (minable weight percent) and normal crustal abundance (crustal weight percent) to calculate the concentration factor for several commodities to determine their economic minability. Students then graph their calculations and explain their trend.

Perkins, Dexter

196

Expression of immunoreactive activin A protein in remodeling lesions associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

The expression of activin A, one of the transforming growth factor-beta supergene family, was studied in various pulmonary conditions associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (3 cases with diffuse alveolar damage, 6 cases with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 1 case with pulmonary fibrosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis) using immunohistochemical techniques on paraffin-embedded sections. Controls consisted of 10 cases with normal pulmonary parenchyma, and 2 cases with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 case with secondary pulmonary hypertension were also studied. The lung specimens from normal parenchyma weakly expressed immunoreactive activin A on the bronchiolar epithelium. In marked contrast, all of the specimens from cases with diffuse alveolar damage and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated strong expression of activin A on metaplastic epithelium, hyperplastic smooth muscle cells, desquamated cells, and alveolar macrophages. Pulmonary arteries from patients with primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension showed abundant immunoreactive activin A on smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest a potential role for this growth factor, activin A, in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tissue remodeling associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Matsuse, T.; Ikegami, A.; Ohga, E.; Hosoi, T.; Oka, T.; Kida, K.; Fukayama, M.; Inoue, S.; Nagase, T.; Ouchi, Y.; Fukuchi, Y.

1996-01-01

197

Main pulmonary artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Alterations of main pulmonary artery have been described in literature. Main pulmonary artery aneurysm is very rare with few available published data. We present a case of echocardiographic finding of a main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 78-year-old Italian woman. PMID:19631397

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Sturiale, Mauro

2011-10-20

198

Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners  

SciTech Connect

Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

1981-04-01

199

Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners  

SciTech Connect

Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

1981-04-01

200

Pathogenesis of pulmonary edema associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary edema is common cause of acute respiratory failure and can be seen in not only cardiac but also noncardiac diseases. The pathophysiologic mechanism for the development of acute pulmonary edema in any clinical situation can usually be explained alterations in the forces governing the transvascular flux of fluid in the pulmonary microvasculature, according to the Starling equation. "Cardiac" pulmonary edema is primarily due to an increase in the capillary hydrostatic pressure of sufficient magnitude to overcome the forces maintaining fluid within the vessel and the ability of the lymphatics to drain the transudated fluid. On the other hand, pulmonary edema occurring in association with noncardiac disease (e.g., sepsis, aspiration or shock) is secondary to an increase in the permeability of the pulmonary microvasculature and is referred to as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema or the adult respiratory distress syndrome. This article examines the mechanisms for the development of pulmonary edema and discusses the differences between the cardiac and noncardiac types.

Sibbald, W. J.; Anderson, R. R.; Holliday, R. L.

1979-01-01

201

Lung surfactant alterations in pulmonary thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Beside neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, secondary surfactant deficiency may occur in patients with mature lungs. Recent studies revealed quantitative and qualitative changes of lung surfactant in pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) concerning the total phospholipids content in BAL fluid, alterations in surfactant phospholipids classes and a large-to-small aggregates ratio. Reduced expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A) mRNA and SP-A in lung tissue after pulmonary embolism was found. Serum levels of SP-A were significantly higher in patients with PTE than in other lung diseases, except COPD. Surfactant changes in PTE may result from damage of type II cells by hypoxia, leakage of plasma proteins into the airspaces and/or by reactive oxygen species. They can contribute to lung atelectasis and edema, and a further reduction in oxygen saturation as seen in clinical picture of PTE. Surfactant changes are reliable marker of lung injury that might become a prognostic indicator in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism.

2009-01-01

202

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is one of the few forms of pulmonary hypertension that is surgically curable. It is likely underdiagnosed and must be considered in every patient presenting with pulmonary hypertension to avoid missing the opportunity to cure these patients. This article discusses the epidemiology, risk factors, natural history, diagnosis, and preoperative evaluation of patients with this disorder. Also covered are putative mechanisms for the conversion of acute emboli into fibrosed thrombembolic residua. Mechanical obstruction of the central pulmonary vasculature is rarely the sole cause of the pulmonary hypertension, and a discussion of the small vessel arteriopathy present in these patients is offered. Technical aspects of pulmonary endartectomy and the data supporting its role are discussed, as are the limited data on pulmonary arterial hypertension specific medical therapies for patients deemed noncandidates for the operation. PMID:21047580

Auger, William R; Kim, Nick H; Trow, Terence K

2010-12-01

203

Anomalous pulmonary venous connections.  

PubMed

Developmental lung anomalies are classified into 3 main categories: bronchopulmonary (lung bud) anomalies, vascular anomalies, and combined lung and vascular anomalies. These anomalies are uncommon, and patients are at times asymptomatic; hence, identifying a developmental lung anomaly in the adult can be a challenge. Pulmonary vascular anomalies include interruption or absence of the main pulmonary artery, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery, anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (partial or complete), and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Systemic vascular anomalies comprise persistent left superior vena cava, anomalies of azygos and hemiazygos systems, and anomalies of the thoracic aorta and its major branches. In this article, we present embryology, classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and imaging features of anomalous pulmonary venous connections, with special emphasis on multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. These state-of-art imaging techniques have facilitated accurate and prompt diagnosis of these anomalies. PMID:23168060

Katre, Rashmi; Burns, Stephanie K; Murillo, Horacio; Lane, Michael J; Restrepo, Carlos S

2012-12-01

204

Secondary atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a drop is subjected to a surrounding dispersed phase that is moving at an initial relative velocity, aerodynamic forces\\u000a will cause it to deform and fragment. This is referred to as secondary atomization. In this paper, the abundant literature\\u000a on secondary atomization experimental methods, breakup morphology, breakup times, fragment size and velocity distributions,\\u000a and modeling efforts is reviewed and

D. R. Guildenbecher; C. López-Rivera; P. E. Sojka

2009-01-01

205

Murmur and Doppler alternans in critical pulmonary stenosis.  

PubMed

Pulsus alternans is a well-recognized clinical entity in which alternating strong and weak pulses are detected. It usually is secondary to underlying myocardial failure. Murmur alternans (alternation in murmur intensity) has been described in aortic stenosis and a few right-sided lesions such as pulmonary hypertension and embolism. This report describes a case of murmur alternans in critical pulmonary stenosis that also showed Doppler alternans on echocardiography. The underlying cause was right ventricular systolic dysfunction. PMID:21748495

Atiq, Mehnaz; Akhter, Saleem; Abdul Sattar, Sheikh; Mohsin, Shazia; Aslam, Nadeem

2011-10-01

206

Pulmonary hypertension due to isolated metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thromboemboli.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension as the initial presentation of occult malignancy is extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension due to arterial tumour embolism is often overlooked and deserves contemplation. Our case report details the presentation of cardiorespiratory decompensation from an assumed classic saddle pulmonary embolus in a previously fit, well 80-year-old gentleman. The patient underwent successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, however, intraoperatively the specimen was noted to be atypical. This resulted in the surprising definitive diagnosis of thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension secondary to laminated thrombi of metastatic squamous cell tumour emboli. The site of tumour origin was however not histologically apparent and was unable to be elucidated on extensive further investigation. Post-operatively the patient had considerable subjective and functional improvement returning to activities of daily living. He however passed away some 9 months later. PMID:16412689

Wilson, Michael K; Granger, Emily K; Preda, Veronica A

2006-04-01

207

Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease  

PubMed Central

Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images

McPhee, Stephen J.

1984-01-01

208

Development and treatment of post-traumatic pulmonary platelet trapping.  

PubMed Central

In anesthetized dogs soft tissue trauma resulting in hypovolemia was associated with pulmonary trapping of 51Cr tagged platelets. The efficacy of various forms of therapy aimed at preventing pulmonary trapping of platelets following trauma was evaluated. Lung biopsies were assayed before trauma and at hourly intervals for accumulation of autologous 51Cr tagged platelets reinfused 24 hours prior to the experiment. The study showed that pulmonary platelet trapping secondary to soft tissue trauma could be prevented by treatment with Dextran 40, Dextran 70 and methyl-prednisolone administered one hour after trauma and by pretreatment with aspirin.

Peer, R M; Schwartz, S I

1975-01-01

209

Hemolysis and Pulmonary Insufficiency following Right Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.  

PubMed

We report a case of severe hemolysis and pulmonary valve insufficiency (PI) following right ventricular support using a paracorporeal pneumatic pump (Abiomed, Danvers, MA, USA). We speculate that the high velocity jet of blood emanating from the outflow cannula caused turbulence above the pulmonary valve, leading to PI and hemolysis. Despite the growing number of implanted ventricular assist devices, we could find no report in the literature describing pulmonary valve insufficiency secondary to right ventricular assist device (RVAD) placement. Fortunately, in this case, right ventricular function recovered sufficiently after seven days of support, allowing explantation of the device and resolution of PI and hemolysis. PMID:23213613

Schubert, Sarah A; Soleimani, Behzad; Pae, Walter E

2012-01-01

210

Routine cytodiagnosis of pulmonary malignancies.  

PubMed

Anesthesiologists normally discard the material routinely suctioned from the tracheal tube of patients under general endotracheal anesthesia. We preserved, and later examined microscopically, specimens from 10,621 patients. We found 11 cytologically abnormal smears from subjects with unsuspected pulmonary involvement, an incidence slightly more than 1:1,000. The accuracy of our method was assessed by calculation of the percent of abnormal smears obtained from patients with prediagnosed bronchogenic carcinomas: 40% when suctioned material was immediately spread on slides, and 67% when cellular concentration was achieved by mucolysis followed by filtration or centrifugation. Secretions normally discarded can reveal much information that would otherwise be missed. Our method may be useful if applied to patients at risk (heavy smokers, workers with asbestos, nitrosamine, or benzopyrine, miners of radioactive material, etc) who undergo general anesthesia for incidental surgery. PMID:7006567

Chalon, J; Tang, C K; Klein, G S; Ramanathan, S; Patel, C; Turndorf, H

1981-01-01

211

Mineral Sands Down Under  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

212

Minerals and Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to rock and mineral collecting. It contains information for worldwide mineral and fossil collectors with articles, mineral photos, videos, a search engine and free classified ads.

Mineraltown.com

213

[Secondary achalasia].  

PubMed

Achalasia is usually a primary disorder of esophageal motility, but has been described in association with other pathological processes, such as malignancy. A 79-year-old man with achalasia secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma is presented. The differential diagnosis of secondary achalasia includes infectious and infiltrative disease and neuropathy, but mainly malignant diseases. The clinical criteria found for achalasia secondary to malignancy included older age at diagnosis, brief duration of symptoms, and weight loss. While upper gastrointestinal x-rays and computerized tomographic scanning may be helpful, the most reliable diagnostic tool is esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. This is a terminal disease with short life expectancy. Yet making the correct diagnosis can save the patient from futile treatment with muscle relaxants and endoscopic balloon dilatation, the accepted therapeutic measures in primary achalasia. PMID:8225085

Arnon, R; Fich, A; Bar-Ziv, J

1993-08-01

214

Effects of alpha adrenergic blockade and tissue catecholamine depletion on pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia  

PubMed Central

The highly reactive pulmonary vascular bed of the neonatal calf was utilized to determine whether the hypoxic pulmonary pressor response is modified by ?-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine (Group A) or by tissue catecholamine depletion with reserpine (Group B). In addition, in Group A, the effects of hypoxia on the pulmonary circulation were compared and contrasted with those of l-norepinephrine (?-receptor stimulator) and isoproterenol (?-receptor stimulator). In Group A, changes in pulmonary vascular resistance were calculated from measurements of appropriate pressures and of pulmonary blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter). The increase in pulmonary vascular resistance produced by hypoxia was not diminished by ?-adrenergic blockade. However, blockade abolished the pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of norepinephrine. During hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, the administration of either norepinephrine or isoproterenol lowered the pulmonary vascular resistance both before and after ?-blockade. While this may be a true vasodepressor effect of these drugs it may also reflect passive changes in the pulmonary vessels secondary to an increased pulmonary blood flow. The pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia in the reserpinized calves (Group B) was tested under three circumstances: (1) in the awake animal, (2) in the anesthetized animal prepared in the same way as those in Group A, and (3) during constant flow perfusion of the left lower lobe pulmonary artery. From these studies it was concluded that tissue catecholamine depletion did not diminish the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia. Thus, neither ?-adrenergic blockade nor tissue catecholamine depletion prevents the hypoxic pulmonary pressor response. Furthermore, ?-blockade prevents the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to norepinephrine but not to hypoxia. Therefore it is concluded that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is not mediated through adrenergic receptor stimulation or release of endogenous catecholamines.

Silove, Eric D.; Grover, Robert F.

1968-01-01

215

Anomalous unilateral single pulmonary vein mimicking pulmonary arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Anomalies involving the pulmonary vein are so rare that most of them have been reported as a case or a series of several cases. Some of them often simulate pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and patients undergo pulmonary angiography for embolization. Herein we report a case of anomalous unilateral single pulmonary vein that was confirmed on pulmonary angiography after initial diagnosis of pulmonary AVM on contrast medium-enhanced chest computed tomography. PMID:23989502

Hyun, Dongho; Do, Young Soo; Lim, Seong Joo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo

2014-06-01

216

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by obstruction of pulmonary arterial vasculature by acute or recurrent thromboemboli with subsequent organization, leading to progressive pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Until relatively recently, CTEPH was a diagnosis made primarily at autopsy, but advances made in diagnostic modalities and surgical pulmonary endarterectomy techniques have made this disease treatable and even potentially curable. Although published guidelines are available, in the absence of randomized controlled trials regarding CTEPH there is a lack of standardization, and treatment options have to be individualized. PMID:22748907

Moraca, Robert J; Kanwar, Manreet

2012-07-01

217

Aortic and cardiac mineralization in the dog.  

PubMed

Aortic and cardiac mineralization was found in 21 of 3443 (0.61%) canine thoracic radiographs. In none of 786 feline thoracic radiographs reviewed were such lesions present. Mineralizations were superimposed on the ascending aorta (19 dogs) or on the caudal cardiac silhouette (2 dogs). In 2 of 4 dogs mineralization was identified echocardiographically dorsal to the aortic valve in close proximity to coronary arteries. Computed tomography confirmed mineralization of the aortic arch and root in 2 of 2 dogs. Necropsy and histopathologic examination in 1 dog revealed multiple nodular aortic tunica media calcifications with adjacent areas of degeneration. Lesions were significantly overrepresented in older dogs and in Rottweilers, and regarded as dystrophic calcification, caused either by age-related degenerative changes or chronic disease-related processes. There was no evidence of clinical significance attributed to the mineralization in any dog. Aortic and cardiac mineralization should be recognized as an incidental, non-significant finding in dogs of advanced age and differentiated from pleural and pulmonary structures. PMID:12375775

Schwarz, Tobias; Sullivan, Martin; Störk, Christoph K; Willis, Ruth; Harley, Ross; Mellor, Dominic J

2002-01-01

218

Role of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the physiopathology and treatment management of pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension can occur either as primary or secondary disease following cardiac or pulmonary illnesses. In either cases, histological lung biopsies reveal vascular remodelling i.e. smooth muscle cells proliferation with medial hypertrophy, arteriolar muscularization and endothelial cell proliferation. Subsequent intimal thickening, fibrosis and in situ thrombosis, altogether lead to vaso-occlusive alterations referred to as plexiform lesions. Theories concerning the detailed

Catherine Veyssier-Belot; Patrice Cacoub

219

Secondary seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In floating tank roofs, due to various irregularities which are often found on the inside surfaces of tank walls, it is often difficult to maintain a seal with the tank wall. One of the problems encountered is that projections on the tank wall, such as, for example, welding beads, may, upon downward movement of the tank roof, engage the secondary

J. H. McBrien; G. T. Wright

1969-01-01

220

What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Sometimes doctors can find out what is causing pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring). For example, exposure to environmental pollutants ...

221

Mineral Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners participate in a scavenger hunt, searching for and recognizing minerals and products that contain minerals. They make note of their finds on a Mineral Scavenger Hunt checklist. Learners search for the materials in their classroom, at home, or even in stores. This resource includes discussion questions to encourage learner reflection about how minerals play a role in daily life.

History, National M.

2010-01-01

222

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis  

PubMed Central

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the lung, pleura and mediastinum with thin-walled lymphangiomas. DPL can result in mass effect from infiltrative disease, restrictive and obstructive pulmonary physiology, chylous effusions and respiratory failure. The present article discusses clinical, radiographic and pathological features, and treatment options for DPL.

Kadakia, Kunal C; Patel, Sandeep M; Yi, Eunhee S; Limper, Andrew H

2013-01-01

223

Pulmonary hypertension in CKD.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease often associated with positive antinuclear antibody and high mortality. Pulmonary hypertension, which rarely is severe, occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension ranges from 9%-39% in individuals with stage 5 CKD, 18.8%-68.8% in hemodialysis patients, and 0%-42% in patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy. No epidemiologic data are available yet for earlier stages of CKD. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD may be induced and/or aggravated by left ventricular disorders and risk factors typical of CKD, including volume overload, an arteriovenous fistula, sleep-disordered breathing, exposure to dialysis membranes, endothelial dysfunction, vascular calcification and stiffening, and severe anemia. No specific intervention trial aimed at reducing pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD has been performed to date. Correcting volume overload and treating left ventricular disorders are factors of paramount importance for relieving pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD. Preventing pulmonary hypertension in this population is crucial because even kidney transplantation may not reverse the high mortality associated with established pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23164943

Bolignano, Davide; Rastelli, Stefania; Agarwal, Rajiv; Fliser, Danilo; Massy, Ziad; Ortiz, Alberto; Wiecek, Andrzej; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Lindholm, Bengt; Parati, Gianfranco; Sicari, Rosa; Gargani, Luna; Mallamaci, Francesca; London, Gerard; Zoccali, Carmine

2013-04-01

224

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) is a rare developmental disorder involving the lung, and characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation. The prevalence is unknown. PL presents at birth with severe respiratory distress, tachypnea and cyanosis, with a very high mortality rate at or within a few hours of birth. Most reported cases are sporadic and the etiology

Carlo Bellini; Francesco Boccardo; Corradino Campisi; Eugenio Bonioli

2006-01-01

225

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... narrowing worsens over time and causes high blood pressure in these blood vessels. It is sometimes call unexplained pulmonary hypertension because it describes pulmonary hypertension when there is no underlying heart or lung ... the high blood pressure. Symptoms of PPH can develop so slowly that ...

226

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

227

Operative balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty.  

PubMed

Closed operative pulmonary valvulotomy for relief of critical pulmonary valve stenosis can be performed effectively by intraoperative use of a balloon catheter without inflow occlusion or hemodynamic instability and with minimal blood loss. Follow-up evaluation indicates adequate growth of the valve. PMID:2952841

Walls, J T; Lababidi, Z; Curtis, J J

1987-05-01

228

[Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].  

PubMed

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation. PMID:14664293

Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

2003-10-01

229

The pulmonary extracellular lining.  

PubMed Central

The extracellular lining of the lungs is reviewed. The pulmonary extracellular lining is a complex mixture of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates which is absolutely essential for the maintenance of normal pulmonary functions such as gas exchange. Without the lining the lungs would collapse. Alterations in the pulmonary extracellular lining may underlie some disease conditions induced by toxic agents, especially those which interfere with the formation of pulmonary surfactant. The extracellular lining could be used to detect and monitor damage and disease caused by agents toxic to the lungs. The lining contains many hydrolytic enzymes which may act to detoxify certain toxic agents such as those which contain ester groups. The pulmonary extracellular lining could play a significant role mediating the toxic action of inhaled agents as well as the removal of those agents from the lungs. Images FIGURE 1.

George, G; Hook, G E

1984-01-01

230

Chronic pulmonary artery dissection associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection is a complication associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This complication is described as acute in onset and is frequently fatal without intervention. We describe a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chest pain found to have an unsuspected chronic pulmonary artery dissection on postmortem examination. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection should be considered in patients with chest pain and worsening dyspnea, as the frequency this condition may be underestimated.

2013-01-01

231

Retrograde pulmonary embolectomy by flushing of the pulmonary veins.  

PubMed

A glue embolization of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation in a 3-year-old boy was complicated by a massive pulmonary embolus due to glue entering the venous circulation. Attempted pulmonary embolectomy via pulmonary arteriotomy after emergency cardiopulmonary bypass was unsuccessful. However, retrograde flushing of the pulmonary veins with cold saline solution produced large quantities of embolus through the pulmonary arteriotomy. Bypass was discontinued uneventfully with no residual cardiopulmonary problems. PMID:8526638

John, L C; Awad, W I; Anderson, D R

1995-11-01

232

Sleep apnea and pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The pulmonary artery pressure values of 65 patients with sleep apnea syndrome were measured at rest and during ergometer exercise up to 100 W. Pulmonary hypertension at rest was found in 13, and during exercise in 31 more patients. Only 8 patients with pathological pressure findings suffered from pulmonary hypertension in combination with a pulmonary or cardiac disease. In

T. Podszus; W. Bauer; J. Mayer; T. Penzel; J. H. Peter; P. von Wichert

1986-01-01

233

Pulmonary hypertension associated with primary biliary cirrhosis in the absence of portal hypertension: a case report.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is well described in association with portal hypertension of any cause including end stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The essential feature of this association is the presence of portosystemic shunting, including surgically created shunts. A patient with primary pulmonary hypertension and PBC without portal hypertension is reported. This suggests that primary pulmonary hypertension may be associated with PBC in the absence of portal hypertension. Decisions regarding appropriate organ transplantation may depend on whether pulmonary hypertension is primary or secondary to portal hypertension.

Yoshida, E M; Erb, S R; Ostrow, D N; Ricci, D R; Scudamore, C H; Fradet, G

1994-01-01

234

Primary pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Several cardiorespiratory diseases can complicate human immunodeficiency virus infection. Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare clinical disorder which carries a bad prognosis. More than 90 cases of HIV-associated primary pulmonary hypertension have been reported to date. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, some evidence suggests a possible role for the virus itself in its development. Genetic susceptibility may also be implicated. The clinical and histopathologic features of this entity do not differ from those of classic primary pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and a careful evaluation to rule out causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. In addition to supportive measures, anticoagulation and vasodilators have been used to treat this disorder, although sufficient data regarding long-term results with these therapies are lacking.

Golpe, R.; Fernandez-Infante, B.; Fernandez-Rozas, S.

1998-01-01

235

Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.  

PubMed Central

Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction.

Heppleston, A G

1991-01-01

236

Nominal Group Technique consultation of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine what patients, professionals and significant others regarded as the most important positive- and challenging aspects of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and to gain insight into how such programmes could be developed and improved. Method: A modified Nominal Group Technique method was used in three consultation workshops (one with COPD patients who had recently undertaken a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme; one with ‘significant others’ of the same patients; one with secondary care professionals who deliver the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme). Results: Each of three workshops resulted in the production of approximately ten positive- and ten challenging aspects related to Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes.  These were further developed by a process of thematisation into seven broad themes.  The most important was ‘ the patient’, followed by ‘ physical health’; jointly ranked as third were: ‘ mental health’ and ‘ knowledge and education’.  ‘ The programme’ and ‘ professional characteristics’ were jointly ranked as fifth, with ‘ the future’ being ranked as the least important theme. Conclusions: The modified Nominal Group Technique method allowed the development of a ranked thematic list that illustrated the important positive- and challenging aspects of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes for patients with COPD. These themes should be core to planning future Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes, particularly if patients and carer views are to be considered.

Hutchings, Hayley A; Rapport, Frances L; Wright, Sarah; Doel, Marcus A; Clement, Clare; Lewis, Keir E

2014-01-01

237

Mineral Spectroscopy Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This server is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on mineral absorption in the visible, infrared, Raman and Mossbauer spectra. Both data coordinates and images of the spectra are available for selected minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs, but individuals throughout the world also contribute to this ever growing community resource. In addition to data files, the site provides an extensive list of references to papers on mineral optical spectroscopy. Citations are available sorted both by mineral name and by first authors of papers.

Rossman, George

238

Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. The model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

Martin, Bruce

1994-01-01

239

Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

Martin, Bruce

1994-01-01

240

Mineral Resources: Mineral Volume, Value and Revenue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of the Interior (Interior) administers minerals found in over 700 million acres of federal lands, 57 million acres on Indian lands, and 1.8 billion acres below offshore waters. Operators who lease these lands and extract these minerals pay ...

2012-01-01

241

Heavy Mineral Processing at Richards Bay Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located on the eastern shores of South Africa, 180 km north of Durban, Richards Bay Minerals (RBM) produces approximately 2.0 million metric tonnes of product annually making RBM a leading producer of titania slag, high purity pig iron, rutile and zircon. Heavy minerals are extracted from the nearby dunes by dredging and concentration on a floating gravity separation plant, followed

G. E. Williams; J. D. Steenkamp; Richards Bay Minerals; Richards Bay

242

Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy is associated with considerable risks of maternal mortality and morbidity. Our systematic review of the literature on the use of targeted treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension during pregnancy indicates a considerable decrease of mortality since a previous review in 1998 (16% v 38%), and a further non-significant decrease in mortality since the latest review in 2009 (16% v 25%). In addition to the use of targeted treatments, the timely institution of these treatments, and early planned delivery, may contribute to better outcome. Furthermore, research suggests that women with mild pulmonary hypertension or favourable functional class may have a better prognosis, but there is yet no proof of decreased mortality among these women. Despite an improved prognosis, pregnancy is contra-indicated in women with pulmonary hypertension and, when pregnancy occurs, termination should be considered. When pregnancy continues, management by a multidisciplinary team in a specialist centre is indicated. PMID:24685319

Pieper, Petronella G; Lameijer, Heleen; Hoendermis, Elke S

2014-05-01

243

Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs.

Lee, Hyoung-Doo

2012-01-01

244

Pulmonary Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the technician know. Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are breathing tests to find out how well you move air in and out of your lungs and how well oxygen enters your body. The most common PFT’s are ...

245

Human Pulmonary Dirofilariasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight cases of human pulmonary dirofilariasis are reported, bringing the total number of reported cases to 27. The lesions and the anatomic features of the worms are described and illustrated. (Author)

R. C. Neafie J. Piggott

1971-01-01

246

Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry str...

2008-01-01

247

Ohio Mineral Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides information about Mineral Resources in Ohio and management. Mine safety, oil and gas, coal mining, industrial minerals, and abandoned mined lands are related subheadings for the site. Good for finding history, factual reports, programs, regulations and policies.

2008-10-06

248

Minerals in Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of articles describes the uses of mineral products in sports and sporting equipment. The site also explores minerals use in safety applications in the workplace. A series of reading material sheets are included in PDF format.

2011-07-06

249

Minerals Yearbook: Cuba, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nickel was the most important mineral commodity to the Cuban economy followed by cobalt, which was produced as a byproduct of nickel mining. Other minerals produced in the country included cement, clays, crushed stone, feldspar, salt, and silica sand. Cub...

O. Bermudez-Lugo

2008-01-01

250

Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in\\u000a pulmonary alveoli that can result in progressive impairment in gas exchange and respiratory insufficiency. The serendipitous\\u000a discovery of PAP in GM-CSF-deficient mice and subsequent identification that neutralizing GM-CSF autoantibodies are strongly\\u000a associated with PAP in humans led to our current concepts of the

Bruce C. Trapnell; Koh Nakata; Yoshikazu Inoue

251

Pharmacotherapy of Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. While it can occur idiopathically, it is more commonly associated with other cardiac or lung diseases. While most of the available therapies were tested in adult populations, and most therapies in children remain off-label, new reports and randomized trials are emerging that inform the treatment of pediatric populations. This review discusses currently available therapies for pediatric pulmonary hypertension, their biologic rationales, and evidence for their clinical effectiveness.

Steinhorn, Robin H.

2012-01-01

252

Arginase and pulmonary diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that arginase, which converts l-arginine into l-ornithine and urea, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. In asthma, chronic obstructive\\u000a pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis, increased arginase activity in the airways may contribute to obstruction and\\u000a hyperresponsiveness of the airways by inducing a reduction in the production of bronchodilatory nitric

Harm Maarsingh; Tonio Pera; Herman Meurs

2008-01-01

253

Could Uric Acid be a Modifiable Risk Factor in Subjects with Pulmonary Hypertension?  

PubMed Central

A high serum uric acid is common in subjects with pulmonary hypertension. The increase in serum uric acid may be a consequence of the local tissue ischemia and/or hypoxia, and it may also result from other factors independent of ischemia or hypoxia that occur in various forms of pulmonary hypertension. While classically viewed as a secondary phenomenon, recent studies suggest that hyperuricemia may also have a role in mediating the local vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling in the pulmonary vasculature. If uric acid does have a contributory role in pulmonary hypertension, we may see an increasing prevalence of pulmonary hypertension as hyperuricemia is common in subjects with obesity and metabolic syndrome. We propose studies to investigate the role of uric acid in pulmonary hypertension and to determine if lowering serum uric acid may have clinical benefit in this condition.

Zharikov, Sergey I; Swenson, Erik R; Lanaspa, Miguel; Block, Edward R; Patel, Jawaharlal M; Johnson, Richard J

2010-01-01

254

Perioperative pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertensive crisis during congenital heart surgery  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pulmonary hypertensive crisis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) who require cardiac surgery. At present, prevention and management of perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis is aimed at optimizing cardiopulmonary interactions by targeting prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide signaling pathways within the pulmonary circulation with various pharmacological agents. This review is aimed at familiarizing the practitioner with the current pharmacological treatment for dealing with perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis in PAH-CHD patients. Given the life-threatening complications associated with pulmonary hypertensive crisis, proper perioperative planning can help anticipate cardiopulmonary complications and optimize surgical outcomes in this patient population.

2014-01-01

255

Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty.  

PubMed

Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) was performed in 18 consecutive patients with valvular pulmonary stenosis (PS) with no associated cardiac defects. The patients were 11 months to 19 years of age. The balloon was positioned across the pulmonary valve and inflated to pressures of 80, 100, and 120 pounds/square inch (psi). Each inflation lasted approximately 10 seconds. Peak systolic pulmonary valve gradient (delta P) and cardiac output were measured before and 15 minutes after BPV. There was no change in cardiac output, but all patients had an improved delta P. The prevalvuloplasty delta P was 81 +/- 31 mm Hg, decreasing to 23 +/- 11 mm Hg after BPV (p less than 0.01). The right ventricular peak systolic pressure decreased from 106 +/- 31 to 50 +/- 12 mm Hg (p less than 0.01). No pulmonary regurgitation was noted after BPV. The balloons were 12 or 15 mm in diameter, chosen according to the diameter of the pulmonary valve anulus. Pressures of 100 to 120 psi were required to achieve full inflation of the balloons. BPV also was performed in a patient with tetralogy of Fallot. Subsequent total repair provided an opportunity to observe the mechanism of the dilatation. Evidence of a small tear alongside the anterior valve raphe was noted. BPV induced a significant decrease in delta P and may offer an alternative method for treating PS. PMID:6225329

Lababidi, Z; Wu, J R

1983-09-01

256

Mineral Properties Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These sheets are designed to give students a framework for making observations of minerals in hand specimen and (for selected minerals) in thin section. I place most of the emphasis on the distinguishing properties, rather than requiring an exhaustive list. Students use hand specimen observation, thin section observation (for selected minerals) and references to complete the forms.

Hirsch, Dave

257

REACTIVE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN SPECIES IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary vascular disease can be defined as either a disease affecting the pulmonary capillaries and pulmonary arterioles, termed pulmonary arterial hypertension, or as a disease affecting the left ventricle, called pulmonary venous hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary circulation characterized by endothelial dysfunction, as well as intimal and smooth muscle proliferation. Progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure impair the performance of the right ventricle, resulting in declining cardiac output, reduced exercise capacity, right heart failure, and ultimately death. While the primary and heritable forms of the disease are thought to affect over 5,000 patients in the U.S., the disease can occur secondary to congenital heart disease, most advanced lung diseases, and many systemic diseases. Multiple studies implicate oxidative stress in the development of PAH. Further, this oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways, whereby bioavailable NO is decreased and ROS and RNS production are increased. Many canonical ROS and NO signaling pathways are simultaneously disrupted in PAH, with increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and xanthine oxidoreductase, uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and reduction in mitochondrial number, as well as impaired mitochondrial function. Upstream dysregulation of ROS/NO redox homeostasis impairs vascular tone and contributes to the pathological activation of anti-apoptotic and mitogenic pathways, leading to cell proliferation and obliteration of the vasculature. This manuscript will review the available data regarding the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, and provide a description of targeted therapies for this disease.

Tabima, Diana M.; Frizzell, Sheila; Gladwin, Mark T.

2013-01-01

258

Inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is an “umbrella term” used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.

2014-01-01

259

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-08

260

Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin correlate with the extent of pulmonary hypertension in patients with mitral stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective—To examine the pathophysiological significance of adrenomedullin in the pulmonary circulation by investigating the relation between plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and central haemodynamics in patients with mitral stenosis.?Methods—Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin in blood samples obtained from the femoral vein, pulmonary artery, left atrium, and aorta were measured by a newly developed specific radioimmunoassay in 23 consecutive patients with mitral stenosis (16 females and seven males, aged 53 (10) years (mean (SD)) who were undergoing percutaneous mitral commissurotomy.?Results—Patients with mitral stenosis had higher concentrations of adrenomedullin than age matched normal controls (3.9 (0.3) v 2.5 (0.3) pmol/l, p < 0.001). There was a reduction in adrenomedullin concentrations between the pulmonary artery and the left atrium (3.8 (0.2) v 3.2 (0.4) pmol/l, p < 0.001). The venous concentrations of adrenomedullin correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), total pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), and pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin did not change immediately after percutaneous mitral commissurotomy; however, they decreased significantly one week later.?Conclusions—Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin are increased in patients with mitral stenosis. This may help to attenuate the increased pulmonary arterial resistance in secondary pulmonary hypertension due to mitral stenosis.?? Keywords: adrenomedullin;  pulmonary hypertension;  mitral stenosis;  pulmonary circulation

Nishikimi, T.; Nagata, S.; Sasaki, T.; Tomimoto, S.; Matsuoka, H.; Takishita, S.; Kitamura, K.; Miyata, A.; Matsuo, H.; Kangawa, K.

1997-01-01

261

Iron-titanium oxide minerals and associated alteration phases in some uranium-bearing sandstones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital iron-titanium (Fe--Ti) oxide minerals of the ulvospinel-magnetite (titanomagnetite) and ilmenite-hematite (titanohematite) solid solution series are common in uranium-bearing sandstones. Alteration of Fe--Ti oxide minerals in oxidizing environments formed secondary products (primarily hematite) that are distinct from those produced under reducing conditions (iron disulfide minerals). Oxidation of sulfidized Fe--Ti oxide minerals, by the processes that formed uranium rolls, produced ferric

R. L. Reynolds; M. B. Goldhaber

1978-01-01

262

Fatal pulmonary fibrosis after rituximab administration.  

PubMed

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is the most frequent glomerular disease during childhood. Although immunosuppressive agents are usually effective, some severe cases remain difficult to treat. We describe a female patient with secondary steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome who no longer responded to conventional treatment. Owing to cyclosporine toxicity, rituximab was administered. Three days after treatment the patient's clinical condition dramatically worsened and she developed acute respiratory distress. Despite all means used to treat her, she died 5 weeks after rituximab infusion. A pulmonary biopsy showed extensive fibrosis, while the alveolar epithelium was no longer visible. PMID:19396468

Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Garnier, Arnaud; Chalard, François; Peuchmaur, Michel; Dauger, Stephane; Jacqz-Agrain, Evelyne; Deschênes, Georges

2009-09-01

263

Lethal Pulmonary Hypoplasia and Hydrocolpos With Transverse Vaginal Septum in a Newborn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a case report of an unusual cause of Potter sequence. Autopsy showed lethal pulmonary hypoplasia in association with a transverse vaginal septum, hydrocolpos, and a secondary obstructive uropathy.

William F Liu; Orestes Borrego; Michael Weiss; Craig R Sweet

1999-01-01

264

Lethal pulmonary hypoplasia and hydrocolpos with transverse vaginal septum in a newborn: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

This is a case report of an unusual cause of Potter sequence. Autopsy showed lethal pulmonary hypoplasia in association with a transverse vaginal septum, hydrocolpos, and a secondary obstructive uropathy. PMID:10685279

Liu, W F; Borrego, O; Weiss, M; Sweet, C R

1999-09-01

265

Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray.

Saccomanno, G.

1986-06-01

266

Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Neoplasm Complicated by Pulmonary Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hemorrhage is a potentially serious complication of radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary neoplasms that may occur with or without hemoptysis. Several factors influence the development of parenchymal hemorrhage, including tumor size, tumor location, and procedural technique. As radiofrequency ablation has become more common, the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hemorrhage is vital. The authors report a case of radiofrequency ablation of a solitary pulmonary metastasis complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage and hemoptysis.

Dillon, P.; Sato, Kent T.

2011-01-01

267

Pulmonary Hypertension in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive diffuse parenchymal disease with a poor prognosis. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often complicates the course of IPF and may even be found in patients with preserved lung function. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms of PH in IPF include vascular destruction, pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling due to overexpression of cytokines and growth factors. PH in

Georgia Pitsiou; Despina Papakosta; Demosthenes Bouros

2011-01-01

268

Pulmonary thromboembolism in children.  

PubMed

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. PMID:15635472

Babyn, Paul S; Gahunia, Harpal K; Massicotte, Patricia

2005-03-01

269

Unusual cause of pulmonary emboli.  

PubMed

Pulmonary emboli resulted due to intravasation of iophendylate during myelography the previous day. Findings consistent with pulmonary emboli in nonambulatory patients after myelography should not always be diagnosed as thromboembolic disease from blood clots. PMID:6478908

Vitums, V C

1984-10-01

270

Pilot study of losartan for pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Morbidity in COPD results from a combination of factors including hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, in part due to pulmonary vascular remodelling. Animal studies suggest a role of angiotensin II and acute studies in man concur. Whether chronic angiotensin-II blockade is beneficial is unknown. We studied the effects of an angiotensin-II antagonist losartan, on haemodynamic variables, exercise capacity and symptoms. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo- controlled study of 48 weeks duration. Forty patients with COPD and pulmonary hypertension (Tran tricuspid pressure gradient (TTPG) = 30 mmHg) were randomised to losartan 50 mg or placebo. Changes in TTPG were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months. Results There was a trend for TTPG to increase in the placebo group (baseline 43.4 versus 48.4 mmHg at endpoint) and stay constant in the losartan group (baseline 42.8 versus 43.6 mmHg). More patients in the losartan group (50%) than in the placebo group (22%) showed a clinically meaningful reduction in TTPG at any timepoint; these effects seemed more marked in patients with higher baseline TTPG. There were no clear improvements in exercise capacity or symptoms. Conclusion In this 12-month pilot study, losartan 50 mg had no statistically significant beneficial effect on TTPG, exercise capacity or symptoms in pulmonary hypertension secondary to obstructive disease. A sub-group of patients with higher TTPG may benefit.

Morrell, Nicholas W; Higham, Matthew A; Phillips, Peter G; Shakur, B Haleema; Robinson, Paul J; Beddoes, Ray J

2005-01-01

271

Clinical case: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with pulmonary hypertension - clinical management  

PubMed Central

Background Combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with pulmonary emphysema (CPFE) is a syndrome with a characteristic presentation of upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. While CPFE is a strong determinant of secondary precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH), there is limited evidence regarding the management of patients with CPFE and PH. Case presentation A 63 year-old male presented in 2006 with dyspnoea on exertion having quit smoking in 2003. Clinical examination, together with high resolution computed tomography, bronchoalveolar lavage, and echocardiographic assessments, suggested a diagnosis of CPFE without PH. In 2007, the patient received intravenous cyclophosphamide, N-acetylcysteine, and short-term anticoagulation treatment. Due to remission of acute exacerbations, the patient received triple combination therapy (prednisone, N-acetylcysteine and azathioprine). Upon progressive clinical worsening, long-term supplemental oxygen therapy was initiated in 2009. Repeated right heart catheterisation in 2011 confirmed PH and worsening pulmonary haemodynamics, and off-label ambrisentan therapy was initiated. Dyspnoea remained at follow-up, although significant haemodynamic improvement was observed. Conclusion CFPE is a distinct but under-recognized and common syndrome with a characteristic presentation. Further studies are needed to ascertain the etiology, morbidity, and mortality of CPEF with or without PH, and to evaluate novel management options.

2013-01-01

272

Hypoxamirs in pulmonary hypertension: breathing new life into pulmonary vascular research  

PubMed Central

In mammalian cells, hypoxia, or inadequate oxygen availability, regulates the expression of a specific set of microRNA, which we have previously termed “hypoxamirs”. Over the past five years, the appreciation of the importance of hypoxamirs in regulating the cellular adaptation to hypoxia has grown dramatically. At a cellular level, each hypoxamir can simultaneously regulate expression of multiple (>100) target genes in order to control fundamental biological processes, including survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and metabolism, among others. A maladaptive imbalance of these hypoxic phenotypes often drives many ischemic cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension—an enigmatic vascular disorder characterized by pronounced and severe panvasculopathy secondary to diverse upstream etiologies, notably including hypoxia. Yet, despite this pathogenic relationship between hypoxic cell phenotypes and disease, the mechanistic roles of hypoxamirs in modulating pulmonary hypertension remain largely unrecognized. Some advances have been made regarding the contributions of specific hypoxamirs in the development and progression of pulmonary hypertension. New methods are also being developed to more comprehensively study their roles in this complex disease. As a result, a more sophisticated understanding of their pervasive roles in pathogenesis could set the stage for unique diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in pulmonary hypertension.

Hale, Andrew E.; White, Kevin

2012-01-01

273

Sildenafil And Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that sildenafil inhibits hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in healthy subjects. The\\u000a aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil on pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with\\u000a high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). Twenty-two patients with HAPH were randomized by age and level of mean pulmonary\\u000a arterial pressure (PAP) in 3 groups: a first

BAKTYBEK K. KOJONAZAROV; Mirsaid Mirrakhimov; Nicholas Morrell; Martin Wilkins; Almaz Aldashev

274

Acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism is the third leading cause of cardiovascular death in the United States and is the second leading cause of death among hospitalized cancer patients. Continued controversy exists regarding the role of thrombolytic therapy among patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Limited research exists on thrombolytic therapy in this setting, most of which has focused on symptoms, including right ventricular function, hemodynamic status, and electrocardiographic changes. However, these studies have excluded patients with a known malignancy. Presented is an interesting case of a patient, in remission from breast cancer, who presented to the emergency department with symptomatic pulmonary emboli. The presentation, medical management, and consequences of the treatment have been discussed. Also, a brief review of the literature is presented regarding the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:22407373

McLenon, Melissa

2012-01-01

275

[Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].  

PubMed

Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles. PMID:24461445

Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A

2014-01-01

276

Effect of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary artery hypertension in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement  

PubMed Central

Aim: Long standing mitral valve disease is usually associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. Perioperative pulmonary hypertension is a risk factor for right ventricular (RV) failure and a cause for morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor-sildenafil citrate is widely used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension. There is a lack of evidence of effects of oral sildenafil on secondary pulmonary hypertension due to mitral valve disease. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary hypertension and incidence of RV failure in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients scheduled for mitral valve replacement with severe pulmonary hypertension (RV systolic pressure (RVSP) ?60 mmHg) on preoperative transthoracic echo were randomly treated with oral sildenafil 25 mg (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20) eight hourly for 24 h before surgery. Hemodynamic variables were measured 20 min after insertion of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) under anesthesia (T1), 20 min at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T2) and after 1,2, and 6 h (T3, T4, T5, respectively) during the postoperative period. Results: Systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in sildenafil group at all times. Ventilation time and postoperative recovery room stay were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil produces significant pulmonary vasodilatory effect as compared with placebo in mitral valve replacement patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. It also reduces ventilation time and intensive care unit (ICU) stay time as compared with placebo. It is concluded that sildenafil is effective in reducing pulmonary hypertension when administered preoperatively in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery.

Gandhi, Hemang; Shah, Bipin; Patel, Ramesh; Toshani, Rajesh; Pujara, Jigisha; Kothari, Jignesh; Shastri, Naman

2014-01-01

277

Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.  

PubMed

Isolated pulmonary involvement in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is rare in childhood. The authors report a 6-y- old boy presenting with recurrent pneumothorax, whose CT thorax showed diffuse pulmonary cystic lucencies bilaterally. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed pulmonary LCH with Cd1a and S 100 positivity. PMID:23001923

Varkki, Sneha; Tergestina, Mintoo; Bhonsle, Vaishali Sharad; Moses, Prabhakar D; Mathai, John; Korula, Sophy

2013-08-01

278

Pulmonary hypertension in POEMS syndrome.  

PubMed

POEMS syndrome is a rare clonal plasma cell disease. Patients with POEMS syndrome are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension, but the data on its incidence and impact on outcome are limited. We reviewed records of 154 POEMS syndrome patients with complete duplex echocardiography data for estimation of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP) at the time of diagnosis. Forty-two (27%) of 154 patients with pulmonary hypertension (estimated sPAP ?50 mmHg) were identified. Median age was 46 years (range 31-71 years). Patients with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have peripheral edema (P=0.04), ascites (P=0.02), pleural effusion (P=0.005), and have longer time from onset to diagnosis (P=0.004) when compared with those without pulmonary hypertension. Restrictive abnormalities and decreased diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide were observed in 83% and 96% patients with pulmonary hypertension, compared with 50% and 72% in patients without pulmonary hypertension, respectively. Reversibility of pulmonary hypertension was observed after treatment of POEMS syndrome. After median follow of 32 months, survival of patients with pulmonary hypertension was worse than those without (median overall survival 54 months vs. median not reached, P=0.021). In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension is a common feature of POEMS syndrome, and is associated with signs of extravascular volume overload. Although active treatment of POEMS syndrome can reverse pulmonary hypertension, survival of these patients is worse than those without pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22983590

Li, Jian; Tian, Zhuang; Zheng, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Wei; Duan, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yong-Tai; Cao, Xin-Xin; Zhou, Dao-Bin

2013-03-01

279

Pulmonary hypertension in POEMS syndrome  

PubMed Central

POEMS syndrome is a rare clonal plasma cell disease. Patients with POEMS syndrome are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension, but the data on its incidence and impact on outcome are limited. We reviewed records of 154 POEMS syndrome patients with complete duplex echocardiography data for estimation of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP) at the time of diagnosis. Forty-two (27%) of 154 patients with pulmonary hypertension (estimated sPAP ?50mmHg) were identified. Median age was 46 years (range 31–71 years). Patients with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have peripheral edema (P=0.04), ascites (P=0.02), pleural effusion (P=0.005), and have longer time from onset to diagnosis (P=0.004) when compared with those without pulmonary hypertension. Restrictive abnormalities and decreased diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide were observed in 83% and 96% patients with pulmonary hypertension, compared with 50% and 72% in patients without pulmonary hypertension, respectively. Reversibility of pulmonary hypertension was observed after treatment of POEMS syndrome. After median follow of 32 months, survival of patients with pulmonary hypertension was worse than those without (median overall survival 54 months vs. median not reached, P=0.021). In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension is a common feature of POEMS syndrome, and is associated with signs of extravascular volume overload. Although active treatment of POEMS syndrome can reverse pulmonary hypertension, survival of these patients is worse than those without pulmonary hypertension.

Li, Jian; Tian, Zhuang; Zheng, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Wei; Duan, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yong-Tai; Cao, Xin-Xin; Zhou, Dao-Bin

2013-01-01

280

Chemical Changes of Minerals Trapped in the Lichen Trapelia involuta: Implication for Lichen Effect on Mobility of Uranium and Toxic Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate development of minerals trapped in a lichen, we examined the lichen Trapelia involuta growing directly on secondary uranyl minerals and U-enriched Fe oxide and hydroxide minerals. Sericite and other minerals in the underlying rock are trapped in the lichen T. involuta during its biological growth and chemically changed by lichen activities. The presence of chemically changed sericite accompanied

Takeshi KASAMA; Takashi MURAKAMI; Toshihiko OHNUKI; O. William PURVIS

281

In situ central pulmonary artery thrombosis in primary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

A rare case of extensive in situ central pulmonary artery thrombosis in primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is presented. The differentiation from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTEPH) is of paramount importance because of different therapeutic strategies. In this case, the presence of mural thrombus in the central pulmonary arteries on computed tomography made the distinction difficult. However, the possibility of in situ thrombosis was suggested on the basis of absence of other findings of CTEPH (abrupt narrowing/truncation of segmental arteries, variation in size of segmental vessels, arterial webs, mosaic attenuation, pulmonary infarcts, and dilated bronchial arteries), and this was confirmed on final pathology. PMID:16372688

Agarwal, P P; Wolfsohn, A L; Matzinger, F R; Seely, J M; Peterson, R A; Dennie, C

2005-11-01

282

Computed tomography correlates with cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine whether computed tomography angiography (CTA) measurements of pulmonary artery size can noninvasively assess hemodynamics and diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). Twenty SCD patients with confirmed PH were compared with 20 matched controls. Diameters of the pulmonary artery trunk and branches were measured with CTA and a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm. Measurements were normalized by body size and correlated (Spearman rank) with hemodynamic markers from right-heart catheterization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to investigate the role of pulmonary artery sizes in diagnosing PH. Analysis of pulmonary artery sizes adjusted for body surface area (BSA) resulted in the most significant discrimination between subjects with PH secondary to SCD and controls (P < 0.001); PH was diagnosed accurately with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. There was significant correlation between pulmonary artery sizes and body mass index (BMI) and BSA only in controls (r = 0.46-0.68, P < 0.04 for all). The most significant correlations with hemodynamic markers were found between BMI-adjusted pulmonary artery sizes and high systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, high pulmonary vascular resistance, high systemic vascular resistance, and low cardiac output (r = 0.47, 0.62, 0.61, and 0.66, respectively; P < 0.04 for all). BMI-adjusted CTA measures of the pulmonary artery relate to high pulmonary vascular resistance and reduced cardiac output in patients with SCD and PH. CTA with quantitative image analysis is a powerful noninvasive diagnostic tool for PH in SCD and shows promise as estimator of hemodynamic markers. PMID:25006451

Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A; Gladwin, Mark T; Koroulakis, Antony I; Minniti, Caterina; Machado, Roberto F; Kato, Gregory J; Wood, Bradford J

2014-06-01

283

Computed tomography correlates with cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Our objective was to determine whether computed tomography angiography (CTA) measurements of pulmonary artery size can noninvasively assess hemodynamics and diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). Twenty SCD patients with confirmed PH were compared with 20 matched controls. Diameters of the pulmonary artery trunk and branches were measured with CTA and a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm. Measurements were normalized by body size and correlated (Spearman rank) with hemodynamic markers from right-heart catheterization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to investigate the role of pulmonary artery sizes in diagnosing PH. Analysis of pulmonary artery sizes adjusted for body surface area (BSA) resulted in the most significant discrimination between subjects with PH secondary to SCD and controls (P < 0.001); PH was diagnosed accurately with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. There was significant correlation between pulmonary artery sizes and body mass index (BMI) and BSA only in controls (r = 0.46–0.68, P < 0.04 for all). The most significant correlations with hemodynamic markers were found between BMI-adjusted pulmonary artery sizes and high systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, high pulmonary vascular resistance, high systemic vascular resistance, and low cardiac output (r = 0.47, 0.62, 0.61, and 0.66, respectively; P < 0.04 for all). BMI-adjusted CTA measures of the pulmonary artery relate to high pulmonary vascular resistance and reduced cardiac output in patients with SCD and PH. CTA with quantitative image analysis is a powerful noninvasive diagnostic tool for PH in SCD and shows promise as estimator of hemodynamic markers.

2014-01-01

284

[Recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage].  

PubMed

The results of treatment of 235 patients with pulmonary hemorrhage of various etiology which stayed in clinic in 1980-1992 yrs. were analyzed. Of 216 patients, whom diagnostic bronchoscopy was performed, the hemorrhage origin was found in 137, of whom in 13 its localization was imprecise. Seventeen patients have died, of whom 11--before operative intervention was done. The method of temporary occlusion of presumably bleeding lobar or segmental bronchus with the help of obturator containing the leaded out transnasally catheter was proposed to localize precisely the pulmonary hemorrhage origin. The hemorrhage origin localization is confirmed by subsequent appearance of blood from the external end of catheter. PMID:7602915

Vecherko, V N; Kolkin, Ia G; Pannotov, A P; Pershin, E S

1994-01-01

285

Congenital Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals. Two clinically different pediatric types have been defined as congenital PAP which is fatal and a late-onset PAP which is similar to the adult form and less severe. The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole-lung lavage is the current standard treatment for PAP patients. We report a new congenital case of PAP.

Hammami, Saber; Harrathi, Khaled; Lajmi, Khaled; Hadded, Samir; Ben Meriem, Chebil; Guediche, Mohamed Neji

2013-01-01

286

ROCKing pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Clinical vignette: A 76-year-old man consults you for increasing shortness of breath over the past two years and an increasing requirement for home oxygen. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy shows findings of usual interstitial pneumonitis, and he has no identifiable cause for pulmonary fibrosis, so he is considered to have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). His diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is 45% of predicted, and his total lung capacity is 40% of predicted. Because of his advanced age, he is not considered a candidate for lung transplantation. What treatment should you recommend?

Sheppard, Dean

2013-01-01

287

The metabolic theory of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), complicating the translation of candidate therapies to patients because, typically, 1 treatment addresses only 1 abnormality. The realization that in addition to pulmonary artery vascular cells, other tissues and cells are involved in the syndrome of PAH (eg, immune cells, right ventricular cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle) further complicates the identification of optimal therapeutic targets. Here, we describe a metabolic theory that proposes that many apparently unrelated molecular abnormalities in PAH do have a common denominator; they either cause or promote a mitochondrial suppression (inhibition of glucose oxidation) in pulmonary vascular cells; in turn, the signaling downstream from this mitochondrial suppression can also explain numerous molecular events previously not connected. This integration of signals upstream and downstream of mitochondria has similarities to cancer and can explain many features of the PAH vascular phenotype, including proliferation and apoptosis resistance. This suppression of glucose oxidation (with secondary upregulation of glycolysis) also underlies the abnormalities in extrapulmonary tissues, suggesting a global metabolic disturbance. The metabolic theory places mitochondria at the center stage for our understanding of PAH pathogenesis and for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Current PAH therapies are each addressing 1 abnormality (eg, upregulation of endothelin-1) and were not developed specifically for PAH but for systemic vascular diseases. Compared with the available therapies, mitochondria-targeting therapies have the advantage of addressing multiple molecular abnormalities simultaneously (thus being potentially more effective) and achieving higher specificity because they address PAH-specific biology. PMID:24951764

Paulin, Roxane; Michelakis, Evangelos D

2014-06-20

288

Virtual Mineral Exhibit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the New York State Museum's virtual exhibit of minerals, which are classified in cases referenced by topic, location, and sponsor. The minerals are presented as a thumbnail image with specifications. Clicking on the thumbnail gives one a large zoomable image. Other exhibitions at the museum site include Splendor in Stone: Photomicrographs of Stone, which is a collection of photomicrographs of thin sections of rocks. A 3D (three-dimensional) index of minerals is also available.

289

Weathering of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

Van Norden, Wendy

290

Minerals Under the Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the basics of optical mineralogy. Topics include the polarized light microscope, mineral shape and cleavage, relief, color and pleochroism, interference colors, extinction angles, twinning, opacity, vibration directions and mineral identification. The site features short, clear descriptions accompanied by photographs and drawings. This website would be useful as a concise introduction to the use of a petrographic microscope in identifying minerals.

Browning, Paul; Gladstone, Charlotte

2011-03-02

291

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter

292

USGS: Mineral Resources Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Mineral Resources Program funds science to provide and communicate current, impartial information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources." This website divides the mineral resource information, project descriptions, and products for the United States into four main regional categories: Eastern, Central, Western, and Alaska. Researchers can discover new grant opportunities and can obtain access to the National Geochemical Survey's database. Students and educators can find statistics and information on how the United State's supply-and-demand for minerals and materials affects the economy, security, and environment.

293

Biological impact on mineral dissolution: Application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms modify rates and mechanisms of chemical and physical weathering and clay growth, thus playing fundamental roles in soil and sediment formation. Because processes in soils are inherently complex and difficult to study, we employ a model based on the lichen–mineral system to identify the fundamental interactions. Fixed carbon released by the photosynthetic symbiont stimulates growth of fungi and other microorganisms. These microorganisms directly or indirectly induce mineral disaggregation, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral formation. Model polysaccharides were used to investigate direct mediation of mineral surface reactions by extracellular polymers. Polysaccharides can suppress or enhance rates of chemical weathering by up to three orders of magnitude, depending on the pH, mineral surface structure and composition, and organic functional groups. Mg, Mn, Fe, Al, and Si are redistributed into clays that strongly adsorb ions. Microbes contribute to dissolution of insoluble secondary phosphates, possibly via release of organic acids. These reactions significantly impact soil fertility. Below fungi–mineral interfaces, mineral surfaces are exposed to dissolved metabolic byproducts. Through this indirect process, microorganisms can accelerate mineral dissolution, leading to enhanced porosity and permeability and colonization by microbial communities.

Banfield, Jillian F.; Barker, William W.; Welch, Susan A.; Taunton, Anne

1999-01-01

294

Constraining kinetic rates of mineral reactions using reactive transport models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a reactive transport model to better understand results of experiments to obtain kinetic rates of mineral reactions in closed systems. Closed system experiments pose special challenges in that secondary minerals may form that modify the fluid composition evolution and may grow on the dissolving minerals thus armoring the surface. Even so, such closed system experiments provide critical data for what minerals would actually form in field applications and how coupled dissolution and precipitation mineral reactions are strongly linked. Comparing to experimental observations can test the reactive transport model, and the experimental observations can be better understood by comparing the results to the modeling. We apply a 0D end member of the model to understand the dissolution of single crystals of forsterite in a variety of settings (low pH, high pH, or NaHCO3 initial fluids, at 100 C and 1 bar, or 200 C and 150 bar). Depending on the initial conditions, we observe the precipitation of talc, brucite, amorphous silica, chrysotile, or magnesite, in various combinations. We compare simulation results to fluid compositions and the presence of secondary minerals experimentally sampled at various times. Insight from the simulations helped create an inverse model to extract the rates of forsterite dissolution and to create a simple forward model useful for exploring the influence of system size, secondary mineral surface areas, etc. Our reactive transport model allows secondary minerals to armor the forsterite surface, which can strongly decrease the dissolution rate as the system evolves. Tuning our model with experimentally derived rates and assuring relevant processes are included so as to reproduce experimental observations is necessary before upscaling to heterogeneous field conditions. The reactive transport model will be used for field-scale sequestration simulations and coupled with a geomechanical model that includes the influence of deformation.

Bolton, E. W.; Wang, Z.; Ague, J.; Bercovici, D.; Cai, Z.; Karato, S.; Oristaglio, M. L.; Qiu, L.

2012-12-01

295

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

PubMed Central

We report a 68-year-old female who presented with chronic cough and progressive dyspnoea. Computed tomography of the thorax and subsequent bronchoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), which was treated with whole lung lavage. This case is reported in view of the low incidence of PAP.

Takano, Angela; Hsu, Ann Ling; Low, Su Ying

2014-01-01

296

Massive Pulmonary Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) carries an exceptionally high mortality rate. We explored how often adjunctive therapies, particularly thrombolysis and inferior vena caval (IVC) filter placement, were performed and how these therapies affected the clinical outcome of patients with massive PE. Methods and Results—Among 2392 patients with acute PE and known systolic arterial blood pressure at presentation, from the International

Nils Kucher; Elisa Rossi; Marisa De Rosa; Samuel Z. Goldhaber

2010-01-01

297

Cytokines and Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years, significant progress in many aspects of pulmonary fibrosis research has been made. Among them, the finding that a variety of cytokines play important roles in the complex process appears most intriguing. These cytokines include at least transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, (TGF-?), interleukin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

Kai Zhang; Sem H. Phan

1996-01-01

298

Origin of Pulmonary Megakaryocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence is presented which indicates that pulmonary megakaryocytes do not originate in the lungs but elsewhere in the body and are carried to the lungs in the venous blood. Some megakaryocytes in the lungs evidently deliver platelets to the blood. Surger...

R. M. Kaufman R. Airo S. Pollack W. H. Crosby R. Doberneck

1964-01-01

299

Amiodarone and pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 25 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, confirmed by open chest lung biopsy between January 1979 and July 1981, 5 patients had been taking amiodarone in doses less than 600 mg daily for 1 to 6 years. No lung disease had been observed in any patient before the administration of amiodarone, and other drugs, factors and diseases thought to play

J. Morera; R. Vidal; F. Morell; J. Ruiz; Ll. Bernadó; J. R. Laporte

1983-01-01

300

MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning  

SciTech Connect

MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division De Ciencias e Ingenerias, Leon Gto., Mex (Mexico); Zavala, G. [Universidad de Guanajuato, DCEA, Guanajuato Gto., Mex (Mexico)

2009-12-17

301

Minerals Yearbook, 1990: Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of Mississippi's nonfuel mineral production in 1990 totaled $112 million, according to data supplied to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by the State's mineral producers. The 1990 value exceeded that reported by industry in 1989 by $4.7 million and exce...

D. H. White S. C. Knox M. B. E. Bograd

1992-01-01

302

Minerals Yearbook, 1990: Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1990 Annual Report is on the Mineral Industry of Idaho. Idaho ranked 26th nationally for total mineral production value compared with 28th in 1989. The State was first in the Nation in antimony and garnet production; second in silver and vandaium prod...

R. J. Minarik V. S. Gillerman

1992-01-01

303

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position

Lyday

1990-01-01

304

The Miner's Canary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

Guinier, Lani

2005-01-01

305

Mineral storage problems overcome  

SciTech Connect

Reinforced Earth, the method of using precast concrete panels to face a compacted earth embankment for mineral storage and handling, is described. The construction and operation of this type of mineral storage facility are discussed. These facilities are simple to build, durable, and cost-effective in operation.

Not Available

1984-08-01

306

What is a Mineral?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), gives a description of minerals and the growth of crystals. The site offers various links with examples of different compositions and classifications of common minerals. The site provides three different levels of explanation--beginner, intermediate, and advanced.

2008-08-04

307

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of Oklahoma nonfuel mineral production was nearly $252.6 million in 1992, a decrease of $22.9 million from that reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by State mineral producers in 1991. The value of the top three commodities produced, crushed sto...

J. E. Zelten R. H. Arndt

1994-01-01

308

Digging into Minnesota Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

309

Minerals, Crystals and Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.

310

Mineral Image Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery provides pictures of thousands of mineral specimens, arranged alphabetically. For each specimen, a thumbnail and a larger image are provided. Other information includes a brief description of the specimen being shown, scale bar (when available), locality data, and a link to additional information on the mineral.

311

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

312

Mineral Resources in Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents t...

1992-01-01

313

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine,

Ober

1989-01-01

314

Chest Tube Suction-Associated Unilateral Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema in a Lung Transplant Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 29-yr-old male, status post-bilateral lung transplant,whodevelopedunilateralnegativepressure pulmonary edema induced by chest tube suction in as- sociation with bilateral bronchial anastomotic stric- tures. We conclude that negative pressure pulmonary edema may occur secondary to high levels of negative pressure applied to the intrapleural space via chest tubes in the presence of partial large airway obstruc- tion. Post-lung transplant

Stavros G. Memtsoudis; Peter Rosenberger; Nicholas Sadovnikoff

2005-01-01

315

Bilateral recurrent pneumothorax complicating chemotherapy for pulmonary metastatic breast ductal carcinoma: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) is a rare complication of chemotherapy for pulmonary metastases and to the best of\\u000a our knowledge, only 28 cases have been described, most of which occurred in patients with osteosarcoma or germ cell tumors.\\u000a We present herein the case of a 56-year-old woman in whom bilateral and recurrent SSP was caused by the rupture of pulmonary

Alessandro Bini; Maurizio Zompatori; Luca Ansaloni; Manuele Grazia; Franco Stella; Ruggero Bazzocchi

2000-01-01

316

HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis; relation to pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background Chest-X-ray has several limitations in detecting the extent of pulmonary disease in sarcoidosis. It might not reflect the degree of pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis when compared to computed tomography of the thorax. We aimed to investigate the HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis and to find out the existence of possible relations between HRCT findings and PFTs. In addition, we aimed to investigate the accordance between HRCT findings and conventional chest-X-ray staging of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Method 45 patients with sarcoidosis with a mean age 29.7+/? 8.4 years were evaluated. Six of them were female and 39 were male. The type, distribution and extent of the parameters on HRCT/CTs were evaluated and scored. Chest-X-rays were evaluated for the stage of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Correlations were investigated between HRCT/CT parameter scores, Chest X-Ray stages and pulmonary function parameters. Results Nodule, micronodule, ground glass opacity and consolidation were the most common HRCT findings. There were significant correlations between pulmonary function parameters, HRCT pattern scores, and chest-X-ray stages. A significant correlation between chest-x-ray score and total HRCT score was found. Conclusions Pulmonary sarcoidosis patients might have various pulmonary parenchymal changes on HRCT. Thorax HRCT was superior to chest-X-ray in detecting pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities. The degree of pulmonary involvement might be closely related to the loss of pulmonary function measured by PFTs. Chest-X-ray is considered to have a role in the evaluation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

2013-01-01

317

Mineral Gallery - The Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Amethyst Galleries, Inc., this site introduces users to the physical characteristics of minerals; these includes: color, luster, transparency, cleavage, hardness and many more. A good introduction is what the sites provides, it would be great for any beginning level course involving the topic.

2008-10-07

318

USGS: Energy & Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Energy and Minerals Mission Area of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) "conducts research and assessments on the location, quantity, and quality of material and energy resources, including the economic and environmental effects of resource extraction and use." Visitors to the site can click on thematic sections such as Energy Resources and Mineral Resources. Each of these areas contains information about each program, along with fact sheets, databases, and detailed geospatial maps. The Program News area contains links to documents such as "Understanding the Global Distribution of Nonfuel Mineral Resources" and a host of summary documents on mineral commodities. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Mineral Resources Products area. Here, visitors can look into hundreds of statistical reports, bulletins, and data sets intended for scientists, journalists, and members of the general public.

2013-06-20

319

Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

NONE

1993-12-31

320

Pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ? 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ? 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments.

2013-01-01

321

Effect of left atrial compliance on pulmonary artery pressure: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, with secondary atrial pressure elevation, is a well-known concept. On the contrary, effect of left atrial compliance on pulmonary pressure is rarely considered. Case presentation We report the echocardiographic case of a 9-year-old child who presented severe rheumatic mitral valve regurgitation with a giant left atrium, in contrast to a normal artery pulmonary pressure, testifying of the high left atrial compliance. Conclusion Left atrial compliance is an important determinant of symptoms and pulmonary artery pressure in mitral valve disease.

Marijon, Eloi; Jani, Dinesh; Voicu, Sebastian; Ou, Phalla

2006-01-01

322

[Pulmonary hypertension--unusual complication of haemolysis and the bacterial overgrowth syndrome].  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of a patient with celiac disease in whom a secondary bacterial overgrowth had developed in the small intestine. Vitamin B12 and folic acid consumption deficiency resulted in a development of macrocytary anaemia and non-immune haemolysis. Subsequently, within a few weeks, a significant pulmonary hypertension has developed, the cause of which was first unclear. Haemolysis as well as pulmonary hypertension ceased following bacterial overgrowth treatment and B12 and, later on, folic acid substitution. Retrospectively, the authors infer that this could have been the haemolytic anaemia-associated pulmonary hypertension syndrome. PMID:20681463

Kojecký, V; Lukastíková, M

2010-06-01

323

Simple method of estimating severity of pulmonary fibrosis on a numerical scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous numerical scale for determining the degree of fibrosis in lung specimens was devised for correlation with other pulmonary variables such as lung function tests or mineral burden. Grading was scored on a scale from 0 to 8, using the average of microscope field scores. The system allows fibrosis to be measured in small samples of tissue (1 cm)

T Ashcroft; J M Simpson; V Timbrell

1988-01-01

324

Biological Control on Mineral Transformation in Soils ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of primary minerals is commonly linked to biological processes through the production of carbonic and organic acids. Plants can also play a role in weathering by removing soluble constituents and enhancing diffusion gradients within the soil. Here we investigate the synthesis of secondary minerals and the role of plants in removing elements that act as building blocks for these minerals. In order to minimize losses from leaching, we have sampled a chronosequence of soils forming on lava flows on Hawaii Island that receive about 200 mm of rain annually and have never been subjected to high levels of rainfall. The P concentration in the soils drops from almost 3000 mg/kg on a 1.5 ky lava flow to around 1000 mg/kg on a 350 ky lava flow. This loss of P can only be ascribed to P-uptake by plants with subsequent removal through the loss of above ground biomass through fire and/or wind removal. Over the same time frame the amount of plagioclase in the soils drops from around 22% of the <2 mm soil fraction on the youngest lava flow to virtually 0% on the 350 ky flow, suggesting a substantial release of Si. Elevated silicon in arid, basaltic soil environments often leads to formation of smectite, a feature not observed along the chronosequence. In fact, plagioclase is replaced by the kaolin mineral halloysite with allophane as an apparent precursor. Kaolin minerals are associated with moderate to intense leaching environments rather than the mild leaching conditions that influence these soils. We selected an intermediate age soil profile (170 ky lava flow) to conduct an in-depth investigation of the soil mineral composition. We detected a strong dominance of halloysite, the presence of gibbsite, but no smectite. Secondary halloysite formation is preferred over smectite formation when Si activities are relatively low, and the pH is acidic rather than alkaline. Although this mineral assemblage seems to imply formation under a wetter climatic regime, the oxygen isotopic composition of the halloysite suggests formation under soil environmental conditions similar to the present. The Si concentration in grass and tree leaves in the vicinity of the soil contain between 3 and 8% Si. Loss of these leaves to the nearby ocean (either as dried or burned residue) could be responsible for considerable Si removal in a manner similar to the P-removal. The resulting Si-deficient soil-water favors the formation of halloysite over smectite as is demonstrated by construction of mineral stability diagrams using the soil-water data from the soils along the chronosequence.

Ziegler, K.; Hsieh, J. C.; Chadwick, O. A.; Kelly, E. F.

2001-12-01

325

The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease  

PubMed Central

Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A2BR or treatment with the A2BR antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A2BR attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A2BR activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A2BR antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease.—Karmouty-Quintana, H., Zhong, H., Acero, L., Weng, T., Melicoff, E., West, J. D., Hemnes, A., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackwell, T. S., Xia, Y., Johnston, R. A., Zeng, D., Belardinelli, L., Blackburn, M. R. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease.

Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D.; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A.; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R.

2012-01-01

326

Vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions, and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle-specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular transdifferentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S

2013-03-01

327

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15

Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

1995-01-01

328

Outcome after reconstruction of discontinuous pulmonary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine outcomes of and optimal treatment strategies for reconstruction of congenital or acquired discontinuity of branch pulmonary arteries. Methods: Between 1985 and 2000 pulmonary artery continuity was established in 102 patients with discontinuous central pulmonary arteries and normal peripheral arborization. Data were obtained retrospectively. Results: Techniques to connect both pulmonary arteries included direct pulmonary

Christof Stamm; Ingeborg Friehs; David Zurakowski; Albertus M. Scheule; Adrian M. Moran; James E. Lock; John E. Mayer; Pedro J. del Nido; Richard A. Jonas

2002-01-01

329

Mineral Industries of Western Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a summary of the mineral industries of the nine members of the European Community, the seven members of the European Free Trade association, and three additional countries. Base maps show mineral deposit and mineral processing plant l...

W. F. Keyes R. V. Sondermayer J. B. Huvos

1977-01-01

330

Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics during hemorrhagic shock in baboons.  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic response to four hours of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation has been studied in 17 baboons using both open and closed chest models. No pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension occurred during shock or resuscitation except for an increase in lft ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) secondary to intravascular volumee overload with Dextran. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased during shock but returned to control levels with reinfusion of shed blood and correction of acidosis. PVR was moderately elevated following reinfusion of shed blood if acidosis was not corrected or if volum resuscitation was inadequate. No increase in gradients occurred between PA pressure and left atrial (LA) pressure or LVEDP and there was no gradients between small pulmonary vein and LA pressure. Arterial PO2 uniformly increased during shock and remained at or above control levels of reinfusion. Gross or histologic evidence of "congestive atelectasis" or "shock lung" was not observed. These observations suggest that in the subhuman primate, hemorrhage alone does not produce significant injury to the lung during shock or the immediate postresuscitation interval. Hemorrhage alone did not produce changes in the lung which would result in increased pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure following appropriate resuscitation.

Bredenberg, C E; Nomoto, S; Webb, W R

1980-01-01

331

[Bilateral pneumothorax complicating cavitary pulmonary metastases in angiosarcoma].  

PubMed

Metastatic pulmonary angiosarcomas are a common complication of a rare condition. Generally, they are presented as peripheral solid nodules, infiltrates, and pleural effusions. We report the case of a 65 year-old man with bilateral recurrent pneumothorax secondary to metastatic cavitary lesions from angiosarcoma of the scalp. In this case, videothoracoscopy allowed tumor resection, inspection, and pleurodesis. There weren't complications or tumor recurrence at six months follow up. PMID:24918673

Maldonado, Lorena V; Quadrelli, Silvia; Lyons, Gustavo; Spina, Juan C; Venditti, Julio; Chertcoff, Felipe J

2014-01-01

332

The Cancer Paradigm of Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The plexiform lesions of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are similar in histologic appearance, whether the disease is idiopathic or secondary. Both forms of the disease show actively proliferating endothelial cells without evidence of apoptosis. Here, we discuss the pathobiology of the atypical, angioproliferative endothelial cells in severe PAH. The concept of the endothelial cell as a “quasi-malignant” cell provides a new framework for antiproliferative, antiangiogenic therapy in severe PAH.

Rai, Pradeep R.; Cool, Carlyne D.; King, Judy A. C.; Stevens, Troy; Burns, Nana; Winn, Robert A.; Kasper, Michael; Voelkel, Norbert F.

2008-01-01

333

Pulmonary vascular involvement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary vascular involvement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N.F. Voelkel, C.D. Cool. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive lung disease affects the entire lung, not just the airways. Although pulmonary hypertension (PH) has long been recognised in a subset of patients with COLD, the important pathophysiological questions remain unanswered. Oxygen supplementation, however, has been shown to blunt the exercise-induced

N. F. Voelkel; C. D. Cool

2003-01-01

334

Does interferon-  improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does interferon-c improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? A. Prasse, K-M.Muller, C. Kurz, H. Hamm, J.C. Virchow Jr. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with progressive and devastating deterioration of lung function and a fatal prognosis, despite aggressive therapeutic attempts, which, in the majority of cases are futile. Recently, a preliminary study of

A. Prasse; K. M. Muller; C. Kurz; H. Hammz; J. C. Virchow Jr

2003-01-01

335

American Strategic Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

336

Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

NONE

1997-09-30

337

From acute pulmonary embolism to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), a disease associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, is the consequence of unresolved thromboembolic occlusion in pulmonary vasculature. CTEPH was considered a rare disease occurring in 0.1-0.5% of patients with pulmonary emboli who survive. Recently, a much higher incidence was reported and some risk factors such as a previous pulmonary embolism (PE), an idiopathic form of PE and the severity of perfusion defect at the time of diagnosis have been identified. Exertional dyspnea is the main symptom at the beginning of the disease while later on patients may suffer from syncope related to low cardiac output or hemoptysis as a consequence of high pulmonary artery pressure. In suspected patients, a confirmation of pulmonary arterial hypertension should be ascertained at transthoracic echocardiography. Then the obstructive nature of the disease may be revealed by ventilation-perfusion lung scan but is better described at pulmonary angiography. Computed tomography scan may be useful to rule out confounding disorders. To prevent recurrences, long-term oral anticoagulants to maintain an INR between 2.5 and 3.5 (target 3.0) are indicated. Treatment of severe CTEPH is essentially surgical (thromboendarterectomy). This procedure may be difficult when distal branches of pulmonary vascular tree are involved. In selected cases, alternative therapies may be the arterial pulmonary vessel angioplasty and lung transplantation. PMID:16270475

Pengo, Vittorio; Prandoni, Paolo

2005-10-01

338

Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can cause morbidity and mortality in children. Although adult and pediatric PAH share many similarities, many differences have been found in children. Thus, a new classification for pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease has been proposed. Both child and adult gene mutation carriers with PAH tend to have worse prognoses. Pediatric patients present with better preserved functional class, and parents should pay high attention to any children with unexplained shortness of breath, fatigue or syncope, as symptoms of PAH in children are often misleading. Right heart catheterization is necessary for diagnosis. Although there are few medications approved for pediatric PAH and evidence-based treatment algorithms for children are still lacking, the survival of pediatric patients has been improved significantly since targeted therapies approved for adults were introduced to pediatric patients. PAH in children is unique, and further studies are needed to have a better understanding of it. PMID:24163011

Wu, Dan-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Da; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

2013-12-01

339

Pulmonary ablation: a primer.  

PubMed

Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation is safe and efficacious in achieving local control and improving outcome in the treatment of both early stage non-small-cell lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic disease, in which surgical treatment is precluded by comorbidity, poor cardiorespiratory reserve, or unfavorable disease distribution. Radiofrequency ablation is the most established technology, but new thermal ablation technologies such as microwave ablation and cryoablation may offer some advantages. The use of advanced techniques, such as induced pneumothorax and the popsicle stick technique, or combining thermal ablation with radiotherapy, widens the treatment options available to the multidisciplinary team. The intent of this article is to provide the reader with a practical knowledge base of pulmonary ablation by concentrating on indications, techniques, and follow-up. PMID:23942193

Roberton, Benjamin J; Liu, David; Power, Mark; Wan, John M C; Stuart, Sam; Klass, Darren; Yee, John

2014-05-01

340

Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Bates, Albion M.

2010-01-23

341

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2013-10-01

342

Radiation-associated lung cancer: A comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Microsoft Academic Search

A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure.

C. E. Land; Y. Shimosato; G. Saccomanno; S. Tokuoka; O. Auerbach; R. Tateishi; S. D. Greenberg; S. Nambu; D. Carter; S. Akiba

1993-01-01

343

Uranium Miner Lung Cancer Study. Progress Report, 1 July 1980-1 July 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The projects supported during the past year consist of: (a) collection of material from uranium miners known to have cancer of the lung into a tumor registry; (b) collection of interesting cases for second edition of the Manual on Pulmonary Cytology; (c) ...

G. Saccomanno

1981-01-01

344

Genetics Home Reference: Pulmonary arterial hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Pulmonary arterial hypertension On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed September 2012 What is pulmonary arterial hypertension? Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized ...

345

Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... we know so little about whether MVMs have health benefits is that studies often use different products, making ... vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other substances that benefit health. Dietary supplements might help in some situations to ...

346

Mineral oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Diaper rash medications Eye care products Hemorrhoid medications Laxatives Note: This list may not include every product ... Symptoms are due to mineral oil's laxative action and may ... pain Dehydration (from severe diarrhea) Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting

347

Characterization Lithium Mineralized Pegmatite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana d...

E. F. S. Pereira O. Luz Ferreira R. Z. L. Cancado J. Mauricio Neto

1986-01-01

348

Calcium Carbonate Mineralization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of ion transport across mineralizing epithelia of barnacles, in particular to quantify the effects of altered protein structure on crystal form and arrangement and the effects of the mol...

K. M. Wilbur A. LeFurgey

1995-01-01

349

Mineral Commodity Summaries 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 1982 nonfuel mineral industry data. Most of the estimates are based on 9 months data. These data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government pro...

1983-01-01

350

Minerals Yearbook, 1988: Thorium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mine production of monazite, the principal source of thorium, decreased slightly in 1988. Associated Minerals (USA) Inc. was the only domestic monazite producer. Monazite produced in the United States was exported, and the thorium products used domestical...

J. B. Hedrick

1988-01-01

351

Pulmonary varix mimicking arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

We report here a case of a 44-year-old female with a pulmonary varix. The patient was asymptomatic; a routine chest X-ray incidentally revealed a serpiginous mass in the left hilar region. Computed tomography revealed a serpiginous, dilated vascular structure in the left upper lobe that continued into the lower lobe and was suggestive of an arteriovenous malformation. Pulmonary angiography revealed no arterial abnormality; however, the filling of an abnormally dilated pulmonary vein was observed. Angiography is considered to be the most useful method for the confirmatory diagnosis of pulmonary varices. PMID:18164399

Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Komori, Masashi; Ochiai, Reiji; Egashira, Ryoko; Nakazono, Takahiko; Kudo, Sho

2008-01-01

352

Mineral Wool Insulation Binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three\\u000a types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along\\u000a with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within\\u000a the

Stefan Kowatsch

2010-01-01

353

Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

1986-01-01

354

Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like compounds (choline). Recent investigations with multi-ingredient formulas are especially

Bonnie J. Kaplan; Susan G. Crawford; Catherine J. Field; J. Steven A. Simpson

2007-01-01

355

Ice is a Mineral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the characteristics of ice as a mineral and how it compares to other minerals with respect to hardness. Learners will observe ice crystals, develop a hardness scale and position ice on it. Learners will also practice working collaboratively in a team. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 3 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

356

Minerals: the resource gap  

SciTech Connect

US imports of important non-fuel minerals may have contributed to a false sense of security that could have serious economic and defense consequences. Imports account for over 90 percent of the chromite, manganese ore, and cobalt, and 90 percent of the platinum group metals. The primary sources for many of these minerals are the Soviet Union and Africa, a price and supply vulnerability which rivals Middle East oil and of which the American public is unaware. The Soviet shift to a net minerals importer will intensify competition for minerals and could lead to confrontation. The decline in US mineral production is blamed on escalating costs, largely from regulations, that prevent plant and equipment modernization and land withdrawal policies. A strategic stockpile planned for over 90 materials was established in 1939 for defense purposes, but eratic goals and planning as well as economic changes have kept the plan from being implemented. The first steps of an appropriate policy would promote domestic minerals production and open up Federal lands for exploration and development. (DCK)

Velocci, T.

1980-10-01

357

Pulmonary vascular involvement in neoplastic angioendotheliosis.  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic angioendotheliosis has rarely been described as a respiratory disease. A patient is described with pulmonary vascular involvement induced by neoplastic angioendotheliosis in pulmonary vessels. Images

Koga, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahara, M.; Ninomiya, H.; Nakashima, O.; Oizumi, K.

1995-01-01

358

Acute nonhemodynamic pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old man with primary pulmonary hypertension developed acute nonhemodynamic pulmonary edema after a loading dose of nifedipine. Changes of the vascular permeability induced by the drug acting on the arteriolar wall of the capillary system could be an explanation. PMID:1864141

Prigogine, T; Waterlot, Y; Gottignies, P; Verhoeven, A; Decroly, P

1991-08-01

359

Pulmonary gallium-67 uptake in diffuse pulmonary calcinosis.  

PubMed

Diffuse pulmonary uptake of both technetium-99m- labeled methylene diphosphonate (99(m)Tc-MDP) and gallium (67Ga) citrate was noted in a patient with chronic renal failure and indicated the presence of pulmonary calcinosis. The uptake of 67Ga could be misinterpreted to represent abnormal uptake due to an opportunistic infection. PMID:8929386

Yeo, E; Miller, J H

1996-11-01

360

Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

NONE

1993-12-31

361

Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

NONE

1994-12-31

362

Mineral sources and transport pathways for arsenic release in a coastal watershed, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metasedimentary bedrock of coastal Maine contains a diverse suite of As-bearing minerals that act as significant sources of elements found in ground and surface waters in the region. Arsenic sources in the Penobscot Formation include, in order of decreasing As content by weight: lo??llingite and realgar (c. 70%), arsenopyrite, cobaltite, glaucodot, and gersdorffite (in the range of 34-45%), arsenian pyrite ( glaucodot, arsenopyrite-cobaltian > arsenopyrite, cobaltite, gersdorffite, fine-grained pyrite, Ni-pyrite > coarse-grained pyrite. Reactions illustrate that oxidation of Fe-As disulphide group and As-sulphide minerals is the primary release process for As. Liberation of As by carbonation of realgar and orpiment in contact with high-pH groundwaters may contribute locally to elevated contents of As in groundwater, especially where As is decoupled from Fe. Released metals are sequestered in secondary minerals by sorption or by incorporation in crystal structures. Secondary minerals acting as intermediate As reservoirs include claudetite (c. 75%), orpiment (61%), scorodite (c. 450%), secondary arsenopyrite (c. 469/6), goethite (<4490 ppm), natrojarosite (<42 ppm), rosenite, melanterite, ferrihydrite, and Mn-hydroxide coatings. Some soils also contain Fe-Co-Ni-arsenate, Ca-arsenate, and carbonate minerals. Reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide minerals may govern the ultimate release of iron and arsenic - especially As(V) - to groundwater; however, dissolution of claudetite (arsenic trioxide) may directly contribute As(III). Processes thought to explain the release of As from minerals in bedrock include oxidation of arsenian pyrite or arsenopyrite, or carbonation of As-sulphides, and most models based on these generally rely on discrete minerals or on a fairly limited series of minerals. In contrast, in the Penobscot Formation and other metasedimentary rocks of coastal Maine, oxidation of As-bearing Fe-cobalt-nickel-sulphide minerals, dissolution (by reduction) of As-bearing secondary As and Fe hydroxide and sulphate minerals, carbonation and/or oxidation of As-sulphide minerals, and desorption of As from Fe-hydroxide mineral surfaces are all thought to be involved. All of these processes contribute to the occurrence of As in groundwaters in coastal Maine, as a result of variability in composition and in stability of the As source minerals. Arsenic contents of soils and groundwater thus reflect the predominant influence and integration of a spectrum of primary mineral reservoirs (instead of single or unique mineral reservoirs). Cycling of As through metasedimentary bedrock aquifers may therefore depend on consecutive stages of carbonation, oxidation and reductive dissolution of primary and secondary As host minerals. ?? 2008 AAG/ Geological Society of London.

Foley, N. K.; Ayuso, R. A.

2008-01-01

363

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE MINERAL MINING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a multimedia (air, liquid and solid wastes) environmental assessment of the domestic mineral mining industry. The primary objective of the study was to identify the major pollution problems associated with the industry. A secondary objective was to define res...

364

Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.  

PubMed Central

Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid.

Heppleston, A G

1984-01-01

365

Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos  

SciTech Connect

Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

Heppleston, A.G.

1984-04-01

366

Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock

S. T. Ishikawa; S. D. Hart; V. C. Gulick

2010-01-01

367

The Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom" allows one to sort and search for minerals and gemstones by alphabetical, chemical group, color, streak, hardness, crystal group, elemental affiliations, and dana classification. Includes image galleries of rocks, minerals and gemstones: pictures accompanied with physical descriptions of the rock or mineral. Also includes a glossary of terms.

2008-08-21

368

Effects of Different Pulmonary Vasodilators on Arterial Saturation in a Model of Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Approved therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension can induce oxygen desaturation when administered to patients with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), probably due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Thus, so far these treatments have largely failed in secondary forms of PH. Methods We established an animal model of heterogeneous lung ventilation to evaluate the desaturation potential of mechanistically distinct vasoactive drugs launched or currently in clinical development for the treatment of PH. Single-lung ventilation was induced in five groups (N?=?6) of anesthetized minipigs (7 weeks, 4 to 5 kg BW), and their hemodynamic parameters were monitored before and after intravenous injection of control (vehicle only), endothelin antagonist (bosentan; 0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil; 3, 10, 30, 100 µg/kg), and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators (BAY 41–8543 and riociguat; 1, 3, 10, 30 µg/kg). Cumulative doses were administered before successive unilateral ventilation cycles. The doses were chosen to achieve equal effect on blood pressure by the different pharmacologic principles. Results Single-lung ventilation resulted in transient increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and desaturation. In contrast to control, all drugs dose-dependently decreased hypoxic mPAP (a positive treatment effect) and increased area under the arterial hemoglobin saturation curve (unwanted desaturation effect). Riociguat and bosentan reduced hypoxic mPAP to the greatest extent, while the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators riociguat and BAY 41–8543 lowered arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin the least. Conclusions Future investigations will be required to confirm these findings in clinical settings.

Becker, Eva Maria; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bechem, Martin; Keldenich, Jorg; Klipp, Alexandra; Schaefer, Katja; Ulbrich, Hannes-Friedrich; Truebel, Hubert

2013-01-01

369

Occurrence of secondary magnetite within biodegraded oil  

SciTech Connect

Samples of solid bitumen from the Thornton Quarry (Illinois) and the Cynthia Quarry (Mississippi) were found to be strongly magnetic and to have rock magnetic properties suggesting that the magnetizable grains present are magnetite. Studies of magnetic isolates revealed that magnetite is present primarily as spherical crystal aggregates that appear identical to magnetite spherules isolated from remagnetized Paleozoic carbonate units from other localities. Organic geochemical analyses of the solid bitumen suggest an origin by microbial attack on what once was liquid crude oil. The occurrence of secondary magnetite as inclusions within solid bitumen suggests a relationship between crude oil biodegradation and development of that mineral in their samples. The authors infer that secondary magnetite in other geologic environments may be related to the presence of hydrocarbons. The discovery of a natural association of secondary magnetite and hydrocarbons has important implications for paleomagnetism and for petroleum exploration.

McCabe, C.; Sassen, R.; Saffer, B.

1987-01-01

370

Occurrence of secondary magnetite within biodegraded oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of solid bitumen from the Thornton Quarry (Illinois) and the Cynthia Quarry (Mississippi) were found to be strongly magnetic and to have rock magnetic properties suggesting that the magnetizable grains present are magnetite. Studies of magnetic isolates revealed that magnetite is present primarily as spherical crystal aggregates that appear identical to magnetite spherules isolated from re-magnetized Paleozoic carbonate units from other localities. Organic geochemical analyses of the solid bitumen suggest an origin by microbial attack on what once was liquid crude oil. The occurrence of secondary magnetite as inclusions within solid bitumen suggests a relationship between crude oil biodegradation and development of that mineral in our samples. We infer that secondary magnetite in other geologic environments may be related to the presence of hydrocarbons. The discovery of a natural association of secondary magnetite and hydrocarbons has important implications for paleomagnetism and for petroleum exploration.

McCabe, Chad; Sassen, Roger; Saffer, Barbara

1987-01-01

371

Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary  

MedlinePLUS

Primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism are conditions in which the adrenal gland releases too much of the hormone ... People with primary hyperaldosteronism have a problem with the adrenal gland that causes it to release too much aldosterone. In secondary ...

372

Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis.  

PubMed

Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (PLCH) remains an important diagnostic consideration in the differential diagnosis of diffuse infiltrative lung disease, particular among smokers. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this unusual lung disorder. Evolving studies strongly link the basic pathogenesis of PLCH as an uncommon reaction to tobacco smoke. Recent progress in the clinical approach to these patients has emphasized important roles for high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scanning and immune reactive tissue markers including cluster differentiation (CD) 1a antigen in the diagnosis of this disorder. A rationale diagnostic algorithm and current management strategies are summarized. PMID:16088602

Vassallo, Robert; Limper, Andrew H

2002-04-01

373

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare condition of unknown aetiology which is emerging from obscurity and being more frequently recognized. The case histories of two patients, one of whom is the oldest reported case in the literature, are described. In one case extensive fibrosis of interstitial tissue was present and many calcospherites appeared to lie outside the alveolar spaces. Calcospherites were also found in the bronchial wall of this patient, and this has not previously been reported. The lungs were analysed for calcium, phosphate, and iron, and detailed respiratory function tests were done in one patient; all results were similar to those previously reported in this condition. Images

Sears, M. R.; Chang, A. R.; Taylor, A. J.

1971-01-01

374

Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Objective The objective of this evidence-based review was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Technology Pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually tailored and designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy. Exercise training is the cornerstone of pulmonary re

2012-01-01

375

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals and in distinct clinical forms: autoimmune (previously referred to as the idiopathic form, represents the vast majority of PAP cases, and is associated with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) auto-antibodies; GMAbs), secondary (is a consequence of underlying disorders), congenital (caused by mutations in the genes encoding for the GM-CSF receptor), and PAP-like syndromes (disorders associated with surfactant gene mutations). The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the current standard treatment for PAP patients and although it is effective in the majority of cases, disease persistence is not an unusual outcome, even if disease is well controlled by WLL. In this paper we review the therapeutic strategies which have been proposed for the treatment of PAP patients and the progress which has been made in the understanding of the disease pathogenesis.

2012-01-01

376

Pulmonary embolism: risk assessment and management.  

PubMed

Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) poses a significant burden on health and survival. Its severity ranges from asymptomatic, incidentally discovered subsegmental thrombi to massive, pressor-dependent PE complicated by cardiogenic shock and multisystem organ failure. Rapid and accurate risk stratification is therefore of paramount importance to ensure the highest quality of care. This article critically reviews currently available and emerging tools for risk-stratifying acute PE, and particularly for distinguishing between elevated (intermediate) and low risk among normotensive patients. We focus on the potential value of risk assessment strategies for optimizing severity-adjusted management. Apart from reviewing the current evidence on advanced early therapy of acute PE (thrombolysis, surgery, catheter interventions, vena cava filters), we discuss recent advances in oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists, and with new direct inhibitors of factor Xa and thrombin, which may contribute to profound changes in the treatment and secondary prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism in the near future. PMID:22961946

Konstantinides, Stavros; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

2012-12-01

377

Mineral hydrolysis kinetics  

SciTech Connect

Dissolution rate laws for silicate mineral weathering can be related to kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions. This relation is being tested with an experimental/analytical/theoretical program for measuring the dissolution kinetics of orthosilicate minerals for use in ionic modeling and molecular dynamics computer simulations of solid, aqueous solution, and solid/liquid interface. To date, dissolution rate have been measured for a suite of endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals (both olivine and willemite structures) as well as a few inosilicate minerals (pyroxenes). Dissolution rates appear to correlate well with solvent exchange rates around the hydrated divalent cations. Siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds are relatively unreactive at low pH`s close to zero point of neutral charge for quartz. The correlation suggests that silicic acid would be released from the reacting surfaces after protonation and hydration of bonds between divalent metals and structural oxygens; congruent dissolution is confirmed by Rutherford backscattered analysis of the near-surface of an acid-reacted forsterite. In the ionic modeling, except for liebenbergite, there is a general trend of increasing lattice energy with decreasing dissolution rate for endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals at pH 2. 3 figs, 4 refs.

Westrich, H.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Arnold, G.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casey, W.H. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Land, Air, and Water Resources

1993-07-01

378

Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of a number of lung and heart diseases that is characterized by peripheral vascular structural remodeling and loss of vascular tone. Nitric oxide can modulate vascular injury and interrupt elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance selectively; however, it can also produce cytotoxic oxygen radicals and exert cytotoxic and antiplatelet effects. The balance between the protective and adverse effects of nitric oxide is determined by the relative amount of nitric oxide and reactive radicals. Nitric oxide has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of congenital heart disease, mitrial valvular disease combined with pulmonary hypertension and in orthotropic cardiac transplantation patients. Additionally, new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, natriuretic peptides and aqueous nitric oxide are also effective for treatment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance.

2010-01-01

379

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return.  

PubMed

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality that occurs in 0.4 to 0.7% of postmortem examinations. Ninety percent of these anomalies are associated with an atrial septal defect. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return occurs more commonly on the right than the left and is manifested by abnormal return of the pulmonary veins to the central venous circulation. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms are present they are due to shunting of oxygenated blood to the venous circulation. We submit the case of a recently activated solider who presented with dyspnea on exertion refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and an 8.5-mm solitary pulmonary nodule. Further diagnostic imaging revealed PAPVR. Our case appears to be the first report of a solitary pulmonary nodule as the initial presentation of a right upper lobe PAPVR with return to the superior vena cava in the absence of associated atrial septal defect. PMID:18595412

Broy, Charles; Bennett, Steven

2008-06-01

380

[Secondary glomerular nephropathies].  

PubMed

Secondary glomerular lesions are associated with various diseases; diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary cryoglobulinaemia, cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to hepatitis C virus (HCV), ANCA associated vasculitis and their forms limited to kidney (necrotic and crescentic GN), Goodpasture syndrome, HIV associated nephropathies, AL amyloidosis, AA amyloidosis (secondary amyloidosis), GN with non-amyloid organised deposits. PMID:15008219

Lesavre, Philippe

2003-11-30

381

The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A(2B)R) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A(2B)R or treatment with the A(2B)R antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A(2B)R attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A(2B)R activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A(2B)R antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease. PMID:22415303

Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackwell, Timothy S; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R

2012-06-01

382

Pulmonary amyloidosis in Sjogren's syndrome: a case report and systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by misfolding of extracellular proteins. The two most common forms are light-chain (AL) and reactive (AA) amyloidosis. Pulmonary amyloidosis secondary to Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is rare, and there is a paucity of data on its clinical and radiological features. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with diffuse septal pulmonary AL (lambda) amyloidosis related to SS, in the absence of systemic amyloidosis. A systematic search for pulmonary amyloidosis in SS yielded 37 cases. Amyloidosis occurred almost exclusively in women (96.5%). Cough and dyspnoea (56%) were the most common symptoms. The diagnosis of pulmonary amyloidosis was made subsequent to that of SS, with a median delay of 7 years. Radiologically, diffuse nodules with (45.5%) or without (33.3%) multiple cysts were the most common pattern. Most cases were related to nodular AL amyloidosis (both kappa and lambda). Diffuse septal AA amyloidosis has been reported in SS. The index patient is the first documented case of diffuse septal pulmonary AL amyloidosis in SS, without systemic amyloidosis. Surgical lung biopsy (78%) is usually required to establish the diagnosis and rule out lymphoma. There is no data to support any definitive therapeutic intervention for SS-related pulmonary amyloidosis. Observation is sufficient for nodular amyloidosis. Further studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of current therapies in diffuse septal amyloidosis secondary to SS. PMID:20546191

Rajagopala, Srinivas; Singh, Navneet; Gupta, Kirti; Gupta, Dheeraj

2010-07-01

383

Repetitive Hemodilution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension: Effects on Pulmonary Hemodynamics, Gas Exchange, and Exercise Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In cor pulmonale associated with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disturbances of pulmonary microcirculation may contribute significantly to hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, and exercise intolerance. Objective: It was tested whether reduction of blood viscosity induced by repetitive hemodilution might improve pulmonary hemodynamics and oxygen uptake. Methods: Seven patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 33 ±

Mathias M. Borst; Matthias Leschke; Ursula König; Heinrich Worth

1999-01-01

384

Thorium in mineral products.  

PubMed

Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products. PMID:11843361

Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

2001-01-01

385

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension: connecting the dots.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis and a course that is unpredictable. Pulmonary hypertension may complicate the course of IPF and potentially impact prognosis. There are multiple factors that might influence the onset and severity of pulmonary hypertension in IPF. The relationship between the physiologic and pathobiologic manifestations of the progressive fibrotic process and interceding pulmonary hypertension has not been well defined. This article serves to explore these relationships and to hypothesize about the possible linkage between these entities. From a prognostic standpoint, recent evidence suggests this to be important to assess for pulmonary hypertension in patients with IPF. The appropriate triggers for evaluating for pulmonary hypertension and the best method of detection require further study. Despite the relative ease of noninvasive methods, such as echocardiography, right-heart catheterization remains the best diagnostic test. The appeal of pulmonary hypertension in IPF is that it may be an enticing therapeutic target in a disease that otherwise does not have any proven effective therapies. Which agent(s) might be useful and when they should be implemented mandate the appropriate studies being performed. Some of the data presented in this article have previously been reported in abstract form only. PMID:17255562

Nathan, Steven D; Noble, Paul W; Tuder, Rubin M

2007-05-01

386

Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Conventional pulmonary arteriography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) bears several limitations in clinical practice, basically due to its invasiveness. On the other hand, no single noninvasive test is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of PE. Therefore, the choice of available noninvasive diagnostic tests guided by the clinical probability of PE is a good compromise at present. The first necessary step toward the diagnosis of PE is to raise the clinical suspicion, given that no diagnosis can be made if PE is not considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute cardiorespiratory symptoms. Second, empirical or standardized rules for predicting clinical probability may be combined with one or more noninvasive tests with the aim of increasing the accuracy of the noninvasive diagnosis. The strategy for the noninvasive diagnosis of PE varies among different centers according to the availability of each single technique that may be integrated with another and according to the characteristics of the population that refers to each single center. Therefore, spiral CT should not be used as a primary tool for the diagnosis of PE; its role needs to be re-evaluated in light of its sensitivity, feasibility, and radiation burden on the patients. In patients in whom the diagnosis of PE cannot be made at the end of the noninvasive pathway, the use of the invasive techniques must be taken into consideration. In our experience, however, such cases should not exceed 15 to 20% of the total patient population. PMID:17171596

Palla, Antonio; Bardi, Giulio; Ribas, Carmine

2006-11-01

387

[Pulmonary paragonimiasis. Case report].  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is a zoonosis affecting wild and domestic animals and human beings, caused by species of trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. Humans become infected after ingestion of raw or poorly cooked fresh water crustaceans. The aim of the present work is the description of a case of a 3-years old child, coming from Guárico State in Venezuela with a year of residence in the seashore of the Provincia Manabí in Ecuador, where he ate crabs in "ceviche". During hospitalization, he presented respiratory distress, hepatomegaly and nodules in the back. The thorax cat scan showed heavy infiltrate in both pulmonary bases and pleural compromise. Based on clinic, radiological images, an eosinophilia of 47% (Eosinophils absolute count (EAC) 6.682/mm3) and the antecedent of raw crabs ingestion, pulmonary paragonimiasis was diagnosed. Paragonimus eggs were not found in sputum and feces. ELISA with crude Paragonimus antigen was positive and Western blot revealed recognition of specific molecules. After treatment for three days with Praziquantel at a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight divided into three intakes, the sintomatology disappeared and radiological images and number of eosinophils diminished considerably. PMID:18717271

Abdul-Hadi, Salha; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Rangel-Lujano, Marieli; Gómez, Erika; Figueira, Ivonne; Alarcón-Noya, Belkisyolé

2008-06-01

388

Treatments for pulmonary sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids (oral or inhaled) are commonly used to treat pulmonary sarcoidosis; however, there is no consensus about when to start treatment, what dose of steroids to give and for how long. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents (used in immunosuppressive doses) are used in addition to oral corticosteroids to treat multisystem and chronic sarcoidosis, or as steroid-sparing agents. We summarize the findings from two Cochrane systematic reviews that have examined the efficacy of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive and cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Studies of corticosteroids differed in outcome measures, dose of drug given and length of treatment. For many outcome measures, data could not be pooled for meta-analysis. Oral corticosteroids improved chest X-ray appearance over 3-24 months, with improvement in global score in one study. Little evidence was found of improvement in lung function or of any long-term disease-modifying effect. Follow-up data could not be analysed. Inhaled corticosteroids improved symptoms in one small study but not lung function or chest X-ray. Side-effects of steroids were not well reported. In the immunosuppressive and cytotoxics review, no data could be combined for meta-analysis. Data on lung function, chest X-ray and dyspnoea were largely inconclusive. Methotrexate had a steroid-sparing effect in one small study. Significant adverse events were associated with cyclosporine A, chloroquine and pentoxifylline. Evidence from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) supporting the use of immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents is limited. PMID:17954027

Paramothayan, Shanthi; Lasserson, Toby

2008-01-01

389

Disproportionate pulmonary hypertension in a patient with early-onset pulmonary emphysema treated with specific drugs for pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Severe pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is referred to as 'disproportionate' because the elevated pulmonary artery pressure does not match the degree of air flow limitation. We report a 41-year-old man presenting with early-onset pulmonary emphysema and pulmonary hypertension with a mean pressure of 74 mmHg. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol led to marked hemodynamic improvement, and epoprostenol was successfully replaced with bosentan. The patient has been followed for 3 years without exacerbation. This is the first report demonstrating the long-term efficacy of specific drugs for pulmonary arterial hypertension in disproportionate pulmonary hypertension in COPD. PMID:22001462

Shimizu, Masatoshi; Imanishi, Junichi; Takano, Takatsugu; Miwa, Yoichi

2011-01-01

390

Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients  

SciTech Connect

The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

1983-09-01

391

Mineral find highlights cruise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy minerals with potential commercial value were discovered last month by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in seafloor deposits off the coasts of Virginia and Georgia. The USGS sent the research vessel J. W. Powell on a 25-day cruise along the East Coast to assess the concentrations of commercially important minerals in that segment of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).Assistant Secretary of the Interior Robert Broadbent called the findings of the Powell “promising” and said they served as a “reminder of just how little we do know about the seafloor resources just a few miles offshore.”

Katzoff, Judith A.

392

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

SciTech Connect

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

Lyday, P.A.

1990-08-01

393

[Health impact of indoor mineral particle pollution].  

PubMed

Mineral particle air pollution consists of both atmospheric pollution and indoor pollution. Indoor pollution comes from household products, cosmetics, combustion used to heat homes or cook food, smoking, hobbies or odd jobs. There is strong evidence that acute respiratory infections in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women are associated with indoor biomass smoke. Detailed questioning is essential to identify at risk activities and sampling of airborne particles may help with the identification of pollution risks. Particle elimination depends on the standard of ventilation of the indoor environment. Five per cent of French homes have levels of pollution greater than 180 ?g/m³ for PM 10 and 2% for PM 2.5. The principal mineral particle air pollutants are probably silica, talc, asbestos and carbon, whereas tobacco smoke leads to exposure to various ultrafine particles. The toxicity of these particles could be more related to surface exchange than to density. Tissue measurements by electron microscopy and microanalysis of particle samples may identify an uptake of particles similar to those in the environmental sample. PMID:21549904

Vincent, M; Chemarin, C

2011-04-01

394

Measurement of Pulmonary Flow Reserve and Pulmonary Index of Microcirculatory Resistance for Detection of Pulmonary Microvascular Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe pulmonary microcirculation is the chief regulatory site for resistance in the pulmonary circuit. Despite pulmonary microvascular dysfunction being implicated in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary vascular conditions, there are currently no techniques for the specific assessment of pulmonary microvascular integrity in humans. Peak hyperemic flow assessment using thermodilution-derived mean transit-time (Tmn) facilitate accurate coronary microcirculatory evaluation, but remain unvalidated

Rahn Ilsar; Chirapan Chawantanpipat; Kim H. Chan; Timothy A. Dobbins; Richard Waugh; Annemarie Hennessy; David S. Celermajer; Martin K. C. Ng; Jose A. L. Calbet

2010-01-01

395

Review of pulmonary effects of poly(vinyl chloride) and vinyl chloride exposure.  

PubMed

The contributions of several recent reports to the definition of pulmonary effects of PVC dust inhalation are reviewed. Granulomatous reaction, with inclusion of PVC particles in macrophages and histocytes, and associated interstitial pulmonary fibrosis have been found to lead to exertional dyspnoea, diffuse micronodular chest radiographic opacities and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. The effects of vinyl chloride (VC) monomer (gas) on proteins and the immunologic mechanisms triggered by the altered protein are possible mechanisms for the development in some cases of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis secondary to VC exposure. Vinyl chloride, a confirmed carcinogen, has been associated with, among other malignant tumors, a significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been completely evaluated. PMID:7333234

Lilis, R

1981-10-01

396

Review of pulmonary effects of poly(vinyl chloride) and vinyl chloride exposure.  

PubMed Central

The contributions of several recent reports to the definition of pulmonary effects of PVC dust inhalation are reviewed. Granulomatous reaction, with inclusion of PVC particles in macrophages and histocytes, and associated interstitial pulmonary fibrosis have been found to lead to exertional dyspnoea, diffuse micronodular chest radiographic opacities and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. The effects of vinyl chloride (VC) monomer (gas) on proteins and the immunologic mechanisms triggered by the altered protein are possible mechanisms for the development in some cases of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis secondary to VC exposure. Vinyl chloride, a confirmed carcinogen, has been associated with, among other malignant tumors, a significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been completely evaluated.

Lilis, R

1981-01-01

397

Pulmonary edema: pathophysiology and diagnosis.  

PubMed

Healthy human lungs are normally the sites of fluid and solute filtration across the pulmonary capillary endothelium. Unlike other organs, the filtrate in the lungs is confined anatomically within adjacent interstitial spaces, through which it moves by a built-in pressure gradient from its site of formation to its site of removal through pulmonary lymphatic channels. The quantity of fluid filtered and its protein content depend on the transvascular hydrostatic and protein osmotic (colloid) pressure differences, and the leakiness of the endothelial barrier to water and protein. Lymphatic drainage can increase several-fold, which means that pulmonary edema-defined as an increase in extravascular water content of the lungs-cannot occur until the rate of fluid filtration exceeds the rate of lymphatic removal. Two main types of pulmonary edema are recognized: first, cardiogenic (or hydrostatic) pulmonary edema from, as the name implies, an elevated pulmonary capillary pressure from left-sided heart failure; second, noncardiogenic (increased permeability) pulmonary edema from injury to the endothelial and (usually) epithelial barriers. Owing to their fundamental differences, each occurs in distinct clinical conditions, requires separate therapy, and has a different prognosis. PMID:21219673

Murray, J F

2011-02-01

398

Congestive hepatopathy secondary to large renal arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset dyspnoea, and was found to have signs of pulmonary congestion on clinical examination. Imaging revealed cardiomegaly and coincident congestive hepatopathy, secondary to a left renal arteriovenous malformation. The presence of a high flow vascular shunt in the left kidney was possibly the causative factor behind both the high-output cardiac failure and congestive hepatopathy. PMID:23349173

Khalife, Mohammad; Faraj, Walid; Salah, Fatima; Haydar, Ali A

2013-01-01

399

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an epithelial\\/fibroblastic cross-talk disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and usually progressive lung disorder of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence suggests that, in contrast to other interstitial lung diseases, IPF is a distinct entity in which inflammation is a secondary and non-relevant pathogenic partner. Evidence includes the presence of similar mild\\/moderate inflammation either in early or late disease, and the lack

Moisés Selman; Annie Pardo

2002-01-01

400

The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and received TIP or saline (control group) by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration) or day seven (late administration) after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. Results TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. Conclusion In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease.

van den Berg, Elske; Bem, Reinout A.; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B. M.

2014-01-01

401

Pulmonary embolism: CT findings with the use of helical computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study is the presentation of the imaging findings in patients with pulmonary embolism, the diagnosis of which was made with the use of helical computed tomography. Material and Methods. The lung CT scans of 14 patients were retrospectively studied. The presence of hypoattenuating thrombus within the lumen of one or more pulmonary arterial branches was considered as the imaging criterion for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Resalts. Emboli within the lumen of 1st order branches were found in 2 patients, within the lumen of 2nd order branches in 8 patients, into the lumen of 3rd order branches (lobar) in 10 patients and into the lumen of 4th order branches (segmental) in 6 patients. No emboli were detected in subsegmental or more peripheral branches. Concomitant, secondary findings were the presence of unilateral pleural effusion, areas of pulmonary oligaemia and the presence of a wedge-shaped, pleural-based opacity, indicative of a pulmonary infarct. Conclusion. In conclusion, we were able to make the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism through the direct visualization of intraluminal emboli up until the segmental level, as well as of concomitant, accessory findings of pulmonary embolism.

Grollios, G; Kazantzidou, Ir; Georgopoulou, V; Karakozoglou, Th; Kotoula, A; Michailidou, G; Kourou, E; Georgitziki, K

2006-01-01

402

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000) than in women (13.2/100,000). The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock). IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis), forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational) exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant disability. The median survival is 2 to 5 years from the time of diagnosis. Medical therapy is ineffective in the treatment of IPF. New molecular therapeutic targets have been identified and several clinical trials are investigating the efficacy of novel medication. Meanwhile, pulmonary transplantation remains a viable option for patients with IPF. It is expected that, during the next decade, considerable progress will be made toward the understanding and treatment of this devastating illness.

Meltzer, Eric B; Noble, Paul W

2008-01-01

403

Minerals Yearbook 1990: Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Montana's 1990 nonfuel mineral production value was $567.7 million, relatively unchanged from that of 1989. Gains in the production value of portland cement, clays, gold, crushed stone, talc, and zinc offset the decline in values of copper, molybdenum, ph...

R. J. Minarik R. B. McCulloch

1992-01-01

404

Minerals Yearbook, 1988: Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minnesota's nonfuel mineral production in 1988 was valued at nearly $1.3 billion, about $125 million more than in 1987. Iron ore shipments, which accounted for most of this increase, were at their highest level since 1981. Minnesota ranked eighth national...

J. J. Hill

1988-01-01

405

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Montana's 1992 nonfuel mineral production value was $539.2 million, a slight increase from that of 1991, according to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Increases in the production value of lime, construction sand and gravel, and zinc more than offset the decrease...

R. J. Minarik R. B. McCulloch

1994-01-01

406

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Chromium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dr. Papp, a physical scientist with 20 years' U.S. Bureau of Mines experience, has been the commodity specialist for chromium since 1983. Domestic survey data were prepared by Steve Frauenheim and Robin Johnson, mineral data assistants; chromite world pro...

J. F. Papp

1993-01-01

407

New mineral physics panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AGU Committee on Mineral Physics has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.

408

Energy and Mineral Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 16 questions on the topic of energy and mineral resources, which covers energy sources, resource types, and uses of resources. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy

409

Minerals Yearbook, 1988: Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of nonfuel mineral production in Wyoming rose about 10% in 1988 to $709.8 million. A similar percentage increase in the value of natural sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate (soda ash) production accounted for most of the change. Soda ash continu...

K. Starch W. D. Hausel R. E. Harris

1988-01-01

410

Mixtures and mineral reactions  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the physicochemical evolution of natural rocks through systematic analysis of the compositional properties and phase relations of their mineral assemblages. This book brings together concepts of classical thermodynamics, solution models, and atomic ordering and interactions that constitute a basis of such analysis, with examples of application to subsolidus petrological problems.

Saxena, S.; Ganguly, J.

1987-01-01

411

Mineral mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

Monks, H.

1980-11-25

412

Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906+/-340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40+/-9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75+/-9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197+/-38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51+/-26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55+/-24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

2008-08-01

413

Minerals Yearbook, 1989: California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

California ranked second among the States in the value of nonfuel minerals produced in 1989, about 8.8% of the U.S. total. The value of the commodities produced in 1989 increased nearly 6% to $2.85 billion, continuing the steady growth in the State's mine...

F. V. Carrillo J. F. Davis J. L. Burnett

1989-01-01

414

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

California ranked third in the Nation in total value of nonfuel mineral production in 1992. Reported production valued at $2,345,838,000 was 7.33% of the U.S. total. The value of the commodities produced in California during the year decreased about 7.5% ...

F. V. Carrillo J. F. Davis J. T. Alfors

1994-01-01

415

MINERAL FILLERS IN PAPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is divided into two parts. In Part 1, after a brief historical introduction the advantages and disadvantages of using mineral fillers in the manufacture of paper are summarised. Details of the origin, methods of production and basic physical properties of kaolin, natural calcium carbonate, precipitated calcium carbonate, talc and titanium dioxide follow. These are supplemented by more limited

Ken Beazley

1991-01-01

416

Oxidants from Pulverized Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joel Hurowitz (previously at State University of New York at Stony Brook and now at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Nick Tosca, Scott McLennan, and Martin Schoonen (SUNY at Stony Brook) studied the production of hydrogen peroxide from freshly pulverized minerals in solution. Their experiments focused on olivine, augite, and labradorite; silicate minerals of basaltic planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, that are exposed to the intense crushing and grinding of impact cratering processes. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the experiments was enough to adequately explain the oxidizing nature of Martian regolith first determined by the Viking Landers and the results suggest, for the first time, that mechanically activated mineral surfaces may be an important part of the overall explanation for the Viking Lander biology experiment results. Hurowitz and coauthors further showed that when the pulverized minerals are heat-treated to high temperature under vacuum (to cause dehydroxylation) there is almost a 20 times increase in hydrogen peroxide production, a result which may be highly relevant to lunar dust. These careful studies demonstrate the importance of and concern about reactive dusts on planetary surfaces from two standpoints: the health of astronauts on surface maneuvers who may inadvertently breath it and the viability of possible Martian organic species to survive in such a corrosive, antiseptic surface environment.

Martel, L. M. V.

2007-06-01

417

Bioleaching of Minerals  

SciTech Connect

Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

F. Roberto

2002-02-01

418

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beryllium data are collected from two voluntary surveys of U.S. operations. In 1990, there were eight responses to the 'Beryllium Mineral Concentrate and Beryllium Ore' survey, representing 100% of the total canvassed. U.S. mine production continued to de...

D. A. Kramer

1992-01-01

419

Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Numerous barriers exist to the timely introduction of palliative care in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The complex needs of patients with advanced COPD require the integration of curative-restorative care and palliative care. Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation are both important components of integrated care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Pulmonary rehabilitation provides the opportunity to introduce palliative care by implementing education about advance care planning. Education about advance care planning addresses the information needs of patients and can be an effective strategy to promote patient-physician discussion about these issues. PMID:24874135

Janssen, Daisy J A; McCormick, James R

2014-06-01

420

Leukotrienes in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism and are markers and mediators of pulmonary inflammation. Research over the past two decades has established that LTs modulate inflammation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The purpose of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of LTs in the pathophysiology of PAH and to highlight a recent study that advances our understanding of how leukotriene B4 (LTB4) specifically contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling. The results of these studies suggest that pharmacological inhibition of LT pathways, especially LTB4, has high potential for the treatment of PAH.

Tian, Wen; Jiang, Xinguo; Sung, Yon K.; Qian, Jin; Yuan, Ke; Nicolls, Mark R.

2014-01-01

421

Concomitant pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and pulmonary histoplasmosis: a rare case.  

PubMed

The incidence of pulmonary fungal infections is very low in Uruguay, and such infections typically affect immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an immunocompetent patient presenting with a two-month history of cough, dyspnea, and fever. The patient resided in a rural area. Imaging tests revealed extensive pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. On the basis of direct mycological examination, culture, and serological testing, we made a diagnosis of concomitant histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient presented arterial hypotension that was diagnostic of adrenocortical insufficiency. Although the pulmonary fibrosis and pneumonia were irreversible, the clinical condition of the patient improved after antifungal treatment. This was an exceptional case of two pulmonary fungal infections occurring simultaneously in the same patient. PMID:22576436

Torres Esteche, Veronica; Arteta, Zaida; Torres, Gabriela; Vaucher, Andrea; Gezuele, Elbio; Balleste, Raquel

2012-01-01

422

Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma resembling chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Two cases of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma resembling chronic thromboembolic disease features are presented. Tumour identification was achieved after pulmonarv thromboendarterectomy, which was indicated by documentation of a prothrombotic state in both patients. A doubtful history of pulmonary emboli or deep venous thrombosis should alert medical personnel to the possible presence of a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma. Advanced imaging methods such as gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging could be useful in considering pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. If a tumour is detected, its surgical resection should be considered with caution, taking into account the poor survival results. Invasion of the adventitia or the right ventricle, as documented in the present cases, is unusual. As far as the present authors know, this is the first report of this kind of tumour and its coexistence with an activated protein C resistance state and type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:11292127

Kaplinsky, E J; Favaloro, R R; Pombo, G; Perrone, S V; Vigliano, C A; Schnidt, J L; Boughen, R P

2000-12-01

423

Combined usage of inhaled and intravenous milrinone in pulmonary hypertension after heart valve surgery.  

PubMed

Secondary pulmonary hypertension is a frequent condition after heart valve surgery. It may significantly complicate the perioperative management and increase patients' morbidity and mortality. The treatment has not been yet completely defined principally because of lack of the selectivity of drugs for the pulmonary vasculature. The usage of inhaled milrinone could be the possible therapeutic option. Inodilator milrinone is commonly used intravenously for patients with pulmonary hypertension and ventricular dysfunction in cardiac surgery. The decrease in systemic vascular resistance frequently necessitates concomitant use of norepinephrine. Pulmonary vasodilators might be more effective and also devoid of potentially dangerous systemic side effects if applied by inhalation, thus acting predominantly on pulmonary circulation. There are only few reports of inhaled milrinone usage in adult post cardiac surgical patients. We reported 2 patients with severe pulmonary hypertension after valve surgery. Because of desperate clinical situation, we decided to use the combination of inhaled and intravenous milrinone. Inhaled milrinone was delivered by means of pneumatic medication nebulizer dissolved with saline in final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. The nebulizer was attached to the inspiratory limb of the ventilator circuit, just before the Y-piece. We obtained satisfactory reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure in both patients, and they were successfully extubated and discharged. Although it is a very small sample of patients, we conclude that the combination of inhaled and intravenous milrinone could be an effective treatment of secondary pulmonary hypertension in high-risk cardiac valve surgery patient. The exact indications for inhaled milrinone usage, optimal concentrations for this route, and the beginning and duration of treatment are yet to be determined. PMID:20977113

Carev, Mladen; Bulat, Cristijan; Karanovi?, Nenad; Lojpur, Mihajlo; Jerci?, Antonio; Nenadi?, Denis; Marovih, Zlatko; Husedzinovi?, Ino; Letica, Dalibor

2010-09-01

424

[Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas].  

PubMed

Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF)--a rare inborn disease of respiratory system. During 32 yrs 19 observations of pulmonary AVF were made. There were 13 (68.4%) men and 6 (31.6%) women. The patients' age was 25 yrs at average. In 4 (21.1%) patients there was Rendu-Weber-Osler disease diagnosed. Characteristic complaints were acrocyanosis, dyspnea while on loading, rapid fatigue. In accordance to laboratory investigation performed, polycytemia and hypoxemia were revealed. All the patients were operated on, most frequent operation was lobectomy--in 14 (73.6%). Multiple AVF were revealed in 4 (21.1%) patients. The postoperative period course was without complications in 15 (78.9%) patients. One patient (5.3%) died, aged 24 yrs old, suffering bilateral AVF, in 24 days after right-sided lower lobectomy from the bleeding, occurring in contralateral lung and asphyxia. PMID:24501988

Opanasenko, M S; Klymenko, V I; Demus, R S; Konik, B M; Tereshkovych, O V; Kalenychenko, M I; Bychkovs'ky?, V B; Obrems'ka, O K; Levanda, L I; Kononenko, V A; Kshanovs'ky?, O E; Mykytenko, I Iu

2013-11-01

425

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with bilateral intra-alveolar calcium and phosphate deposition throughout the lung parenchyma with predominance to lower and midzone. Although, etiology and pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, the mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium-phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type II cells resulting in the accumulation and forming of microliths rich in calcium phosphate (due to impaired clearance) are considered to be the cause of the disease. Chest radiograph and high-resolution CT of thorax are nearly pathognomonic for diagnosing PAM. HRCT demonstrates diffuse micronodules showing slight perilobular predominance resulting in calcification of interlobular septa. Patients with PAM are asymptomatic till development of hypoxemia and cor-pulmonale. No therapy has been proven to be beneficial except lung transplantation.

Kashyap, Surender; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.

2013-01-01

426

Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic obstructive lung diseases and so-called cor pulmonale have traditionally been connected by the link of pulmonary hypertension\\u000a (PH). The concept that right ventricular hypertrophy is attributed to the afterload of the right ventricle, i.e., attributable\\u000a to PH, has not been challenged and clinicians continue to attempt to explain cor pulmonale as a consequence of chronic PH.\\u000a Both pulmonary parenchyma

Norbert F. Voelkel; Catherine Grossman; Herman J. Bogaard

427

Pulmonary scintigraphy and the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. A perspective  

SciTech Connect

The authors attempt to demonstrate those circumstances for which perfusion scintigraphy, by itself, or in combination with ventilation scintiscanning, offers the best adjunctive information in excluding or confirming the presence of pulmonary embolism. They then identify those circumstances in which scintiscanning does not or cannot contribute significantly to the medical decision-making process. In these cases, the use of pulmonary angiography or possibly peripheral venography is not only recommended but, if warranted clinically, is absolutely necessary.

Polak, J.F.; McNeil, B.J.

1984-09-01

428

Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but predisposing features have been elusive. Objectives: To prospectively determine the morphotype, immunophenotype, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator genotype in a large cohort with PNTM. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 63 patients with PNTM infection, each of whom had computerized tomography, echocardiogram, pulmonary function, and flow cytometry of peripheral blood. In vitro cytokine production in response to mitogen, LPS, and cytokines was performed. Anthropometric measurements were compared with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) age- and ethnicity-matched female control subjects extracted from the NHANES 2001–2002 dataset. Measurements and Main Results: Patients were 59.9 (±9.8 yr [SD]) old, and 5.4 (±7.9 yr) from diagnosis to enrollment. Patients were 95% female, 91% white, and 68% lifetime nonsmokers. A total of 46 were infected with Mycobacterium avium complex, M. xenopi, or M. kansasii; 17 were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria. Female patients were significantly taller (164.7 vs. 161.0 cm; P < 0.001) and thinner (body mass index, 21.1 vs. 28.2; P < 0.001) than matched NHANES control subjects, and thinner (body mass index, 21.1 vs. 26.8; P = 0.002) than patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. A total of 51% of patients had scoliosis, 11% pectus excavatum, and 9% mitral valve prolapse, all significantly more than reference populations. Stimulated cytokine production was similar to that of healthy control subjects, including the IFN-?/IL-12 pathway. CD4+, CD8+, B, and natural killer cell numbers were normal. A total of 36% of patients had mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Conclusions: Patients with PNTM infection are taller and leaner than control subjects, with high rates of scoliosis, pectus excavatum, mitral valve prolapse, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations, but without recognized immune defects.

Kim, Richard D.; Greenberg, David E.; Ehrmantraut, Mary E.; Guide, Shireen V.; Ding, Li; Shea, Yvonne; Brown, Margaret R.; Chernick, Milica; Steagall, Wendy K.; Glasgow, Connie G.; Lin, JingPing; Jolley, Clara; Sorbara, Lynn; Raffeld, Mark; Hill, Suvimol; Avila, Nilo; Sachdev, Vandana; Barnhart, Lisa A.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Claypool, Reginald; Hilligoss, Dianne M.; Garofalo, Mary; Fitzgerald, Alan; Anaya-O'Brien, Sandra; Darnell, Dirk; DeCastro, Rosamma; Menning, Heather M.; Ricklefs, Stacy M.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Moss, Joel; Holland, Steven M.

2008-01-01

429

Mineral oil soluble borate compositions  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

Dulat, J.

1981-09-15