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Sample records for secondary pulmonary mineralization

  1. Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39 mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9 mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:26029570

  2. Pulmonary disability in former Appalachian coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective case-control study was undertaken to assess respiratory disability in 133 former coal miners who were claimants for "black lung" benefits. Consecutive assignment was made to either case or control group based on their chest radiograph having shown coal workers' pneumoconiosis or no coal workers' pneumoconiosis. A respiratory occupational survey was completed with physical examination that placed special emphasis on the cardiorespiratory systems. Subjects underwent pulmonary function testing while 92 of these also received arterial blood gases to assess respiratory disability and pulmonary insufficiency. Arterial blood gases were superior to spirometry in assessment of pulmonary insufficiency/disability. Smoking interacts with coal workers' pneumoconiosis to cause pulmonary insufficiency. The most frequent spirometric pattern was obstructive. Disability was caused by occupational injuries and comorbidities, both of which occurred with greater frequency in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis than in controls. Pulmonary insufficiency appears to be a better discriminator than respiratory disability in coal miners, suggesting that arterial blood gases replace spirometry in their evaluation. Greater emphasis on smoking intervention among coal miners should be given. Images Figure PMID:8803434

  3. Pulmonary complications in lead miners

    SciTech Connect

    Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.

    1989-07-01

    We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

  4. Acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to hydatid cyst operation.

    PubMed

    Gezer, S; Turut, H; Oz, G; Demirag, F; Tastepe, I

    2007-10-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal communications between pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. The majority of the cases are congenital in origin, and acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are very rare. We present a case here, which - to the best of our knowledge - is the first acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to a hydatid cyst operation in the literature, and we discuss the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and treatment of acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. PMID:17902072

  5. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

  6. A case of secondary syphilis presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Ju-Han; Lee, Eung-Seok; Kim, Il-Hwan; Park, Hyung Joo; Shin, Chol; Kim, Je Hyeong

    2013-03-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. The prevalence of this disease has recently increased worldwide. However, pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is extremely rare. A 51-year-old heterosexual male patient presented with multiple pulmonary nodules with reactive serology from the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and positive fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption testing. A hematogenous metastatic malignancy was suspected and an excisional lung biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination showed only central necrosis with abscess and plasma cell infiltration, but no malignant cells. The patient reported sexual contact with a prostitute 8 weeks previously and a penile lesion 6 weeks earlier. Physical examination revealed an erythematous papular rash on the trunk. Secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodules was suspected, and benzathine penicillin G, 2.4 million units, was administered. Subsequently, the clinical signs of syphilis improved and the pulmonary nodules resolved. The final diagnosis was secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodular involvement. PMID:23526483

  7. Weathering and Secondary Minerals in the Martian Meteorite Shergotty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; McKay, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The Shergotty martian meteorite contains weathering features and secondary minerals much like those in Nakhla, including secondary silicates, NaCl, and Ca-sulfate. It is likely that the weathering occurred on Mars.

  8. Pulmonary response to inhaled fibrogenic minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The fibrogenicity of silica, bentonite, kaolin, talc, vermiculite, feldspar, and coal in animals in nose only exposures was investigated, and the cytotoxicity of the minerals was studied in in-vitro tests. Data were evaluated to provide comparative cytotoxic correlations on fibrogenicity and information for interpreting human exposure effects. Enzymes were measured as indicators of adverse activity of minerals on macrophages. Results of physical and chemical analysis of the minerals showed that all minerals tested wre smaller than 7 micrometers and were within the respirable size range. In in-vitro hemolysis studies, bentonite, kaolin, silica, and vermiculite showed the greatest hemolysis, and talc, coal, and feldspar showed the least. Release of cytosolic enzyme lactate-dehydrogenase, indicative of membrane damage, was significant with kaolin, silica, and vermiculite and least with talc, coal, and bentonite. The studies suggested that silica, kaolin, bentonite, vermiculite and feldspar all induced an initial acute pulmonary response, but that there appeared to be no correlation between this acute response in-vivo and their chronic pulmonary response. The studies also indicated that the initial pulmonary response reflected in vitro was not correlated with the chronic response to the dust.

  9. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  10. Missile pulmonary embolus secondary to abdominal gunshot wound.

    PubMed

    Mctyre, Emory; McGill, Lee; Miller, Nessa

    2012-01-01

    Missile pulmonary emboli are rare sequelae of traumatic entry of projectile missiles-generally bullets or bullet fragments-in which access to the systemic venous circulation is established by the missile, making it possible for the missile to migrate to the pulmonary arteries. In the case introduced here, a 24-year-old male presented to the ER with a gunshot wound to the abdomen. In the early course of his care, it was determined that he had suffered a missile pulmonary embolus secondary to a large fragment of a bullet penetrating the IVC. Despite the large perfusion defect created by this missile embolus, the patient recovered uneventfully without embolectomy. PMID:27326301

  11. Pulmonary tuberculosis in South African gold miners.

    PubMed

    Cowie, R L; Langton, M E; Becklake, M R

    1989-05-01

    In 1977, a comprehensive tuberculosis management program was introduced at a medical facility which then served approximately 65,000 black gold miners. The effectiveness of this program was evaluated from the relapse rate after treatment in 2,776 men. Post-treatment follow-up averaged 23.5 months. Limited information on potential determinants of relapse was available for all subjects and more detailed information for subsets. The drug regimen was the major determinant of relapse. Age was not a determinant of relapse nor was primary resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs, which was infrequent. The initial extent and severity of disease had a direct relation with the risk of relapse. The risk of relapse was greatest during the first 3 yr after treatment but persisted for the duration of the observation period. Neither continued exposure to mine dust nor the presence of pre-existing silicosis were shown to be determinants of relapse. A 4.5-month, four-drug weekday regimen was identified as being particularly effective in this working population and may be suitable for use in other working populations in the developing world. PMID:2712435

  12. Expression of mutant bone morphogenetic protein receptor II worsens pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Linda J.; Moore, Christy S.; Blackwell, Thomas R.; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L.; Burman, Ankita; McClellan, Lucas J.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; McConaha, Melinda E.; Gleaves, Linda A.; Talati, Megha A.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Lawson, William E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; West, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary fibrosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH), and previous studies have shown a potential link between bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2) and PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. We exposed transgenic mice expressing mutant BMPR2 and control mice to repetitive intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin for 4 weeks. The duration of transgene activation was too short for mutant BMPR2 mice to develop spontaneous PH. Mutant BMPR2 mice had increased right ventricular systolic pressure compared to control mice, without differences in pulmonary fibrosis. We found increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1-α stabilization in lungs of mutant-BMPR2-expressing mice compared to controls following bleomycin treatment. In addition, expression of the hypoxia response element protein connective tissue growth factor was increased in transgenic mice as well as in a human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line expressing mutant BMPR2. In mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, mutant BMPR2 expression resulted in increased HIF1-α and reactive oxygen species production following exposure to hypoxia, both of which were attenuated with the antioxidant TEMPOL. These data suggest that expression of mutant BMPR2 worsens secondary PH through increased HIF activity in vascular endothelium. This pathway could be therapeutically targeted in patients with PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26697175

  13. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  14. Pulmonary artery denervation for treatment of a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to left heart disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) predicts poor outcome in patients with left heart disease. A 62-year-old man was referred for heart failure associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. He received a diagnosis of combined postcapillary and precapillary PH secondary to left heart disease on the basis of hemodynamic parameters. After the pulmonary artery denervation procedure was performed, hemodynamic parameters were markedly improved, which resulted in a significant increase in functional capacity. PMID:27252851

  15. [Pneumothorax secondary to pulmonary histiocytosis X].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Cataldi, M

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of pneumothorax in a young man suffering from pulmonary histiocytosis. They take this observation as a starting point for discussing about the so-called "histiocytosis X". The term "histiocytosis" is a term for a variety of proliferative disorders of histiocytes or macrophages. There is a small cluster of conditions characterized by proliferation of a special type of histiocyte called the "Langerhans' cell". The proliferation of Langerhans' cells results from disturbances in immunoregulation. Particularly, there are three clinicopathologic entities: *Letterer-Siwe disease (acute disseminated Langerhans' cells histiocytosis), *multifocal eosinophilic granuloma or Hand-Schüller-Christian disease (multifocal Langerhans' cells histiocytosis), *unifocal eosinophilic granuloma (unifocal Langerhans' cells histiocytosis). In the past, these were collected in the not specific term of histiocytosis X. Most patients with Langerhans' cell granulomatosis have diseases limited to the lung, only a small proportion have extrapulmonary involvement or a systemic disorder. Typically, there are expanding, erosive accumulations of Langerhans' cells within the medullary cavities of bones. In this reported case, a patient, two years before, was affected by osteolytic bone lesion in the left femur. Pulmonary histiocytosis is often seen in smokers in the third and fourth decade of life. The 20% of patients are asymptomatic and found to have an abnormal chest radiograph; a lesser proportion presents with pneumothorax. Some patients develop progressive fibrotic lung disease and respiratory failure. Chest radiographs may show bilateral reticular or reticulonodular infiltrates, sometimes with cystic changes, often with sparing of the costophrenic angles, but high resolution computerized tomography scans may be virtually diagnostic based on the predilection of the cysts and nodules for the upper lung zones. Sometimes the typical Langerhans' cells may be recovered in

  16. Raman Study of Secondary Minerals in a Recent Lava Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimbretière, G.; Canizarès, A.; Finizola, A.; Delcher, E.; Raimboux, N.; Veron, E.; Simon, P.; Devouard, B.; Bertil, A.

    2014-06-01

    We present here the technical adaptations made for a field use of a laboratory in situ Raman spectrometer, and the characterization of secondary mineral phases growing in a recent, still hot on some spots, lava tube (2007 Piton de la Fournaise).

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:26024348

  18. Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.

    2011-05-18

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur

  19. Bisphosphonates do not Alter the Rate of Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    R Fuchs; M Faillace; M Allen; R Phipps; L Miller; D Burr

    2011-12-31

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), ALN (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n=12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period

  20. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  1. Secondary hydrothermal mineral system in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, A.; Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mineral systems generally develop around the deep root of the volcanoes down to the degassing magma chamber due the selective enrichment process of elements within the host-rock. The mineralization process depends on i) volcanic structure, ii) magma and fluid chemistry, iii) host-rock type and texture, iv) temperature and pressure conditions, and v) action timing that affect the transport and precipitation conditions of elements in the solution. Firstly, it generates a hydrothermal system that in a later phase may generate considerable metallogenic mineralization, in terms of both spatial extension and specie abundance. The study of secondary assemblages through depth and, possibly, through time, together with the definition of the general geological, structural, mineralogical and petrological context is the background to understand the genesis of mineral-to-metallogenic systems. We report our study on the Campi Flegrei volcano of potassic Southern Italy belt. It is a sub-circular caldera characterized by an active high-temperature and fluid-rich geothermal system affected by seismicity and ground deformation in the recent decades. The circulating fluids originate at deeper level within a degassing magma body and give rise at the surface up to 1500 tonnes/day of CO2 emissions. Their composition is intermediate between meteoric water and brines. Saline-rich fluids have been detected at ~3000 in downhole. The hydrothermal alteration varies from argillitic to phillitic, nearby the caldera boundary, to propilitic to thermo-metamorphic facies towards its centre. The Campi Flegrei caldera was defined as analogue of mineralized system such as White Island (New Zealand) that is an example of an active magmatic and embryonic copper porphyry system. In order to enhance the knowledge of such a type of embryonic-like metallogenic system, we have carried out macroscopic and microscopic investigations, SEM-EDS and electron microprobe analyses on selected samples from deep wells

  2. Recurrent pulmonary microemboli secondary to primary cardiac hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ebru; Ozturk, Adil; Zeyrek, Fadile; Demirbag, Recep; Temamogullari, Ali Vahip

    2007-12-01

    Primary cardiac hydatid cysts are rarely diagnosed and seldom rupture to lungs via pulmonary vein resulting in multifocal cystic lesions. We report a rare instance of an interventricular hydatid cyst. A 19-year-old patient was admitted with dyspnea and multiple homogenous opacities with different sizes in his chest X-ray and contrast enhanced thorax computed tomography. We considered recurrent pulmonary microemboli, although neither systemic embolisation nor intravascular cyst of pulmonary arteries was detected. Due to extensive distribution of the pulmonary cysts, only the cardiac cyst was taken surgically. The patient remains in our care without any pulmonary improvement despite appropriate medical treatment. PMID:17314071

  3. Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Rye, R.O.; Breit, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low

  4. Evolving Concepts of Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Left Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Bhavadharini; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease is the most common form of pulmonary hypertension. Although its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, it is now well recognized that the presence of pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis. Right ventricular failure has independent and additive prognostic value over pulmonary hypertension for adverse outcomes in left heart disease. Recently, several new terminologies have been introduced to better define and characterize the nature and severity of pulmonary hypertension. Several new treatment options including the use of pulmonary arterial hypertension specific therapies are being considered, but there is lack of evidence. Here, we review the recent advances in this field and summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of use in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease. PMID:26886381

  5. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content < 300 g/t) occurred from 1972 to 1990 using acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.7-2.8) and diluted sulphuric acid (10 g/l). Secondary mineral phases like birnessite, todorokite and goethite occur within a natural attenuation process associated with enrichment of heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field

  6. Human pulmonary acinar airspace segmentation from three-dimensional synchrotron radiation micro CT images of secondary pulmonary lobule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Hosokawa, T.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

    2011-03-01

    The recognition of abnormalities relative to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims for a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SRμCT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semi-automatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule imaged by the SRμCT. The method began with a segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. Follow-on stages then constructed 3-D air space separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. Finally, a graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems were interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Additionally, the isolated acinar airspace was segmented into subacini in which the airway was considered as the stem using the graph-partitioning approach. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SRμCT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

  7. TEM observation of bacteria-induced plagioclase dissolution and secondary mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Kyono, A.; Nishimiya, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Silicate minerals are the most common minerals in the earth's crust. Bacteria are also distributed throughout the earth's surface environment. The silicate minerals are known to be dissolved by organic acids and polysaccharides known as bacteria metabolites. The metabolic activity of bacteria therefore plays an important role in the interaction between dissolution of the silicate minerals and formation of secondary minerals. However, little is known about the secondary mineral formation process associated with the bacterial metabolism. To clarify the bacterial effect on the mineral dissolution and the secondary mineral formation, we closely investigated the effect of bacterial activity on surface texture modification and chemical composition changes of plagioclase which is the most abundant silicate mineral in the earth's crust. The bacteria were isolated from soil and then added in a suitable medium with several plagioclase fragments (Ab100% and An100%). It was incubated for 10 days. Al and Si concentrations in the medium were measured by ICP-AES to monitor the dissolution of the plagioclase. Secondary mineral formation during the incubation was observed by TEM, EDS and SAED methods. The authors will give the experiment results and discuss the effect of bacterial activity on the plagioclase dissolution and the secondary mineral formation in detail.

  8. Nuclear Melt Glass Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation at 40 to 200C

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M; Roberts, S; Viani, B; Pawloski, G; Rose, T

    2004-06-14

    Most long-lived radionuclides associated with an underground nuclear test are initially incorporated into melt glass and become part of the hydrologic source term (HST) only upon their release via glass dissolution (Pawloski et al., 2001). As the melt glass dissolves, secondary minerals precipitate. The types of secondary minerals that precipitate influence the water chemistry in and around the melt glass. The secondary minerals also provide a sorption sink to the released radionuclides. The changing water chemistry affects the rate of glass dissolution; it also affects the sorption behavior of the released radionuclides. This complex nature of glass dissolution and its important role in defining the HST requires a thorough understanding of glass dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation. The identity of secondary minerals formed at temperatures from 40 to 200 C are evaluated in this report to assist in that understanding.

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration in the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackschewitz, K. S.; Augustin, N.; Devey, C. W.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; James, R.

    2005-12-01

    We present new data on secondary mineral assemblages, clay and whole rock chemistry and clay mineral strontium and lithium isotopic compositions of altered rocks and sediments from the active, ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field reflecting various alteration conditions (e.g. fluid mixing, water-rock interaction). The altered ultramafic rocks are mainly consist of lizardite, chrysotile whereas magnetite and pyrite are minor minerals. Chlorite, chlorite-smectite mixed-layer (e.g., corrensite), smectite and talc are additional common phases in the clay fraction of most of these samples.Iron-hydroxides and iron sulfides are the main components of the hydrothermal crusts, with some amounts of pyroxene, chlorite, illite and pyrite. The hydrothermal sediments beneath the crusts are characterized by quartz, smectite and chlorite as main minerals. Analyses of clay separates representing a variety of alteration styles demonstrates that significant and characteristic changes in the bulk rock chemical composition are associated with various alteration conditions. The elements Cr, Cu, Pb and U appears to have a general enrichment in the lizardite and chlorite concentrates in comparison to a depleted mantle. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of clay concentrates vary between 0.7083 and 0.7096 suggesting that the clays either formed as a result of seawater alteration or hydrothermal alteration with various portions of seawater. The strontium isotopic ratio of a chlorite sample from hydrothermal sediments beneath the hydrothermal crust is much lower than the isotopic data reported for the lizardites suggesting precipitation from fluid with lower seawater content. The Li isotopic composition (δ7Li) of the clay separates varies between -5.4 and +6.4‰. Thus, the clays are enriched in 6Li relative to both seawater (~31‰) and hydrothermal vent fluids from the Logatchev field (~6‰) suggesting that 6Li is preferentially retained in alteration products. When considered together with the

  10. Miliary nodules due to secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis in rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gyanendra; Agarwal, Ritesh; Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Mahesh, Venkat; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-02-28

    Pulmonary hemosiderosis is defined as the clinical and functional consequence of iron overload of the lungs, which usually occurs due to recurrent intra-alveolar bleeding. It can manifest as miliary mottling and should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with miliary nodules on chest radiography, especially those with mitral stenosis. The management of secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis secondary to valvular heart disease includes valvuloplasty and/or valve replacement. The radiological opacities may disappear with successful treatment of the underlying valvular disease in many patients. However, they may persist with no physiological impairment to the patient. Here, we present a 32-year-old man with mitral stenosis who presented with fever and miliary shadows on chest radiography, which was ultimately diagnosed as secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21390194

  11. Longitudinal study of pulmonary function in coal miners in Lorraine, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.V.; Pham, Q.T.; Chau, N.; Pivoteau, C.; Dechoux, J.; Sadoul, P.

    1985-01-01

    A longitudinal study of pulmonary function and radiological change has been conducted on 141 nonsmoking coal miners and 256 smoking coal miners from Lorraine, France. At the time of the first examination occasioned by radiological change or shortness of breath, the men averaged between 46.6 years and 50.9 years of age, and they retired approximately 8 years after entering the study. They have been followed for average periods of about 18 years and a mean of five FEV1 observations per man were made over that period. Changes in radiological category have been documented. Average rates of decline of FVC and FEV1 were similar, and varied between -47 ml/yr in nonsmoking miners still alive, to -78 ml/yr in deceased smoking miners. These accelerated rates were similar before and after retirement from the mine.

  12. The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Samson, Sherry D.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-06-27

    The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site were investigated by reacting quartz and Hanford sediment (Warden Soil) with caustic solution of high ionic strength (2 M NaNO3), high pH (~13), high temperature (~90oC), and dissolved Al(0.01 M Al(NO3)3). Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3-10 days reaction time. The presence of dissolved Al in the simulated tank fluid was found to depress the net Si dissolved concentration. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results, secondary precipitates (cancrinite) at the primary mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides of major concern at the Hanford Site such as 129I, 79Se, 99Tc, and 90Sr.

  13. Acute pulmonary edema secondary to hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Obiagwu, Chukwudi; Paul, Vishesh; Chadha, Sameer; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, air embolism, carbon monoxide poisoning and gas gangrene with minimal adverse effects. Very few cases of HBOT causing acute pulmonary edema (PE) has been described; with a study on dogs suggesting that a complication of this therapy could be PE. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man with a history of stable systolic heart failure and diabetes mellitus presenting with acute PE following treatment with HBOT for diabetic foot. PMID:25988073

  14. Acute pulmonary edema secondary to hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obiagwu, Chukwudi; Paul, Vishesh; Chadha, Sameer; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, air embolism, carbon monoxide poisoning and gas gangrene with minimal adverse effects. Very few cases of HBOT causing acute pulmonary edema (PE) has been described; with a study on dogs suggesting that a complication of this therapy could be PE. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man with a history of stable systolic heart failure and diabetes mellitus presenting with acute PE following treatment with HBOT for diabetic foot. PMID:25988073

  15. The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    ) and a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4558.6 Ma for the LEW86010 angrite. However. the (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of "intermediate" age D'Orbigny-clan angrites and Asuka 881394 are inconsistent with radioactive decay from CAI values with a Mn-55 half-life of 3.7+/-0.4 Ma. in spite of consistency between (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I). Nevertheless, it appears that the Mn-Cr method with I(Mn)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) can be used to date primary igneous events and also secondary mineralization on asteroid parent bodies. We summarize ages thus determined for igneous events on differentiated asteroids and for carbonate and fayalite formation on carbonaceous asteroids.

  16. Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SRμCT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SRμCT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SRμCT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

  17. TEVAR for Flash Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm to Pulmonary Artery Fistula.

    PubMed

    Bornak, Arash; Baqai, Atif; Li, Xiaoyi; Rey, Jorge; Tashiro, Jun; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2016-01-01

    Enlarging aneurysms in the thoracic aorta frequently remain asymptomatic. Fistulization of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) to adjacent structures or the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and TAA may lead to irreversible cardiopulmonary sequelae. This article reports on a large aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with communication to the pulmonary artery causing pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory failure. The communication was ultimately closed after thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair allowing rapid symptom resolution. Early diagnosis and closure of such communication in the presence of TAA are critical for prevention of permanent cardiopulmonary damage. PMID:26522587

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in an Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Stefan; Lee, Justin Z.; Lee, Kwan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality, which may present in the adult population. It is often associated with sinus venosus defect (SVD). The diagnosis and therapy for this condition may be challenging. Case Presentation. We describe a case of an elderly woman who presented with NYHA Class IV dyspnea and was suspected to have symptomatic pulmonary hypertension. She was later found to have anomalous right upper pulmonary vein return to the superior vena cava and associated SVD with bidirectional shunting. Therapeutic options were discussed and medical management alone with aggressive diuresis and sildenafil was adopted. Follow-up visits revealed success in the planned medical therapy. Conclusions. PAPVR is a rare congenital condition that may present during late adulthood. The initial predominant left-to-right shunting associated with this anomaly may go undetected for years with the gradual development of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure due to right heart volume overload. Awareness of the condition is important, as therapy is time-sensitive with early detection potentially leading to surgical therapy as a viable option. PMID:27006835

  19. Alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 3. Saturation states of product minerals and reaction paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Lu, Peng

    2009-06-01

    In order to evaluate the complex interplay between dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, we examined the hypothesis of partial equilibria between secondary mineral products and aqueous solutions in feldspar-water systems. Speciation and solubility geochemical modeling was used to compute the saturation indices (SI) for product minerals in batch feldspar dissolution experiments at elevated temperatures and pressures and to trace the reaction paths on activity-activity diagrams. The modeling results demonstrated: (1) the experimental aqueous solutions were supersaturated with respect to product minerals for almost the entire duration of the experiments; (2) the aqueous solution chemistry did not evolve along the phase boundaries but crossed the phase boundaries at oblique angles; and (3) the earlier precipitated product minerals did not dissolve but continued to precipitate even after the solution chemistry had evolved into the stability fields of minerals lower in the paragenesis sequence. These three lines of evidence signify that product mineral precipitation is a slow kinetic process and partial equilibria between aqueous solution and product minerals were not held. In contrast, the experimental evidences are consistent with the hypothesis of strong coupling of mineral dissolution/precipitation kinetics [e.g., Zhu C., Blum A. E. and Veblen D. R. (2004a) Feldspar dissolution rates and clay precipitation in the Navajo aquifer at Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. In Water-Rock Interaction (eds. R. B. Wanty and R. R. I. Seal). A.A. Balkema, Saratoga Springs, New York. pp. 895-899]. In all batch experiments examined, the time of congruent feldspar dissolution was short and supersaturation with respect to the product minerals was reached within a short period of time. The experimental system progressed from a dissolution driven regime to a precipitation limited regime in a short order. The results of this study suggest a complex feedback between dissolution and

  20. Boundaries of intergrowths between mineral individuals: A zone of secondary mineral formation in aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodskaya, R. L.; Bil'Skaya, I. V.; Lyakhnitskaya, V. D.; Markovsky, B. A.; Sidorov, E. G.

    2007-12-01

    Intergrowth boundaries between mineral individuals in dunite of the Gal’moenan massif in Koryakia was studied in terms of crystal morphology, crystal optics, and ontogenesis. The results obtained allowed us to trace the staged formation of olivine and chromite and four generations of these minerals. Micro-and nanotopography of boundary surfaces between intergrown mineral individuals of different generations was examined with optic, electron, and atomic force microscopes. The boundaries between mineral individuals of different generations are distinguished by their microsculpture for both olivine and chromite grains. Both minerals demonstrate a compositional trend toward refinement from older to younger generations. The decrease in the iron mole fraction in olivine and chromite is accompanied by the crystallization of magnetite along weakened zones in olivine of the first generation and as outer rims around the chromite grains of the second generation observable under optic and electronic microscopes. The subsequent refinement of chromite results in the release of PGE from its lattice, as established by atomic power microscopy. The newly formed PGM are localized at the boundaries between mineral individuals and, thus, mark a special stage in the ontogenetic evolution of mineral aggregates. Further recrystallization is expressed in the spatial redistribution of grain boundaries and the formation of monomineralic intergrowth boundaries, i.e., the glomerogranular structure of rock and substructures of PGM, chromite, and olivine grains as intermediate types of organization of the granular assemblies in the form of reticulate, chain, and cellular structures and substructures of aggregates.

  1. Long-term improvement during tadalafil therapy in a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kenji; Oh-Ishi, Shuji; Inui, Toshihide; Nakazawa, Mariko; Hyodo, Kentaro; Nakajima, Masayuki; Kanazawa, Jun; Miura, Yukiko; Takaku, Takio; Minami, Yuko; Hayashihara, Kenji; Saito, Takefumi; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) secondary to pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is known to be a relatively common complication and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the optimal therapeutic approach for these cases remains to be established. A 57-year-old man visited our hospital because of a progressive dry cough. A thoracic computed tomography examination showed a combination of diffuse thick-walled cysts and reticulonodular shadows that were predominant in bilateral upper lobes of the lungs. He was diagnosed as having PLCH based on the results of video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsies. During a 3-year clinical course, his condition deteriorated despite smoking cessation. A systemic evaluation demonstrated precapillary PAH caused by PLCH (PAH-PLCH), and treatment with tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, was started. During a 50-month period of treatment with tadalafil, improvements in his dyspnea, 6-min walking distance, and hemodynamics were maintained without either overt hypoxemia or pulmonary edema. We considered that tadalafil therapy may be a useful option in the treatment of patients with PAH-PLCH. PMID:27330952

  2. [Paroxysmal melanoptysis secondary to the cavitation of pulmonary pneumoconiosis conglomerate].

    PubMed

    Haro, M; Vizcaya, M; Sánchez, E; Coloma, R; Loeches, N; Arévalo, M

    1996-04-01

    Progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) secondary to pneumoconiosis involves the formation of fibrotic masses that eventually cause death from multiple complications. We present a rare but potentially serious complication in a patient with coal pneumoconiosis with PMF, in whom the appearance of paroxysmal melanoptysis was attributed to the cavitation of one of the pneumoconiotic masses. We emphasize the need for differential diagnosis to exclude other more common causes, as well as the use of bronchoscopy for diagnosis and confirmation. Strict control is needed to prevent possible respiratory failure when melanoptysis is massive. PMID:8689018

  3. Sorption of trace constituents from aqueous solutions onto secondary minerals. II. Radium

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.; McGarrah, J.E.; Walker, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Radium sorption efficiencies as a function of temperature, Ra concentration, and secondary mineral sorbate were determined in a 0.01 M NaCl solution. Radium sorption on a characterized clinoptilolite, montmorillonite, nontronite, opal, silica gel, illite, kaolinite, and glauconite under comparable experimental conditions allowed determination of Ra sorption efficiency curves for each, through use of Freundlich constants, over the same temperature and initial Ra solution concentration range Similar sorption data for U on the same secondary minerals over the same temperatures allowed comparison of sorption efficiencies for Ra and U. Clinoptilolite, illite, and nontronite were the most efficient Ra sorbents, while opal and silica gel were the poorest Ra sorbents. Generally, Ra sorption on secondary minerals was much greater than U sorption under the same experimental conditions. 13 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Secondary phosphate mineralization in a karstic environment in Central Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayake, Kapila; Subasinghe, S. M. N. D.

    1989-07-01

    At Eppawala in central Sri Lanka secondary phosphate mineralization is intimately associated with laminated fabrics within depressions (sinkholes and smaller cavities) formed in the thick weathering profiles of a hilly terrain underlain by a Precambrian apatite-bearing formation. The lowermost levels of the profile show extensive zones of leaching where derived apatite crystals occur within fine-grained, laminated stromatolite sequences. The stromatolitic groundmass, which diagenetically formed by percolating oxygenated phosphate and carbonate-rich groundwaters, is impregnated by the phosphate minerals francolite and collophane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that fine filaments, characteristic of microorganisms, are associated with the secondary phosphate mineralization. Continuous degradation and fragmentation of the stromatolitic mat has produced pellets, peloids, and intraclasts all enriched in secondary apatite. Degrading recrystallization around the edges of the primary apatite crystals has developed coated grains. The widespread occurrence of phosphate-enriched allochems in stromatolitic groundmasses is a unique development of a modern phosphorite in a karstic environment.

  5. [Gigantomastia secondary to mineral oil injection. A case report].

    PubMed

    Meza-Pérez, Alfredo; Rodíguez Patiño, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Use injections of illicit material to improve body contour is still a health problem in Mexico. Most commonly used are oily materials that in many patients may cause aesthetic and incapacitating functional complications. The case of a 32-year-old homosexual male patient is reported; he was injected with 80 cc of mineral oil in each mamma, which caused an important inflammatory reaction, growth, and severe ptosis of these. He was in apparent general good shape; thus, he was treated with bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy and free full-thickness nipple-areola complex graft. We consider that this pathology remains a current health problem that should alert health authorities to take preventive measures with regard to its administration. PMID:15162952

  6. Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

    2011-12-01

    A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the

  7. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ≥ 6 mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P = 0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  8. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  9. Weathering features and secondary minerals in Antarctic Shergottites ALHA77005 and LEW88516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that all three sub-groups of the shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) clan of meteorites contain aqueous precipitates of probable pre-terrestrial origin. In the context of secondary minerals, the most thoroughly studied shergottite has been Elephant Moraine, Antarctica A79001 (EETA79001). The recognition of LEW88516 as the latest SNC specimen, and its close similarity with ALHA77005, invite a comparative study of the latter two meteorites, and with EETA79001, from the perspective of aqueous alteration. The fusion crusts of the two meteorites are quite similar except that ALHA77005 is more vesicular (possibly indicating a higher indigenous volatile content). Secondary aluminosilicates (and salts on LEW88516) of definite Antarctic origin partially fill vesicles and fractures on both fusion crusts. Interior samples of the two meteorites are grossly similar in that traces of secondary minerals are present in both.

  10. Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackschewitz, K. S.; Kummetz, M.; Kummetz, M.; Ackermand, D.; Botz, R.; Devey, C. W.; Singer, A.; Stoffers, P.

    2001-12-01

    Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a regional primary alteration being overprinted by a secondary mineralogy. The intense hydrothermal alteration at both sites shows significant differences in the secondary mineralogy. At Roman Ruins, the upper 25 m of hydrothermally altered rocks are characterized by a rapid change from secondary cristobalite to quartz, implying a high temperature gradient. From 10 to 120 mbsf the clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and chlorite. The chlorite formation temperature calculated from oxygen isotope data lies at 250° C in 116 mbsf which is similar to the present fluid outflow temperatures of 240-250° C (Douville et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 627-643). Drilling in the Snowcap field recovered evidence for several stages of hydrothermal alteration. Between 50 and 150 mbsf, cristobalite and chlorite are the most abundant alteration minerals while hydrothermal pyrophyllite becomes abundant in some places At 67 mbsf, the isotopic composition of pyrophyllite gives a temperature for ist formation at 260° C whereas at 77 and 116 mbsf the pyrophyllite displays the highest temperatures of formation (>300° C). These temperatures are close to the maximum measured borehole temperatures of 313° C. The appearance of assemblages of chlorite, chlorite-vermiculite, chlorite-vermiculite-smectite and illite-smectite as well as the local development of corrensite below 150 mbsf suggests that the alteration at Snowcap may be more complex than that beneath Roman Ruins. Detailed geochemical studies of the authigenic clay mineral phases will provide further insights into the

  11. Pulmonary Hemorrhage Secondary to Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Plata-Menchaca, Erika P; de Leon, V M De la Puente-Diaz; Peña-Romero, Adriana G; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to disseminated strongyloidiasis is an unusual, well-recognized entity in immunocompromised patients with autoimmune disease, which is associated with the hyperinfection syndrome, sepsis, and a high mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 44-year-old Mexican woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and acute bacterial meningitis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, treated with broad spectrum systemic antibiotics and high dose methylprednisolone, who subsequently developed a characteristic purpuric skin eruption and septic shock and died two days later of refractory hypoxemia caused by massive pulmonary bleeding. The postmortem examination reports filariform larvae of S. stercolaris in lung, skin, and other organs. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering disseminated strongyloidiasis in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus, and screening for S. stercolaris infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, especially in endemic areas. Disseminated strongyloidiasis has a high mortality rate, explained in part by absence of clinical suspicion. PMID:26101672

  12. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  13. Form and composition of secondary mineralization in fractures in Columbia River basalts

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, J.P.; Rawson, S.A.; Horton, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    Examination of basalt alteration rinds suggests that pyroxene is altered, along with mesostasis, from the inception of hydrothermal alteration along cooling fractures in Columbia River basalts. The only phyllosilicate secondary mineral in fractures is trioctahedral smectite of Fe-saponite composition, throughout the examined thickness of the basalt column. This smectite is compositionally distinct from the minor amounts of mesostasis smectite found in otherwise unaltered outcrop samples of basalt.

  14. Secondary mineralization pathways induced by dissimilatory iron reduction of ferrihydrite under advective flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Benner, Shawn G.; Neiss, Jim; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Fendorf, Scott

    2003-08-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides not only serve as potent sorbents and repositories for nutrients and contaminants but also provide a terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. The microbial reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides and the subsequent secondary solid-phase transformations will, therefore, have a profound influence on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe as well as associated metals. Here we elucidate the pathways and mechanisms of secondary mineralization during dissimilatory iron reduction by a common iron-reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens (strain CN32), of 2-line ferrihydrite under advective flow conditions. Secondary mineralization of ferrihydrite occurs via a coupled, biotic-abiotic pathway primarily resulting in the production of magnetite and goethite with minor amounts of green rust. Operating mineralization pathways are driven by competing abiotic reactions of bacterially generated ferrous iron with the ferrihydrite surface. Subsequent to the initial sorption of ferrous iron on ferrihydrite, goethite (via dissolution/reprecipitation) and/or magnetite (via solid-state conversion) precipitation ensues resulting in the spatial coupling of both goethite and magnetite with the ferrihydrite surface. The distribution of goethite and magnetite within the column is dictated, in large part, by flow-induced ferrous Fe profiles. While goethite precipitation occurs over a large Fe(II) concentration range, magnetite accumulation is only observed at concentrations exceeding 0.3 mmol/L (equivalent to 0.5 mmol Fe[II]/g ferrihydrite) following 16 d of reaction. Consequently, transport-regulated ferrous Fe profiles result in a progression of magnetite levels downgradient within the column. Declining microbial reduction over time results in lower Fe(II) concentrations and a subsequent shift in magnetite precipitation mechanisms from nucleation to crystal growth. While the initial precipitation rate of goethite exceeds that of magnetite, continued growth is inhibited by

  15. Reduction of jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and secondary mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingjie, Ouyang; Xiancai, Lu; Huan, Liu; Juan, Li; Tingting, Zhu; Xiangyu, Zhu; Jianjun, Lu; Rucheng, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Jarosite is a common mineral in a variety of environments formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide normally accompanying with the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) in mining areas or acid rock drainages (ARD) in many localities. Decomposition of jarosite by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) influences the mobility of many heavy metals generally accommodated in natural jarosite. This study examined the anaerobic reduction of synthesized jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a typical facultative bacteria. The release of ferrous and ferric ion, as well as sulfate and potassium, in the inoculated experimental group lasting 80 days is much higher than that in abiotic control groups. The detection of bicarbonate and acetate in experimental solution further confirms the mechanism of microbial reduction of jarosite, in which lactate acts as the electron donor. The produced ferrous iron stimulates the subsequent secondary mineralization, leading to precipitation and transformation of various iron-containing minerals. Green rust and goethite are the intermediate minerals of the microbial reduction process under anoxic conditions, and the end products include magnetite and siderite. In aerobic environments, goethite, magnetite and siderite were also detected, but the contents were relatively lower. While in abiotic experiments, only goethite has been detected as a product. Thus, the microbial reduction and subsequent mineral transformation can remarkably influence the geochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in supergene environments, as well as the mobility of heavy metals commonly accommodated in jarosite.

  16. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  17. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  18. Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, Ian E. . E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine

    2006-12-15

    Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

  19. Pulmonary Disease Secondary to Reflux Mimicking Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Ricardo Azêdo de Luca; Mazolli Veiga, Nathalia; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Mocarzel, Luis Otávio Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease due to the variety of clinical presentations, often superimposed on other conditions, related or not to the connective tissue. We report a 43-year-old Brazilian woman with limited systemic sclerosis and pulmonary symptoms secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease, with a clinical presentation similar to a diffuse interstitial lung disease. Because of the frequency of interstitial lung injury due to systemic sclerosis, this was an important differential diagnosis, which could be excluded after optimized treatment of reflux disease, with clinical and radiological improvement. Clinical management of patients with collagen diseases requires clinician skills to identify the natural history and understand its nuances. This is a common situation in clinical practice, but with a few discussions in international literature. PMID:26885429

  20. Pulmonary Disease Secondary to Reflux Mimicking Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Montes, Ricardo Azêdo de Luca; Mazolli Veiga, Nathalia; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Mocarzel, Luis Otávio Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease due to the variety of clinical presentations, often superimposed on other conditions, related or not to the connective tissue. We report a 43-year-old Brazilian woman with limited systemic sclerosis and pulmonary symptoms secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease, with a clinical presentation similar to a diffuse interstitial lung disease. Because of the frequency of interstitial lung injury due to systemic sclerosis, this was an important differential diagnosis, which could be excluded after optimized treatment of reflux disease, with clinical and radiological improvement. Clinical management of patients with collagen diseases requires clinician skills to identify the natural history and understand its nuances. This is a common situation in clinical practice, but with a few discussions in international literature. PMID:26885429

  1. Lithologic Control on Secondary Clay Mineral Formation in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Dhakal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transformation of rock to soil is central to landscape evolution and ecosystem function. The objective of this study was to examine controls on secondary mineral formation in a forested catchment in the Catalina-Jemez CZO. We hypothesized landscape position controls the type of secondary minerals formed in that well-drained hillslopes favor Si-poor secondary phases such as kaolinite, whereas poorly drained portions of the landscape that collect solutes from surrounding areas favor formation of Si-rich secondary phases such as smectite. The study focused on a catchment in Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico where soils are derived from a mix of rhyolitic volcanic material, vegetation includes a mixed conifer forest, and climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of ~800 mm yr-1 and mean annual temperature of 4.5°C. Soils were collected at the soil-saprolite boundary from three landscape positions, classified as well drained hillslope, poorly drained convergent area, and poorly drained hill slope. Clay fractions were isolated and analyzed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and thermal analysis. Quantitative XRD of random powder mounts indicated the presence of both primary phases such as quartz, and alkali and plagioclase feldspars, and secondary phases that include illite, Fe-oxyhydroxides including both goethite and hematite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay fractions were dominated by smectite ranging from 36-42%, illite ranging from 21-35%, and kaolinite ranging from 1-8%. Qualitative XRD of oriented mounts confirmed the presence of smectite in all samples, with varying degrees of interlayering and interstratification. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicated that secondary mineral assemblage was not strongly controlled by landscape position, but rather varied with underlying variation in lithology. The catchment is underlain by a combination of porphorytic rhyolite and

  2. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  3. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Use in Cardiac Arrest Secondary to Fulminant Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Tariq; Brinton, Taylor; Ahmed, Khansa; Iskander, Joy; Woznicka, Daniel; Kramer, Jason; Kopiec, Adam; Chadaga, Amar R.; Ortiz, Kathia

    2016-01-01

    Background Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is used emergently to dissolve thrombi in the treatment of fulminant pulmonary embolism. Currently, there is a relative contraindication to tPA in the setting of traumatic or prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation > 10 minutes because of the risk of massive hemorrhage. Methods Our single-center, retrospective study investigated patients experiencing cardiac arrest (CA) secondary to pulmonary embolus. We compared the effectiveness of advanced cardiac life support with the administration of tPA vs. the standard of care consisting of advanced cardiac life support without thrombolysis. The primary endpoint was survival to discharge. Secondary endpoints were return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), major bleeding, and minor bleeding. Results We analyzed 42 patients, of whom 19 received tPA during CA. Patients who received tPA were not associated with a statistically significant increase in survival to discharge (10.5% vs. 8.7%, P = 1.00) or ROSC (47.4% vs. 47.8%, P = 0.98) compared to the control group. We observed no statistically significant difference between the groups in major bleeding events (5.3% in the tPA group vs. 4.3% in the control group, P = 1.00) and minor bleeding events (10.5% in the tPA group vs. 0.0% in the control group, P = 0.11). Conclusion This study did not find a statistically significant difference in survival to discharge or in ROSC in patients treated with tPA during CA compared to patients treated with standard therapy. However, because no significant difference was found in major or minor bleeding, we suggest that the potential therapeutic benefits of this medication should not be limited by the potential for massive hemorrhage. Larger prospective studies are warranted to define the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic use in this population. PMID:26858790

  4. Bone mineral density evaluation among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to cerebral palsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Leonel, Rayana Bomfim; Perim, Larissa Grobério Lopes; Oliveira, Tarcísio Guimarães Silva; Jacob Júnior, Charbel; Júnior, José Lucas Batista; Lourenço, Rafael Burgomeister

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate bone mineral density among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study in which both bone densitometric and anthropometric data were evaluated. The inclusion criteria used were that the patients should present quadriplegic cerebral palsy, be confined to a wheelchair, be between 10 and 20 years of age and present neuromuscular scoliosis. Results We evaluated 31 patients (20 females) with a mean age of 14.2 years. Their mean biceps circumference, calf circumference and body mass index were 19.4 cm, 18.6 cm and 16.9 kg/m2, respectively. The mean standard deviation from bone densitometry was −3.2 (z-score), which characterizes osteoporosis. Conclusion There is high incidence of osteoporosis in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:26229882

  5. Genesis of secondary uranium minerals associated with jasperoid veins, El Erediya area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Naby, Hamdy H.

    2008-11-01

    Uranium mineralization in the El Erediya area, Egyptian Eastern Desert, has been affected by both high temperature and low temperature fluids. Mineralization is structurally controlled and is associated with jasperoid veins that are hosted by a granitic pluton. This granite exhibits extensive alteration, including silicification, argillization, sericitization, chloritization, carbonatization, and hematization. The primary uranium mineral is pitchblende, whereas uranpyrochlore, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified hydrated uranium niobate mineral are the most abundant secondary uranium minerals. Uranpyrochlore and the unidentified hydrated uranium niobate mineral are interpreted as alteration products of petscheckite. The chemical formula of the uranpyrochlore based upon the Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) is A {left( {{text{U}}_{{1.07}} {text{Ca}}_{{0.28}} {text{Pb}}_{{0.03}} {text{Na}}_{{0.21}} {text{Mg}}_{{0.02}} } right)}_{{Σ 1.6}} B {left( {{text{Nb}}_{{0.57}} {text{Si}}_{{0.62}} {text{Zr}}_{{0.35}} {text{P}}_{{0.20}} {text{Fe}}_{{0.17}} {text{Al}}_{{0.06}} {text{Ti}}_{{0.03}} } right)}_{{Σ 2}} . It is characterized by a relatively high Zr content (average ZrO2 = 6.6 wt%). The average composition of the unidentified hydrated uranium niobate mineral is ^{{text{U}}} {left( {{text{U}}_{{1.89}} {text{Ca}}_{{0.49}} {text{Pb}}_{{0.13}} {text{Na}}_{{0.06}} {text{Mg}}_{{0.02}} } right)}_{{Σ 2.59}} ^{{{text{Nb}}}} {left( {{text{Nb}}_{{1.31}} {text{Fe}}_{{0.34}} {text{Si}}_{{0.14}} {text{P}}_{{0.10}} {text{Ti}}_{{0.05}} {text{Zr}}_{{0.03}} {text{Al}}_{{0.03}} } right)}_{{Σ 2.0}} , where U and Nb represent the dominant cations in the U and Nb site, respectively. Uranophane is the dominant U6+ silicate phase in oxidized zones of the jasperoid veins. Kasolite is less abundant than uranophane and contains major U, Pb, and Si but only minor Ca, Fe, P, and Zr. A two-stage metallogenetic model is proposed for the alteration processes and uranium mineralization at

  6. Pulmonary function differences in patients with chronic right heart failure secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic left heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Xue, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary abnormalities are found in both chronic heart failure (CHF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The differences of pulmonary function in chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure are not fully understood. Material/Methods We evaluated 120 patients with stable CHF (60 with chronic left heart failure and 60 with chronic right heart failure). All patients had pulmonary function testing, including pulmonary function testing at rest and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Results Patients with right heart failure had a significantly lower end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2), higher end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PetO2) and minute ventilation/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) at rest. Patients with right heart failure had a lower peak PetCO2, and a higher peak dead space volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) ratio, peak PetO2, peak VE/VCO2, and VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. Patients with right heart failure had more changes in ΔPetCO2 and ΔVE/VCO2, from rest to exercise. Conclusions Patients with right heart failure had worse pulmonary function at rest and exercise, which was due to severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching, severe ventilation inefficiency, and gas exchange abnormality. PMID:24916204

  7. Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail. PMID:20851443

  8. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Chun-rong; Chen, Miao; Zhang, Jian-heng; Lin, Zhi-ya; Chen, Rong-chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV) function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin. Results The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95) than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09), and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79), with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05. Conclusions Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD. PMID:26998756

  9. Hydrothermal alteration in Oregon's Newberry Volcano No. 2: fluid chemistry and secondary-mineral distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Mariner, R.H.; Bargar, K.E.; Evans, W.C.; Presser, T.S.

    1984-04-01

    Newberry 2 was drilled in the caldera floor of Newberry Volcano, Oregon, by the US Geological Survey during 1979-81. The maximum temperature measured was 265C at the bottom of the hole, 932 m below the surface. Rocks recovered fr9om the drill hole are divided into three intervals on the basis of hydrothermal alteration and mineral deposition: (1) 0-290 m consists of unaltered, largely glassy volcanic material, with present temperatures ranging from 20 to 40C; (2) 290-700 m consists of permeable tuff layers, tuff breccia units, and brecciated and fractured rhyodacitic to dacitic lava flows, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 100C; (3) 700-932 m consists of impermeable andesitic to basaltic lava flows that generally show little effect of alteration, interlayered with permeable hydrothermally altered flow breccia, with temperatures gradually increasing from 100 at 700 m to 265C at 932 m. Hydrothermal alteration throughout the system is controlled by rock permeability, temperature, composition of geothermal fluids, and composition and crystallinity of host rocks. Rock alteration consists mainly of replacement of glass by clay minerals and, locally, zeolites, partial replacement of plagioclase phenocrysts by calcite +/- epidote +/- illite, and whole-rock leaching adjacent to fluids channels. Open-space deposition of hydrothermal minerals in fractures, vesicles, and interbreccia pore space is far more abundant than replacement. A cooling shallow convection system in the upper 700 m is indicated by the occurrence of hydrothermal minerals that were deposited in a slightly higher temperature environment than presently exists. Below 700 m, the heat flow is conductive, and fluid flow is controlled by horizontal lava flows. Homogenization temperatures of secondary quartz fluid inclusions were as high as 370C.

  10. Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets

    PubMed Central

    Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

  11. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    PubMed

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. PMID:21879833

  12. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  13. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  14. Evidence for an unsaturated-zone origin of secondary minerals in Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Joseph F.; Roedder, Edwin; Paces, James B.

    2001-04-29

    The unsaturated zone (UZ) in Miocene-age welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Secondary calcite and silica minerals deposited on fractures and in cavities in the UZ tuffs are texturally, isotopically, and geochemically consistent with UZ deposition from meteoric water infiltrating at the surface and percolating through the UZ along fractures. Nonetheless, two-phase fluid inclusions with small and consistent vapor to liquid (V:L) ratios that yield consistent temperatures within samples and which range from about 35 to about 80 C between samples have led some to attribute these deposits to formation from upwelling hydrothermal waters. Geochronologic studies have shown that calcite and silica minerals began forming at least 10 Ma and continued to form into the Holocene. If their deposition were really from upwelling water flooding the UZ, it would draw into question the suitability of the site as a waste repository.

  15. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  16. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  17. Diagenesis of basalts from the Pasco Basin, Washington. I. Distribution and composition of secondary mineral phases

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The principal components of secondary mineral assemblages found in Pasco Basin basalts are iron-rich smectite (nontronite), clinoptilolite, and silica. Silica occurs as quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and opal-CT. Extractable iron within the nontronite suggests the presence of an iron-bearing oxyhydroxide phase intercalated with the nontronite. Other components present in minor or trace amounts are mordenite, celadonite, apatite, pyrite, phillipsite, gypsum, crionite, and chabazite. The generalized precipitation sequence with time and/or depth was found to be clay (usually nontronite) ..-->.. clinoptilolite ..-->.. silica and/or clay. Nontronite, the first phase to form, is present at nearly all sampled depths. Clinoptilolite is apparently restricted to depths below about 350 m. Quartz is ubiquitous whereas opal and cristobalite appear to be abundant only below 600 m. Mordenite occurs only at depths below about 900 m, which correlates roughly with the first occurrence of dissolution-etched clinoptilolite. These observations as well as comparisons with data on secondary minearl assemblages from other basaltic and felsic systems suggest that the geochemical evolution of Pasco Basin basalts probably occurred under conditions similar to those existing today.

  18. Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite-silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Nicholas S. F.; Cline, Jean S.; Amelin, Yuri V.

    2003-03-01

    The origin of secondary calcite-silica minerals in primary and secondary porosity of the host Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain has been hotly debated during the last decade. Proponents of a high-level nuclear waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain have interpreted the secondary minerals to have formed from cool, descending meteoric fluids in the vadose zone; critics, citing the presence of two-phase fluid inclusions, argued that the minerals could only have formed in the phreatic zone from ascending hydrothermal fluids. Understanding the origin, temperature, and timing of these minerals is critical in characterizing geologically recent fluid flux at the site, and has significant implications to whether waste should be stored at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic and paragenetic studies of 155 samples collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and repository block cross drift (ECRB) tunnels indicate that heterogeneously distributed calcite with lesser chalcedony, quartz, opal, and fluorite comprise the oldest secondary minerals. These are typically overgrown by intermediate-aged calcite, often exhibiting distinctive bladed habits. The youngest event recorded across the site is the deposition of Mg-enriched (up to ˜1 wt%) and depleted, growth-zoned calcite intergrown with U-enriched opal. The cyclical variation in Mg enrichment and depletion is probably related to climate changes that have occurred during the last few million years. The distribution of secondary minerals is consistent with precipitation in the vadose zone. Fluid inclusion petrography of sections from the 155 samples determined that 96% of the fluid inclusion assemblages (FIAs) contained liquid-only inclusions that formed at ambient temperatures (<35°C). However, 50% of the samples (n = 78) contained relatively rare FIA that contain both liquid-only and liquid plus vapor inclusions (herein termed two-phase FIAs) that formed at temperatures above 35°C. Virtually all of these two-phase FIAs

  19. Bilateral massive pulmonary embolism secondary to decompression sickness: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gaye, Ulubay; Sevinc, Sarinc Ulasli; Ozgur, Karacan; Tuna, Gumus; Fusun, Eyuboglu Oner

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes massive pulmonary embolism in a patient as a complication of decompression illness. Twenty-four hours after a scuba dive, a 50-year-old man developed acute pulmonary hypertension and decompression sickness that produced bilateral embolism in the lung at day 6 of hospitalization. He had no risk factor for pulmonary embolism earlier except smoking. Decompression sickness that RESULTS in formation of bubbles of inert gas is a risk for both aviators and divers. The present case strongly suggests that micro-bubbles may cause life-threatening massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:18005806

  20. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total

  1. A Rare Case of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Secondary to Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kunal; Zainah, Hadeel; Bhatnagar, Shubhita; Stein, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare presentation of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. While histoplasmosis has been reported to cause hemoptysis and alveolar hemorrhage in children, the English language literature lacks any adult case reports documenting this association. We report a case of pulmonary histoplasmosis where the initial presentation was pneumonia with a subsequent diagnosis of DAH. PMID:26435863

  2. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis Superimposed on Infection-related Glomerulonephritis Secondary to Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shuichi; Mizuno, Shige; Okachi, Shotaro; Aso, Hiromichi; Wakahara, Keiko; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Ito, Satoru; Kozaki, Yohei; Katsuno, Takayuki; Maruyama, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and received no treatment. Disease progression was evident one year later with the development of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) titers and systemic symptoms of a fever, polyarthritis, purpura, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Her symptoms did not improve with antibiotic treatment. A renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis with immunodeposition. According to these findings, she was diagnosed with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) superimposed on infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN). Although there was a risk of aggravating an underlying infection, the combination therapy of corticosteroid and antibiotics improved AAV, IRGN, and even the lung radiological findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of AAV and IRGN secondary to pulmonary MAC infection. PMID:27580547

  3. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50th percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared with those with higher (>50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone

  4. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100 μg L(-1) As; >1000 μg L(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities). PMID:25898346

  5. 9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

  6. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to ...

  7. Volcanic stratigraphy and secondary mineralization of U. S. G. S. Pucci geothermal test well, Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gannett, M.W.; Bargar, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-one sample splits of drill cuttings from approximately 6.1 m intervals in the 610 m hole that was completed in 1979 were provided for this study. An additional 225 sample splits (3.05 m intervals) from 536 m to the bottom of the drill hole at 1220 m were added to the study following the deepening of the drill hole. Stratigraphic and petrologic observations of the cuttings were made. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer examinations were made of alteration minerals. The lithology and secondary mineralization are discussed.

  8. Sorption and redox reactions of As(III) and As(V) within secondary mineral coatings on aquifer sediment grains.

    PubMed

    Singer, David M; Fox, Patricia M; Guo, Hua; Marcus, Matthew A; Davis, James A

    2013-10-15

    Important reactive phenomena that affect the transport and fate of many elements occur at the mineral-water interface (MWI), including sorption and redox reactions. Fundamental knowledge of these phenomena are often based on observations of ideal mineral-water systems, for example, studies of molecular scale reactions on single crystal faces or the surfaces of pure mineral powders. Much less is understood about MWI in natural environments, which typically have nanometer to micrometer scale secondary mineral coatings on the surfaces of primary mineral grains. We examined sediment grain coatings from a well-characterized field site to determine the causes of rate limitations for arsenic (As) sorption and redox processes within the coatings. Sediments were obtained from the USGS field research site on Cape Cod, MA, and exposed to synthetic contaminated groundwater solutions. Uptake of As(III) and As(V) into the coatings was studied with a combination of electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques to assess concentration gradients and reactive processes, including electron transfer reactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microprobe (XMP) analyses indicated that As was primarily associated with micrometer- to submicrometer aggregates of Mn-bearing nanoparticulate goethite. As(III) oxidation by this phase was observed but limited by the extent of exposed surface area of the goethite grains to the exterior of the mineral coatings. Secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site, and may need to be included explicitly in reactive transport models. PMID:24041305

  9. Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fountoulis, George; Kerenidi, Theodora; Kokkinis, Constantinos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Thriskos, Paschal; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of osteoporosis in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to compare the diagnostic abilities of the above methods. Thirty-seven male patients with established COPD were examined with DXA and standard QCT in lumbar spine, including L1, L2, and L3 vertebrae. T-scores and bone mineral density values were calculated by DXA and QCT method, respectively. Comparative assessment of the findings was performed and statistical analysis was applied. QCT measurements found more COPD patients with impaired bone mineral density compared to DXA, namely, 13 (35.1%) versus 12 (32.4%) patients with osteopenia and 16 (43.2%) versus 9 (16.2%) patients with osteoporosis (p = 0.04). More vertebrae were found with osteoporosis by QCT compared to DXA (p = 0.03). The prevalence of osteoporosis among male patients with COPD is increased and DXA may underestimate this risk. QCT measurements have an improved discriminating ability to identify low BMD compared to DXA measurements because QCT is able to overcome diagnostic pitfalls including aortic calcifications and degenerative spinal osteophytes. PMID:27087809

  10. Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Fountoulis, George; Kerenidi, Theodora; Kokkinis, Constantinos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Thriskos, Paschal; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina; Vlychou, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of osteoporosis in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to compare the diagnostic abilities of the above methods. Thirty-seven male patients with established COPD were examined with DXA and standard QCT in lumbar spine, including L1, L2, and L3 vertebrae. T-scores and bone mineral density values were calculated by DXA and QCT method, respectively. Comparative assessment of the findings was performed and statistical analysis was applied. QCT measurements found more COPD patients with impaired bone mineral density compared to DXA, namely, 13 (35.1%) versus 12 (32.4%) patients with osteopenia and 16 (43.2%) versus 9 (16.2%) patients with osteoporosis (p = 0.04). More vertebrae were found with osteoporosis by QCT compared to DXA (p = 0.03). The prevalence of osteoporosis among male patients with COPD is increased and DXA may underestimate this risk. QCT measurements have an improved discriminating ability to identify low BMD compared to DXA measurements because QCT is able to overcome diagnostic pitfalls including aortic calcifications and degenerative spinal osteophytes. PMID:27087809

  11. Noninvasive assessment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease: A comparative study between five different Doppler indices

    PubMed Central

    Roushdy, Alaa Mahmoud; Ragab, Iman; Abd el Raouf, Wessam

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is an important hemodynamic parameter in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Noninvasive estimation of PVR represents an attractive alternative to invasive measurements. Methods The study included 175 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to CHD. All patients underwent full echocardiographic study and invasive hemodynamic measurements. The study population was then subdivided into four subgroups. Each of the following Doppler indices was measured in one of these four subgroups: peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV), the ratio of the TRV to the velocity time integral of the right ventricular outflow tract (TRV/TVIRVOT), peak velocity of tricuspid annular systolic motion (TSm), heart rate corrected acceleration time and infliction time of the proximal left pulmonary artery (ATc, InTc). The data obtained was correlated with invasive PVR measurement. An ROC curve analysis was done to generate cutoff points with the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict PVR > 6WU/m2. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were compared with each other to determine the most reliable cutoff point in predicting elevated PVR > 6WU/m2. Results There was a significant correlation between both the TRV and TSm and invasive measurement of PVR (r = −0.511, 0.387 and P value = 0.0002, 0.006 respectively). The TSm and TRV cutoff values were the most reliable to predict elevated PVR > 6 WU/m2. A TSm cutoff value of ⩽16.16 cm/s provided the best balanced sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (66.7%) to determine PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. A cutoff value less than 7.62 cm/s had 100% specificity to predict PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. A TRV cutoff value of >3.96 m/s provided the best balanced sensitivity (66.7%) and specificity (100%) to determine PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. Both TRV and TSm had the highest area under the ROC curve among the 5 DOPPLER indices studied. Conclusion Prediction of elevated

  12. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

    SciTech Connect

    SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

    1998-10-23

    Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

  13. Vasovagal response secondary to permanent contraception device in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Jessica; Alnuaimat, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adequate contraception is an essential component of managing pulmonary hypertension in women of childbearing age. Intrauterine devices are a popular contraceptive choice for many women but are associated with a risk of vagal response upon placement in certain patients with pulmonary hypertension, which may not be well tolerated. More recently, newer permanent contraception devices have emerged in the market, such as the Essure. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of vagal-associated response due to an Essure device placement. PMID:26697184

  14. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

    1998-02-01

    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  15. Comparison of microstructure of superplastically deformed synthetic materials and ultramylonite: Coalescence of secondary mineral grains via grain boundary sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Tasaka, M.; Yoshida, H.

    2011-12-01

    Using very fine-grained aggregates of forsterite containing ~10vol% secondary mineral phase such as periclase and enstatite, we have been able to demonstrate their superplascity, that is, achievement of more than a few 100 % tensile strain (Hiraga et al. 2010). Superplastic deformation is commonly considered to proceed via grain boundary sliding (GBS) which results in grain switching in the samples. Hiraga et al. (2010) succeeded in detecting the operation of GBS from observing the coalescence of grains of secondary phase in superplastically deformed samples. The secondary phase pins the motion of grain boundaries of the primary phase; however, the reduction of the number of the grains of secondary phase due to their coalescence allows grain growth of the primary phase. We analyzed the relationships between grain size of the primary and secondary phases, between strain and grain size, and between strain and the number of coalesced grains in the superplastically deformed samples. The results supports participation of all the grains of the primary phase in grain switching process indicating that the grain boundary sliding accommodates almost entire strain during the deformation. Mechanical properties of these materials such as their stress and grain size exponents of 1-2 do not conflict this conclusion. We applied the relationships obtained from analyzing superplastic materials to the microstructure of the natural samples, which has been considered to have deformed via grain boundary sliding, that is, ultramylonite. The microstructure of greenschist-grade ultramylonite reported by Fliervoet et al. (1997) was analyzed. Distributions of the mineral phases (i.e., quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite) show distinct coalescence of the same mineral phases in the direction almost perpendicular to the foliation of the rock. The number of coalesced grains indicates that the strain that rock experienced is > 2. [reference] Hiraga et al. (2010) Nature 468, 1091

  16. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; White, Art F.; Stonestrom, Dave A.

    2009-05-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the

  17. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  18. Coupled alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 4. Numerical modeling of kinetic reaction paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Lu, Peng; Zheng, Zuoping; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores how dissolution and precipitation reactions are coupled in batch reactor experimental systems at elevated temperatures. This is the fourth paper in our series of "Coupled Alkali Feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems". In our third paper, we demonstrated via speciation-solubility modeling that partial equilibrium between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions was not attained in feldspar hydrolysis batch reactors at 90-300 °C and that a strong coupling between dissolution and precipitation reactions follows as a consequence of the slower precipitation of secondary minerals ( Zhu and Lu, 2009). Here, we develop this concept further by using numerical reaction path models to elucidate how the dissolution and precipitation reactions are coupled. Modeling results show that a quasi-steady state was reached. At the quasi-steady state, dissolution reactions proceeded at rates that are orders of magnitude slower than the rates measured at far from equilibrium. The quasi-steady state is determined by the relative rate constants, and strongly influenced by the function of Gibbs free energy of reaction ( ΔG) in the rate laws. To explore the potential effects of fluid flow rates on the coupling of reactions, we extrapolate a batch system ( Ganor et al., 2007) to open systems and simulated one-dimensional reactive mass transport for oligoclase dissolution and kaolinite precipitation in homogeneous porous media. Different steady states were achieved at different locations along the one-dimensional domain. The time-space distribution and saturation indices (SI) at the steady states were a function of flow rates for a given kinetic model. Regardless of the differences in SI, the ratio between oligoclase dissolution rates and kaolinite precipitation rates remained 1.626, as in the batch system case ( Ganor et al., 2007). Therefore, our simulation results demonstrated coupling among dissolution, precipitation, and flow rates

  19. Relationship between pulmonary function and bone mineral density in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Seon; Leem, Ah Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Rhee, Yumie; Ha, Yoon; Kim, Young Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The relationship between osteoporosis and COPD has been primarily reported in patients with moderate to severe COPD, but there is no report in the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and lung function in the general Korean population. Methods: This study was based on data acquired from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV and V), conducted from 2008 to 2010. The study population included 4,501 subjects (aged ≥ 50 years) who underwent both spirometry and BMD. The study populations were divided into two groups by sex to correct for the effects of gender on BMD. All female participants were postmenopausal women. Results: The BMD values of the femur neck, total femur, and L-spine tended to decrease with degree of airflow limitation in both genders. To correct confounding factors, data were analyzed and adjusted for age, body mass index, fat free mass index, body fat percentage, smoking amount, parathyroid hormone levels, daily calcium and phosphorus intake, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. While the BMD of the femur neck, total femur, and L-spine was reduced significantly as age and ALP increased, the correlation between airway obstruction and BMD of all regions disappeared in both genders. Conclusions: In the general population aged 50 years and older, diminution of BMD is not associated with airway obstruction. Further investigation along other factors is needed to determine the possible role of pulmonary function and BMD. PMID:27604798

  20. Minerals and rocks, what a passion! A CLIL unit in an Italian lower secondary class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Piera; Fiorineschi, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    CLIL means Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since September 2014 the teaching of a discipline in a foreign language has been compulsory in the final year of all high schools of Italy and recommended in lower secondary schools. So I decided to take part in a training course about "CLIL in Sciences teaching " that ANISN (Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Scienze Naturali ) was being held in Bologna from October to December 2014. There I learned that CLIL is much more than the translation of a traditional lecture to a foreign language. It is actually a set of new methodologies, largely based on Bloom's taxonomy, and making use of many kinds of technical support often referred to as "scaffolding" . It provides a context to improve communication because "natural language is never learned divorced from meaning". But CLIL is even more effective in order to learn the content, which is more important here than in immersion methodology. In the course we had to chose a subject , develop it in a structured unit, experiment the unit in a class of ours, using just English, and finally present it to the colleagues in Bologna. I decided to do the activity with 13 year old students. We had started the science lessons with chemistry, this year and I needed a subject consistent with that. So the choice was: Minerals! Because they belong to chemistry, being chemical compounds. Subsequently, even when the course in Bologna had come to an end, we continued with: Rocks! Since the pupils were pleased to do it and I was satisfied with their results. I worked together with my colleague who teaches English in the same class. We developed the subject following the instructions I had been given at the course: we showed the students videos found on line, providing them with the script; we made the text easier for them; we made them work in couples; I organized lab activities to improve learning skills to which they could apply their knowledge . Cross - curricolar links are an

  1. Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4ṡOH) and its mineral structure: Implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L.

    2015-01-01

    Austinite (CaZnAsO4ṡOH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm-1 are assigned to the ν2, ν3 and ν4 vibrations of AsO43- unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm-1 correspond to the ν1, ν3 and ν4 vibrations of AsO43- unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm-1 for IR and 3270 cm-1 both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals.

  2. Preservation of primary mineral inclusions and secondary mineralization in igneous zircon: a case study in orthogneiss from the Blue Ridge, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.

    2016-03-01

    A wide variety of minerals occur as inclusions in igneous zircon and can provide valuable evidence of source magma composition from originally magmatic zircons in metamorphic and clastic sedimentary rocks. However, it is not clear the extent to which zircons preserve the primary composition of their inclusions through a variety of geologic processes. This paper documents a case study of inclusion-rich, originally igneous zircon from an orthogneiss in the Blue Ridge of southwest Virginia. Zircon inclusions isolated from cracks contain 4 % clearly metamorphic phases (mainly in hosts with disturbed U-Pb systems) and otherwise retain distinct plagioclase chemistry, K-feldspar/plagioclase pairs, and biotite with much wider-ranging Mg/(Mg + Fe) than biotite in the rock matrix. A clearly secondary mineralization suite filling cracks in the zircons consists of quartz, biotite, albite, and epidote. Overall, these zircons preserve mineral inclusions distinct from their current host rock (except when exposed to external environments via cracks), demonstrating that non-metamict zircons may preserve their primary inclusion assemblages through later amphibolite to lower granulite facies metamorphism.

  3. Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4⋅OH) and its mineral structure: implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L

    2015-01-25

    Austinite (CaZnAsO4⋅OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν2, ν3 and ν4 vibrations of AsO4(3-) unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm(-1) correspond to the ν1, ν3 and ν4 vibrations of AsO4(3(-) unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm(-1) for IR and 3270 cm(-(1) both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals. PMID:25087167

  4. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metastasis and secondary paresis in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Carpenter, James W; Schumacher, Loni L; Shumacher, Loni L; Moon, Rachel S

    2012-12-01

    A 16-yr-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented with an acute history of lethargy, inappetance, ataxia, and paralysis. The bird had rapidly progressed from a normal state to complete inability to perch or ambulate within a 48-hr period. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral hind limb paresis with upper motor neuron signs present in both legs and the vent. Radiographs identified multiple nodular soft-tissue opacities within the cranial coelomic cavity and a single nodule superimposed with the thoracic spine. The bird was euthanized and submitted for necropsy, which revealed a primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with multiple sites of osseous metastasis, including the vertebrae, and subsequent spinal cord compression. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in this species, although reports of similar tumors in other psittacines have been published. This report, along with others previously published, suggests that vertebral metastasis of primary pulmonary tumors may be more common in psittacine species than previously recognized and, as such, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in psittacine birds exhibiting signs of neurologic dysfunction attributed to a spinal cord lesion. PMID:23272361

  5. A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.

    2012-12-01

    A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ≤ 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ≥ 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ≥ 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary

  6. Environmental pulmonary health problems related to mineral dusts: Examples from central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, M.

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of benign disorders including pleural thickening (PT), calcified pleural plaques (CPP), and malignant diseases such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in central Anatolia. Earlier studies suggested tremolite was the main cause, and there was no explanation why some of the population did not have malignant cases, and plaques were by far the most frequent manifestation of asbestos-induced injury. In this study, geological, mineralogical and environmental data were evaluated. While the prolonged continuous exposure to high or low doses of long (8-30 µm) and thin (less than 0.25 µm) mixed fibers such as chrysolite, and/or anthophyllite or tremolite, and also silica particles may be the cause of MPM in central Anatolia, two different reasons for the CPP and PT are suggested. The first one is short (less than 8 µm) and thin mixed-type mineral fibers. The second reason is low doses of long, but thick, splintery tremolite fibers.

  7. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  8. Secondary Mineral Deposits and Evidence of Past Seismicity and Heating of the Proposed Repository Horizon at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, Josheph F.

    2004-01-01

    The Drift Degradation Analysis (DDA) (BSC, 2003) for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, describes model simulations of the effects of pre- and post-closure seismicity and waste-induced heating on emplacement drifts. Based on probabilistic seismic hazard analyses of the intensity and frequency of future seismic events in the region (CRWMS M&O, 1998), the DDA concludes that future seismicity will lead to substantial damage to emplacement drifts, particularly those in the lithophysal tuffs, where some simulations predict complete collapse of the drift walls. Secondary mineral studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1995 indicate that secondary calcite and silica have been deposited in some fractures and lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain during at least the past 10 million years (m.y.), and probably since the tuffs cooled to less than 100?C. Tuff fragments, likely generated by past seismic activity, have commonly been incorporated into the secondary mineral depositional sequences. Preliminary observations indicate that seismic activity has generated few, if any, tuff fragments during the last 2 to 4 m.y., which may be inconsistent with the predictions of drift-wall collapse described in the DDA. Whether or not seismicity-induced tuff fragmentation occurring at centimeter to decimeter scales in the fracture and cavity openings relates directly to failure of tuff walls in the 5.5-m-diameter waste emplacement drifts, the deposits do provide a potential record of the spatial and temporal distribution of tuff fragments in the UZ. In addition, the preservation of weakly attached coatings and (or) delicate, upright blades of calcite in the secondary mineral deposits provides an upper limit for ground motion during the late stage of deposition that might be used as input to future DDA simulations. Finally, bleaching and alteration at a few of the secondary mineral sites indicate that

  9. Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W.; Soong, Yee; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}–water–rock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldspars–CO{sub 2}–brine interactions at 150–200 °C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolution–precipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate–ΔG{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral

  10. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism secondary to membranous glomerulonephritis treated with percutaneous catheter thrombectomy and localized thrombolytic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Janda, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is a rare event but is prevalent in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Bilateral RVT is even rarer. The literature is relatively sparse in terms of the management of RVT because of its rarity and consists of a few case reports and case series. We present a case with bilateral RVT complicated by a pulmonary embolism in a patient with membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). A 19-year-old female presented with acute flank pain and worsening renal function after a couple of weeks in hospital while being treated with diuretics for anasarca secondary to MGN. Venography was used for diagnosis. The patient underwent percutaneous catheter thrombectomy and localized thrombolysis achieving resolution of pain and improvement of renal function. The patient was then anticoagulated for life with warfarin. PMID:21072156

  11. Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

  12. Identification of secondary minerals crystallized by low and high temperature alteration in the Northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor rocks were affected by hydrothermal alteration and low temperature seawater weathering display various elemental behaviors, necessitating detailed investigations to evaluate primary bulk rock compositions without the effect of elemental behaviors during alteration. Seafloor alteration entails primary minerals being changed into hydrous minerals. Bulk chemical compositions of seafloor igneous rocks are changed by high- temperature hydrothermal alteration and low-temperature seafloor weathering. In this study, I report the secondary mineral identifications by XRD analyses in the rocks from the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, and consider to condition of alteration processes. Volcanic rocks dredged from the Northern Kyushu Palau Ridge during cruise by Tansei-maru, ORI, University of Tokyo show petrological and geochemical characteristics of low and high temperature alterations. These rocks are classified into bulk water content, that is, low H2O- and LOI samples at the Miyazaki Seamount, high H2O- samples at the Nichinan Seamount, and high LOI samples at the Komahashi-Daini Seamount. The Nichinan Seamount samples show flesh phenocrysts, low altered groundmass minerals, and high degree alteration of groundmass glass, assumed to replace into clay minerals. These altered phenocrysts are identified by XRD to be serpentine, saponite, and talc. And these altered groundmasses are identified by XRD to be saponite with primary plagioclase and clinopyroxene. These results are assumed to replacement of glass into clay minerals under low temperature seafloor weathering. Nichinan Seamount rocks show high alkali-elements contents. The remarkable movement of bulk composition is not occur under the low temperature seafloor weathering except for K and Rb, and these enrichments reflect secondary deposition of celadonite, K-rich smectite (e.g. Nakamura, 2001). Saponite is typical identified, but celadonite is not identified in the Nichinan Seamount rocks. Therefore, the

  13. Premedication with Clarithromycin Is Effective against Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia during Influenza Virus Infection in a Pulmonary Emphysema Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tatsuhiko; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Hara, Atsuko; Morita, Towako; Nakashima, Shota; Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Noriho; Kosai, Kosuke; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia (SBP) during influenza increases the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated mortality. Macrolide antibiotics, including clarithromycin (CAM), are potential treatments for a variety of chronic respiratory diseases owing to their pharmacological activities, in addition to antimicrobial action. We examined the efficacy of CAM for the treatment of SBP after influenza infection in COPD. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of CAM in elastase-induced emphysema mice that were inoculated with influenza virus (strain A/PR8/34) and subsequently infected with macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae CAM was administered to the emphysema mice 4 days prior to influenza virus inoculation. Premedication with CAM improved pathologic responses and bacterial load 2 days after S. pneumoniae inoculation. Survival rates were higher in emphysema mice than control mice. While CAM premedication did not affect viral titers or exert antibacterial activity against S. pneumoniae in the lungs, it enhanced host defense and reduced inflammation, as evidenced by the significant reductions in total cell and neutrophil counts and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates. These results suggest that CAM protects against SBP during influenza in elastase-induced emphysema mice by reducing IFN-γ production, thus enhancing immunity to SBP, and by decreasing neutrophil infiltration into the lung to prevent injury. Accordingly, CAM may be an effective strategy to prevent secondary bacterial pneumonia in COPD patients in areas in which vaccines are inaccessible or limited. PMID:27489022

  14. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia in the accelerated phase.

    PubMed

    Ohmachi, Ken; Ogiya, Daisuke; Morita, Fujiko; Kojima, Minoru; Tsuboi, Kosuke; Tazume, Kei; Komatsu, Masamichi; Hayama, Naoki; Kumaki, Nobue; Ogawa, Yoshiaki; Ando, Kiyoshi

    2008-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare respiratory disease the character of which is accumulation of protein consisting of surfactant in alveolar spaces. PAP sometimes complicates with hematological malignancies, especially myeloid leukemia. As one of the cause of PAP, impairment of alveolar macrophage is considered. We experienced a case of PAP with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). 41 years old woman having CML for nine years developed PAP, and was treated by bronchoalveolar lavage and imatinib. She died of respiratory failure in the end, but BAL fluid had been becoming gradually crystalline after induction of imatinib. We consider that we should try to treat to improve respiratory status not only PAP but also hematological disease. PMID:21318986

  15. [AA-type amyloidosis secondary to multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: implications for therapy].

    PubMed

    Baux, E; Henard, S; Alauzet, C; Goehringer, F; Laurain, C; Champigneulle, J; Vaillant, P; Hardy, A; Rabaud, C; May, T

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed to a 32-year-old man. An AA-amyloidosis was subsequently diagnosed on the renal biopsy performed for nephrotic syndrome and macroscopic hematuria. A 6-drug antibiotic treatment was delivered quickly after first results of genotypic antibiogram given the renal failure, and was secondarily adapted to the phenotypic antibiogram. Multidrug therapy was fairly well tolerated. Clinical and biological improving were slow. Although tuberculosis is a classic cause of amyloidosis, this is the first case reporting an association between a multidrug resistant case and an amyloidosis in adults. This case also raises the question of MDR probabilistic treatments in situations whether a vital organ prognosis is engaged. PMID:26198876

  16. Spatial distributions of secondary minerals in the Martian meteorite MIL 03346,168 determined by Raman spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Wang, Alian

    2015-06-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 03346 is a nakhlite meteorite that has been extensively studied due to its unique complex secondary mineral phases and their potential implications for the hydrologic history of Mars. We conducted a set of Raman spectroscopic and Raman imaging studies of MIL 03346,168, focusing on the secondary mineral phases and their spatial distributions, with a goal to better understand the possible processes by which they were generated on Mars. This study revealed three types of calcium sulfates, a solid solution of (K, Na)-jarosite and two groups of hydrated species with low crystallinity (HSLC) in the veins and/or mesostasis areas of the meteorite. The most abundant Ca-sulfate is bassanite that suggests two possible paths for its direct precipitation from a Ca-S-H2O brine, either having low water activity or with incomplete development (producing bassanite with gypsum microcrystals) on Mars. The second most abundant Ca-sulfate is soluble γ-CaSO4 which raises a new question on the origins of this phase in the Martian meteorite, since γ-CaSO4 readily hydrates in the laboratory but is apparently stable in Atacama Desert. The close spatial relationship of (K, Na)-jarosite solid solutions with rasvumite (KFe2S3), magnetite, HSLC, and fine-grained low-crystallinity alkali feldspar in mesostasis suggests a potential in situ formation of mesostasis jarosite from these Fe-K,Na-S-O-H2O species.

  17. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-09-29

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

  18. Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, C.A. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. . Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

  19. The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2013-06-03

    The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

  20. Collagen type-I leads to in vivo matrix mineralization and secondary stabilization of Mg-Zr-Ca alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Mushahary, Dolly; Wen, Cuie; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Lin, Jixing; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter; Pande, Gopal; Li, Yuncang

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-zirconia-calcium (Mg-Zr-Ca) alloy implants were coated with Collagen type-I (Coll-I) and assessed for their rate and efficacy of bone mineralization and implant stabilization. The phases, microstructure and mechanical properties of these alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and compression test, respectively, and the corrosion behavior was established by their hydrogen production rate in simulated body fluid (SBF). Coll-I extracted from rat tail, and characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, was used for dip-coating the Mg-based alloys. The coated alloys were implanted into the femur bones of male New Zealand white rabbits. In vivo bone formation around the implants was quantified by measuring the bone mineral content/density (BMC/BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osseointegration of the implant and new bone mineralization was visualized by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Upon surface coating with Coll-I, these alloys demonstrated high surface energy showing enhanced performance as an implant material that is suitable for rapid and efficient new bone tissue induction with optimal mineral content and cellular properties. The results demonstrate that Coll-I coated Mg-Zr-Ca alloys have a tendency to form superior trabecular bone structure with better osteoinduction around the implants and higher implant secondary stabilization, through the phenomenon of contact osteogenesis, compared to the control and uncoated ones in shorter periods of implantation. Hence, Coll-I surface coating of Mg-Zr-Ca alloys is a promising method for expediting new bone formation in vivo and enhancing osseointegration in load bearing implant applications. PMID:25179112

  1. Mineral Association Changes the Secondary Structure and Dynamics of Murine Amelogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J. X.; Xu, Y. S.; Buchko, G. W.; Shaw, W. J.

    2013-10-15

    Biomineralization proteins, present during the formation of hard tissues including bones, teeth, egg shells and nacre, result in the exquisite structures and properties of the resulting materials.[1] The structure of these proteins is often implicated in the control of the mineral properties, however very little structural data is available for the bulk of these proteins due to the difficulty in determining structures of immobilized proteins. Solid-state NMR is uniquely suited to the study of the structure of proteins bound to surfaces, demonstrated with the structural and orientation insights provided for the hydroxyapatite mineralization proteins statherin and the amelogenin, LRAP.[2] While these data are some of the only structural data available for this important class of protein, the experiments are often expensive and time consuming, due to the need to prepare and measure samples with isolated spin pairs, and are limited to a size of ~60 residues. In this work, we utilized a combination of 1D and recent 2D[3] solid-state NMR techniques along with a sparsely labelled sample to characterize the structure and dynamics of potential HAP binding residues of the 180 residue enamel protein, amelogenin. Amelogenin nanospheres and mineral bound amelogenin were investigated and a shift from unstructured to β-sheet structure was observed, along with a decrease in protein flexibility. This work provides the first molecular level structure and dynamic information of full-length amelogenin on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and within nanospheres, and demonstrates the ability to evaluate structural characteristics of large biomineralization proteins bound to their physiologically relevant surface. The research was performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a facility operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, with a portion of it performed at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user

  2. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

  3. Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many important geochemical reactions occur at the mineral-water interface, including sorption and desorption reactions of contaminants. Fundamental knowledge of the kinetics of these processes is based primarily on experimental observations of reactions at faces of single crystals or macroscopic data from pure mineral powder suspensions. Sorption reactions at crystal faces are generally very fast, on the order of microseconds or less, with reaction times often limited only by film diffusion at the mineral-water interface. In well-stirred suspensions of aquifer sediments, however, sorptive equilibrium can take many hours or days to achieve steady-state concentrations. We have examined the potential reasons for sorption rate limitation using uranium(VI) sorption by sediments from a sandy aquifer in Savannah River, South Carolina (USA). U(VI) sorption by sand-sized grains from the aquifer is dominated by reaction with secondary mineral coatings on quartz and feldspar grains. The coatings studied were on the order of 15 microns in thickness (i.e., from quartz grain to aqueous solution) and composed primarily of clay minerals and hematite of varying particle size. Microfocused-XRF imaging of elemental concentrations (e.g., U, Fe) of polished cross-sections of the grain/coating contact showed strong spatial correlations of U and Fe within the coatings, regardless of the length of reaction time (30 minutes to 4 weeks). The spatial resolution of the μ-XRF technique is of the order of 2 microns in horizontal directions, but the uncertainty of the observed spatial gradients is high due to grain curvature away from the polished surface and fluorescence contributed from the entire 30 micron thickness of a typical grain/epoxy thin section. TEM characterization of focused-ion-beam (FIB), vertically-extracted samples of the grain-coating contact shows that complex pore networks exist within the coatings of variable dimensions and unknown connectivity. Using scanning TEM (STEM

  4. Sildenafil to facilitate weaning from inhaled nitric oxide and mechanical ventilation in a patient with severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomo; Sviri, Sigal; Orenbuch-Harroch, Efrat; Fellig, Yakov; Ben-Yehuda, Arie; Fridlender, Zvi G; Gilon, Dan; Bayya, Abed

    2011-10-01

    We describe the case of a woman who presented to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation. She had severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease, and her history included sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. She was dependent on inhaled nitric oxide (INO) to maintain safe arterial oxygen saturation and could not be weaned from mechanical ventilation. Echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale with substantial right-to-left shunt, which probably contributed to her hypoxemia. Sildenafil enabled weaning from INO and substantially reduced the flow through the patent foramen ovale. She was successfully extubated and discharged home. To our knowledge, this is the first report of weaning from INO and mechanical ventilation in a patient with both severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale. PMID:21513610

  5. Experimental investigation of cesium mobility in the course of secondary mineral formations in Hanford sediment columns at 50 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Mashal, Kholoud Y; Cetiner, Ziya S

    2010-10-01

    Formation of secondary minerals and Cs mobility in Hanford sediments were investigated under conditions similar to the Hanford tank leak in a dynamic flow system at 50 degrees C. The objectives were to (1) examine the nature and locations of secondary mineral phases precipitated in the sediments and (2) quantify the amount of Cs retained by the sediment matrix at 50 degrees C. To this end, Hanford sediments were packed into 10-cm long columns and leached with simulated tank waste consisting of 1.4 M NaOH, 0.125 M NaAlO(2), 3.7 M NaNO(3), and 1.3 x 10(-4) M Cs at 50 degrees C. Compositions of outflow solution were monitored with time for up to 25 days, and the columns were then segmented into four 2.5-cm long layers. The colloidal fraction in these segments was characterized in terms of mineralogy, particle morphology, Cs content, and short-range Al and Si structure. It was observed that cancrinite and sodalite precipitated at 50 degrees C. Approximately 53% Cs was retained in the column treated by the simulated tank waste at this temperature. Cesium retention in the column was lowered in the high ionic strength solution due to competition from Na for the exchange sites. This can be explained by alteration of distribution and number of sorption sites which reduces the selectivity of Cs for Na, and through the formation of cancrinite and sodalite. The formation of hydroxide complexes in highly alkaline solutions could also contribute to relatively poor retention of Cs by hindering ion exchange mechanism. PMID:19757110

  6. Chronostratigraphy of Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy): secondary mineral microtextures and 39Ar-40Ar systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Igor M.; Buettner, Annett

    2009-12-01

    The eruptive history of Monte Vulture has been the subject of several geochronological investigations during the past decades, which reliably dated only a small number of eruptions. Understanding the causes of sub-optimum data yield in the past requires an interdisciplinary approach. We re-analyzed samples from previous works and present new data on samples from the main volcano-stratigraphic units of Monte Vulture, so as to provide an improved, consistent chronostratigraphic database. Imaging of minerals by cathodoluminescence and backscattered electrons reveals that heterochemical, high-temperature deuteric reaction textures are ubiquitous. Such observations are common in metamorphic rocks but had not frequently been reported from volcanic rocks. In view of the mineralogical complexity, we base our chronological interpretation on isochemical steps, defined as steps for which the Cl/K and/or the Ca/K ratios are constant. Isochemical steps carry the isotopic signature of chemically homogeneous mineral phases and therefore allow a well-constrained age interpretation. Comparison of old and new 39Ar-40Ar data proves the reproducibility of age spectra and their shapes. This quantifies the analytical reliability of the irradiation and mass-spectrometric analyses. Anomalous age spectra are a reproducible property of some specific samples and correlate with mineralogical anomalies. The present data allow us to fine-tune the age of the volcanostratigraphic units of Monte Vulture during the known interval of main volcanic activity from ca. 740 to 610 ka. After a very long stasis, the volcanic activity in the Monte Vulture area resumed with diatremic eruptions, one of which (Lago Piccolo di Monticchio, the site of a palynological-paleoclimatological drilling) was dated at ca. 140 ka.

  7. Fractionation of Stable Si Isotopes During in-situ Dissolution of Feldspars and Formation of Secondary Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, R. B.; Reynolds, B. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Zhu, C.

    2005-12-01

    It has been proposed that weathering of igneous silicate minerals may fractionate Si isotopes (Douthitt 1982, de la Rocha et al. 2000). This is supported by the observation that clays yield δ30Si compositions between +0.5‰ and -2.5‰ compared to the igneous range for δ30Si between +0.1‰ and -1‰ respectively (Douthitt 1982). The difference may relate to a discrimination against heavier Si isotopes during clay mineral formation. However, no study has yet shown a direct Si isotope fractionation between coexisting primary igneous and secondary clay mineral phases. We have measured the stable Si isotope fractionation during in-situ feldspar dissolution and formation of secondary clay minerals in the Navajo Sandstone, Black Mesa, Arizona. The Jurassic Navajo Sandstone is composed of about 94% quartz and 2-4% K-feldspar. The K-feldspar grains are covered with kaolinite, and both quartz and feldspars are covered with a mantle of smectite coating. Petrographic studies demonstrate that the clay minerals formed in situ as alteration products of feldspar, and the smectite is of a low-temperature variety (Zhu, 2005). Therefore, the Si isotope fractionation at low temperature (15-35°C) can be evaluated - something that is difficult to replicate in the laboratory. For the Si isotope analyses we used 20-30 mg of 5 separated clay samples, and 0.36 mg of hand picked feldspars. The silicates were fused with an alkaline flux and dissolved in a weak HCl acid. The dissolved Si was then separated by ion-exchange chromatography. The relative Si isotope compositions were measured using a high-resolution MC-ICP-MS (The Nu1700 at ETH Zurich) and are reported in δ notation relative to the international Si standard NBS 28. The bulk rock and separated feldspar fraction have Si isotope compositions are -0.09 ± 0.03‰ and -0.15 ±0.03 ‰ (±2σSEM) δ30Si, respectively. The clay samples have δ30Si values of -0.24 ±0.05‰, -0.16 ±0.03‰, -0.30 ±0.03‰, -0.42 ±0.03‰ and -0

  8. Syntrophic Effects in a Subsurface Clostridial Consortium on Fe(III)-(Oxyhydr)oxide Reduction and Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Madhavi; Lin, Chu-Ching; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Xiuhong; Wang, Yangping; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2013-07-09

    In this study, we cultivated from subsurface sediments an anaerobic Clostridia 25 consortium that was composed of a fermentative Fe-reducer Clostridium species (designated as 26 strain FGH) and a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium belonging to the Clostridia family 27 Vellionellaceae (designated as strain RU4). In pure culture, Clostridium sp. strain FGH mediated 28 the reductive dissolution/transformation of iron oxides during growth on peptone. When 29 Clostridium sp. FGH was grown with strain RU4 on peptone, the rates of iron oxide reduction 30 were significantly higher. Iron reduction by the consortium was mediated by multiple 31 mechanisms, including biotic reduction by Clostridium sp. FGH and biotic/abiotic reactions 32 involving biogenic sulfide by strain RU4. The Clostridium sp. FGH produced hydrogen during 33 fermentation, and the presence of hydrogen inhibited growth and iron reduction activity. The 34 sulfate-reducing partner strain RU4 was stimulated by the presence of H2 gas and generated 35 reactive sulfide which promoted the chemical reduction of the iron oxides. Characterization of 36 Fe(II) mineral products showed the formation of magnetite during ferrihydrite reduction, and 37 the precipitation of iron sulfides during goethite and hematite reduction. The results suggest an 38 important pathway for iron reduction and secondary mineralization by fermentative sulfate-39 reducing microbial consortia is through syntrophy-driven biotic/abiotic reactions with biogenic 40 sulfide.

  9. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  10. A randomized controlled study on assessment of health status, depression, and anxiety in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease following yoga training

    PubMed Central

    Ranjita, Rajashree; Badhai, Sumati; Hankey, Alex; Nagendra, Hongasandra R

    2016-01-01

    Context: Psychological comorbidities are prevalent in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contribute to the severity of the disease reducing their health status. Yoga has been shown to alleviate depression and anxiety associated with other chronic diseases but in COPD not been fully investigated. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the role of yoga on health status, depression, and anxiety in coal miners with COPD. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized trial with two study arms (yoga and control), which enrolled 81 coal miners, ranging from 36 to 60 years with stage II and III stable COPD. Both groups were either on conventional treatment or combination of conventional care with yoga program for 12 weeks. Results: Data were collected through standardized questionnaires; COPD Assessment Test, Beck Depression Inventory and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory at the beginning and the end of the intervention. The yoga group showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvements on all scales within the group, all significantly different (P < 0.001) from changes observed in the controls. No significant prepost changes were observed in the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Yoga program led to greater improvement in physical and mental health status than did conventional care. Yoga seems to be a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for patients with COPD. There is a need to conduct more comprehensive, high-quality, evidence-based studies to shed light on the current understanding of the efficacy of yoga in these chronic conditions and identify unanswered questions. PMID:27512321

  11. Carboxyhemoglobin formation secondary to nitric oxide therapy in the setting of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruisi, Phillip; Ruisi, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been widely recognized as an exogenous poison, although endogenous mechanisms for its formation involve heme-oxygenase (HO) isoforms, more specifically HO-1, in the setting of oxidative stress such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, trauma, and nitric oxide use have been studied. In patients with refractory hypoxemia, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy is used to selectively vasodilate the pulmonary vasculature and improve ventilation-perfusion match. Inhaled nitric oxide is rapidly inactivated on binding to hemoglobin in the formation of nitrosyl- and methemoglobin in the pulmonary vasculature. Hence, inhaled nitric oxide has minimal systemic dissemination. Several experimental design studies involving lab rats have demonstrated increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin and exhaled CO as a result of nitric oxide HO-1 induction. PMID:21079530

  12. Study of dolomite dissolution at various temperatures - Evidence for the formation of nanocrystalline secondary phases at dolomite surface and influence on dolomite interactions with other minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debure, M.; Andreazza, P.; Grangeon, S.; Lerouge, C.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; MADE, B.; Tournassat, C.

    2015-12-01

    In most clay-rock geological formation studied for the storage of nuclear waste, pore water compositions are expected to be at equilibrium with carbonate minerals, which are always included in predictive models for pore water composition calculations [1]. Among the carbonates known to be present, dolomite may be problematic in the pore water composition calculation because its solubility spans a large range of values as a function of its crystallinity in thermodynamic databases. In addition, the composition of dolomite minerals observed in clay-rock formations such as Callovian-Oxfordian or Opalinus clay formation differs from this of a pure dolomite: the Ca/Mg stoichiometry is not ideal, and the minerals contain minor amounts of Fe and traces of many other elements [2]. To understand the influence of secondary phases precipitation during dolomite dissolution on pore water chemistry, the dissolution of monocrystals of dolomite were investigated at 25 °C and at 80 °C in a pH range 3 to 8 for various time periods (30 minutes to 21 days) in sealed PTFE reactors. Solution analyses evidenced a stoichiometric release of Ca and Mg in solution during dolomite dissolution. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses did not evidence secondary Mg-bearing minerals precipitation, but revealed the formation of Fe-bearing particles on the dolomite surface. Morphological characterizations performed with Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) evidenced that the precipitation occurs along a specific crystallographic plane of the dolomite monocrystal. Thus, the precipitated nanoparticles clustered on specific surface sites, and are made of Fe-rich phases poorly crystallized (carbonates, oxides and hydroxides). [1] Tournassat et al. 2015. Ch. 3: Chemical Conditions in Clay-Rocks. Natural and Engineered Clay Barriers, Elsevier. [2] Lerouge et al. 2011. Geochim. et Cosmoch. Acta, 2011, 75, 2633-2663.

  13. Pulmonary endarterectomy after pulmonary infectious embolisms

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, Johan; Ilkjær, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a well-established procedure in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). The procedure is known to increase functional outcome and to raise the 5-year survival rate. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis and secondary embolisms causing sustained pulmonary hypertension. Both were treated with PEA. In none of the cases, a cleavage between the thrombotic masses and the vessel wall was obtainable, and both attempts were therefore inadequate. Based on our reports, we recommend not attempting PEA in cases of CTPH after infectious embolisms. PMID:23248168

  14. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  15. O-triple Isotopes of Primary and Secondary Minerals Provide Clues to the Past and Present Hydrosphere of Mars: New Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheen, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Khachatryan, A.; Smirnova, V.; Jackson, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen, the most abundant element in terrestrial planets link their lithospheres, hydrospheres and atmospheres, thus providing a powerful tool to fingerprint the physical and chemical processes involved in the exchange of material between these reservoirs (1). The oxygen triple isotopic composition of SNC Martian meteorites minerals provided a record of this unique interaction. Martian silicates showed an O-isotope anomaly (Δ17O = 0.4 ‰) unlike earth's silicate (Δ17O = 0‰). Additionally, there is a signficant variation in the oxygen isotopic composition of primary and secondary minerals both in the oldest (ALH84001: Δ17OCO3 = 0.7‰, Δ17Osilicates = 0.3‰)(2) and younger martian rocks (NWA7034: Δ17OCO3 = 0.0‰, Δ17Osilicates = 0.6‰)(3) indicating substantial changes in the global aqueous chemistry of Mars and its formation. These variations in oxygen isotope anomalies are important, but puzzling due to the lack of knoweldege of the intial conditions and relevant experiments. To understand the origin and nature of heterogeneity in the oxygen triple isotopes of various minerals, laboratory experiments were conducted by simulating current Martian conditions. Ozone, a martian atmospheric constituent, was used as a tracer to identify molecular reactions occurring on the mineral surfaces. The oxygen isotopic composition of decomposed ozone and water was measured following reaction over extended time under defined conditions . The decomposed O2 defines an array with a slope δ17O = 0.87 x δ18O + 5 (r2 = 0.99). The left over ozone after 18hours showed a decrease in slope (δ17O = 0.7 x δ18O + 5 (r2 = 0.97) and significant variations in Δ17O= 20 - 31‰ depending on the mineral used in the experiment. The slope did not pass through the initial ozone and water suggesting the formation of an intermediate species and its reaction and removal that is responsible for the exchange of O-isotopes between water-ozone and mineral oxides. These results coupled with

  16. Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner.

    PubMed

    Thrumurthy, S G; Kearney, S; Sissons, M; Haider, Y

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers. PMID:20029040

  17. Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Kornfeld, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry

  18. Reaction path modelling used to explore the relationship between secondary mineral precipitation and low Si content in the meltwaters of a polythermal surge-type glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, J. W.; Flowers, G. E.; Kirste, D. M.; Hagedorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    The subglacial chemical weathering environment is characterized by low temperatures and the hydrolysis and carbonation of freshly comminuted mineral surfaces. Such conditions motivate the hypothesis that relatively low silica fluxes should be found in glacierized basins. Additionally, it is often assumed that glacier meltwaters are far from saturation and that the water chemistry is controlled solely by the dissolution of primary silicates and trace quantities of sulphide and carbonate minerals. Alternatively, we propose that the formation of secondary minerals and precipitates in the delayed drainage system play an important role in controlling the low silica fluxes observed in subglacial envrionments. Borehole and proglacial meltwater samples were collected from a polythermal surge-type glacier overlying granodiorite bedrock in the St. Elias Mountains of Yukon, Canada. The meltwater chemistry, along with the mineralogy of the bedrock and suspended sediments indicate the presence of mineral precipitation accompanied by substantial basal freeze-on. This is supported by field evidence of debris rich basal ice at the terminus and at the base of a borehole. The surplus of Cl- above the supraglacial input is used to calculate the amount of basal freeze-on in the delayed drainage system, and the amount of mixing between the delayed and fast drainage systems. We use Geochemist's Workbench for reaction path modelling with a focus on the silica composition to simulate the chemical evolution of glacial meltwater from (1) the initial water rock contact, (2) basal freeze on, and (3) mixing and post mixing reactions. Unless there is a substantial degree of non-stoichiometric dissolution, we find that the observed proglacial water chemistry at the terminus is largely controlled by the hydrochemistry of water in the delayed drainage system. Lastly, we use this model to explore the relationship between the proglacial water chemistry and the daily glacier surface velocities for

  19. Development of pulmonary hypertension in 5 patients after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: de novo or secondary?

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Yasumasa; Kasahara, Mureo; Takada, Yasutsugu; Taira, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Uryuhara, Kenji; Ogawa, Kohei; Doi, Hiraku; Egawa, Hiroto; Tanaka, Koichi

    2006-05-01

    The development of portopulmonary hypertension (PH) in a patient with end-stage liver disease is related to high cardiac output and hyperdynamic circulation. However, PH following liver transplantation is not fully understood. Of 617 pediatric patients receiving transplants between June 1990 and March 2004, 5 (median age 12 yr, median weight 24.5 kg) were revealed to have portopulmonary hypertension (PH) after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), as confirmed by echocardiography and/or right heart catheterization. All children underwent LDLT for post-Kasai biliary atresia. In 2 patients with refractory biliary complications, PH developed following portal thrombosis; 2 with stable graft function, who had had intrapulmonary shunting (IPS) before LDLT, were found to have PH in spite of overcoming liver dysfunction due to hepatitis. PH developed shortly after distal splenorenal shunting in 1 patient, who suffered liver cirrhosis due to an intractable outflow blockage. The onset of PH ranged from 2.8 to 11 yr after LDLT, and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) estimated by echocardiography at the time of presentation ranged from 43 to 120 mmHg. Three of the 5 patients are alive under prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) treatment. Of these, 1 is prepared for retransplantation for an intractable complications of liver allograft, while the other 2 with satisfactory grafts are being considered for lung transplantation. Even after LDLT, PH can develop with portal hypertension. Periodic echocardiography is essential for early detection and treatment of PH especially in the recipients with portal hypertension not only preoperatively but also postoperatively. PMID:16628693

  20. Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record—is it a viable methodology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dublyansky, Yuri V.; Smirnov, Sergey Z.

    2005-04-01

    Two papers recently published in the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology by Marshall et al. [Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., Peterman, Z.E., 2003. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam. Hydrol. 62-63, 237-247] and Xu et al. [Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Bodvarsson, G., 2003. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock. J. Contam. Hydrol. 64, 113-127] attempt to assess past volumes of seepage and infiltration fluxes through the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, on the basis of the modeling of the spatial distribution of secondary calcite. In this commentary, we argue that the employed methodology is not viable. In addition, the thermal boundary conditions used in simulations do not correspond to the temperatures of the mineral forming fluids established on the basis of the fluid inclusion studies.

  1. Commentary: assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?

    PubMed

    Dublyansky, Yuri V; Smirnov, Sergey Z

    2005-04-01

    Two papers recently published in the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology by Marshall et al. [Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., Peterman, Z.E., 2003. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam. Hydrol. 62-63, 237-247] and Xu et al. [Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Bodvarsson, G., 2003. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock. J. Contam. Hydrol. 64, 113-127] attempt to assess past volumes of seepage and infiltration fluxes through the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, on the basis of the modeling of the spatial distribution of secondary calcite. In this commentary, we argue that the employed methodology is not viable. In addition, the thermal boundary conditions used in simulations do not correspond to the temperatures of the mineral forming fluids established on the basis of the fluid inclusion studies. PMID:15763356

  2. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  3. Osteological and Biomolecular Evidence of a 7000-Year-Old Case of Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy Secondary to Tuberculosis from Neolithic Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Muriel; Molnár, Erika; Donoghue, Helen D.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Minnikin, David E.; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Lee, Oona Y-C.; Bull, Ian D.; Pálfi, György

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hódmezővásárhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults. Several cases showed potential signs of tuberculosis, particularly the remains of the individual HGO-53. This is an important finding that has significant implications for our understanding of this community. The aim of the present study was to seek biomolecular evidence to confirm this diagnosis. HGO-53 was a young male with a striking case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), revealing rib changes and cavitations in the vertebral bodies. The initial macroscopic diagnosis of HPO secondary to tuberculosis was confirmed by analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific cell wall lipid biomarkers and corroborated by ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. This case is the earliest known classical case of HPO on an adult human skeleton and is one of the oldest palaeopathological and palaeomicrobiological tuberculosis cases to date. PMID:24205173

  4. Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Gorski, C. A.; Scherer, M. M.; Boyanov, M. I.; Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Iowa

    2010-06-15

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. 'Fast' Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d-1] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having 'low' cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with 'high' cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d-1] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction.

  5. Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P., Jr.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Horton, D.G.; Solomon, G.C.; White, L.D.; Evans, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of 18O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Hanford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filling vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the 18O content of ground water at the time the mineral assemblage formed. A fossil profile of ??18O values projected for ground water in a 1500 m vertical section beneath the reservation suggests that the vertical mixing of shallow and deep ground water indicated by present-day hydrochemical data was also occurring during Neogene time. These data also suggest that a unidirectional depletion of 18O and deuterium recorded in Pleistocene ground waters may have extended considerably further back in time. This shift is tentatively attributed to the orographic depletion of 18O associated with the progressive uplift of the Cascade Range since the middle Miocene. -Authors

  6. Lemon-flavored cod liver oil and a multivitamin-mineral supplement for the secondary prevention of otitis media in young children: pilot research.

    PubMed

    Linday, Linda A; Dolitsky, Jay N; Shindledecker, Richard D; Pippenger, C E

    2002-07-01

    We measured blood levels of fatty acids, vitamin A, and trace metals in children undergoing ambulatory surgery for placement of tympanostomy tubes and a comparison group having other ambulatory surgical procedures. We then performed a small, outpatient, secondary prevention study using nutritional supplements chosen on the basis of those blood levels. The study subjects had lower levels of red blood cell eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than did adult controls. Consistent with previous reports, the levels of vitamin A were < or = 40 microg/dL for 69% of our subjects, and the plasma selenium levels for children were lower than published values for adults. We then studied one otitis media (OM) season; 8 children (0.8 to 4.4 years of age) received 1 teaspoon of lemon-flavored cod liver oil (containing both EPA and vitamin A) and 1 half-tablet of a selenium-containing children's chewable multivitamin-mineral tablet per day. During this OM season, study subjects received antibiotics for OM for 12.3% +/- 13.4% (SD; p < .05) fewer days during supplementation than before supplementation. Larger, controlled trials are warranted to assess the utility of cod liver oil (of acceptable purity and taste) and a children's multivitamin-mineral preparation containing selenium, both for the prevention of OM and for the acceptance of delayed prescription of antibiotics for this disorder. PMID:12126022

  7. DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn L. Nagy

    2009-05-04

    The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  8. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  9. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... x-ray CT angiogram of the chest Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan, also called a V/Q scan ...

  10. Pulmonary Talcosis in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Muddaraju, Manjunath; Greene, John N.

    2016-01-01

    The first case of pulmonary talcosis or talc pneumoconiosis related to inhalation of talc during its extraction and processing in mines was described by Thorel in 1896. Pulmonary talcosis is most commonly seen secondary to occupational exposure or intravenous (IV) drug abuse and, occasionally, in excessive use of cosmetic talc. Based on literature review, there has been an increase in reported incidents of pulmonary talcosis due to various forms of exposure to the mineral. We report an 82-year-old man who is diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome positive pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with palliative imatinib who presented with chronic hemoptysis and dyspnea shortly after his diagnosis. His symptoms were initially thought to be due to an infectious etiology due to his malignancy, immunocompromised state, and radiographic findings until high-resolution computerized tomographic (HRCT) findings showed a diffuse pulmonary fibrosis picture that prompted further questioning and a more thorough history inquiry on his exposure to causative agents of interstitial lung disease. Very often, patients do not recognize their exposure, especially in those whose exposure is unrelated to their occupation. Our case emphasizes the need for thorough and careful history taking of occupational and nonoccupational exposure to known causative agents of interstitial lung disease. PMID:27446215

  11. Effectiveness of the Assessment of Burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (ABC) tool: study protocol of a cluster randomised trial in primary and secondary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a growing worldwide problem that imposes a great burden on the daily life of patients. Since there is no cure, the goal of treating COPD is to maintain or improve quality of life. We have developed a new tool, the Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) tool, to assess and visualize the integrated health status of patients with COPD, and to provide patients and healthcare providers with a treatment algorithm. This tool may be used during consultations to monitor the burden of COPD and to adjust treatment if necessary. The aim of the current study is to analyse the effectiveness of the ABC tool compared with usual care on health related quality of life among COPD patients over a period of 18 months. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in COPD patients in both primary and secondary care throughout the Netherlands. An intervention group, receiving care based on the ABC tool, will be compared with a control group receiving usual care. The primary outcome will be the change in score on a disease-specific-quality-of-life questionnaire, the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be a different questionnaire (the COPD Assessment Test), lung function and number of exacerbations. During the 18 months follow-up, seven measurements will be conducted, including a baseline and final measurement. Patients will receive questionnaires to be completed at home. Additional data, such as number of exacerbations, will be recorded by the patients’ healthcare providers. A total of 360 patients will be recruited by 40 general practitioners and 20 pulmonologists. Additionally, a process evaluation will be performed among patients and healthcare providers. Discussion The new ABC tool complies with the 2014 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, which describe the necessity to classify patients on both their airway obstruction and a comprehensive

  12. Dyspnea due to pulmonary vessel arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Suzana M; Dominelli, Giulio S; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Levy, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arteritis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. Causes of pulmonary arteritis can be divided into primary and secondary, as well as classified according to vessel size. Only large vessel vasculitis is associated with pulmonary hypertension; primary forms include Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis. The diagnosis of pulmonary arteritis can be challenging and the associated morbidity is serious without prompt, directed treatment. The authors present a case involving a 48-year-old First Nations man presenting with a six-month history of exertional dyspnea and severe stenosis of the left pulmonary artery, who was ultimately diagnosed with pulmonary arteritis related to large vessel vasculitis. PMID:24524110

  13. Transformation of heavy metals and the formation of secondary iron minerals during pig manure bioleaching by the co-inoculation acidophilic thiobacillus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Deng, Wenjing

    2012-12-01

    Bioleaching of heavy metals from pig manure using a mixture of harmless iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in an air-lift reactor was conducted. The transformation of heavy metals and the formation of secondary Fe minerals during bioleaching were also investigated in the present study. The removal efficiencies of Zn, Cu, and Mn from pig manure were 95.1%, 80.9%, and 87.5%, respectively. Zn mainly existed in the form of Fe-Mn oxides in fresh pig manure; most of the pig manure-borne Cu was in organic matter form; Mn existed mainly in Fe-Mn oxides, carbonates, and residual forms. The pig manure can be applied to land more safely after bioleaching because the heavy metals mainly existed in stable forms. The removal efficiencies Zn, Cu, and Mn had good relationships with pH and oxidation reduction potential during bioleaching. A mixture ofjarosite and schwertmannite was found in the bioleached pig manure, which might have an adverse effect on the solubilization efficiency of toxic metals from pig manure. The bioleaching process using a mixture of harmless iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was shown to be a very feasible technology for the removal of heavy metals from pig manure. PMID:23437654

  14. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  15. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  16. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... area). This type of clot is called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) . The blood clot breaks off and travels ...

  17. Pan-Spectral Analysis of Classic Martian Low-Albedo Regions: Updates on the Nature and Distribution of Primary and Secondary Mineral Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Head, J. W.; Rogers, D.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the primary and secondary mineralogy of martian low-albedo regions using a combination of visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance and thermal infrared (TIR) emission datasets. TIR data were originally derived using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument by [1,2], who interpreted these low-albedo regions to contain variable amounts of both basaltic and high-silica components; however, the nature of these high-silica phases remains uncertain, and both primary (e.g., volcanic glass) and secondary (e.g., hydrated alteration minerals) origins have been proposed. The mineralogical signatures of the evolving martian geologic, hydrologic, and climatic systems are recorded in these low-albedo regions, making the characterization of the identified high-silica phases critical towards better understanding the history of Mars. Consequently, we have completed a pan-spectral (VNIR and TIR) investigation of the nine low-albedo regions characterized by [2] in order to further constrain the composition of these martian landscapes. We derived regional VNIR spectra using Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) data. Data were acquired, processed, atmospherically corrected, and weighted based on their relative areal contributions, resulting in nine representative regional spectra. The primary mineral phases identified in VNIR spectra are consistent with a dominantly basaltic composition and are in good agreement with previous TIR analyses. The variability in the shape and position of the broad 2 micron crystal field absorption feature, classically attributed to variations in pyroxene composition, is quantitatively assessed using modified Gaussian modeling (MGM) approaches. The position of this 2 micron band, though, can also be influenced by oxidative weathering processes like those identified in Antarctica, which result in more negative spectral slopes in the near-infrared as well as apparent shifts of the

  18. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  19. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in primary amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Lyska L.; Bull, David A.; Hatton, Nathan; Nativi-Nicolai, Jose; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C.; Ryan, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyloidosis involves extravascular deposition of fibrillar proteins within tissues and organs. Primary light chain amyloidosis represents the most common form of systemic amyloidosis involving deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. Although pulmonary amyloid deposition is common in primary amyloidosis, clinically significant pulmonary amyloidosis is uncommon, and elevated pulmonary artery pressures are rarely observed in the absence of other underlying etiologies for pulmonary hypertension, such as elevated filling pressures secondary to cardiac amyloid. In this case report, we present a patient with primary light chain amyloidosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of pulmonary vascular and right ventricular myocardial amyloid deposition. PMID:27252852

  20. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in primary amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Cirulis, Meghan M; Emerson, Lyska L; Bull, David A; Hatton, Nathan; Nativi-Nicolai, Jose; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C; Ryan, John J

    2016-06-01

    Amyloidosis involves extravascular deposition of fibrillar proteins within tissues and organs. Primary light chain amyloidosis represents the most common form of systemic amyloidosis involving deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. Although pulmonary amyloid deposition is common in primary amyloidosis, clinically significant pulmonary amyloidosis is uncommon, and elevated pulmonary artery pressures are rarely observed in the absence of other underlying etiologies for pulmonary hypertension, such as elevated filling pressures secondary to cardiac amyloid. In this case report, we present a patient with primary light chain amyloidosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of pulmonary vascular and right ventricular myocardial amyloid deposition. PMID:27252852

  1. High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 μg L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 μg L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 μg L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 μg L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the

  2. The role of extremophile in the redox reaction of Fe and As relating with the formation of secondary phase mineral in extreme environment, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, T. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Park, K. R.; Jung, D. H.; Geesey, G. G.; Kim, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Redox reaction associated with microbial elemental respiration is a ubiquitous process in sediments and suspended particles at various temperatures or pH/Eh conditions. Particularly, changes in elemental redox states (structural or dissolved elemental form) induced by microbial respiration result in the unexpected biogeochemical reactions in the light of biotic/abiotic mineralization. The objective of the present study is, therefore to investigate the secondary phase mineralization through a-/biogeochemical Fe and As redox cycling in the acido-hyperhtermal Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, typical of the extreme condition. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer and liquid chromatography with ICP-mass spectroscopy with filtrated supernatant were performed for the mineralogical and hydro-geochemical analysis. The clay slurry collected from the active hot-spring of the NGB area (pH=3.5 and Temperature=78 ℃) was incubated with ("enrichment") or without the growth medium ("natural"). The control was prepared in the same condition except adding the glutaraldehyde to eliminate the microbial activity. The secondary phase mineral formation of the oxidative phase of Fe and As, and K identified as 'Pharmacosiderite' only appeared in the enrichment set suggesting a role of extremophiles in the mineral formation. The considerable population of Fe-oxidizer (Metallosphera yellowstonensis MK-1) and As-oxidizer (Sulfurihydrogenibium sp.) was measured by phylogenetic analysis in the present study area. The inhibition of As-oxidation in the low pH conditions was reported in the previous study, however the As-redox reaction was observed and consequently, precipitated the Pharmacosiderite only in the enrichment set suggesting a biotic mineralization. The present study collectively suggests that the microbial

  3. Effects of bound phosphate on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and formation of secondary minerals.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Edward J; Boyanov, Maxim I; Flynn, Theodore M; Gorski, Christopher A; Hofmann, Scott M; McCormick, Michael L; Scherer, Michelle M; Kemner, Kenneth M

    2013-08-20

    Natural Fe(III) oxides typically contain a range of trace elements including P. Although solution phase and adsorbed P (as phosphate) have been shown to impact the bioreduction of Fe(III) oxides and the formation of "biogenic" secondary minerals, little is known about the potential effects of occluded/incorporated phosphate. We have examined the bioreduction of Fe(III) oxides (lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3)) containing 0-3 mass% P as "bound" (a term we use to include both adsorbed and occluded/incorporated) phosphate. Kinetic dissolution studies showed congruent release of Fe and P, suggesting that the phosphate in these materials was incorporated within the particles; however, 53% or 86% of the total phosphate associated with the lepidocrocites containing 0.7 or 3 mass% P, respectively, was extracted with 0.1 M NaOH and can be considered to be adsorbed, both to exterior surfaces and within micropores. In the absence of phosphate, lepidocrocite was rapidly reduced to magnetite by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and over time the magnetite was partially transformed to ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC). The presence of 0.2-0.7 mass% P significantly inhibited the initial reduction of lepidocrocite but ultimately resulted in greater Fe(II) production and the formation of carbonate green rust. The bioreduction of maghemite with and without bound phosphate resulted in solid-state conversion to magnetite, with subsequent formation of FHC. We also examined the potential redox cycling of green rust under alternating Fe(III)-reducing and oxic conditions. Oxidation of biogenic green rust by O2 resulted in conversion to ferric green rust, which was readily reduced back to green rust by S. putrefaciens CN32. These results indicate the potential for cycling of green rust between reduced and oxidized forms under redox dynamics similar to those encountered in environments that alternate between iron-reducing and oxic conditions, and they are consistent with the

  4. [Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis].

    PubMed

    Hutyrová, B

    2007-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease characterised by excessive accumulation of surfactant components in the alveoli and the distal airways with minimum inflammatory reaction and fibrosis of pulmonary interstitium. Three clinical forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are distinguished - congenital, primary and secondary. Results of ultrastructural, biochemical and functional analyses and studies performed on genetically modified mice support the presumption that accumulation of surfactant in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a result of a degradation disorder and of diminished clearance of the surfactant from the alveolar space rather than of excessive synthesis of surfactant components. Over the last 15 years, significant discoveries have been made which have helped to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. A number of gene mutations have been discovered which lead to the development of congenital pulmonary proteinosis. Apart from impaired surfactant protein function, a key role in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is played by the signal pathway of granulocyte and macrophage colonies stimulating growth factor (GM-CSF) which is necessary for the functioning of alveolar macrophages and for surfactant homeostasis. The role of GM-CSF has been proven especially in primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis which is currently considered an auto-immune disease involving the development of GM-CSF neutralising autoantibodies. In most cases, the prognosis for the disease in adult patients is good, even though there is a 10 to 15% rate of patients who develop respiratory failure. Total pulmonary lavage is considered to be the standard method of treatment. In recent years, recombinant human GM-CSF has been studied as a prospective therapy for the treatment of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. PMID:18072433

  5. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  6. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  7. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  8. Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

    2013-11-01

    The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)∑1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)∑0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)∑4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22ṡ2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ν2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

  9. Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Malik, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism covers a wide spectrum of presentation from an asymptomatic individual to a life-threatening medical emergency. It is of paramount importance to appropriately risk stratify patients with pulmonary embolism, particularly with those who present without hypotension. Right ventricular dysfunction can evolve after a patient has received a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, necessitating aggressive measures rather than simple anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss definition, risk stratification, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and management, with particular focus on massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:26919674

  10. Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm after a left upper sleeve lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was re-admitted for persistent hemoptysis and high fever three weeks after an initial left upper sleeve lobectomy for a central squamous lung cancer tumor. Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm and pulmonary infection were confirmed by multidetector computed tomography angiography and subsequent emergency completion pneumonectomy. The development of pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm, secondary to post-operative pulmonary infection and pulmonary vascular manipulation, is rare and prompt surgical manipulation is mandatory. PMID:24119497

  11. Selective Embolization of Systemic Collaterals for the Treatment of Recurrent Hemoptysis Secondary to the Unilateral Absence of a Pulmonary Artery in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yin; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Li, Yuan; Li, Xiao

    2015-10-15

    The unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare anomaly. Hemoptysis due to systemic collaterals is one of the most common complications of UAPA. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the utility of selective embolization for the treatment of this condition in children has not been reported previously. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with isolated UAPA (IUAPA) admitted for a 10-month history of recurrent hemoptysis that had worsened during the previous 2 months. Selective embolization of the bronchial systemic collaterals was performed. The patient remained asymptomatic with no recurrence of hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure.

  12. [A case of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis].

    PubMed

    Nakano, H; Aizawa, H; Inoue, H; Takata, S; Minami, T; Hara, N; Watanabe, T; Sueishi, K

    2001-07-01

    In March 1995, a 54-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital because of exertional dyspnea and her condition was diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension. In September 1996, respiratory difficulty and hemosputum were woted. The chest computed tomographic scan showed diffuse micronodular opacities, and she was admitted to our hospital for examination of other pulmonary conditions giving rise to pulmonary hypertention. However no lung biopsy could be performed, because the pulmonary arterial pressure was too high. Although the patient received medication, she died of progressive right heart failure. The pathological diagnosis at autopsy was pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH). Although PCH is a very rare disease that causes secondary pulmonary hypertension, it is important to distinguish it from primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. PMID:11579525

  13. Enumeration of Thiobacilli within pH-Neutral and Acidic Mine Tailings and Their Role in the Development of Secondary Mineral Soil

    PubMed Central

    Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicates, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 × 108 most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides (below 40 cm) to chlorides and phosphates (at the surface). Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings material prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy that they were being immobilized as bona fide fine-grain minerals containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone. Images PMID:16348721

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  15. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

  16. Neonatal pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    PubMed

    Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. PMID:25389504

  17. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  18. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

  19. [Primary pulmonary sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Jakubcová, T; Jakubec, P

    2009-01-01

    Primary pulmonary sarcomas are rare diseases unlike lung carcinomas. The occurence of these sarcomas is between 0.013-0.40% of all malignant lung tumours. There are malignant mesenchymal tumours. They are flowing from the soft tissue of lung. The pulmonary sarcomas are heterogenic group with various biological behaviour. Their morfologic structure does not digger from the sarcomas of soft tissue. The primary pulmonary sarcomas occur more often in childhood and in young people unlike lung carcinomas. Radiation and some toxic substances are noted risk factors. Some gene mutations, infectious pathoghens and contraception have a possible impact on the origin of some types of the sarcomas. The current hypothesis is, that most of the sarcomas, if not all sarcomas, stem from primitive multipotent mesenchymal cell by malignant transformation in one or more lines. The diagnostic standard is biopsy from tumour with histologic and immunohistochemistry examination of a sample. The basic diagnostic problem is exclusion of a secondary origin of sarcomatic cells in the lung, because pulmonary metastasis of extrapulmonary sarcomas are more often than the primary pulmonary involvement.The optimal treatment is a resection of the tumour.The other therapeutic modalities are radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but results of these modalities are unsatisfactory. There are various chemotherapeutic regimes, monotherapy or combination regimes. The basic cytostatics are doxorubicine, iphosphamide, dacarbazine. Problems of the chemotherapy are high toxicity and relatively low curative effect about 20%.The first studies with biological treatment of the sarcomas of soft tissue have been published recently.This types of drugs could be a part of the complex management of these primary pulmonary tumours in the future. The primary pulmonary sarcomas have mostly aggresive course and often recur. Their prognosis is usually not very good. The survival median is 48 months and 5-years survival ranges

  20. Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru - Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Gobac, Željka Žigovečki; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Lana, Cristiano; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The mineral coquimbite has been analysed using a range of techniques including SEM with EDX, thermal analytical techniques and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral originated from the Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru. The chemical formula was determined as ()∑2.00()3·9HO. Thermal analysis showed a total mass loss of ˜73.4% on heating to 1000 °C. A mass loss of 30.43% at 641.4 °C is attributed to the loss of SO3. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of sulphate tetrahedra, aluminium oxide/hydroxide octahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. The Raman spectrum shows well resolved bands at 2994, 3176, 3327, 3422 and 3580 cm-1 attributed to water stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with thermal analysis provides insight into the structure of coquimbite.

  1. Systemic and Pulmonary Vascular Remodelling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Esquerre, Mariana; López-Sánchez, Marta; Escobar, Ignacio; Huertas, Daniel; Penín, Rosa; Molina-Molina, María; Manresa, Frederic; Dorca, Jordi; Santos, Salud

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with subclinical systemic atherosclerosis and pulmonary vascular remodelling characterized by intimal hyperplasia and luminal narrowing. We aimed to determine differences in the intimal thickening of systemic and pulmonary arteries in COPD subjects and smokers. Secondary aims include comparisons with a non-smokers group; determining the clinical variables associated with systemic and pulmonary intimal thickening, and the correlations between systemic and pulmonary remodelling changes. Methods All consecutive subjects undergoing lung resection were included and divided into 3 groups: 1) COPD, 2) smokers, and 3) non-smokers. Sections of the 5th intercostal artery and muscular pulmonary arteries were measured by histo-morphometry. Four parameters of intimal thickening were evaluated: 1) percentage of intimal area (%IA), 2) percentage of luminal narrowing, 3) intimal thickness index, and 4) intima-to-media ratio. Results In the adjusted analysis, the systemic arteries of COPD subjects showed greater intimal thickening (%IA) than those of smokers (15.6±1.5% vs. 14.2±1.6%, p = 0.038). In the pulmonary arteries, significant differences were observed for %IA between the 2 groups (37.3±2.2% vs. 29.3±2.3%, p = 0.016). Among clinical factors, metabolic syndrome, gender and COPD status were associated with the systemic intimal thickening, while only COPD status was associated with pulmonary intimal thickening. A correlation between the %IA of the systemic and pulmonary arteries was observed (Spearman’s rho = 0.46, p = 0.008). Conclusions Greater intimal thickening in systemic and pulmonary arteries is observed in COPD patients than in smokers. There is a correlation between systemic and pulmonary vascular remodelling in the overall population. PMID:27046203

  2. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  3. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

  4. Secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is -2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  5. Secondary osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is –2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  6. Reply to “Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record—is it a viable methodology?”, by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2005-04-01

    Xu et al. (2003) [Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Bodvarsson, G., 2003. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration-percolation fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock. J. Contam. Hydrol., 64, 113-127.] presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) [Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., Peterman, Z.E., 2003. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam. Hydrol., 62-63, 237-247.] used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) [Dublyansky, Y.V., Smirnov, S.Z., 2005. Commentary: assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record—is it a viable methodology? J. Contam. Hydrol. (this issue).] wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) [Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., Peterman, Z.E., 2003. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam. Hydrol., 62-63, 237-247.] and Xu et al. (2003) [Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Bodvarsson, G., 2003. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration-percolation fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock. J. Contam. Hydrol., 64, 113-127.], containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history

  7. Pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic disorders: pulmonary vascular disease: the global perspective.

    PubMed

    Machado, Roberto F; Gladwin, Mark T

    2010-06-01

    The inherited hemoglobin disorders sickle cell disease and thalassemia are the most common monogenetic disorders worldwide. Pulmonary hypertension is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia, and hemolytic disorders are potentially among the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic disorders is likely multifactorial, including hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, chronic hypoxemia, chronic thromboembolic disease, chronic liver disease, and asplenia. In contrast to patients with traditional forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, patients with hemolytic disorders have a mild-to-moderate degree of elevation in mean pulmonary pressures, with mild elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance. The hemodynamic etiology of pulmonary hypertension in these patients is multifactorial and includes pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary venous hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension secondary to a hyperdynamic state. Currently, there are limited data on the effects of any specific treatment modality for pulmonary hypertension in patients with hemolytic disorders. It is likely that maximization of treatment of the primary hemoglobinopathy in all patients and treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension would be beneficial. However, there is still a major need for large multinational trials of novel therapies for this patient population. PMID:20522578

  8. Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Thomas, Maria Joana; Daniels, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block. PMID:25861484

  9. Pulmonary hypertension complicating multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Tomer M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Sobol, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an infrequently reported complication of multiple myeloma (MM). PH has been more commonly associated with amyloidosis, myeloproliferative diseases, and the POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) syndrome. PH in MM is typically mild to moderate and may be secondary to a variety of conditions, which include left ventricular dysfunction, high-output cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease, treatment-related toxicities, and precapillary involvement. We describe 3 patients with MM and severe PH. Each patient underwent right heart catheterization. All patients demonstrated elevated pulmonary pressures, transpulmonary gradients, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Each patient was ultimately treated with pulmonary vasodilator therapy with improvement in cardiopulmonary symptoms. Additional studies are needed to define the prevalence, prognosis, and pathogenesis of PH in this complex population and to help clarify who may benefit from targeted PH therapy. PMID:26401262

  10. [Pulmonary alterations in Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Jóna, Ádám; Illés, Árpád; Szemes, Katalin; Miltényi, Zsófia

    2016-01-31

    Most of Hodgkin lymphoma patients survive due to combined chemo/radiotherapy. Improved survival brings long-term side effects to the front, which may determine the patients' subsequent quality of life and expected lifetime. This manuscript aims to analyze lung manifestations of Hodgkin lymphoma and treatment related pulmonary complications, demonstrated with own cases. The lung involvement in Hodgkin lymphoma is often secondary, and primary pulmonary involvement is very rare. The authors found 8-12% of lung involvement among their patients. Side effects of treatment consist of pulmonary infections in conjuction with immunosuppression, while on the other hand bleomycin and chest irradiation as part of current standard of care induced pneumonitis and fibrosis are reported. The pulmonary involvement in Hodgkin lymphoma may cause differential diagnostic difficulty. Lung involvement could modify stage and consequently treatment, and the development of side effects might determine later quality of life and expected lifetime. Therefore, identification of lung involvement is crucial. PMID:26801361

  11. Pulmonary hypertension complicating multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Udhay; Mark, Tomer M; Niesvizky, Ruben; Sobol, Irina

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an infrequently reported complication of multiple myeloma (MM). PH has been more commonly associated with amyloidosis, myeloproliferative diseases, and the POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) syndrome. PH in MM is typically mild to moderate and may be secondary to a variety of conditions, which include left ventricular dysfunction, high-output cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease, treatment-related toxicities, and precapillary involvement. We describe 3 patients with MM and severe PH. Each patient underwent right heart catheterization. All patients demonstrated elevated pulmonary pressures, transpulmonary gradients, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Each patient was ultimately treated with pulmonary vasodilator therapy with improvement in cardiopulmonary symptoms. Additional studies are needed to define the prevalence, prognosis, and pathogenesis of PH in this complex population and to help clarify who may benefit from targeted PH therapy. PMID:26401262

  12. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ajmal; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2011-07-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare but potentially treatable disease, characterized by impaired surfactant metabolism that leads to accumulation in the alveoli of proteinaceous material rich in surfactant protein and its component. Novel insights from an animal model aided the discovery of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibodies as a pathogenetic mechanism in human pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The vast majority of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis occurs as an autoimmune disease; less commonly, it is congenital or secondary to an underlying disorder such as infection, hematological malignancy, or immunodeficiency. The subacute indolent course of this disease often delays the diagnosis by months to years. Crazy-paving appearance in a geographic distribution is a characteristic feature of this disease visible on high-resolution computed tomography (CT). A definitive diagnosis, however, requires lung biopsy, which typically shows partial or complete filling of alveoli with periodic-acid-Schiff-positive granular and eosinophilic material in preserved alveolar architecture. Patients with minimal symptoms are managed conservatively, whereas patients with hypoxemia require a more aggressive approach. Whole-lung lavage is the most widely accepted therapy for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Correction of GM-CSF deficiency with exogenous GM-CSF is an alternative therapy. The combination of a systemic treatment (GM-CSF) and a local treatment (whole-lung lavage) augmenting the action of one another is a promising new approach. As the knowledge about this rare disease increases, the role of novel therapies is likely to be better defined and optimized. PMID:21496372

  13. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a relatively uncommon lung disease that generally, but not invariably, occurs in cigarette smokers. The pathologic hallmark of PLCH is the accumulation of Langerhans and other inflammatory cells in small airways, resulting in the formation of nodular inflammatory lesions. While the overwhelming majority of patients are smokers, mechanisms by which smoking induces this disease are not known, but likely involve a combination of events resulting in enhanced recruitment and activation of Langerhans cells in small airways. Bronchiolar inflammation may be accompanied by variable lung interstitial and vascular involvement. While cellular inflammation is prominent in early disease, more advanced stages are characterized by cystic lung destruction, cicatricial scarring of airways, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Pulmonary function is frequently abnormal at presentation. Imaging of the chest with high resolution chest CT scanning may show characteristic nodular and cystic abnormalities. Lung biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis, although may not be required in instances were imaging findings are highly characteristic. There is no general consensus regarding the role of immunosuppressive therapy in smokers with PLCH. All smokers must be counseled on the importance of smoking cessation, which may result in regression of disease and obviate the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. The prognosis for most patients is relatively good, particularly if longitudinal lung function testing shows stability. Complications like pneumothoraces and secondary pulmonary hypertension may shorten life expectancy. Patients with progressive disease may require lung transplantation. PMID:22429393

  14. Pathophysiology and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Castro, Oswaldo L; Machado, Roberto F

    2016-02-18

    Pulmonary hypertension affects ∼10% of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), particularly those with the homozygous genotype. An increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure, estimated noninvasively by echocardiography, helps identify SCD patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension, but definitive diagnosis requires right-heart catheterization. About half of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension patients have precapillary pulmonary hypertension with potential etiologies of (1) a nitric oxide deficiency state and vasculopathy consequent to intravascular hemolysis, (2) chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, or (3) upregulated hypoxic responses secondary to anemia, low O2 saturation, and microvascular obstruction. The remainder have postcapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Although the pulmonary artery pressure in SCD patients with pulmonary hypertension is only moderately elevated, they have a markedly higher risk of death than patients without pulmonary hypertension. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension were published recently by the American Thoracic Society. Management of adults with sickle-related pulmonary hypertension is based on anticoagulation for those with thromboembolism; oxygen therapy for those with low oxygen saturation; treatment of left ventricular failure in those with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension; and hydroxyurea or transfusions to raise the hemoglobin concentration, reduce hemolysis, and prevent vaso-occlusive events that cause additional increases in pulmonary pressure. Randomized trials have not identified drugs to lower pulmonary pressure in SCD patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Patients with hemodynamics of pulmonary arterial hypertension should be referred to specialized centers and considered for treatments known to be effective in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. There have been reports that some of these treatments

  15. A petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (O, H, C and Sr) investigation of secondary minerals in volcaniclastic rocks at Minna Bluff, Antarctica: Petrogenesis of alteration and implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antibus, J. V.; Panter, K. S.; Wilch, T. I.; Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.; Blusztajn, J.; Tripati, A. K.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    The alteration of volcanic deposits is a function of eruptive style, environment of deposition and post-depositional processes. In this study we use petrographic and geochemical data on secondary minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45-km-long volcanic peninsula in the southern Ross Sea active between 12 and 4 Ma, to unravel their history and study the environmental conditions responsible for their alteration. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits, including lapilli tuff, hyaloclastite breccia and volcanic sediments, have been altered to contain secondary minerals zeolite, carbonate and rare chalcedony and clay (dickite). Carbonates include calcite, Mg-calcite (MgCO3> 4 to <48 mol%), dolomite, magnesite, siderite and rhodochrosite. Zeolites include phillipsite and chabazite and have high and variable alkali contents (Na+K/Ca up to 154) relative to fresh lavas (<15). During the alteration of these deposits, phillipsite formed first followed by chabazite and/or carbonate although carbonates are still thought to be a very early diagenetic precipitate. Compositional zoning in zeolites is poorly developed while carbonates are commonly complex showing changes in Fe, Mn and Sr and Mg/Ca ratios across layers. Carbonate δ18O and δ13C values show wide variations ranging from -0.50 to 21.53‰ and -1.04 to 8.98‰, respectively. Chalcedony δ18O, measured on multiple aliquots from individual vugs and within each vug from one sample, range from 0.68 to 10.37‰ and δD values are light (-187.8 to -220.6‰), matching Antarctic meteoric water. A mean 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70327 ±0.0009 (1σ, n = 12) for carbonates is comparable to values from lavas in this region (Erebus Volcanic Province), indicating that seawater even at low elevations (<40 m asl) was not involved in the alteration of these deposits. Field relationships and laboratory results indicate that alteration and associated mineral precipitation was a result of isolated, ephemeral events involving the

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  17. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis See also: Aspergillosis Symptoms You may not have ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Update Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  18. Pulmonary Atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... to repair the defect. Return to main topic: Congenital Heart Disease See on other sites: MedlinePlus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001091.htm Pulmonary atresia American Heart Association www. ...

  19. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the lungs. In pulmonary atresia, a ... Reconstructing the heart as a single ventricle (1 pumping chamber instead of 2) Heart transplant

  20. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of heart disease that occurs from birth (congenital heart disease), in which the pulmonary valve does not form ... As with most congenital heart diseases, there is no known cause of ... is associated with another type of congenital heart defect ...

  1. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  2. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  3. [Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis].

    PubMed

    Floarea-Strat, Alina; Stanciu, Adriana; Creţeanu, Mihai

    2003-01-01

    It is a disease of obscure cause that is characterized by the accumulation of a granular material that contains abundant lipid within the alveoli of lung. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) has been divided into a congenital and an adult form. The acquired form has been subdivided into a idiopathic form and a secondary form associated with a know disorder or exposure as silica, aluminium, titanium. Dyspnea and cough are the most common presenting symptoms. Chest pain, hemoptysis, fever and weight loss are variably reported. Pathogenesis remains unknown, but evidence points to a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages. Mice genetically deficient in granulocyte macrophagecolony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) show an alveolar proteinosis. A neutralizing antibody against GM-CSF was found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum of patients with idiopathic PAP. Currently, no specific therapy exists for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and sequential whole lung lavage is standard treatment. PMID:14756054

  4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Borie, R; Danel, C; Debray, M-P; Taille, C; Dombret, M-C; Aubier, M; Epaud, R; Crestani, B

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. It may result from mutations in surfactant proteins or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor genes, it may be secondary to toxic inhalation or haematological disorders, or it may be auto-immune, with anti-GM-CSF antibodies blocking activation of alveolar macrophages. Auto-immune alveolar proteinosis is the most frequent form of PAP, representing 90% of cases. Although not specific, high-resolution computed tomography shows a characteristic "crazy paving" pattern. In most cases, bronchoalveolar lavage findings establish the diagnosis. Whole lung lavage is the most effective therapy, especially for auto-immune disease. Novel therapies targeting alveolar macrophages (recombinant GM-CSF therapy) or anti-GM-CSF antibodies (rituximab and plasmapheresis) are being investigated. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of PAP has improved in the past 20 yrs, but therapy for PAP still needs improvement. PMID:21632797

  5. Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Tanser, Paul H.

    1980-01-01

    The physician who deals with pulmonary edema from a pathophysiologic basis will seldom make a diagnostic or therapeutic error. Recent additions to preload and afterload therapy have greatly helped in the emergency and ambulatory treatment of pulmonary edema due to left heart failure. Careful follow-up and patient self-monitoring are the most effective means of reducing hospitalization of chronic heart failure patients. PMID:21293700

  6. Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Houtchens, Jeanne; Martin, Douglas; Klinger, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease, which requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose when patients initially present. Initial symptoms can be nonspecific and include complaints such as fatigue and mild dyspnea. Once the disease is suspected, echocardiography is used to estimate the pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure and to exclude secondary causes of elevated PA pressures such as left heart disease. Right heart catheterization with vasodilator challenge is critical to the proper assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics and to determine whether patients are likely to benefit from vasodilator therapy. Pathologically, the disease is characterized by deleterious remodeling of the distal pulmonary arterial and arteriolar circulation, which results in increased pulmonary vascular resistance. In the last fifteen years, medications from three different classes have been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These include the prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. PMID:21941650

  7. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Urate and Bone Mineral Density During Treatment with Thiazide Diuretics: Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Gamble, Gregory D; Horne, Anne; Reid, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations associate with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fractures. Thiazide diuretics slow the bone loss in healthy older adults, are associated with reduced incidence of fracture and also increase serum urate. We hypothesized that changes in serum urate are associated with changes in BMD during treatment with thiazide diuretics. We analysed data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg per day) and placebo in normal post-menopausal women. The relationship between change in serum urate and change in BMD after 2 years of treatment was examined using Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression models. Total body BMD increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.52 % and reduced in the placebo group by 0.29 % over 2 years (between group difference P = 0.0034). Serum urate increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.038 mmol/L and reduced in the placebo group by 0.004 mmol/L (between group difference P < 0.0001). At Year 2, there was a positive relationship between the change in serum urate and change in total body BMD for entire study population (r = 0.32, P = 0.0002) and for the hydrochlorothiazide group (r = 0.29, P = 0.023). The association between change in serum urate and change in total body BMD persisted after adjusting for treatment allocation, and change in weight, serum calcium, urinary calcium and serum creatinine (P change in serum urate = 0.043). These data raise the possibility that the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on BMD may be mediated, in part, by changes in serum urate concentrations. PMID:26713333

  8. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  9. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  10. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  11. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  12. Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

    2013-08-01

    Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (ϒ = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity

  13. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takuji; Trapnell, Bruce C

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by the accumulation of surfactant in alveoli and terminal airways resulting in respiratory failure. PAP comprises part of a spectrum of disorders of surfactant homeostasis (clearance and production). The surfactant production disorders are caused by mutations in genes required for normal surfactant production. The PAP syndrome is identified based on history, radiologic, and bronchoalveolar lavage and/or histopathologic findings. The diagnosis of PAP-causing diseases in secondary PAP requires further studies. Whole-lung lavage is the current standard therapy and promising new pharmacologic therapies are in development. PMID:27514590

  14. Secondary effects of glyphosate on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is a unique herbicide with interesting secondary effects. Unfortunately, some have assumed that the secondary effects that occur in glyphosate-susceptible plants treated with glyphosate, such as altered mineral nutrition, reduced phenolic compound production and pathogen resistance, also ...

  15. Pulmonary venous hypertension may allow delayed palliation of single ventricle physiology with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kalantre, Atul; Sunil, Gopalraj S; Kumar, Raman Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular disease develops early in untreated single ventricle patients with increased pulmonary flow. Pulmonary artery (PA) banding is done at a young age in these patients in order to protect the lung vasculature and maintain low pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). This also enables future completion of the single ventricle palliation. Pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) secondary to left sided obstruction if present in addition in this setting contributes to the pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but involves an element of reversibility of the PAH if the obstruction is relieved. We present two cases of single ventricle both of who re-presented late with PAH and PVH (secondary to mitral valve obstruction) and underwent delayed PA banding at 9.5 and 4.5 years of age respectively. Both patients however had different outcomes. The patient undergoing PA banding at 9.5 years successfully underwent a cavo-pulmonary shunt at the age of 12 years. The patient with PA banding at 4.5 years however, has residual PAH that presently precludes a cavo-pulmonary shunt. PMID:27212849

  16. Reply to 'Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?', by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur

    2005-03-14

    Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon.

  17. The Pathobiology of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lang, Irene M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a late sequel of venous thromboembolism that cannot be completely reproduced in animal models. The prevalence of CTEPH in humans is estimated at roughly 17-20 per million; however, partly because up to 50% of patients with CTEPH never experience symptomatic pulmonary embolism, precise numbers on the incidence and prevalence are not known. Because CTEPH is diagnosed at a median age of 63 years in patients who often have other concomitant cardiovascular disease or lung disease, assessment of pathophysiology in patients can be challenging, We do know that CTEPH is a dual vascular disorder. Stenoses, webs, and occlusions predominate in large and medium-sized pulmonary arteries at the sites of previous pulmonary emboli. A "secondary vasculopathy" resembling the pulmonary arteriopathy encountered in other forms of pulmonary hypertension predominates in low-resistance vessels. Anastomoses between bronchial artery branches and precapillary pulmonary arterioles appear during evolution of the disease. Other acquired vascular connections between bronchial arteries and pulmonary veins may trigger venous remodeling. Current concepts regarding the pathophysiology of CTEPH include contributions of hyperactive coagulation (e.g., high coagulation factor VIII, combined coagulation defects, dysfibrinogenemias), insufficient anticoagulation, non-O blood groups, and misguided thrombus resolution (e.g., infection, inflammation, dysfunctional innate immunity, abnormal circulating phospholipids). Current research focuses on the question as to whether a genetic predisposition leads to misguided vascular healing after pulmonary thromboembolism in susceptible individuals. PMID:27571003

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have it, the blood ... heart has to work harder to pump the blood through. Over time, your heart weakens and ... of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  19. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  20. Pulmonary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, C M; Thompson, J E

    1979-07-28

    A case of pulmonary ascariasis is reported for the first time in Australia. Because of increasing immigration from countries which have a high incidence of ascariasis (especially those of South-East Asia), and increasing travel to Asian countries, the awareness of this infestation as a cause of respiratory disease may be of great importance. PMID:40103

  1. Pulmonary nocardiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection from returning. Alternative Names Nocardiosis - pulmonary Images Respiratory system References Limper AH. Overview of pneumonia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anticoagulants (blood-thinning medicine) Calcium channel blockers Diuretics (water pills) Digoxin Your doctor will decide what type of medicine is right for you. In some cases, people who have pulmonary hypertension need surgical treatment. Surgical treatment options include a lung transplant and ...

  3. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei; Morano, Karen; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Crawford, Jeffrey C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Blackstock, A. William; Vokes, Everett E.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  4. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  5. Cor triatriatum sinister: a rare underlying cause of pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shuhan; Xiao, Yunbin; Luo, Jinwen; Chen, Renwei; Huang, Peng; Liu, Pingbo; Deng, Xicheng

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hemosiderosis is a disorder with unknown cause and characterized by hemosiderin appreciation in alveolar interstitium from decomposed hemoglobin following alveolar capillary bleeding, which finally leads to pulmonary fibrosis. It can be divided into primary and secondary types in terms of its etiology. While primary types are related to autoimmunity, secondary types can be associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary causes such as mitral stenosis leading to pulmonary congestion. We report a case of cor triatriatum sinister in a child who presented with hemoptysis as a main clinical manifestation and had been previously diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis. Based on clinical signs and imaging examinations, we considered the hemoptysis was most likely due to cor triatriatum. The child underwent corrective surgery with uneventful recovery. The hemoptysis has not recurred any more after operation. Cardiovascular disease including cor triatriatum should be considered with regards to the etiology of pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:27026847

  6. [Pulmonary melioidosis].

    PubMed

    Perret, J L; Vidal, D; Thibault, F

    1998-12-01

    Melioidosis is most frequently encountered in pulmonary localization. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei first described by Whitmore in 1912 in Burma. B. pseudomallei is a Gram negative rod belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. Soil and water are the natural reservoirs for the germ which is a specific pathogen for several mammal species. Long endemic in Southeast Asia and several tropical zones, B. pseudomallei has recently been found in temperate zones, including France. Human contamination occurs via the transcutaneous route and often leads to dormant inapparent infection. Many conditions, such as diabetes, renal lithiasis, various circumstances of immunodepression or stress, facilitate clinical manifestations which vary greatly. Pulmonary manifestations may be acute and extensive, producing a torpid pseudo-tuberculous condition or a variety of clinical and radiological features mimicking other diseases. Bacteriological and serological tests may be negative. Exposure in an endemic zone, the notion of a favorable context, weight loss, cavitary images on successive chest x-rays and the presence of extra-pulmonary localizations may be suggestive. Ceftazidime or the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination are indicated, but mortality in acute forms still reaches 40%. Relapse can be expected if the treatment duration is too short. PMID:10100350

  7. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  8. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  9. Recent trends in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Rajagopalan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a serious and unrelenting pulmonary vascular disorder that affects the functional quality of patients and significantly decreases their life span. If diagnosed early, with the number of new therapeutic options that are available, a better quality of life can be provided for a protracted length of time. It is likely that the available treatment will change the natural course of the disease and perhaps prolong survival. As symptoms are often subtle in the early stages of the disease it is imperative that physicians are aware of the manifestations of this condition. A thorough investigation of patients suspected of this condition is essential so that appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The routine workup of a patient suspected to have pulmonary hypertension could easily be carried out in any well-equipped peripheral hospital in many affluent and advanced countries. However, it must be mentioned that in some less advanced countries the necessary work up can only be done in major teaching hospitals. Both pulmonologists and cardiologists should be aware of the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the workup and the treatment options that are available. Patients with refractory pulmonary hypertension should be referred to these research centers for enrolment into any ongoing drug trials as well as for evaluation for heart–lung, single lung, or double lung transplantation. This paper is primarily aimed at pulmonologists and cardiologists taking care of these patients. Unless indicated otherwise this paper mainly deals with WHO group 1 pulmonary hypertension which is designated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Extensive review of the literature spanning the last 30 years was made through Medline using titles such as primary pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, secondary pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:21654985

  10. Acute endocarditis of a percutaneously placed pulmonary valve

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Karthik V; Olivieri, Laura; Jonas, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Endocarditis of percutaneously placed pulmonary valve is increasingly being recognized and reported as a potentially life-threatening complication. In this report, we discuss a 17-year-old male who presented with septic shock secondary to staphylococcal endocarditis of a percutaneously placed pulmonary valve. PMID:26556969

  11. Formation of multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Gilberto Toshikawa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Fujihara, Satomi; Silva, Luigi Ferreira e; Cruz, Lorena de Britto Pereira; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Koyama, Roberta Vilela Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is one of the extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and can be due to the disease itself or secondary to the medications used in order to treat it. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and developed multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide. PMID:26176527

  12. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  13. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  14. Respiratory disability in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.K.C.; Lapp, N.L.; Seaton, D.

    1980-06-20

    It has been suggested that the assessment of ventilatory capacity alone is inadequate for the determination of disabling occupational respiratory impairment in coal miners. The Department of Labor has accepted this view and now routinely requests blood gas analyses in those claimants not meeting the ventilatory criteria. We tested the validity of this contention by selecting two groups of coal miners claiming total disability. The first consisted of 150 claimants who were referred for spirometry, while the second consisted of 50 claimants who had been referred for blood gas studies. Of those in group 1, eight met the extant criteria for disability, while only two of those in group 2 satisfied the criteria, and, in both, cardiac disease was responsible. We conclude that blood gas analyses are unnecessary in the determination of pulmonary disability in coal miners.

  15. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  16. [Pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Söffker, Gerold; Kluge, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is an important differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. The clinical signs are often non-specific. However, diagnosis and therapy must be done quickly in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The new (2014) European guidelines for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) focus on risk-adapted diagnostic algorithms and prognosis adapted therapy concepts. According to the hemodynamic presentation the division in a high-risk group (unstable patient with persistent hypotension or shock) or in non-high-risk groups (hemodynamically stable) was proposed. In the high-risk group the immediate diagnosis is usually done by multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) and primarily the medical therapy of right ventricular dysfunction and thrombolysis is recommended.In the non-high-risk group, this is subdivided into an intermediate-risk group and low-risk group, the diagnosis algorithm based on the PE-pretest probability--determined by validated scores. Moreover, the diagnosis is usually secured by MDCT--the new gold standard in the PE-diagnosis, scores, or it can be primarily ruled out due to the high negative predictive value of D-dimer determination. To improve the prognostic risk stratification in non-high-risk group patients the additional detection of right ventricular dysfunction (MDCT, echocardiography), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT proBNP) and validated scores (e.g. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index) is recommended. Therefore, the intermediate-risk group can be further subdivided. For treatment of non-high-risk group patients, the initial anticoagulation (except those with severe renal insufficiency) using low molecular weight heparin/fondaparinux and conversion to vitamin-K antagonists or alternatively with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) is recommended. Hemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction and myocardial ischemia (Intermediate-high-risk group patients) but with clinically progressive hemodynamic

  17. Pulmonary Macrophage Transplantation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takuji; Arumugam, Paritha; Sakagami, Takuro; Lachmann, Nico; Chalk, Claudia; Sallese, Anthony; Abe, Shuichi; Trapnell, Cole; Carey, Brenna; Moritz, Thomas; Malik, Punam; Lutzko, Carolyn; Wood, Robert E.; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bone marrow transplantation is an effective cell therapy but requires myeloablation, which increases infection-risk and mortality. Recent lineage-tracing studies documenting that resident macrophage populations self-maintain independent of hematologic progenitors prompted us to consider organ-targeted, cell-specific therapy. Here, using GM-CSF receptor-β deficient (Csf2rb−/−) mice that develop a myeloid cell disorder identical to hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (hPAP) in children with CSF2RA/CSF2RB mutations, we show that pulmonary macrophage transplantation (PMT) of either wild-type or Csf2rb-gene-corrected macrophages without myeloablation was safe, well-tolerated, and that one administration corrected the lung disease, secondary systemic manifestations, normalized disease-related biomarkers, and prevented disease-specific mortality. PMT-derived alveolar macrophages persisted for at least one year as did therapeutic effects. Results identify mechanisms regulating alveolar macrophage population size in health and disease, indicate that GM-CSF is required for phenotypic determination of alveolar macrophages, and support translation of PMT as the first specific therapy for children with hPAP. PMID:25274301

  18. 30 CFR 57.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 57.6312 Section 57.6312... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting—Surface and Underground...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 56.6312 Section 56.6312... Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting...

  20. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: a clot in question.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavin; Pakala, Aneesh; Aronson, Willard; Magharyous, Hany; Brown, Brent

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a group of disorders characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right heart failure and premature death. We present an unusual case of PAH diagnosed initially as Idiopathic PAH (IPAH) after secondary causes were excluded which was successfully managed for a number of years with vasodilators and anticoagulation. Over the months after stopping anticoagulation (because of recurring small bowel hemorrhaging) patient developed progressive findings of right heart failure, which failed to respond to escalating doses of prostacyclin. The patient died and an autopsy revealed the surprising finding of extensive organized central pulmonary artery thrombi as is seen in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We discuss the question of whether these thrombi are generally embolic or develop in situ and recommend that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for central thrombi in patients with IPAH were anticoagulation is contraindicated. PMID:25223151

  1. [Pulmonary circulation in embolic pulmonary edema].

    PubMed

    Sanotskaia, N V; Polikarpov, V V; Matsievskiĭ, D D

    1989-02-01

    The ultrasonic method was used in acute experiments on cats with open chest under artificial lung ventilation to obtain blood flow in low-lobar pulmonary artery and vein, the blood pressure in pulmonary artery, as well as the left atrial pressure in fat (olive oil) and mechanical (Lycopodium spores) pulmonary embolism. It is shown that pulmonary embolism produces the decrease in the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein, the increase of the pressure in pulmonary artery and left atria, the increase of lung vessels resistance. The decrease is observed of systemic arterial pressure, bradycardia, and extrasystole. After 5-10 min the restoration of arterial pressure and heart rhythm occur and partial restoration of blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. In many experiments the blood flow in vein outdoes that in the artery--it allows to suppose the increase of the blood flow in bronchial artery. After 60-90 min there occur sudden decrease of systemic arterial pressure, the decrease of the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. The pressure in pulmonary artery and resistance of pulmonary vessels remain high. Pulmonary edema developed in all animals. The death occurs in 60-100 min after the beginning of embolism. PMID:2923969

  2. An uncommon cause of acute pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Santosh; Giri, Smith; Bhusal, Mohan; Siwakoti, Krishmita; Pathak, Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema secondary to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy is a very uncommon and fatal initial presentation of pheochromocytoma. However, with early clinical suspicion and aggressive management, the condition is reversible. This case report describes a patient who presented with hypertension, dyspnea, and cough with bloody streaks, and who recovered within 48 hours after appropriate treatment. PMID:27575897

  3. [Pulmonary non invasive infection by Scedosporium apiospermum].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rodrigo; Barros, Manuel; Reyes, Mirtha

    2015-08-01

    We reported a case of non-invasive pulmonary infection by Scedosporium apiospermum in 67 years old female with bronchiectasis and caverns secondary to tuberculosis. Diagnosis was made with lung CT and bronchial lavage cultures. The patient was initially treated with itraconazole for six weeks without success and then voriconazole for 16 weeks, with good clinical response. PMID:26436797

  4. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  5. Pulmonary actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Solmaz; Sevinir, Betul; Saraydaroglu, Ozlem; Gurpinar, Arif; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary actinomycosis is rarely reported in pediatric age. An 11-year-old girl with history of two-month back pain was admitted to our hospital. On physical examination respiratory sounds were diminished on the left upper lung. Chest radiograph revealed a mass in the left upper lobe. Computed tomography showed solitary lesion (5.6 x 4.5 cm in size) in the left upper lobe. We could not rule out the possibility of malignant thoracic tumor. The patient underwent surgery. Histological examination of the resected tissue revealed, numerous sulfur granules, characteristic of Actinomyces, surrounded by purulent exudates, which are consistent with actinomycosis. She was treated with penicillin G. The patient responded well to penicillin therapy and the lesions regressed completely. She remained well throughout the three-year follow-up. PMID:19129990

  6. Pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tarbox, Abigail K.; Swaroop, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is responsible for approximately 100,000 to 200,000 deaths in the United States each year. With a diverse range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic to death, diagnosing PE can be challenging. Various resources are available, such as clinical scoring systems, laboratory data, and imaging studies which help guide clinicians in their work-up of PE. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential for minimizing the mortality and morbidity associated with PE. Advances in recognition and treatment have also enabled treatment of some patients in the home setting and limited the amount of time spent in the hospital. This article will review the risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of PE. PMID:23724389

  7. Naloxone-induced pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J A; Koenigsberg, M D

    1987-11-01

    We present the case of a 68-year-old woman with acute pulmonary edema secondary to the administration of naloxone to reverse an inadvertent narcotic overdose. The patient presented following a 12-hour history of increasingly bizarre behavior and confusion. A total IV dose of 1.6 mg naloxone was administered in an attempt to reverse the suspected overconsumption of a codeine-containing cough suppressant. She immediately became agitated, tachycardic, and diaphoretic; a clinical diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema was made. Following treatment with furosemide, nitroglycerin, and morphine sulfate, the patient recovered completely without further incident. Although naloxone is thought to be a safe drug with few complications, it should not be used indiscriminantly, and the smallest doses necessary to elicit the desired response should be used. PMID:3662194

  8. Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Saey, D; Bernard, S; Gagnon, P; Laviolette, L; Soicher, J; Maltais, F; Esgagne, P; Coats, V; Devost, A-A

    2009-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and an important worldwide cause of disability and handicap. Centered around exercise training, pulmonary rehabilitation is a global, multidisciplinary, individualized and comprehensive approach acting on the patient as a whole and not only on the pulmonary component of the disease. Pulmonary rehabilitation is now well recognized as an effective and key intervention in the management of several respiratory diseases particularly in COPD. Modern and effective pulmonary rehabilitation programs are global, multidisciplinary, individualized and use comprehensive approach acting on the patient as a whole and not only on the pulmonary component of the disease. In the last two decades interest for pulmonary rehabilitation is on the rise and a growing literature including several guidelines is now available. This review addresses the recent developments in the broad area of pulmonary rehabilitation as well as new methods to consider in the development of future and better programs. Modern literature for rationale, physiopathological basis, structure, exercise training as well challenges for pulmonary rehabilitation programs are addressed. Among the main challenges of pulmonary rehabilitation, efforts have to be devoted to improve accessibility to early rehabilitation strategies, not only to patients with COPD but to those with other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:19776711

  9. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to exercise in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Scano, G.; Garcia-Herreros, P.; Stendardi, D.; Degre, S.; De Coster, A.; Sergysels, R.

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-six coal miners, without associated functional chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), assessed by normal airway resistance, were divided into three groups: (1) Group C, normal x-ray; (2) Group S1, micronodular silicosis; and (3) Group S2, complicated silicosis. All subjects were evaluated while at rest and during exercise. Significant lung volume reduction was observed in the S2 Group only. Blood gases, pulmonary pressure, and cardiac output were found to be within the normal range for all three groups when at rest. The pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were higher, however, for the S1 and S2 Groups when compared to the C Group. During exercise, pulmonary hypertension was observed in 50% of the patients with complicated silicosis. When all data (N = 26) were included, the high values for pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance correlated well with the loss in vital capacity (VC) and the decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/). From the initial 26 patients, 19 were selected on the basis of their normal airway resistance and FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0//VC ratio. This selection did not alter the differences noted for the pulmonary pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance, which previously existed between the groups, even though the correlations were not statistically significant. We conclude that silicosis without associated COLD leads to minimal hemodynamic impairment at rest and during exercise, and that airway resistance does not detect impairment of flow as effectively as FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/ reduction. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance observed, especially in complicated silicosis, may be best explained by the loss of lung parenchyma and possible impairment of small airways.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension complicating pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Huitema, M P; Grutters, J C; Rensing, B J W M; Reesink, H J; Post, M C

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of sarcoidosis, with an unknown prevalence. The aetiology is multifactorial, and the exact mechanism of PH in the individual patient is often difficult to establish. The diagnostic work-up and treatment of PH in sarcoidosis is complex, and should therefore be determined by a multidisciplinary expert team in a specialised centre. It is still a major challenge to identify sarcoidosis patients at risk for developing PH. There is no validated algorithm when to refer a patient suspected for PH, and PH analysis itself is difficult. Until present, there is no established therapy for PH in sarcoidosis. Besides optimal treatment for sarcoidosis, case series evaluating new therapeutic options involving PH-targeted therapy are arising for a subgroup of patients. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding the aetiology, diagnosis and possible treatment options for PH in sarcoidosis. PMID:27194118

  11. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  12. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  13. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain ...

  14. [Idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Uehara, Mayuko; Kuroda, Yosuke; Ohori, Syunsuke; Mawatari, Toru; Morishita, Kiyofumi

    2010-07-01

    Pulmonary trunk aneurysm is generally associated with congenital cardiac defects, pulmonary hypertension, or infection. Idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm without any associated diseases is a rare lesion and has seldom been reported. Here, we report a case of a 68-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm. The maximum diameter of the aneurysm was 53 mm while she was 142 cm in height. We successfully performed aneurysmorrhaphy and her postoperative course was uneventful. Aneurysmorrhaphy was an effective technique for idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm without pulmonary hypertention. PMID:20662238

  15. Pulmonary cachexia.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie M W J

    2002-09-01

    Weight loss is a frequent complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is a determining factor of functional capacity, health status, and mortality. Weight loss in COPD is a consequence of increased energy requirements unbalanced by dietary intake. Both metabolic and mechanical inefficiency contribute to the elevated energy expenditure during physical activity, while systemic inflammation is a determinant of hypermetabolism at rest. A disbalance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown may cause a disproportionate depletion of fat-free mass in some patients. Nutritional support is indicated for depleted patients with COPD because it provides not only supportive care, but direct intervention through improvement in respiratory and peripheral skeletal muscle function and in exercise performance. A combination of oral nutritional supplements and exercise or anabolic stimulus appears to be the best treatment approach to obtaining significant functional improvement. Patients responding to this treatment even demonstrated a decreased mortality. Poor response was related to the effects of systemic inflammation on dietary intake and catabolism. The effectiveness of anticatabolic modulation requires further investigation. PMID:12163214

  16. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tisha; Lazar, Catherine A; Fishbein, Michael C; Lynch, Joseph P

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by the accumulation of surfactant lipids and protein in the alveolar spaces, with resultant impairment in gas exchange. The clinical course can be variable, ranging from spontaneous resolution to respiratory failure and death. PAP in all forms is caused by excessive accumulation of surfactant within the alveolar spaces. Autoimmune PAP accounts for the vast majority of cases in humans and is caused by autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which results in impaired catabolism and clearance of surfactant lipids and proteins. Inherited or congenital forms of PAP are exceptionally rare and caused by mutations of genes encoding for surfactant proteins. Secondary forms of PAP are associated with diverse clinical disorders and are caused by reduced alveolar macrophage numbers or function with resultant reduced pulmonary clearance of surfactant. PAP is characterized by progressive exertional dyspnea and nonproductive cough with hypoxemia. Bilateral infiltrates are typically present on chest radiograph, and high-resolution computed tomography reveals diffuse ground-glass opacities and airspace consolidation with interlobular septal thickening in a characteristic "crazy paving" pattern. Although surgical lung biopsy will provide a definitive diagnosis, a combination of typical clinical and imaging features with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive material on bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies is usually sufficient. The standard of care for treatment of PAP remains whole lung lavage, but treatment is not required in all patients. Autoimmune PAP has also been successfully treated with GM-CSF, both inhaled and systemic, but the optimal dose, duration, and route of administration of GM-CSF have not been elucidated. PMID:23001804

  17. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and vein in the lungs. As a result, blood passes ... Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas are usually the result of abnormal development of the blood vessels of the lung. Most occur in ...

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000091.htm Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD ...

  19. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  20. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Associate Professor View full profile More Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Information Forms Causes Genetic Counseling Print Page Email ...

  1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  2. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... can occur with absent pulmonary valve include: Abnormal tricuspid valve Atrial septal defect Double outlet right ventricle Ductus arteriosis Endocardial cushion defect Marfan syndrome Tricuspid atresia Heart problems that occur with absent pulmonary ...

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

  4. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001090.htm Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and ...

  5. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... absent pulmonary valve syndrome associated with bronchial obstruction. Ann Thoracic Surg. 2006;82:2221-2226. PMID: 17126138 ... of airway compression in absent pulmonary valve syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg . 2006;81:1802-1807. PMID: 16631676 ...

  6. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  7. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Caroline; Montani, David; Savale, Laurent; Sitbon, Olivier; Parent, Florence; Seferian, Andrei; Bulifon, Sophie; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Dartevelle, Philippe; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Jaïs, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by the persistence of thromboembolic obstructing the pulmonary arteries as an organized tissue and the presence of a variable small vessel arteriopathy. The consequence is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in progressive right heart failure. CTEPH is classified as group IV pulmonary hypertension according to the WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension. CTEPH is defined as precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mmHg with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤ 15 mmHg) associated with mismatched perfusion defects on ventilation-perfusion lung scan and signs of chronic thromboembolic disease on computed tomography pulmonary angiogram and/or conventional pulmonary angiography, in a patient who received at least 3 months of therapeutic anticoagulation. CTEPH as a direct consequence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare, and a significant number of CTEPH cases develop in the absence of history of PE. Thus, CTEPH should be considered in any patient with unexplained PH. Splenectomy, chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, indwelling catheters and cardiac pacemakers have been identified as associated conditions increasing the risk of CTEPH. Ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q) is the best test available for establishing the thromboembolic nature of PH. When CTEPH is suspected, patients should be referred to expert centres where pulmonary angiography, right heart catheterization and high-resolution CT scan will be performed to confirm the diagnosis and to assess the operability. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) remains the gold standard treatment for CTEPH when organized thrombi involve the main, lobar or segmental arteries. This operation should only be performed by experienced surgeons in specialized centres. For inoperable patients, current ESC/ERS guidelines for the

  8. Ambiguous presentations of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: Two case reports of a rare pulmonary malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Chun Ian; Ng, Boon Hau; Tan, Eng Liang; Abdul Hamid, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon lung malignancy of endothelial origin. Besides demonstrating unpredictable presentation features and prognosis, the paucity of established treatment guidelines remains a challenge in managing these patients. We present two patients. The first patient presented with chronic productive cough over 1-year duration. He was initially diagnosed and showed partial response to treatment for cardiac failure. A persistent right upper zone consolidation on chest radiograph prompted further investigations which revealed the diagnosis of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. The second patient presented with right-sided hemiparesis for 1-month duration. Initial computer tomography scan of the brain showed findings of distant metastatic foci. Subsequent investigations revealed pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma as the primary lesion. Both patients succumbed without any treatment due to rapid progression of the disease. We believe that pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is undoubtedly rarely reported in south-east Asia region. In these two case reports, the patients were diagnosed in west and east Malaysia, respectively, in the same year (2015). Both cases highlight the increasing prevalence of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. We postulate that this could possibly be secondary to the advancement in diagnostic capabilities and improved healthcare facilities available in this region. Late presentation of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma generally results in grave prognosis. Further investigations are required to elucidate the nature of progression and therapeutic options for patients with pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. PMID:27489719

  9. Ambiguous presentations of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: Two case reports of a rare pulmonary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Soo, Chun Ian; Ng, Boon Hau; Tan, Eng Liang; Abdul Hamid, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon lung malignancy of endothelial origin. Besides demonstrating unpredictable presentation features and prognosis, the paucity of established treatment guidelines remains a challenge in managing these patients. We present two patients. The first patient presented with chronic productive cough over 1-year duration. He was initially diagnosed and showed partial response to treatment for cardiac failure. A persistent right upper zone consolidation on chest radiograph prompted further investigations which revealed the diagnosis of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. The second patient presented with right-sided hemiparesis for 1-month duration. Initial computer tomography scan of the brain showed findings of distant metastatic foci. Subsequent investigations revealed pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma as the primary lesion. Both patients succumbed without any treatment due to rapid progression of the disease. We believe that pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is undoubtedly rarely reported in south-east Asia region. In these two case reports, the patients were diagnosed in west and east Malaysia, respectively, in the same year (2015). Both cases highlight the increasing prevalence of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. We postulate that this could possibly be secondary to the advancement in diagnostic capabilities and improved healthcare facilities available in this region. Late presentation of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma generally results in grave prognosis. Further investigations are required to elucidate the nature of progression and therapeutic options for patients with pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. PMID:27489719

  10. Giant high-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm in an elderly patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sandra A; Oliveira, Hugo M; de Almeida, José R; Eiras, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Catarina; Gavina, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The authors report the case of a 74-year-old man, with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), GOLD grade 3, stable for the past two decades, who was admitted to our center with severe right heart failure. The chest radiograph showed moderate heart enlargement mainly of the right atrium and pulmonary artery, similar to previous chest radiographs in the previous 20 years. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA), dilatation of the right chambers with pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 52 mmHg, and preserved right ventricular systolic function. A thoracic computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a giant PAA 72 mm in diameter. The patient was started on high-dose diuretics, with significant clinical improvement. After optimization of medical therapy right heart catheterization was carried out with the patient in optimal clinical condition, which revealed mild precapillary pulmonary hypertension with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 26 mmHg. On the basis of the clinical and imaging findings a stable, giant, high-pressure, PAA was diagnosed secondary to pulmonary hypertension induced by COPD, with a 20-year follow-up without need for surgical repair, which helped in our decision to maintain medical surveillance. The recent onset of heart failure is explained by the unfavorable evolution of COPD. This case may change the attitude expressed in previous studies favoring the choice of an invasive approach to treat giant high-pressure PAAs, instead supporting the maintenance of medical treatment. PMID:26922398

  11. Bronchovascular role in pulmonary congestion.

    PubMed

    McIlveen, S A

    2000-12-01

    1. A postulated role for the bronchial circulation in the development of pulmonary congestion may be based on recent studies of bronchovascular control. 2. The bronchial circulation is the nutrient blood supply of the conducting airways and, therefore, plays an important role in the function of the bronchial mucosa. Mucosal swelling secondary to elevation of mucosal capillary hydrostatic pressure may decrease airway calibre, increase resistance to airflow and precipitate symptoms of pulmonary congestion. 3. Resting mucosal capillary hydrostatic pressure is relatively constant due to autoregulation of bronchial blood flow and is maintained low by nett bronchovascular constriction due to the dominance of autonomic vasoconstriction over nitric oxidedependent vasodilatation. 4. Bronchial blood flow is also regulated by cardiac afferent reflexes. Stimulation of cardiac vagal and spinal afferents produces vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, respectively. Tonic activity of cardiac spinal afferents probably contributes to the resting autonomic vasoconstriction. 5. Therefore, mild heart failure, which is associated with abnormal cardiovascular reflex function, may decrease cardiac spinal afferent-mediated bronchial vasoconstriction and produce active dilatation due to stimulation of cardiac vagal afferents by excessive myocardial stretch, leading to bronchial mucosal swelling and pulmonary congestion. PMID:11117228

  12. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  13. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  14. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  15. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  16. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  17. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  18. A Case of Low Bone Mineral Density with Vitamin D Deficiency Due to Prolonged Lactation and Severe Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m2. She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized. PMID:25774364

  19. Pulmonary hypertension complicating connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A; Saggar, Rajeev; Fishbein, Michael C; Saggar, Rajan

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may complicate connective tissue disease (CTD), particularly systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma), and markedly increases mortality. More than 70% of cases of PH complicating CTD occur in SSc, which is the major focus of this article. Pulmonary complications (i.e., interstitial lung disease [ILD] and PH) are the leading causes of scleroderma-related deaths. "Isolated" PH (i.e., without ILD) complicates SSc in 7.5 to 20% of cases; secondary PH may also occur in patients with SSc-associated ILD. Several clinical markers and specific autoantibody profiles have been associated with PH in SSc. The role of PH-specific therapy is controversial, as prognosis and responsiveness to therapy are worse in SSc-associated PH compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We discuss medical therapies for CTD-associated PH and the role of lung transplantation for patients failing medical therapy. PMID:24037627

  20. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sandeep M; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Reynolds, Jordan P; Krowka, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a disease of alveolar accumulation of phospholipoproteinaceous material that results in gas exchange impairment leading to dyspnea and alveolar infiltrates. There are three forms of PAP: congenital, acquired and idiopathic; of which the latter two are predominant in the adult population. Previous case studies have found that the acquired form can be secondary to various autoimmune, infectious, malignant and environmental etiologies. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PAP demonstrate that the idiopathic form is due to antigranulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor antibodies. Therapeutic targets that replace granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor or remove these antibodies are being actively developed. The current standard of care is to perform whole lung lavage on these patients to clear the alveolar space to help improve respiratory physiology. A case of PAP is reported, followed by a literature review on the diagnosis and management of this rare condition with the aim of increasing awareness among physicians when treating patients who present with alveolar infiltrates. PMID:22891182

  1. Overview of current therapeutic approaches for pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Jason A.; Risbano, Michael G.; Mathier, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    There have been tremendous strides in the management of pulmonary hypertension over the past 20 years with the introduction of targeted medical therapies and overall improvements in surgical treatment options and general supportive care. Furthermore, recent data shows that the survival of those with pulmonary arterial hypertension is improving. While there has been tremendous progress, much work remains to be done in improving the care of those with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension, who constitute the majority of patients with this disorder, and in the optimal treatment approach in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will review general and targeted medical treatment, along with surgical interventions, of those with pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22034603

  2. Pulmonary hypertension due to isolated metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thromboemboli.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael K; Granger, Emily K; Preda, Veronica A

    2006-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension as the initial presentation of occult malignancy is extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension due to arterial tumour embolism is often overlooked and deserves contemplation. Our case report details the presentation of cardiorespiratory decompensation from an assumed classic saddle pulmonary embolus in a previously fit, well 80-year-old gentleman. The patient underwent successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, however, intraoperatively the specimen was noted to be atypical. This resulted in the surprising definitive diagnosis of thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension secondary to laminated thrombi of metastatic squamous cell tumour emboli. The site of tumour origin was however not histologically apparent and was unable to be elucidated on extensive further investigation. Post-operatively the patient had considerable subjective and functional improvement returning to activities of daily living. He however passed away some 9 months later. PMID:16412689

  3. Hemolysis and Pulmonary Insufficiency following Right Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sarah A; Soleimani, Behzad; Pae, Walter E

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of severe hemolysis and pulmonary valve insufficiency (PI) following right ventricular support using a paracorporeal pneumatic pump (Abiomed, Danvers, MA, USA). We speculate that the high velocity jet of blood emanating from the outflow cannula caused turbulence above the pulmonary valve, leading to PI and hemolysis. Despite the growing number of implanted ventricular assist devices, we could find no report in the literature describing pulmonary valve insufficiency secondary to right ventricular assist device (RVAD) placement. Fortunately, in this case, right ventricular function recovered sufficiently after seven days of support, allowing explantation of the device and resolution of PI and hemolysis. PMID:23213613

  4. Secondary osteoporosis: pathophysiology & diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Emkey, Gregory R; Epstein, Sol

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and microarchitectural changes in bone tissue that increase the susceptibility to fracture. Secondary osteoporosis is loosely defined as low bone mineral density or increased risk of fragility fracture caused by any factor other than aging or postmenopausal status. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current understanding of the pathophysiology and contribution to fracture risk of many of the more common causes of secondary osteoporosis, as well as diagnostic considerations, outlined by organ system. While not comprehensive, included are a wide array of diseases, conditions, and medications that have been associated with bone loss and susceptibility to fractures. The hope is to highlight the importance to the general clinician of screening for and treating the osteoporosis in these patients, so to limit the resultant increased morbidity associated with fractures. PMID:25432361

  5. Pulmonary vascular effects of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide in COPD patients with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Bita; De Backer, Jan; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; Ferreira, Francisca; Quinn, Deborah A; Hufkens, Annemie; Claes, Rita; De Backer, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH), which worsens prognosis. PH can be lowered by oxygen, but also by inhaled nitric oxide (NO), which has the potential to improve the health status of these patients. NO is an important mediator in vascular reactions in the pulmonary circulation. Oral compounds can act through NO-mediated pathways, but delivering pulsed inhaled NO (iNO) directly to the airways and pulmonary vasculature could equally benefit patients. Therefore, a proof-of-concept study was performed to quantify pulmonary blood vessel caliber changes after iNO administration using computed tomography (CT)-based functional respiratory imaging (FRI). Methods Six patients with secondary PH due to COPD received “pulsed” iNO in combination with oxygen for 20 minutes via a nasal cannula. Patients underwent a high-resolution CT scan with contrast before and after iNO. Using FRI, changes in volumes of blood vessels and associated lobes were quantified. Oxygen saturation and blood pressure were monitored and patients were asked about their subjective feelings. Results Pulmonary blood vessel volume increased by 7.06%±5.37% after iNO. A strong correlation (Ω20=0.32, P=0.002) was obtained between ventilation and observed vasodilation, suggesting that using the pulsed system, iNO is directed toward the ventilated zones, which consequently experience more vasodilation. Patients did not develop oxygen desaturation, remained normotensive, and perceived an improvement in their dyspnea sensation. Conclusion Inhalation of pulsed NO with oxygen causes vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation of COPD patients, mainly in the well-ventilated areas. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in the level of vasodilation. Patients tend to feel better after the treatment. Chronic use trials are warranted. PMID:27462149

  6. The current treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Kenneth Scott

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular hypertension in general is a progressive, nearly always fatal condition that until recently has had very few treatment options. Our understanding of the pulmonary vascular disease process has opened the window to earlier screening techniques, diagnosis, and treatment options. However, all current treatment options are complex and expensive and therefore require clinical support strategies often necessitating specialized pulmonary hypertension treatment centers. Whether idiopathic or secondary, pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by the deregulated proliferation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells and intimal smooth muscle cells, both resistant to cellular apoptosis. Early recognition of such disregulation may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment and thus alteration in the disease process. Screening of high-risk populations such as those with connective tissue disorders, HIV disease, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, and those exposed to certain drugs and toxins such as methamphetamines and the diet drugs Dexfenfluramine and Fenfluramine is of utmost importance. Similarly, early symptom recognition in these high-risk groups is essential to earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20073161

  7. [Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis].

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Atsuyuki

    2002-12-01

    Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis in Japan occurs more than about 5,000 cases annually. Among them, about 70% are occupied by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. Considering the frequency and the difficulty of treatment, we discuss mainly on pulmonary MAC infection on this report. At National Tokyo hospital, secondary MAC infection after tuberculosis sequelae were 46.5% out of 170 pulmonary MAC cases since 1969 to 1985, but it decreased to 19.4% out of 268 cases since 1986 to 2000. In this same period, a type of MAC infection like middle lobe syndrome without recognizing preceding pulmonary disease, increased to 69.8% out of all pulmonary MAC cases (Fig. 1). Recently, this type of pulmonary MAC infection, which consists with scattered nodular lesion and local bronchiectasis in middle lobe or lingula, attracts attention. Why is there much frequency in women? Why does it originate from middle lobe or lingula? Although, it shows a characteristic X-ray pattern, ant it is still an interesting problem, the origin of the disease cannot be clarified. First diagnostic standard of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis in Japan was submitted in 1967, and the current diagnostic standard was made in 1985, through several times improvements. These contents are almost similar to that of American diagnostic standard in 1997, but the new revision that reflected chest CT findings and bronchoscopic sampling etc, is pressed now. In the treatment, INH or PZA, which is a key drug in tuberculous chemotherapy, is not a key drug in MAC chemotherapy. MAC chemotherapy is multidrugs combination chemotherapy including EB, CAM, RFP, and aminoglycosides. However, it is difficult to achieve complete regression with current drugs combinations, and an early surgical resection is the most effective in case of localized MAC lesion. We propose a guidance of treatment selection with age and disease severity (Table). Fig. 2 shows survival curves of 104 cases pulmonary MAC infection at National

  8. Refractory Pulmonary Edema Caused by Late Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis After Lung Transplantation: A Rare Adverse Event.

    PubMed

    Denton, Eve J; Rischin, Adam; McGiffin, David; Williams, Trevor J; Paraskeva, Miranda A; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Greg

    2016-09-01

    After lung transplantation, pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially life-threatening adverse event arising at the pulmonary venous anastomosis that typically occurs early and presents as graft failure and hemodynamic compromise with an associated mortality of up to 40%. The incidence, presentation, outcomes, and treatment of late pulmonary vein thrombosis remain poorly defined. Management options include anticoagulant agents for asymptomatic clots, and thrombolytic agents or surgical thrombectomy for hemodynamically significant clots. We present a rare case highlighting a delayed presentation of pulmonary vein thrombosis occurring longer than 2 weeks after lung transplantation and manifesting clinically as graft failure secondary to refractory pulmonary edema. The patient was treated successfully with surgical thrombectomy and remains well. We recommend a high index of suspicion of pulmonary vein thrombosis when graft failure after lung transplantation occurs and is not responsive to conventional therapy, and consideration of investigation with transesophageal echocardiography or computed tomography with venous phase contrast in such patients even more than 2 weeks after lung transplantation. PMID:27549541

  9. Pulmonary hypertension caused by pulmonary venous hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) on the pulmonary circulation is extraordinarily variable, ranging from no impact on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to a marked increase. The reasons for this are unknown. Both acutely reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction and pathological remodeling (especially medial hypertrophy and intimal hyperplasia) account for increased PVR when present. The mechanisms involved in vasoconstriction and remodeling are not clearly defined, but increased wall stress, especially in small pulmonary arteries, presumably plays an important role. Myogenic contraction may account for increased vascular tone and also indirectly stimulate remodeling of the vessel wall. Increased wall stress may also directly cause smooth muscle growth, migration, and intimal hyperplasia. Even long-standing and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) usually abates with elimination of PVH, but PVH-PH is an important clinical problem, especially because PVH due to left ventricular noncompliance lacks definitive therapy. The role of targeted PH therapy in patients with PVH-PH is unclear at this time. Most prospective studies indicate that these medications are not helpful or worse, but there is ample reason to think that a subset of patients with PVH-PH may benefit from phosphodiesterase inhibitors or other agents. A different approach to evaluating possible pharmacologic therapy for PVH-PH may be required to better define its possible utility. PMID:25610595

  10. Pulmonary artery aneurysm in an adult patient with idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Betkier-Lipińska, Katarzyna; Czarkowski, Sebastian; Hendzel, Piotr; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery (IDPA) is a rare congenital heart disease. It has been described for almost one hundred years, and numerous definitions have been proposed. The IDPA diagnostic criteria have not been updated for years. Secondary to primary disease, pulmonary artery aneurism was recognised as a lethal defect; however, long-term follow-up of patients with IDPA has not been well researched. Thus, indications to medical or surgical treatment are not evidence based. Here, we present a rare case of a 54-year-old patient with IDPA, who remained under observation for 36 years without surgical intervention. PMID:26855651

  11. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  12. Ultrasonic Estimation of Mechanical Properties of Pulmonary Arterial Wall Under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kendall R.; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2005-04-01

    Secondary pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a disease that could benefit from improved ultrasonic diagnostic techniques. We perform high-frequency in vitro ultrasound measurements (25 MHz to 100 MHz) on fresh and fixed pulmonary arterial walls excised from normoxic and hypoxic Long-Evans rat models. Estimates of the elastic stiffness coefficients are determined from measurements of the speed of sound. Preliminary results indicate that hypoxia leads to up to increase of 20 % in stiffening of the pulmonary arterial wall.

  13. Adjuvant therapy with methylene blue in the treatment of right ventricular failure after pulmonary embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Raikhelkar, Jayashree K; Milla, Federico; Darrow, Bruce; Scurlock, Corey

    2011-04-01

    Severe pulmonary embolism often leads to right ventricular failure after surgical embolectomy secondary to ischaemia reperfusion injury and acute lung injury (ALI). Acute right ventricular dysfunction is traditionally treated with inotropes and vasopressors to maintain cardiac output and coronary perfusion as well as selective pulmonary vasodilators to provide right ventricular afterload reduction. We report the first case of utilisation of methylene (MB) in a patient with acute right ventricular failure and vasoplegic shock after surgical pulmonary embolectomy. PMID:20952252

  14. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  15. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  16. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  17. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  18. Neostigmine and pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Bijapur, Mubina Begum; Shreyavathi, Shreyavathi; R S, Raghavendra Rao

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old child with no pre-existing cardiac or respiratory disease developed frank pulmonary oedema after administration of a neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture to reverse neuromuscular blockade during general anaesthesia. Possible cardiac and extra-cardiac factors that could cause pulmonary oedema in this child were ruled out by appropriate investigations. As the pulmonary oedema manifested shortly after administration of the neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture, we concluded that neostigmine was the most probable cause. This article briefly reports the occurrence of events and successful management of perioperative pulmonary oedema. PMID:25199191

  19. Main pulmonary artery stenosis caused by fibrocalcified mass in a young infant.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Heon-Seok; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Deok Soo; Lee, Seog-Jae; Hong, Jang-Soo; Lee, Geon Kook

    2002-01-01

    We present a rare case of main pulmonary artery stenosis secondary to protruding fibrous material in the main pulmonary artery associated with patent ductus arteriosus. A 1-month-old baby boy manifested cardiac murmur. Echocardiogram showed circumferential high echogenic mass inside the main pulmonary artery with pressure gradient of 49 mmHg and patent ductus arteriosus. The mass did not regress during 3 months' follow-up period. Angiographic images showed that the circular filling defect was located at the main pulmonary artery distal to pulmonary valve, and pulmonary valve and both pulmonary arteries were normal. After surgical removal of the circumferential material and ductus ligation, the pressure gradient became negligible. The material was consisted of scarcely cellular fibrous tissue, abundant coagulum of fibrinous material and dense calcification. PMID:12172057

  20. Therapeutic applications of sildenafil citrate in the management of paediatric pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Leibovitch, Leah; Matok, Ilan; Paret, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and a poor prognosis. The exact underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood; however, it is hypothesised that pulmonary medial hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction lead to impaired production of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin, and increased expression of vasoconstrictors such as endothelin-1. The current treatment modalities for pulmonary hypertension include conventional supportive therapies and more specific pharmacological therapies that are targeted at abnormalities of endothelial function. NO and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors induce pulmonary vasodilation by increasing intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations. Sildenafil citrate is a highly selective inhibitor of PDE5. Investigations in animal models and recent clinical case reports with some studies in the paediatric population suggest that sildenafil may be a promising agent in treating pulmonary hypertension. The effect of sildenafil on pulmonary vasculature appears to be independent of the underlying cause, thereby providing a role in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), PAH associated with congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension secondary to lung disease or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. It may also be beneficial in postoperative pulmonary hypertension and in neonates who are difficult to wean from inhaled NO. It is easily administered and effective, and has minimal systemic adverse effects. Although the reported results in children with pulmonary hypertension are promising, it is an experimental drug and large-scale randomised controlled studies are required to validate the safety, efficacy and dosage in the paediatric population. PMID:17209664

  1. Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...

  2. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided. PMID:26412723

  3. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  4. Hereditary Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takuji; Sakagami, Takuro; Young, Lisa R.; Carey, Brenna C.; Wood, Robert E.; Luisetti, Maurizio; Wert, Susan E.; Rubin, Bruce K.; Kevill, Katharine; Chalk, Claudia; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Stevens, Carrie; Nogee, Lawrence M.; Campo, Ilaria; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: We identified a 6-year-old girl with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), impaired granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor function, and increased GM-CSF. Objectives: Increased serum GM-CSF may be useful to identify individuals with PAP caused by GM-CSF receptor dysfunction. Methods: We screened 187 patients referred to us for measurement of GM-CSF autoantibodies to diagnose autoimmune PAP. Five were children with PAP and increased serum GM-CSF but without GM-CSF autoantibodies or any disease causing secondary PAP; all were studied with family members, subsequently identified patients, and controls. Measurement and Main Results: Eight children (seven female, one male) were identified with PAP caused by recessive CSF2RA mutations. Six presented with progressive dyspnea of insidious onset at 4.8 ± 1.6 years and two were asymptomatic at ages 5 and 8 years. Radiologic and histopathologic manifestations were similar to those of autoimmune PAP. Molecular analysis demonstrated that GM-CSF signaling was absent in six and severely reduced in two patients. The GM-CSF receptor β chain was detected in all patients, whereas the α chain was absent in six and abnormal in two, paralleling the GM-CSF signaling defects. Genetic analysis revealed multiple distinct CSF2RA abnormalities, including missense, duplication, frameshift, and nonsense mutations; exon and gene deletion; and cryptic alternative splicing. All symptomatic patients responded well to whole-lung lavage therapy. Conclusions: CSF2RA mutations cause a genetic form of PAP presenting as insidious, progressive dyspnea in children that can be diagnosed by a combination of characteristic radiologic findings and blood tests and treated successfully by whole-lung lavage. PMID:20622029

  5. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55‐year‐old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  6. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kj; Basu, Arup; Khana, Shilpi; Wattal, Chand

    2015-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is a disease which is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. In the areas where people eat crab/crayfish this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid antituberculosis treatment for a non-tubercular condition. We are reporting a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis who had been treated for tuberculosis. PMID:27604443

  7. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation. PMID:14664293

  8. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  9. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is Pulmonary Hypertension? Updated:Aug 12,2014 Is pulmonary hypertension different ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  10. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Tan, Sze Khen

    2016-05-01

    Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55-year-old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  11. Brain natriuretic peptide levels in six basic underwater demolitions/SEAL recruits presenting with swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE).

    PubMed

    Shearer, Damon; Mahon, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) is associated with both SCUBA diving and strenuous surface swimming; however, the majority of reported cases and clinically observed cases tend to occur during or after aggressive surface swimming. Capillary stress failure appears to be central to the pathophysiology of this disorder. Regional pulmonary capillaries are exposed to relatively high pressures secondary to increased vascular volume, elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, and regional differences in perfusion secondary to forces of gravity and high cardiac output. Acute pulmonary edema can be classified as either cardiogenic or noncardiogenic or both. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure exceeds plasma oncotic pressure. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when pulmonary capillary permeability is increased. Given the pathophysiology noted above, SIPE can be described as a cardiogenic pulmonary edema, at least in part, since an increased transalveolar pressure gradient has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SIPE. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used in the clinical setting to differentiate cardiac from pulmonary sources of dyspnea, specifically to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema. During clinical management, BNP levels were drawn on six BUD/S recruits simultaneously presenting with pulmonary complaints consistent with SIPE, after an extended surface bay swim. This paper analyzes that data after de-identification and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical management of SIPE. PMID:19739476

  12. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van Manen, Mirjam J G; Birring, Surinder S; Vancheri, Carlo; Cottin, Vincent; Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Russell, Anne-Marie; Wijsenbeek, Marlies S

    2016-09-01

    Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably "multifactorial" and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF. PMID:27581827

  13. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  14. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Parakh, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a morbid condition associated with complications such as hemoptysis, right heart failure, paradoxical embolism, and even death. There is no known association of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. Possible hypothesis for this association is an increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to the compensatory formation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We present one such case presenting with hemoptysis that was managed with endovascular treatment. PMID:27413264

  15. Interventional therapeutic strategy for hemoptysis originating from infectious pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Jitsuro; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Torikai, Hideyuki; Sayama, Koichi; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Narimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2015-07-01

    This study reports 6 cases of hemoptysis originating from infectious pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms (PAPs). Selective pulmonary angiography revealed PAPs in 5 cases, and segmental pulmonary artery embolization was performed using coils and gelatin sponge particles. Systemic arterial embolization also was performed in 5 cases because of inadequate initial control or for shunts from systemic to pulmonary arteries. At a median follow-up time of 9 months (range, 25 d to 25 mo), no recurrence occurred, although 2 patients died of respiratory failure. Segmental artery embolization combined with systemic artery embolization may be useful in patients with hemoptysis secondary to PAPs. PMID:26095272

  16. Lung uptake on a bone scan: a case of pulmonary Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ortapamuk, H; Alp, A

    2002-11-01

    Pulmonary involvement secondary to Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WMG) is described in a 40-year-old male by incidental findings on a bone scan. He was examined for right leg pain, and bone scan revealed unexpected pulmonary uptake of Tc-99m MDP. CT scan of the thorax revealed pleural effusion and slightly disseminated micronoduler density increase in the right lung and parenchymal infiltration in the left lung. Transdermal lung biopsy demonstrated diffuse infiltration of lymphoplasmocytoids. Reporting the presence of pulmonary involvement is important because it may prevent morbidity from pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:12508840

  17. A Case of Stroke due to Pulmonary Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Belok, Samuel; Parikh, Leslie; Robertson, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but potentially lethal disease. It most commonly occurs as a complication of malignancy, post-lung surgery or atrial fibrillation. Thrombi are typically detected using a variety of imaging modalities including transesophageal echo, CT-scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or pulmonary angiography. Treatment consists of anticoagulation. Here we report a case of a middle-aged male with systolic left ventricular dysfunction who presented with a stroke due to embolization from a pulmonary vein thrombus diagnosed on CT scan. Etiology of the thrombosis was felt to be secondary to severe systolic dysfunction. Based upon this case report, we believe that pulmonary venous embolism should be considered as a cause of cryptogenic stroke in patients with a significantly reduced cardiac systolic function. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-02.asp, free with no login]. PMID:26827087

  18. [Pulmonary complications in adult sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Maître, B; Mekontso-Dessap, A; Habibi, A; Bachir, D; Parent, F; Godeau, B; Galacteros, F

    2011-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is an autosomal genetic condition which represents the most frequent genetic disease in Île-de-France and Caribbean islands. The main clinical manifestations can be divided into infectious disease, hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive events. Pulmonary complications represent 20 to 30% of mortality due to sickle cell and can be divided into acute and chronic events. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is an acute lung injury often preceded by a vaso-occlusive crisis and triggered by different factors including: hypoventilation, pulmonary infectious disease and vascular occlusions. These occlusions can be secondary to fat embolism, thrombosis or sickling. Treatment is mainly supportive combining oxygen supplementation adequate hydration analgesia and sedation. Exchange transfusion may be indicated in severe forms of ACS, characterized by a right ventricular dysfunction and acute respiratory failure. Pulmonary hypertension is the most serious chronic complication. Its frequency is estimated at 6% in adult patients and is more often described in patients with venous ulcers and higher levels of chronic hemolysis. Prognosis is poor with 12.5% of patients dying in the first two years following diagnosis irrespective of the actual pulmonary artery pressure level. There are currently limited data on the effects of any treatment modality. Other respiratory complications such as sleep disorders and nocturnal hypoxemia, infiltrative lung disease and exertional dyspnea are described and should be considered. PMID:21402228

  19. Riociguat: Something new in pulmonary hypertension therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Elangovan; Jena, Amrita; George, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to be a disease that is associated with woeful outcomes. The search for an ideal drug molecule for PH led to the discovery of riociguat, which is a first-in-class drug molecule that activates soluble guanylate cyclase. We conducted a systematic literature search using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar to gather evidence generated from published clinical trials on the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and regulatory status of riociguat. CHEST-1 and the PATENT-1 were phase-3 pivotal clinical trials that showed that riociguat was able to significantly improve the 6-min walk distance with 16 weeks of therapy as compared with the placebo arm. The drug also showed improvement in secondary outcome measures such as improvement in the pulmonary vascular resistance, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, World Health Organization functional class, time to clinical worsening and Borg dyspnea score. The drug had a modest safety profile, with hypotension being the most bothersome adverse effect. These findings led to various regulatory agencies around the world granting approval for riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The entry of a new class of drug for PAH and CTEPH therapy portends some hope for patients with a disease that is traditionally linked with a poor prognosis. PMID:25709345

  20. Riociguat: Something new in pulmonary hypertension therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Elangovan; Jena, Amrita; George, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to be a disease that is associated with woeful outcomes. The search for an ideal drug molecule for PH led to the discovery of riociguat, which is a first-in-class drug molecule that activates soluble guanylate cyclase. We conducted a systematic literature search using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar to gather evidence generated from published clinical trials on the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and regulatory status of riociguat. CHEST-1 and the PATENT-1 were phase-3 pivotal clinical trials that showed that riociguat was able to significantly improve the 6-min walk distance with 16 weeks of therapy as compared with the placebo arm. The drug also showed improvement in secondary outcome measures such as improvement in the pulmonary vascular resistance, N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide levels, World Health Organization functional class, time to clinical worsening and Borg dyspnea score. The drug had a modest safety profile, with hypotension being the most bothersome adverse effect. These findings led to various regulatory agencies around the world granting approval for riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The entry of a new class of drug for PAH and CTEPH therapy portends some hope for patients with a disease that is traditionally linked with a poor prognosis. PMID:25709345

  1. “A small leak will sink a great ship”: hypoxia-inducible factor and group III pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Andrew J.; Scott, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension complicating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, also known as secondary pulmonary hypertension, represents a major source of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. While the study of primary pulmonary arterial hypertension has yielded several therapies, the same is not true for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. Recent studies have indicated an important role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) – a regulatory protein that is vital in adaptation to hypoxic conditions – in the development of secondary pulmonary hypertension. HIF influences development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension through alteration in voltage-gated potassium channels and homeostatic calcium regulation, resulting in disruption of endothelial cell-cell communication, and eventual vascular remodeling. This article summarizes salient literature related to HIF and secondary pulmonary hypertension, in addition to proposing a final common pathway in known mechanistic pathways that result in endothelial barrier integrity loss – vascular “leak” – primarily through a shared endothelial-epithelial signaling protein family, CCN.

  2. Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1991-01-01

    Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction. PMID:1954926

  3. [Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy. PMID:25650280

  4. [Pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses].

    PubMed

    Onodera, S

    1992-12-01

    Alterations in the physiological balance to maintain the pulmonary circulation at a normal low pressure level result in an elevation in pulmonary vascular tone. Pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses were analyzed under some experimental conditions, which included microembolism, administration of vasoactive agents, hypoxia, and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. It is widely accepted that these responses are highly localized and complex. In the present study, excised canine lung lobes, rat lungs, and pulmonary arterial rings from the rat were employed according to the particular experimental design. The mechanism of the initial rapid elevation followed by a gradual decline in perfusion pressure in microembolism was considered to be related not only to the size of the emboli, but to the degree of mechanical injury of the endothelium. The main sites of constriction of the pulmonary vasculature by several drugs were determined in the pulsatile perfused canine lung lobes, according to the degree of decrease in inflow wave amplitude during antegrade or retrograde perfusion. Further, by applying the same method it was confirmed that the site of hypoxic vasoconstriction is located in the peripheral pulmonary vascular bed between the muscular arteries and veins, which are constricted mainly by serotonin and histamine, respectively. A cross perfusion system was set up, employing two lobes from the same dog, in which normoxic blood was perfused into the hypoxic ventilated lobe and vice versa. As a result, the pulmonary vessels showed a response to ventilation hypoxia that was far more sensitive than that to perfusion hypoxia. The effects of a beta-agonist (isoproterenol) and beta-antagonists (propranolol, pindolol) on hypoxic vasoconstriction were observed. Although pindolol (a vasodilatory beta-blocker) abolished hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, which was similar to the effect of isoproterenol, the mechanism of action of pindolol was suggested to be different

  5. Mineral Commodity Profiles: Selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Brown, R.D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Selenium, which is one of the chalcogen elements in group 16 (or 6A) of the periodic table, is a semiconductor that is chemically similar to sulfur for which it substitutes in many minerals and synthetic compounds. It is a byproduct of copper refining and, to a much lesser extent, lead refining. It is used in many applications, the major ones being a decolorizer for glass, a metallurgical additive to free-machining varieties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys, a constituent in cadmium sulfoselenide pigments, a photoreceptor in xerographic copiers, and a semiconductor in electrical rectifiers and photocells. Refined selenium amounting to more than 1,800 metric tons (t) was produced by 14 countries in 2000. Japan, Canada, the United States, and Belgium, which were the four largest producers, accounted for nearly 85 percent of world production. An estimated 250 t of the world total is secondary selenium, which is recovered from scrapped xerographic copier drums and selenium rectifiers; the selenium in nearly all other uses is dissipated (not recoverable as waste or scrap). The present selenium reserve bases for the United States and the world (including the United States), which are associated with copper deposits, are expected to be able to satisfy demand for selenium for several decades without difficulty.

  6. Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

    2011-02-01

    The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

  7. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

  8. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Iber, C; Sirr, S

    1988-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed because of the lack of specificity of clinical signs and symptoms. PE shares many of the clinical features of pneumonia and is therefore often unrecognized in elderly patients who present with low-grade fever, modest leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates. Assessment of clinical risk factors increases the usefulness of diagnostic tests. The accuracy of diagnosis is improved if specific tests are performed. Ventilation-perfusion lung scans, noninvasive or contrast venography, and pulmonary angiography increase the likelihood of correct diagnosis. Since pulmonary angiography is a relatively low-risk procedure, it should be performed in most patients suspected of having PE who have nondiagnostic lung scans and negative lower extremity venous studies. PMID:3055112

  9. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough, shortness of breath, fatigue and low blood oxygen levels. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by an ... breath. Your health care provider may notice the oxygen levels in your blood drop when you walk. ...

  10. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibrosis (scarring or thickening of the lung tissue) Sarcoidosis and scleroderma Muscular weakness can also cause abnormal ... Emphysema Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  11. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Facts about Pulmonary Atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Pulmonary Atresia Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Click here to view a ...

  13. Pulmonary rehabilitation in adults.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation can help people with long-term lung conditions whose symptoms, such as breathlessness and being easily tired out by daily activities, seriously impact their lives. PMID:27408642

  14. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  15. Unilateral Absence of the Left Pulmonary Artery With an Associated Vascular Anomaly in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Letter, Haley; Derrick, Edward; Koury, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare malformation that commonly requires childhood intervention secondary to associated congenital cardiovascular anomalies. We present an uncommon case of left-sided agenesis with an associated right-sided aortic arch and significant hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung. Additionally, there is radiographic evidence of emphysema and pulmonary artery hypertension. Pulmonary artery agenesis is not a common entity, but should be considered in adult patients presenting with recurrent pneumonias and radiographic evidence suggestive of pulmonary hypoplasia. A prompt diagnosis is beneficial for affected individuals who may be candidates for a revascularization procedure or embolization of collaterals. Earlier diagnosis also allows for proper management and follow-up care, considering pulmonary artery hypertension is a severe complication of pulmonary artery agenesis. PMID:27081588

  16. Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treated with riociguat: A case study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Ochoa-Parra, Nuria; Navas-Tejedor, Paula; Morán-Fernández, Laura; Gómez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2015-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, WHO functional class III-IV and exercise-related syncope. Transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography pulmonary angiography were performed, leading to a diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. She was referred to our pulmonary hypertension unit, where a complete study was performed, including ventilation/perfusion scan, which was consistent with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Risk factors for this condition were excluded and therapeutic options were evaluated. Imaging studies showed distal pulmonary disease so pulmonary endarterectomy was rejected. Further therapeutic options were evaluated and the patient was subsequently enrolled in an open-label uncontrolled trial with riociguat. After one year of treatment, significant improvement in functional class, 6-minute walk test and NT-proBNP were seen, without significant secondary effects. PMID:26632111

  17. Familial pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Borie, R; Kannengiesser, C; Nathan, N; Tabèze, L; Pradère, P; Crestani, B

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary fibrosis in numerous individuals from the same family suggests a genetic cause for the disease. During the last 10 years, mutations involving proteins from the telomerase complex and from the surfactant system have been identified in association with pulmonary fibrosis. Mutations of TERT, the coding gene for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, are the most frequently identified mutations and are present in 15% of cases of familial pulmonary fibrosis. Other mutations (TERC, surfactant proteins genes) are only rarely evidenced in adults. Patients with mutations involving the telomerase complex may present with pulmonary fibrosis, hematologic, cutaneous or liver diseases. Other genetic variations associated with pulmonary fibrosis such as a polymorphism in the promoter of MUC5B or a polymorphism in TERT have been recently described, and could be considered to be part of a polygenic transmission. Evidence for mutations associated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis raises numerous clinical questions from establishing a diagnosis, providing counselling to deciding on therapy, and requires specific studies. From a pathophysiological point of view, the function of the genes highlights the central role of alveolar epithelium and aging in fibrogenesis. PMID:25596800

  18. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  19. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. The model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  20. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  1. REACTIVE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN SPECIES IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Diana M.; Frizzell, Sheila; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular disease can be defined as either a disease affecting the pulmonary capillaries and pulmonary arterioles, termed pulmonary arterial hypertension, or as a disease affecting the left ventricle, called pulmonary venous hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary circulation characterized by endothelial dysfunction, as well as intimal and smooth muscle proliferation. Progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure impair the performance of the right ventricle, resulting in declining cardiac output, reduced exercise capacity, right heart failure, and ultimately death. While the primary and heritable forms of the disease are thought to affect over 5,000 patients in the U.S., the disease can occur secondary to congenital heart disease, most advanced lung diseases, and many systemic diseases. Multiple studies implicate oxidative stress in the development of PAH. Further, this oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways, whereby bioavailable NO is decreased and ROS and RNS production are increased. Many canonical ROS and NO signaling pathways are simultaneously disrupted in PAH, with increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and xanthine oxidoreductase, uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and reduction in mitochondrial number, as well as impaired mitochondrial function. Upstream dysregulation of ROS/NO redox homeostasis impairs vascular tone and contributes to the pathological activation of anti-apoptotic and mitogenic pathways, leading to cell proliferation and obliteration of the vasculature. This manuscript will review the available data regarding the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, and provide a description of targeted therapies

  2. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  3. Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Aspergilloma-Coexistence of Two Rare Sequelae of Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Manish; Saxena, Puneet; Singh, Dharmender; Sashindran, V K

    2016-06-01

    We report a 42 year old non-smoker male who presented with progressive exertional dyspnoea, productive cough with streaky hemoptysis and progressive pedal edema. His physical examination, ECG, chest X-ray and 2D-ECHO revealed features suggestive of right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. On further evaluation for the cause of pulmonary hypertension, his CT pulmonary angiography revealed features of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism with calcified thrombus in the main pulmonary artery along with pulmonary hypertension. Incidentally the CT also revealed a cavity in the right lung with soft tissue within it. A, trans-thoracic needle aspiration of this tissue was suggestive of an aspergilloma. This is a rare case report of co-existence of two uncommon complications of pulmonary embolism-chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary Aspergilloma in the same patient. PMID:27408402

  5. High-altitude disorders: pulmonary hypertension: pulmonary vascular disease: the global perspective.

    PubMed

    Pasha, M A Qadar; Newman, John H

    2010-06-01

    Globally, it is estimated that > 140 million people live at a high altitude (HA), defined as > 2,500 m (8,200 ft), and that countless others sojourn to the mountains for work, travel, and sport. The distribution of exposure to HA is worldwide, including 35 million in the Andes and > 80 million in Asia, including China and central Asia. HA stress primarily is due to the hypoxia of low atmospheric pressure, but dry air, intense solar radiation, extreme cold, and exercise contribute to acute and chronic disorders. The acute disorders are acute mountain sickness (also known as soroche), HA cerebral edema, and HA pulmonary edema (HAPE). Of these, HAPE is highly correlated with acute pulmonary hypertension. The first chronic syndrome described in HA dwellers in Peru was chronic mountain sickness (Monge disease), which has a large component of relative hypoventilation and secondary erythrocytosis. The prevalence of chronic mountain sickness in HA dwellers ranges from 1.2% in native Tibetans to 5.6% in Chinese Han; 6% to 8% in male residents of La Paz, Bolivia; and 15.6% in the Andes. Subacute mountain sickness is an exaggerated pulmonary hypertensive response to HA hypoxia occurring over months, most often in infants and very young children. Chronic pulmonary hypertension with heart failure but without hypoventilation is seen in Asia. Not only does HA pulmonary hypertension exact health consequences for the millions affected, but also the mechanisms of disease relate to pulmonary hypertension associated with multiple other disorders. Genetic understanding of these disorders is in its infancy. PMID:20522576

  6. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function. The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities. The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction. The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P < 0.001). The frequency of infarction increased linearly with increasing height, and decreased with increasing BMI. In logistic regression, the covariates significantly associated with the probability of infarction were age, body height, BMI, and current smoking. The risk of infarction grew with age, peaked at approximately age 40, and decreased afterwards. Increasing body height and current smoking were significant amplifiers of the risk of infarction, whereas increasing BMI appeared to confer some protection. Our data indicate that pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  7. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction.

    PubMed

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-10-01

    In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function.The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities.The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction.The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P < 0.001). The frequency of infarction increased linearly with increasing height, and decreased with increasing BMI. In logistic regression, the covariates significantly associated with the probability of infarction were age, body height, BMI, and current smoking. The risk of infarction grew with age, peaked at approximately age 40, and decreased afterwards. Increasing body height and current smoking were significant amplifiers of the risk of infarction, whereas increasing BMI appeared to confer some protection.Our data indicate that pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  8. An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.

    1983-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

  9. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a marble worker.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Berna Botan; Akgedik, Recep; Akgedik, Sukran; Nazaroglu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rarely seen disease of the alveoli, characterized by accumulation of proteinous material, which stains positive with periodic acid Schiff, in the alveoli. Secondary PAP may develop as a result of occupational exposure to materials such as silica and indium. In the paper, together with a review of the relevant literature, we present an uncommon case of a 47-year old male, marble worker who was diagnosed with PAP associated with a 12-year history of exposure to marble dust. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):871-876. PMID:27518894

  10. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  11. Pulmonary vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Kenneth W; Flake, Alan W

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary vascular malformations have historically been diagnosed in a wide range of age groups, but the extensive use of prenatal imaging studies has resulted in the majority of lesions being diagnosed in utero. Among this group of lesions, bronchopulmonary sequestrations (BPS), hybrid lesions with both congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and BPS, aberrant systemic vascular anastomoses, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM), are the most common. The biologic behavior of these lesions and the subsequent therapy is, in large part, determined by the age of the patient at diagnosis. In the fetus, large BPS or hybrid lesions can result in fetal hydrops and in utero fetal demise. In the perinatal period, pulmonary hypoplasia from the mass effect or air trapping within the cystic component of hybrid lesions can result in life-threatening respiratory distress. In the postnatal period, communication of the lesion with the aero-digestive system can result in recurrent pneumonia. Alternatively, increased pulmonary blood flow from the systemic arterial supply can result in hemorrhage, hemoptysis, or high output cardiac failure. In addition, there have been several reports of malignant degeneration. Finally, the broad spectrum encompassed by these lesions makes classification and subsequent communication of the lesions confusing and difficult. This paper will review the components of these lesions, their associated anomalies, the diagnosis and natural history, and finally, current concepts in the management of pulmonary vascular malformations. PMID:18158137

  12. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement in a Carcinoid Heart

    PubMed Central

    Loyalka, Pranav; Schechter, Michael; Nascimbene, Angelo; Raman, Ajay Sundara; Ilieascu, Cezar A.; Gregoric, Igor D.

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid heart disease presents as right-sided heart failure attributable to the dysfunction of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves. Although surgical valve replacement is the mainstay of treatment when patients become symptomatic, it is associated with substantial perioperative mortality rates. We present a case of severe pulmonary valve stenosis secondary to carcinoid heart disease, treated successfully with percutaneous valve replacement. A 67-year-old man with severe pulmonary valve stenosis was referred to our center for pulmonary valve replacement. The patient had a history of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the small bowel with carcinoid syndrome, carcinoid heart disease, and tricuspid valve regurgitation previously treated with surgical valve replacement. Because of the patient's severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hostile chest anatomy seen on a computed tomographic scan dating from previous cardiothoracic surgery, we considered off-label percutaneous valve replacement a viable alternative to open-heart surgery. A 29-mm Edwards Sapien XT valve was successfully deployed over the native pulmonary valve. There were no adverse sequelae after the procedure, and the patient was discharged from the hospital the next day. This case report shows that percutaneous valve replacement can be a valid option in carcinoid heart disease patients who are not amenable to surgical valve replacement. PMID:27547148

  13. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staitieh, Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that makes it difficult to empty air out of the lungs. This difficulty in ...

  15. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve. Some drug-induced lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, may never go away. ... Complications that may develop include: Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis Hypoxemia (low blood oxygen) Respiratory failure

  16. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray.

  17. Alterations in lung arginine metabolism in lambs with pulmonary hypertension associated with increased pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sud, Neetu; Wiseman, Dean A.; Tian, Jing; Rehmani, Imran; Datar, Sanjeev; Oishi, Peter; Fratz, Sohrab; Venema, Richard C.; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling in children and animal models with congenital heart defects and increased pulmonary blood flow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations remain incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if early changes in arginine metabolic pathways could play a role in the reduced NO signaling demonstrated in our lamb model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt lambs). The activities of the arginine recycling enzymes, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) were both decreased in lung tissues of Shunt lambs while arginase activity was increased. Associated with these alterations, lung L-arginine levels were decreased. These changes correlated with an increase in NO synthase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to decreased NO signaling in Shunt lambs and suggests that altered arginine metabolism may play a role in the development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:19818875

  18. Primary Pulmonary Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Liang, Qi-Lian; Jiang, Liang; Liu, Qiu-Long; Ou, Wen-Ting; Li, Da-Heng; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Yuan, Gao-Le

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary pulmonary paraganglioma is a rare disease. We report a case of a 37-year old female patient with space-occupying lesions in the right lower pulmonary lobe during a routine examination without any symptoms. The patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) resection of the right middle lobe and dissection of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes under general anesthesia. She recovered without recrudescence. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Accurate diagnosis requires pathological examination, and immunohistochemical test is particularly important. Complete resection is the first treatment option for solitary primary pulmonary paraganglioma; however, VATS is a better technique. Given the high local control rates and few complications of radiotherapy, it is considered as a standard treatment. PMID:26252294

  19. [Diffuse Pulmonary Ossification].

    PubMed

    Avsar, K; Behr, J; Morresi-Hauf, A

    2016-04-01

    Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) represents an uncommon condition usually associated with different underlying pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. In this work, we discuss eleven patients of our clinic with the diagnosis of a diffuse pulmonary ossification. We focus on histological changes in the surrounding lung tissue. Clinical and radiological findings were analysed. The aim of the study is to collect data for a better understanding of this condition, especially in association with interstitial lung disease.Three patients with interstitial lung disease had histological findings of UIP. The follow-up data of these patients showed a benign course of the disease.The analysis of the clinical data yielded a very heterogenous group. Regarding these fact we assume, that DPO is not an own entity, but a pathological epiphenomenon in the context of different conditions, possibly with pathogenetic overlap. PMID:26829606

  20. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema.

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Dixon, A K; Roberton, N R

    1984-01-01

    Forty one of 210 preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome in a three year period had radiological evidence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. The development of this condition was significantly associated with malpositioning of the endotracheal tube in a main bronchus and the use of high peak pressure ventilation. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema was associated with a significant increase in the number of pneumothoraces, intraventricular haemorrhages, and the need for prolonged respiratory support, but did not increase mortality. Although in 12 infants in whom fast rate ventilation was used there was a significant reduction in the number of pneumothoraces, outcome was not altered in any other way. Fast rate ventilation may be of greater benefit if initiated before the development of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6508339

  1. [Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].

    PubMed

    Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles. PMID:24461445

  2. Textures of Secondary Alteration Zones in Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Longazo, T. G.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Gibson, E. K.

    2001-01-01

    Textures of secondary minerals in cracks in Nakhla are described and illustrated with high resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and BSE. Some Nakhla textures resemble alteration textures of glass in seafloor basalts. Criteria for inorganic vs. biogenic alteration are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Severe Pulmonary Involvement in Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Jayakrishnan, B; Ben Abid, Fatma; Balkhair, Abdullah; Alkaabi, Juma K.; Al-Rawas, Omar A.; George, Jojy; Al-Zeedy, Khalfan

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary complications in leptospirosis, though common, are often unrecognized in a non-endemic area. We report here a patient with leptospirosis and severe pulmonary involvement who was treated with meropenem (1 g every 8 hours), moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily), and high doses of corticosteroids. Systemic steroids were continued for 3 months because of persistent pulmonary lesions. PMID:23862041

  4. Scientists observe fungi-dissolving minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) live in moist dark recesses and never see daylight. They cling to the roots of trees in boreal forests, break down soil minerals and supply essential elements and nutrients to the trees. Along the way, they play a distinct but not yet well-understood role in bioweathering, a process in which water, air, and organisms interact to break down soil minerals within the first few meters of Earth's surface. In a synthetically designed and controlled laboratory environment, Gazzè et al. cultured EMF; the researchers monitored the process as the fungi colonized a soil mineral on a petri dish over a period of 7 months. The authors then extracted individual grains of chlorite, a common soil-forming clay mineral, and cleaned the mineral surfaces to look at how the fungi had affected the mineral surfaces they came in contact with. Using atomic force microscopy, a specialized process that allows observations of three-dimensional features at nanometer (10-9 meter) scales, the authors found numerous primary channels, of the order of a micron (10-6 meters) in width and up to 50 nanometers in depth, from which smaller secondary channels extended outward. The network of channels resembled a herringbone-like pattern—evidence of dissolution by EMF.

  5. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  6. Pulmonary disease in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Trisolini, Rocco; Tura, Sante

    2002-03-01

    Patients with hematologic neoplasms frequently experience pulmonary disease. The possibility of a malignant involvement of the lung parenchyma is a well recognized and not unusual event, secondary spread due to lymphoproliferative disorders being the most common situation. Furthermore, the development and the advances in treatment options such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy and/or combined drug regimen use have significantly widened the spectrum of non-neoplastic pulmonary complications that can crop up in these patients. Infections, drug/radiation-induced toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related complications account by now for most pulmonary problems in hematologic patients and represent a difficult challenge both in diagnostic and in therapeutic terms for the clinician. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinicopathologic spectrum of lung diseases which can occur in the setting of hematologic malignancies. A particular emphasis is devoted to the diagnostic approach, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) assuming a key role since different patterns of CT abnormalities are associated with a different yield of the available diagnostic tools and may help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. PMID:12002382

  7. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinay; Berkelhamer, Sara; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood and hypoxemia. PPHN is often secondary to parenchymal lung disease (such as meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome) or lung hypoplasia (with congenital diaphragmatic hernia or oligohydramnios) but can also be idiopathic. The diagnosis of PPHN is based on clinical evidence of labile hypoxemia often associated with differential cyanosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by the echocardiographic demonstration of - (a) right-to-left or bidirectional shunt at the ductus or foramen ovale and/or, (b) flattening or leftward deviation of the interventricular septum and/or, (c) tricuspid regurgitation, and finally (d) absence of structural heart disease. Management strategies include optimal oxygenation, avoiding respiratory and metabolic acidosis, blood pressure stabilization, sedation and pulmonary vasodilator therapy. Failure of these measures would lead to consideration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); however decreased need for this rescue therapy has been documented with advances in medical management. While trends also note improved survival, long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities such as deafness and learning disabilities remain a concern in many infants with severe PPHN. Funded by: 1R01HD072929-0 (SL). PMID:27057331

  8. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: the End Result of Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Witkin, Alison S; Channick, Richard N

    2015-08-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) occurs when a pulmonary embolism fails to undergo complete thrombolysis leading to vascular occlusion and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the fact that CTEPH is a potential consequence of pulmonary embolism, diagnosis requires a high degree of vigilance as many patients will not have a history of thromboembolic disease. The ventilation perfusion scan is used to evaluate for the possibility of CTEPH although right heart catheterization and pulmonary artery angiogram are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is the first-line treatment for patients who are surgical candidates. Recently, riociguat has been approved for patients with nonsurgical disease or residual pulmonary hypertension despite surgical intervention. This review describes the pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of CTEPH. PMID:26099554

  9. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  10. Preventing, Recognizing, Treating Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Arthur

    1965-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism occurs in three forms: (1) Asymptomatic “silent” embolization of lungs; (2) pulmonary infarction; and (3) massive pulmonary embolization leading to acute cor pulmonale. The commonest source of emboli are veins of the lower extremities and of the pelvic organs. The prevention and the treatment of pulmonary embolism overlap, for except for the heroic procedure of pulmonary embolectomy, treatment is equivalent to the prevention of further emboli. The diagnosis may be easy in typical cases and very difficult in others. PMID:14341314

  11. Rocks, minerals, and a dusty world

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.

    1993-12-31

    The Earth`s troposphere and hydrosphere contain abundant naturally generated dust. The ultimate source materials from which the terrestrially produced dust is generated are the various rock types exposed at the Earth`s surface. Natural dust is a composite of (1) lithic, primary mineral grains; (2) mineral grains formed by secondary chemical reactions; (3) volcanic ash and dust; (4) salts from sea sprays; (5) extra-terrestrial dust; and (6) biologic materials. In this paper the various pathways to the natural generation of dust (via the hydrologic cycle) will be discussed, and two geologically well-known natural dust sources will be described, paying particular attention to quantitative measurements of the dusts from these areas. General dust studies that provide data on possibly global background levels will be presented as well.. A few general aspects of the mineralogical characterization of dust particles and a discussion of some of the mineralogy of several mineral groups are first presented. 89 refs., 39 figs.

  12. Pulmonary edema following scorpion envenomation: mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chaari, Anis; Dammak, Hassen; Samet, Mohamed; Chtara, Kamilia; Chelly, Hedi; Ben Hamida, Chokri; Kallel, Hatem; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2013-01-10

    Scorpion envenomation is common in tropical and subtropical regions. Cardio-respiratory manifestations, mainly cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema, are the leading causes of death after scorpion envenomation. The mechanism of pulmonary edema remains unclear and contradictory conclusions were published. However, most publications confirm that pulmonary edema has been attributed to acute left ventricular failure. Cardiac failure can result from massive release of catecholamines, myocardial damage induced by the venom or myocardial ischemia. Factors usually associated with the diagnosis of pulmonary edema were young age, tachypnea, agitation, sweating, or the presence of high plasma protein concentrations. Treatment of scorpion envenomation has two components: antivenom administration and supportive care. The latter mainly targets hemodynamic impairment and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In Latin America, and India, the use of Prazosin is recommended for treatment of pulmonary edema because pulmonary edema is associated with arterial hypertension. However, in North Africa, scorpion leads to cardiac failure with systolic dysfunction with normal vascular resistance and dobutamine was recommended. Dobutamine infusion should be used as soon as we have enough evidence suggesting the presence of pulmonary edema, since it has been demonstrated that scorpion envenomation can result in pulmonary edema secondary to acute left ventricular failure. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation can be required. PMID:22075406

  13. Pulmonary Renal Syndrome After Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Mara-Koosham, Gopi; Stoltze, Karl; Aday, Jeffrey; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary renal syndrome is a class of small vessel vasculitides that are characterized by the dual presentation of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary renal syndrome has multiple etiologies, but its development has been rarely reported following infection with group A streptococcus. We present the case of a 36-year-old Native American male who was transferred to our facility due to refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. He had been diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 2 weeks prior to admission. Given the presence of hemoptysis, bronchoscopy was performed and was consistent with DAH. Urinalysis demonstrated hematuria and proteinuria, in the setting of elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, antistreptolysin O titer was positive. Given the constellation of laboratory findings and history of streptococcal pharyngitis, the patient was diagnosed with PRS secondary to streptococcal infection. High-dose methylprednisolone was initiated with concomitant plasmapheresis. He was extubated successfully after his respiratory status improved and was eventually discharged home after making a full recovery within 2 weeks after admission. This case illustrates the importance of clinically relevant sequelae of streptococcal infection as well as the appropriate treatment of PRS secondary to streptococcal pharyngitis with plasmapheresis and intravenous corticosteroids. PMID:27231692

  14. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... 844.825.5733) to speak with a representative today. LEARN MORE It's Global PF Awareness Month! Download the toolkit to learn ... 19 NEW SITES The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation (PFF) today announced the expansion of the PFF Care Center Network with the selection of 19 additional sites, bringing the total number to 40 in 27 states. More Announcements ... SEP 12 ...

  15. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Shumaila; El Damati, Ahmed; El Baz, Ayman; Alsayyah, Ahmed; ElSharkawy, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is a rare disease. Herein, we report a case of PPHL with diagnostic concerns encountered during initial evaluation which is of paramount importance to keep the differential diagnosis in cases with high index of suspicion for this rare entity. PMID:26788271

  16. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rogerio; Jardim, Carlos; Humbert, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), formerly called primary pulmonary hypertension, is a rare disease (incidence and prevalence rates of approximately one and six cases per million inhabitants, respectively) with different clinical phenotypes. A group of diverse conditions manifest pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and share similar pathological and/or clinical findings with IPAH. By definition, IPAH is diagnosed only after alternative diagnoses have been ruled out. Extensive investigation is needed to determine if PAH is associated with thyroid diseases, infectious diseases, autoimmune conditions, exposure to certain drugs (particularly anorexigens), certain genetic mutations, and so on. The presence of genetic abnormalities and risk factors (such as specific drug exposures) reinforces the "multiple hit" concept for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Fortunately, within the past two decades, therapeutic options have become available for IPAH, resulting in improved survival and clinical outcomes. At least seven different compounds have been registered for PAH treatment. However, even with aggressive PAH-specific therapy, mortality rates remain high (∼40% at 5 years). Given the high mortality rates, the use of combinations of agents that work by different pathways has been advocated (either as "add-on" therapy or initial "up front" therapy). Further, new therapeutic agents and treatment strategies are on the near horizon, aiming to further improve survival from the remarkable progress already seen. PMID:24037625

  17. Immunoreactivity in pulmonary echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Dakov, I.; Kosturkova, M.; Tenev, S.; Dimitrov, A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison was made of the diagnostic value of five immunological tests—complement fixation (CF), latex agglutination (LA), bentonite flocculation (BF), passive haemagglutination (PHA), and intradermal (ID)—in patients operated on for pulmonary echinococcosis. The sensitivity of all five tests was significantly lower in the patients with pulmonary echinococcosis than in a comparable group with liver echinococcosis. Some 252 patients with miscellaneous nonhydatid diseases and parasitic infections were also tested; nonspecific reactions were highest in the ID and CF tests and lowest in the LA and BF tests. None of the serological tests was significantly more sensitive than the others, although the CF test was somewhat less sensitive and therefore probably has the least diagnostic value in pulmonary echinococcosis. The ID test showed a significantly higher sensitivity than any of the serological tests. The difficulties encountered in the immunodiagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease are discussed and it is recommended that at least two serological methods (PHA and either LA or BF) and the ID test should be used in each case. PMID:317251

  18. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  19. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  20. SECONDARY OSTEOPOROSIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal; Canalis, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by decreased bone mineral density and compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fractures. Although idiopathic osteoporosis is the most common form of osteoporosis, secondary factors may contribute to the bone loss and increased fracture risk in patients presenting with fragility fractures or osteoporosis. Several medical conditions and medications significantly increase the risk for bone loss and skeletal fragility. This review focuses on some of the common causes of osteoporosis, addressing the underlying mechanisms, diagnostic approach and treatment of low bone mass in the presence of these conditions. PMID:25971649

  1. Glue embolism: a rare cause of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Pervez; Haqqi, Syed Afzal-ul-Haq; Shaikh, Hafeezullah; Wakani, Asif J

    2011-09-01

    N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is widely used to sclerose bleeding gastric varices. We report the case of a 65-year-old lady, known case of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis C infection, who presented to the emergency department with coffee ground vomiting and melena for four days. Gastroscopy showed non-bleeding small esophageal varices, mild portal hypertensive gastropathy and a large gastric fundal varix. Injection sclerotherapy was completed successfully and haemostasis was secured. During the procedure, she was hemodynamically stable with an oxygen saturation of 98%. Immediately after the procedure, she went into cardiopulmonary arrest; cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started, but she could not be revived. A provisional diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was made. X-ray chest showed linear hyperdense shadows in both pulmonary arteries and in some of their branches, which were not seen on pre-procedural chest X-ray. The patient died of massive pulmonary embolism as confirmed on X-ray chest. PMID:21914421

  2. Pulmonary embolism in an immunocompetent patient with acute cytomegalovirus colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs commonly in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, but is usually asymptomatic in the latter. Vascular events associated with acute CMV infection have been described, but are rare. Hence, such events are rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary embolism secondary to acute CMV colitis in an immunocompetent 78-year-old man. The patient presented with fever and diarrhea. Colonic ulcers were diagnosed based on colonoscopy findings, and CMV was the proven etiology on pathological examination. The patient subsequently experienced acute respiratory failure. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed based on the chest radiography and computed tomography findings. A diagnosis of acute CMV colitis complicated by pulmonary embolism was made. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin and intravenous ganciclovir. PMID:27175121

  3. Current readings: Percutaneous ablation for pulmonary metastatic disease.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Matthew T; Pomykala, Kelsey L; Suh, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous image-guided ablation is a technique for maintaining local control of metastatic lung lesions that may, in selected patients, confer a survival benefit over no treatment or systemic therapy alone. Although the currently accepted treatment for oligometastatic pulmonary disease is surgical resection, the existing body of literature, including the recent investigations reviewed within this article, supports a role for percutaneous ablation as an important and relatively safe therapeutic option for nonsurgical and in carefully selected surgical patients, conferring survival benefits competitive with surgical metastasectomy. Continued clinical investigations are needed to further understand the nuances of thermal technologies and applications to treat lung primary and secondary pulmonary malignancy, directly compare available therapeutic options and further define the role of percutaneous image-guided ablation in the treatment of pulmonary metastatic disease. PMID:25527018

  4. Chronic Left Lower Lobe Pulmonary Infiltrates During Military Deployment.

    PubMed

    Hunninghake, John C; Skabelund, Andrew J; Morris, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Deployment to Southwest Asia is associated with increased airborne hazards such as geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust, or air pollution. There are numerous ongoing studies to evaluate the potential effects of inhaled particulate matter on reported increases in acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. Providers need to be aware of potential causes of pulmonary disease such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, and vocal cord dysfunction that have been associated with deployment. Other pulmonary disorders such as interstitial lung disease are infrequently reported. Not all deployment-related respiratory complaints may result from deployment airborne hazards and a broad differential should be considered. We present the case of a military member with a prolonged deployment found to have lobar infiltrates secondary to pulmonary vein stenosis from treatment for atrial fibrillation. PMID:27483542

  5. Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Price, Paul A.; Toroian, Damon; Lim, Joo Eun

    2009-01-01

    One of our goals is to understand the mechanisms that deposit mineral within collagen fibrils, and as a first step we recently determined the size exclusion characteristics of the fibril. This study revealed that apatite crystals up to 12 unit cells in size can access the water within the fibril, whereas molecules larger than a 40-kDa protein are excluded. Based on these observations, we proposed a novel mechanism for fibril mineralization: that macromolecular inhibitors of apatite growth favor fibril mineralization by selectively inhibiting crystal growth in the solution outside of the fibril. To test this mechanism, we developed a system in which crystal formation is driven by homogeneous nucleation at high calcium phosphate concentration and the only macromolecule in solution is fetuin, a 48-kDa inhibitor of apatite growth. Our experiments with this system demonstrated that fetuin determines the location of mineral growth; in the presence of fetuin mineral grows exclusively within the fibril, whereas in its absence mineral grows in solution outside the fibril. Additional experiments showed that fetuin is also able to localize calcification to the interior of synthetic matrices that have size exclusion characteristics similar to those of collagen and that it does so by selectively inhibiting mineral growth outside of these matrices. We termed this new calcification mechanism “mineralization by inhibitor exclusion,” the selective mineralization of a matrix using a macromolecular inhibitor of mineral growth that is excluded from that matrix. Future studies will be needed to evaluate the possible role of this mechanism in bone mineralization. PMID:19414589

  6. Surgical treatment for pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Delarue, N C; Woolf, C R; Sanders, D E; Pearson, F G; Henderson, R D; Cooper, J D; Nelems, J M

    1977-05-01

    Three in-vivo observations stimulated interest in surgical treatment for emphysema: (a) the destructive changes are rarely generalized, (b) the central portions of the lungs are frequently less seriously affected, and (c) marginal folding produces obstructive change in the more normal lung tissue. If destroyed avascular space-occupying areas can be removed, the compressed lung tissue may be stretched to fill pleural space in a functionally effective fashion. Residual elastic tissue will them maintain patency of terminal bronchioles. Preoperatively the extent of the destructive change can be defined most accurately by pulmonary angiography, and zones of functioning capilary circulation can be identified. Forty-seven patients with multifocal space-occupying emphysematous change have been treated surgically. The postoperative mortality was 21% but worthwhile long-term improvement has been obtained in 45% of patients presenting with disabling dyspnea. In these patients, surgical treatment warrants consideration if significant space occupation accompanies the bullous disease, provided alveolar vascularization can be demonstrated in the compressed adjacent normal lung tissue. Limited resections that preserve all vascularized and potentially functioning lung tissue are preferable. It is essential that obliteration of the hemithorax be obtained promptly in view of the high incidence of postoperative complications requiring secondary operative procedures, if 'leaks' and residual spaces are allowed to persist. Postoperative care in a respiratory intensive care unit is mandatory. PMID:870155

  7. Pulmonary function in space.

    PubMed

    West, J B; Elliott, A R; Guy, H J; Prisk, G K

    1997-06-25

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth. PMID:9200637

  8. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  9. IREB2 and GALC are associated with pulmonary artery enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10(-8); versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10(-9)). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10(-8)). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  10. IREB2 and GALC Are Associated with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Wells, J. Michael; Dransfield, Mark T.; Bowler, Russell P.; Lynch, David A.; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10−8; versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10−9). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10−8). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  11. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  12. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  13. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  14. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  15. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  16. Inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin and nitric oxide as selective pulmonary vasodilators in ARDS--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, P V; Blythe, D; Webb, S A

    1996-10-01

    Nitric oxide 10 ppm and inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin 50 ng/kg/min were compared as selective pulmonary vasodilators in five patients with hypoxaemia secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neither agent resulted in systemic haemodynamic changes, indicating true pulmonary selectivity. Inhaled aerolized prostacyclin improved oxygenation to a degree comparable to nitric oxide, as measured by the arterial alveolar oxygen partial pressure gradient and shunt fraction. PMID:8909667

  17. Clinical characteristics of 53 dogs with Doppler-derived evidence of pulmonary hypertension: 1992-1996.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Boon, J; Orton, E C

    1999-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension occurs as a primary or secondary disorder of the pulmonary vasculature. Doppler echocardiography provides a noninvasive tool for the estimation of pulmonary arterial pressure when tricuspid regurgitation or pulmonic insufficiency is present. The cardiology database at Colorado State University was reviewed, and echocardiographic records from cases diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension were evaluated. Application of the modified Bernoulli equation to the maximal instantaneous velocity of a right-sided regurgitant jet provided evidence of pulmonary hypertension in 53 dogs over a 4-year period. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity > or = 2.8 m/second or pulmonic insufficiency velocity > or = 2.2 m/second was considered abnormal and indicative of pulmonary hypertension. Tricuspid regurgitant gradients in 51 dogs ranged from 32 to 145 mm Hg (mean, 63.0 mm Hg; median, 57.0 mm Hg; 25th-75th percentiles, 45.2-76.5 mm Hg). Pulmonic insufficiency gradients in 8 dogs ranged from 20 to 100 mm Hg (mean, 59.5 mm Hg; median, 61.5 mm Hg; 25th-75th percentiles, 32.0-84.5 mm Hg). Affected dogs ranged in age from 2 months to 16 years. Clinical signs were characteristic of cardiopulmonary disease, but a relatively high frequency of syncope was noted (12 of 53 dogs, 23%). Pulmonary hypertension was probably due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance in 23 dogs, pulmonary overcirculation in 2 dogs, and pulmonary venous hypertension in 23 dogs. Five dogs lacked a clinically recognizable cardiopulmonary cause of pulmonary vascular disease. Our results suggest that pulmonary hypertension can occur as a complication of commonly encountered cardiopulmonary diseases, and that Doppler echocardiography can facilitate recognition of this condition. PMID:10499728

  18. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  19. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  20. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  1. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  2. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  3. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  6. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials

  7. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  8. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  9. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  10. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  11. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2004-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  12. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  13. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  14. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  15. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  16. [Therapeutic strategy for secondary lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Norio; Takahashi, Hidenobu; Kinoshita, Masao; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2010-10-01

    Among 659 resected lung cancer cases from 1994 to 2009, 57 secondary lung cancers (8.6%) were evaluated. The secondary tumors were synchronous, located in the same lobe in 10, the ipsilateral different lobe in 17, and the contralateral lobe in 13, or metachronous, located in the contralateral lobe in 15, and the ipsilateral different lobe in 5. Both the tumors were removed in 49 cases. Chemotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), photo dynamic therapy (PDT), or best supportive care (BSC) was selected after a lobectomy or segmentectomy of the 1st tumor in 8 cases considering the patient's condition. Lobectomy or segmentectomy should be indicated for the 1st tumor considering curability. Bilobectomy is adopted for multiple cancers involving middle lobe. According to the operability or pulmonary function, the same strategy is adopted for secondary cancer. Considering the patient's condition, possibility of metastases and the tumor location and histologic type, partial resection, SRT, PDT, or BSC could be selected. PMID:20954350

  17. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  18. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  19. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  20. When a pulmonary embolism is not a pulmonary embolism: a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Muganlinskaya, Nargiz; Guzman, Amanda; Dahagam, Chanukya; Selinger, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial leiomyosarcomas account for up to 21% of vascular leiomyosarcomas, with 56% of arterial leiomyosarcomas occurring in the pulmonary artery. While isolated cases of primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma document survival up to 36 months after treatment, these uncommon, aggressive tumors are highly lethal, with 1-year survival estimated at 20% from the onset of symptoms. We discuss a rare case of a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma that was originally diagnosed as a pulmonary embolism (PE). A 72-year-old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with ‘saddle pulmonary embolism’ based on computerized tomographic angiography of the chest 2 months prior to admission and placed on anticoagulation. Dyspnea escalated, and serial computed tomography scans showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary emboli involving the right and left main pulmonary arteries with extension into the right and left upper and lower lobe branches. An echocardiogram on admission showed severe pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 82.9 mm Hg, and a severely enlarged right ventricle. Respiratory distress and multiorgan failure developed and, unfortunately, the patient expired. Autopsy showed a lobulated, yellow mass throughout the main pulmonary arteries measuring 13 cm in diameter. The mass extended into the parenchyma of the right upper lobe. On microscopy, the mass was consistent with a high-grade primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Median survival of patients with primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma without surgery is one and a half months, and mortality is usually due to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease commonly mistaken for PE. Thus, we recommend clinicians to suspect this malignancy when anticoagulation fails to relieve initial symptoms. In conclusion, early detection and suspicion of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma should be considered in patients refractory to anticoagulation, prompting initiation

  1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is

  2. Constraining kinetic rates of mineral reactions using reactive transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, E. W.; Wang, Z.; Ague, J.; Bercovici, D.; Cai, Z.; Karato, S.; Oristaglio, M. L.; Qiu, L.

    2012-12-01

    We use a reactive transport model to better understand results of experiments to obtain kinetic rates of mineral reactions in closed systems. Closed system experiments pose special challenges in that secondary minerals may form that modify the fluid composition evolution and may grow on the dissolving minerals thus armoring the surface. Even so, such closed system experiments provide critical data for what minerals would actually form in field applications and how coupled dissolution and precipitation mineral reactions are strongly linked. Comparing to experimental observations can test the reactive transport model, and the experimental observations can be better understood by comparing the results to the modeling. We apply a 0D end member of the model to understand the dissolution of single crystals of forsterite in a variety of settings (low pH, high pH, or NaHCO3 initial fluids, at 100 C and 1 bar, or 200 C and 150 bar). Depending on the initial conditions, we observe the precipitation of talc, brucite, amorphous silica, chrysotile, or magnesite, in various combinations. We compare simulation results to fluid compositions and the presence of secondary minerals experimentally sampled at various times. Insight from the simulations helped create an inverse model to extract the rates of forsterite dissolution and to create a simple forward model useful for exploring the influence of system size, secondary mineral surface areas, etc. Our reactive transport model allows secondary minerals to armor the forsterite surface, which can strongly decrease the dissolution rate as the system evolves. Tuning our model with experimentally derived rates and assuring relevant processes are included so as to reproduce experimental observations is necessary before upscaling to heterogeneous field conditions. The reactive transport model will be used for field-scale sequestration simulations and coupled with a geomechanical model that includes the influence of deformation.

  3. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D.; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A.; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A2BR or treatment with the A2BR antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A2BR attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A2BR activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A2BR antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease.—Karmouty-Quintana, H., Zhong, H., Acero, L., Weng, T., Melicoff, E., West, J. D., Hemnes, A., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackwell, T. S., Xia, Y., Johnston, R. A., Zeng, D., Belardinelli, L., Blackburn, M. R. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease. PMID:22415303

  4. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  5. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  6. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  7. Pulmonary Impedance and Pulmonary Doppler Trace in the Perioperative Period.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Claude; Van Orman, Jordan R

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and associated vascular changes may frequently accompany left-sided heart disease in the adult cardiac surgical population. Perioperative assessment of right ventricular function using echocardiography is well established. In general, understanding the constraints upon which the right ventricle must work is mostly limited to invasive monitoring consisting of pulmonary artery pressures, cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The latter 2 measurements assume constant (mean) flows and pressures. The systolic and diastolic pressures offer a limited understanding of the pulsatile constraints, which may become significant in disease. In normal physiology, pressure and flow waves display near-similar contours. When left atrial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are increased, changes in pulmonary arterial compliance will result in elevated impedance to right ventricular ejection. Pressure reflections, the result of strong reflectors, return more quickly in a noncompliant system. They augment pulmonary artery pressure causing a premature reduction in flow. As a result, pressure and flow waves will now be dissimilar. The impact of vascular changes on right ventricular ejection can be assessed using pulmonary artery Doppler spectral imaging. The normal flow velocity profile is rounded at its peak. Earlier peaks and premature reductions in flow will make it appear more triangular. In some cases, the flow pattern may appear notched. The measurement of acceleration time, the time from onset to peak flow velocity is an indicator of constraint to ejection; shortened times have been associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure. Understanding the changes in the pulmonary arterial system in disease and the physics of the hemodynamic alterations are essential in interpreting pulmonary artery Doppler data. Analyzing pulmonary artery Doppler flow signals may assist in the evaluation of right ventricular function in

  8. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  9. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  11. Endogenous lipoid pneumonia preceding diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Antoon, James W; Hernandez, Michelle L; Roehrs, Phillip A; Noah, Terry L; Leigh, Margaret W; Byerley, Julie S

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an under-reported and under-diagnosed condition, with a high percentage of cases found on autopsy or late stage disease. The etiology of PAP includes genetic, primary (anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies) and secondary (oncologic, rheumatologic, infectious, chemical and immunologic) causes. Here, we present the first reported pediatric case of endogenous lipoid pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonitis preceding the development of PAP. PMID:25103284

  12. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that is precipitated by hypertrophic pulmonary vascular remodeling of distal arterioles to increase pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in the absence of left heart, lung parenchymal, or thromboembolic disease. Despite available medical therapy, pulmonary artery remodeling and its attendant hemodynamic consequences result in right ventricular dysfunction, failure, and early death. To limit morbidity and mortality, attention has focused on identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant pulmonary artery remodeling to identify pathways for intervention. While there is a well-recognized heritable genetic component to PAH, there is also evidence of other genetic perturbations, including pulmonary vascular cell DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response, and variations in microRNA expression. These findings likely contribute, in part, to dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways akin to what is observed in cancer; changes in cellular metabolism, metabolic flux, and mitochondrial function; and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as key signaling pathways that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. This review will highlight recent advances in the field with an emphasis on the aforementioned molecular mechanisms as contributors to the pulmonary vascular disease pathophenotype. PMID:27213345

  15. [Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Popper, H H

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is regarded as a reactive proliferation of the dendritic Langerhans cell population stimulated by chronic tobacco-derived plant proteins due to incomplete combustion but can also occur in childhood as a tumor-like systemic disease. Currently, both these forms cannot be morphologically distinguished. In the lungs a nodular proliferation of Langerhans cells occurs in the bronchial mucosa and also peripherally in the alveolar septa with an accompanying infiltration by eosinophilic granulocytes and destruction of the bronchial wall. Langerhans cells can be selectively detected with antibodies against CD1a and langerin. In the reactive isolated pulmonary form, abstinence from tobacco smoking in most patients leads to regression of infiltration and improvement of symptoms. In high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) the small star-like scars can still be detected even after complete cessation of tobacco smoking. PMID:26289803

  16. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Yousef; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Balaan, Marvin; Lega, Mark; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic smoking-related lung disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. It carries an enormous economic burden on the health care system. This results in a significant social impact on affected patients and their families. In this article, we review COPD in general, critical care management of patients presenting with acute exacerbation of COPD, and methods of prevention. PMID:26919673

  17. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cudahy, Patrick; Shenoi, Sheela V

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  18. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  19. Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oudiz, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an attempt to define subtypes of PH based on clinical presentation, underlying physiology, and treatment implications. Five groups of PH have been defined, and the classification scheme has been refined over the years to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and management of PH. Understanding the classification of PH is paramount before embarking on a work-up of patients with PH or suspected PH because treatment and outcome can vary greatly. PMID:27443133

  20. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  1. Experimental modeling of pulmonary barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Siermontowski, Piotr; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Pedrycz, Agnieszka; Krefft, Karolina; Kaczerska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of pulmonary barotrauma include loss of consciousness or panic attack of a diver and emergence from underwater with a constricted glottis. However, numerous publications and our observations indicate that the majority of fully symptomatic cases of pulmonary barotrauma develop without any evident errors in the ascending technique. Therefore, an attempt was made to examine such cases using the experimental model of pulmonary barotrauma designed by the authors. The experiment was conducted on 32 rabbits divided into three groups: Group C--not subjected to any treatment; Group E--with induced pulmonary barotrauma; and Group CT--subjected only to compression followed by quick decompression. In Groups E and CT, the same morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were detected in the lungs, although their severity varied. Morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were observed both in the group where the tube was not ob-structed (E) and in animals exposed only to rapid decompression (CT) PMID:26094289

  2. Inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is an “umbrella term” used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24739042

  3. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  4. Pulmonary blastomycosis: radiologic manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Duncan, J.D.; Merten, D.F.; Gallis, H.A.; Putman, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Blastomycosis, an airborne fungal disease with the lung the portal of entry, is endemic to the central and south central areas of the United States. The disease occurs in patients who range from asymptomatic to acute pneumonia. Retrospective review of 27 cases from our institution revealed four well-defined radiographic patterns including air-space disease, nodular masses, interstitial disease, and cavitation. Air-space disease was the most frequent radiographic pattern in chronic blastomycosis with proved non-pulmonary disease; therefore, it cannot be regarded as indicative of early or acute blastomycosis. There was no relationship between the radiographic pattern and distribution, pulmonary symptomatology, or clinical stage of the disease. Our material does not support the previously suggested association of lower lobe air-space disease with early disease and upper lobe involvement with the chronic and often disseminated form. A more precise understanding of the variety of radiographic patterns and the spectrum of clinical presentations will facilitate diagnosis of pulmonary blastomycosis.

  5. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Wu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed. PMID:20054434

  6. [Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Ringshausen, F C; Rademacher, J

    2016-02-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of biologically diverse, ubiquitous and naturally multi-drug resistant bacteria with facultative pathogenicity. Recent data suggest that their clinical significance is increasing worldwide and that susceptible individuals may be at risk for infection via contaminated surfaces and aerosols. These individuals often have a predisposition for chronic respiratory diseases, e. g. bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis and these conditions frequently share the same unspecific signs and symptoms with NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). As a consequence, the diagnosis of NTM-PD, which is established based on clinical, radiological and microbiological criteria, is often delayed. Treating NTM-PD is more demanding than treating pulmonary tuberculosis as therapy is generally more tedious, toxic and expensive as well as being prone to failure. Patient and pathogen-specific factors guide the choice of an appropriate antimicrobial combination regimen, which should comply with national and international recommendations. Adverse events are common, should be anticipated and closely monitored. If infections with infrequently encountered mycobacterial species and severe or refractory disease occur, an interdisciplinary approach should be used, involving infectious disease specialists, experienced thoracic surgeons and referral to an NTM specialist center. PMID:26810111

  7. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Odell, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection PMID:24624285

  8. Pulmonary emboli risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Epley, D

    2000-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a major cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. Significant morbidity is a characteristic of this phenomenon and its common antecedent, deep venous thrombosis. Research has shown that pulmonary embolism is rarely a consequence of superficial venous thrombosis. Because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are often nonspecific and not readily apparent, prevention is the goal of patient care. Nurses play a critical role in the prevention process. The recognition of persons at risk, the assessment of these patients for early signs and symptoms, and the institution of prophylactic measures to minimize the effect of any existing factors or to deter their development are essential components of nursing care. The administration of anticoagulation therapy, with the concomitant monitoring of its effectiveness, and the education of persons regarding precautions associated with the indicated medications and relevant lifestyle modifications are also fundamental aspects of care. This article provides a review of risk factors associated with pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, particularly prolonged immobility and surgery involving the abdomen or lower extremities, as well as a review of the respective etiologies, most notably those encompassing Vichow's triad. In addition, current modalities to diagnose, treat, and prevent these allied disorders are discussed, as well as the associated nursing management. PMID:11249288

  9. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Denault, André; Deschamps, Alain; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lambert, Jean; Perrault, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is an important prognostic factor in cardiac surgery associated with increased morbidity and mortality. With the aging population and the associated increase severity of illness, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in cardiac surgical patients will increase. In this review, the definition of pulmonary hypertension, the mechanisms and its relationship to right ventricular dysfunction will be presented. Finally, pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic and preventive approaches will be presented. PMID:21286273

  11. Ultrasound for the Pulmonary Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Chichra, Astha; Makaryus, Mina; Chaudhri, Parag; Narasimhan, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos. PMID:27398039

  12. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary pulmonary hypertension 2 Primary pulmonary hypertension 3 Primary pulmonary hypertension 4 ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (4 links) ...

  14. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated? Doctors may prescribe medicines, oxygen therapy , pulmonary ... PR), and lung transplant to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medicines Currently, no medicines are proven to ...

  15. Microstructure analysis of the pulmonary acinus by a synchrotron radiation CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, K.; Maeda, K.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Sakai, H.; Ohmatsu, H.; Itoh, H.

    2016-04-01

    Conversion of images at micro level of the normal lung and those with very early stage lung disease, and the quantitative analysis of morphology on the images can contribute to the thoracic image diagnosis of the next generation. The collection of every minute CT images is necessary in using high luminance synchrotron radiation CT for converting the images. The purpose of this study is to analyze the structure of secondary pulmonary lobules. We also show the structure of the secondary pulmonary lobule by means of extending our vision to a wider field through the image reconfiguration from the projection image of the synchrotron radiation CT.

  16. Imaging of congenital pulmonary malformations.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Francesco Emanuele; Corrado, Michele; Della Casa, Giovanni; Parziale, Raffaele; Russo, Giuseppe; Gazzani, Silvia Eleonora; Rossi, Enrica; Borgia, Daniele; Mostardi, Maurizio; Bacchini, Emanuele; Cella, Simone; De Filippo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary malformations represent a broad spectrum of anomalies that may result in varied clinical and pathologic pictures, ranging from recurrent pulmonary infections and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which require timely drug therapy, up to large space-occupying lesions needing surgical treatment. This classification includes three distinct anatomical and pathological entities, represented by Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation, Bronchopulmonary Sequestration and Congenital Lobar Emphysema. The final result in terms of embryological and fetal development of these alterations is a Congenital Lung Hypoplasia. Since even Bronchial Atresia, Pulmonary Bronchogenic Cysts and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias are due to Pulmonary Hypoplasia, these diseases will be discussed in this review (1, 2). PMID:27467867

  17. Clinical management of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Lower, Elyse E; Li, Huiping; Baughman, Robert P

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease for which diagnosis relies on the integration of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and pathologic information. Assessment of clinical features is an important part of the disease evaluation. Computer Tomography provides information not available on routine chest roentgenogram which can assist diagnosing and establishing extent of disease. Monitoring for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease facilitates disease management. Patients with quality of life affecting symptoms or threatened end organ damage require systemic treatment which can be recommended in a stepwise fashion. Here, we provide guidance for the initial assessment, disease monitoring, and treatment recommendations for pulmonary and extra pulmonary disease. PMID:26959110

  18. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management. PMID:26949600

  19. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  20. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  1. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, many nutrients interact with each other. Most nutritionists believe in designing an overall program of supplements. ... SUPPLEMENTS? In addition to vitamins and minerals, some nutritionists suggest that people with HIV take supplements of ...

  2. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and ... for recovery. Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. The ultimate ...

  3. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  4. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  5. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  7. Virtual Pulmonary Valve Replacement Interventions with a Personalised Cardiac Electromechanical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansi, Tommaso; André, Barbara; Lynch, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Delingette, Hervé; Boudjemline, Younes; Ayache, Nicholas

    Pulmonary valve replacement Heart <Secondary>pulmonary valve replacementSecondary> (PVR) is a pivotal treatment for patients who suffer from chronic pulmonary valve Heart <Secondary>valve> regurgitation Heart <Secondary>regurgitation> s. Two PVR techniques are becoming prevalent: a minimally invasive approach and an open-heart surgery Heart <Secondary>surgery> with direct right ventricle volume reduction. However, there is no common agreement about the postoperative outcomes of these PVR techniques and choosing the right therapy for a specific patient remains a clinical challenge. We explore in this chapter how image processing algorithms, electromechanical Modelling <Secondary>cardiac> models of the heart and real-time surgical simulation Simulation <Secondary>surgery> platforms can be adapted and combined together to perform patient-specific simulations of these two PVR therapies. We propose a framework where (1) an electromechanical model of the heart is personalised from clinical MR images and used to simulate the effects of PVR upon the cardiac function and (2) volume reduction surgery is simulated in real time by interactively cutting, moving and joining parts of the anatomical model. The framework is tested on a young patient. The results are promising and suggest that such advanced biomedical technologies may help in decision support and surgery planning for PVR.

  8. Severe Pulmonary Arteriopathy Is Associated with Persistent Hypoxemia after Pulmonary Endarterectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ishida, Keiichi; Naito, Akira; Kato, Fumiaki; Takeuchi, Takao; Sekine, Ayumi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Masuda, Masahisa; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by occlusion of pulmonary arteries by organized chronic thrombi. Persistent hypoxemia and residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) following successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) are clinically important problems; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously reported that residual PH is closely related to severe pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypothesize that this arteriopathy might also be involved in impaired gas exchange. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hypoxemia and pulmonary arteriopathy after PEA. Methods and Results Between December 2011 and November 2014, 23 CTEPH patients underwent PEA and lung biopsy. The extent of pulmonary arteriopathy was quantified pathologically in lung biopsy specimens. We then analyzed the relationship between the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy and gas exchange after PEA. We observed that the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was negatively correlated with postoperative and follow-up PaO2 (postoperative PaO2: r = -0.73, p = 0.0004; follow-up PaO2: r = -0.66, p = 0.001), but not with preoperative PaO2 (r = -0.373, p = 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed that the obstruction ratio and patient age were determinants of PaO2 one month after PEA (R2 = 0.651, p = 0.00009). Furthermore, the obstruction ratio and improvement of pulmonary vascular resistance were determinants of PaO2 at follow-up (R2 = 0.545, p = 0.0002). Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and impair diffusion capacity, resulting in hypoxemia following PEA. Conclusion The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was closely associated with postoperative and follow-up hypoxemia. PMID:27571267

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Olgunturk, Rana; Cevik, Ayhan; Terlemez, Semiha; Kacar, Emre; Oner, Yusuf Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficacy and reliability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension in children. This is a retrospective comparison of 25 children with pulmonary hypertension and a control group comprising 19 healthy children. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was made when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was ≥25 mmHg by catheter angiography. The children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower body mass indices than did the healthy children (P=0.048). In addition, the children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main pulmonary artery diameters and ascending aortic diameters (both P=0.001) but statistically similar ratios of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aortic diameter. If the main pulmonary artery diameter was ≥25 mm, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In the event that the ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aorta diameter was ≥1, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity and 53% specificity. When compared with children who had New York Heart Association functional class II pulmonary hypertension, the children with functional class III pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main (P=0.046), right (P=0.036), and left (P=0.003) pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity when the main pulmonary artery diameter measures ≥25 mm. PMID:26175631

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pektas, Ayhan; Olgunturk, Rana; Cevik, Ayhan; Terlemez, Semiha; Kacar, Emre; Oner, Yusuf Ali

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficacy and reliability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension in children. This is a retrospective comparison of 25 children with pulmonary hypertension and a control group comprising 19 healthy children. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was made when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was ≥25 mmHg by catheter angiography. The children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower body mass indices than did the healthy children (P=0.048). In addition, the children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main pulmonary artery diameters and ascending aortic diameters (both P=0.001) but statistically similar ratios of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aortic diameter. If the main pulmonary artery diameter was ≥25 mm, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In the event that the ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aorta diameter was ≥1, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity and 53% specificity. When compared with children who had New York Heart Association functional class II pulmonary hypertension, the children with functional class III pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main (P=0.046), right (P=0.036), and left (P=0.003) pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity when the main pulmonary artery diameter measures ≥25 mm. PMID:26175631

  11. Unexplained childhood anaemia: idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    PubMed

    Siu, K K; Li, Rever; Lam, S Y

    2015-04-01

    This report demonstrates pulmonary haemorrhage as a differential cause of anaemia. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disease in children; it is classically described as a triad of haemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and iron-deficiency anaemia. However, anaemia may be the only presenting feature of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in children due to occult pulmonary haemorrhage. In addition, the serum ferritin is falsely high in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis which increases the diagnostic difficulty. We recommend that pulmonary haemorrhage be suspected in any child presenting with iron-deficiency anaemia and persistent bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. PMID:25904566

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  14. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  15. Pulmonary endarterectomy for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guth, Stefan; Wiedenroth, Christoph B; Kramm, Thorsten; Mayer, Eckhard

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy is a curative treatment option for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that not only patients with CTEPH but also patients with pulmonary arterial obstructions and mean pulmonary artery pressures < 25 mmHg should be offered surgery. In this review, the recent literature regarding pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, decision making by an expert CTEPH team, and surgical techniques will be summarized. Novel alternative treatment options for inoperable CTEPH patients will be discussed, i.e. targeted medical therapy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty. For the future the major task will be to define a clear selection process for the optimal treatment of the individual CTEPH patient. PMID:27070482

  16. Posterior mediastinal extramedullary hematopoiesis secondary to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Solazzo, A; D’Auria, V; Moccia, LG; Vatrella, A; Bocchino, M; Rea, G

    2016-01-01

    Two mediastinal masses were incidentally detected at high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of a 72 year-old male patient, former smoker, affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with worsening dyspnea and 2-year medical history of polycythemia secondary to hypoxia. Integration with a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan after administration of intravenous injection contrast medium showed slightly inhomogeneous increase of enhancement of masses, suggesting in the first case potential malignancy. Diagnosis of extramedullary hematopoiesis was achieved by fine needle aspiration citology (FNAC). Extramedullary hematopoiesis must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with medical history of polycythemia and severe hypoxia. PMID:27326388

  17. Posterior mediastinal extramedullary hematopoiesis secondary to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Solazzo, A; D'Auria, V; Moccia, L G; Vatrella, A; Bocchino, M; Rea, G

    2016-05-01

    Two mediastinal masses were incidentally detected at high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of a 72 year-old male patient, former smoker, affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with worsening dyspnea and 2-year medical history of polycythemia secondary to hypoxia. Integration with a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan after administration of intravenous injection contrast medium showed slightly inhomogeneous increase of enhancement of masses, suggesting in the first case potential malignancy. Diagnosis of extramedullary hematopoiesis was achieved by fine needle aspiration citology (FNAC). Extramedullary hematopoiesis must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with medical history of polycythemia and severe hypoxia. PMID:27326388

  18. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Tariq; Neuman, Adi; Tantary, Mohmad; Bhat, Hilal; Glass, Daniel; Mannino, William; Akhtar, Muhammad; Bhat, Alina; Teli, Sumaya; Lafferty, James

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is usually a complication secondary to migration of a deep venous clot or thrombi to lungs, but other significant etiologies include air, amniotic fluid, fat, and bone marrow. Regardless of the underlying etiology, little progress has been made in finding an effective pharmacologic intervention for this serious complication. Among the wide spectrum of PE, massive PE is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, primarily due to severely elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure, hypoxemia, and cardiogenic shock. We currently have limited therapeutic options at our disposal. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent in cases of acute PE in which hemodynamic compromise secondary to increased pulmonary vascular resistance is present, based on iNO's selective dilation of the pulmonary vasculature and antiplatelet activity. A systematic search of studies using the PubMed database was undertaken in order to assess the available literature. Although there are currently no published randomized controlled trials on the subject, except a recently publish phase I trial involving eight patients, several case reports and case series describe and document the use of iNO in acute PE. The majority of published reports have documented improvements in oxygenation and hemodynamic variables, often within minutes of administration of iNO. These reports, when taken together, raise the possibility that iNO may be a potential therapeutic agent in acute PE. However, based on the current literature, it is not possible to conclude definitively whether iNO is safe and effective. These case reports underscore the need for randomized controlled trials to establish the safety and efficacy of iNO in the treatment of massive acute PE. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature in the use of iNO in the setting of PE given how acute PE causes acute onset of pulmonary

  20. Effects of Different Pulmonary Vasodilators on Arterial Saturation in a Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva Maria; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bechem, Martin; Keldenich, Jörg; Klipp, Alexandra; Schaefer, Katja; Ulbrich, Hannes-Friedrich; Truebel, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Background Approved therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension can induce oxygen desaturation when administered to patients with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), probably due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Thus, so far these treatments have largely failed in secondary forms of PH. Methods We established an animal model of heterogeneous lung ventilation to evaluate the desaturation potential of mechanistically distinct vasoactive drugs launched or currently in clinical development for the treatment of PH. Single-lung ventilation was induced in five groups (N = 6) of anesthetized minipigs (7 weeks, 4 to 5 kg BW), and their hemodynamic parameters were monitored before and after intravenous injection of control (vehicle only), endothelin antagonist (bosentan; 0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil; 3, 10, 30, 100 µg/kg), and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators (BAY 41–8543 and riociguat; 1, 3, 10, 30 µg/kg). Cumulative doses were administered before successive unilateral ventilation cycles. The doses were chosen to achieve equal effect on blood pressure by the different pharmacologic principles. Results Single-lung ventilation resulted in transient increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and desaturation. In contrast to control, all drugs dose-dependently decreased hypoxic mPAP (a positive treatment effect) and increased area under the arterial hemoglobin saturation curve (unwanted desaturation effect). Riociguat and bosentan reduced hypoxic mPAP to the greatest extent, while the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators riociguat and BAY 41–8543 lowered arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin the least. Conclusions Future investigations will be required to confirm these findings in clinical settings. PMID:24015306

  1. Estimation of palaeohydrochemical conditions using carbonate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamiya, H.; Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Yuguchi, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito-Kokubu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term evolution of geochemical environment in deep underground is indispensable research subject for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because the evolution of geochemical environment would impact migration behavior of radionuclides in deep underground. Many researchers have made efforts previously to elucidate the geochemical environment within the groundwater residence time based on the analysis of the actual groundwater. However, it is impossible to estimate the geochemical environment for the longer time scale than the groundwater residence time in this method. In this case, analysis of the chemical properties of secondary minerals are one of useful method to estimate the paleohydrochemical conditions (temperature, salinity, pH and redox potential). In particular, carbonate minerals would be available to infer the long-term evolution of hydrochemical for the following reasons; -it easily reaches chemical equilibrium with groundwater and precipitates in open space of water flowing path -it reflects the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater at the time of crystallization We reviewed the previous studies on carbonate minerals and geochemical conditions in deep underground and estimated the hydrochemical characteristics of past groundwater by using carbonate minerals. As a result, it was found that temperature and salinity of the groundwater during crystallization of carbonate minerals were evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, pH and redox potential can only be understood qualitatively. However, it is suggested that the content of heavy metal elements such as manganese, iron and uranium, and rare earth elements in the carbonate minerals are useful indicators for estimating redox potential. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  2. Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Secondary Polycythemia

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Omar; Gui, Jiang; Ornstein, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate an association between secondary polycythemia and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, we performed a case–control study to compare the prevalence of VTE in participants with secondary polycythemia due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; N = 86) to that in age- and sex-matched controls with COPD without secondary polycythemia (N = 86). Although there was a significant difference in mean hematocrit between cases and controls (53.5% vs 43.6%, respectively; P < .005), we identified no difference in the number of total or idiopathic VTE events in the 2 groups. Patients with VTE, however, had a significantly higher body mass index than patients without VTE. Our findings suggest that secondary polycythemia alone may not be a significant risk factor for VTE but that VTE risk in this population may be related to known risk factors such as obesity. The role of phlebotomy for VTE risk reduction secondary polycythemia is therefore questionable. PMID:23007895

  3. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  4. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ∼1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  5. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Hyperthyroidism and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marvisi, M; Brianti, M; Marani, G; Del Borello, R; Bortesi, M L; Guariglia, A

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, many authors have described several cases revealing an association between hyperthyroidism and pulmonary hypertension (PH). This observational study was designed to evaluate the incidence of PH in hyperthyroidism and was set in a department of internal medicine and pulmonary diseases with an out-patients department of endocrinology. Thirty-four patients, 25 women and nine men, with a mean age of 38 +/- 15 SD years participated. Twenty had Graves' disease and 14 had a nodular goitre. The patients were divided into two equally matched groups: those with a recently diagnosed hyperthyroidism, taking no drugs (group 1; n = 17) and those in a euthyroid state taking methimazole (group 2; n= 17). Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed and systolic pulmonary artery pressurements of (PAPs) was determined by the tricuspid regurgitation method using the Bernoulli equation. Measurements of triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, free thyroxine (Ft4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies were also taken. We found a mild PH in seven patients of group 1 and in none of group 2. The mean +/- SD systolic pulmonaryartery pressurewas 28.88 +/- 6.41 in group 1 and 22.53 +/- 1.84 ingroup 2 (P<0.0001). A correlation was found between the TSH value and PAPs (r = -082;P < 0.001) and Ft4 and PAPs (r = 0 85; P < 0.001) in group 1. These findings indicate the presence of a frequent association between PH and hyperthyroidism. We suggest that hyperthyroidism be included in the differential diagnosis of PH. PMID:11999999

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  8. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  9. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  10. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis: 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.; Mittman, C. )

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the topic of pulmonary emphysema. Included are the following chapters: Abnormality of secretion of Z Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Proteases, antiproteases, and oxidants in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, Alveolar Leukocytes and protease responses with continuous vs. intermittent exposures to NO{sub 2}.

  11. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... occlusive disease is an extremely rare disease that causes high blood pressure in the lung arteries ( pulmonary hypertension ). ... In most cases, the cause of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is ... arteries directly connected to the right side of the heart. The ...

  12. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder. Alternative Names Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease Images Respiratory system References Channick RN, Rubin LJ. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  13. [Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Prasse, A

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and a disease of the elderly. Cigarette smoking and longterm exposure to substances harming alveolar epithelial cells are risk factors for the development of IPF. There is also evidence for a genetic susceptibility. IPF is defined as the idiopathic variant of Usual Interstitial Pneumonitis (UIP). Diagnosis of IPF is complex and based on the exclusion of other diseases associated with an UIP pattern. The only cure is lung transplantation. In the last years there was a breakthrough in the treatment of IPF. With pirfenidone and nintedanib there are now two compounds approved for the treatment of IPF. PMID:26444136

  14. Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gadkowski, L. Beth; Stout, Jason E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host. PMID:18400799

  15. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kevan; Dell, Sharon; Birken, Catherine; Al-Saleh, Suhail

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is often asymptomatic despite significant changes in chest imaging. Diagnosis is often made when patients become symptomatic in adulthood. There are still no proven treatments, but earlier diagnosis may allow for evaluation of preventative strategies that could improve outcome. It is an important diagnosis to consider in children who have marked radiographic findings with no or very mild symptoms or physical findings. Diagnosis can be made with imaging alone but may necessitate lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. PMID:27445543

  16. Prevention of the acute cytotoxicity associated with silica-containing minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Vallyathan, V.; Castranova, V.; Dalal, N.S.; Van Dyke, K.

    1989-10-30

    The inventors have developed a method that may prevent the acute cytotoxicity of freshly fractured silica and silica containing minerals including asbestos and coal-mine dust containing silica. The method entails coating silica-containing minerals, including coal, with a monomolecular film of an aqueously compatible silane coupling agent, either during milling, processing or after grinding or fracturing of silica or silica-containing materials. The invention also provides for a method of preventing certain pulmonary diseases, have been considered as occupational hazards in certain professions, such as coal mining and any other profession where persons are subjected to the inhalation of small particles of freshly fractured or ground silica containing minerals.

  17. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  18. Animal...Vegetable...or Mineral?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the problems facing the United States with mineral reserves being depleted, and the consumption of minerals outstripping production. Expresses concern about the deteriorating mineral position, and the ignorance and confusion of the public with respect to mineral production and supply, energy requirements, and environmental consequences.…

  19. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  20. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661