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1

Pulmonary complications in lead miners  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.

1989-07-01

2

Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to COPD  

PubMed Central

The development of pulmonary hypertension in COPD adversely affects survival and exercise capacity and is associated with an increased risk of severe acute exacerbations. Unfortunately not all patients with COPD who meet criteria for long term oxygen therapy benefit from it. Even in those who benefit from long term oxygen therapy, such therapy may reverse the elevated pulmonary artery pressure but cannot normalize it. Moreover, the recent discovery of the key roles of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in the pathogenesis of PH provides the rationale for considering specific pulmonary vasodilators that also possess antiproliferative properties and statins.

Shujaat, Adil; Bajwa, Abubakr A.; Cury, James D.

2012-01-01

3

Pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH secondary to COPD is associated with a worse prognosis of the disease, a low quality of life, as well as with a higher exacerbation frequency, and consequently with an increase in the healthcare cost of COPD patients. Prevalence of PH in COPD patients is currently unknown. The most important mechanisms leading to PH are hypoxic vasoconstriction, pulmonary hyperinflation and endothelial dysfunction. PH should be suspected in COPD patients in the presence of severe dyspnoea, disproportionate from the decline in lung function, or of severe hypoxemia. Exercise induced PH is an independent predictor of the development of resting PH in patients with COPD. Echocardiography is the first screening method for PH in patients with COPD and it should be widely used, as it can also appreciate the cardiac consequences of PH, especially on the right ventricle. Given the high negative predictive value of the echocardiographic estimation of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) in the diagnosis of PH, the absence of a high sPAP excludes important PH and further unnecessary invasive evaluation. Right cardiac catheterization remains the "gold standard" method in assessing PH, but it is less accessible and cannot be used in routine evaluation of patients with COPD. PH secondary to COPD is usually mild, but a small proportion of patients have severe PH, with specific characteristics, worse prognosis and a specific therapeutic approach. PMID:23610973

Gologanu, Daniela; Stanescu, Cristina; Bogdan, M A

4

[Secondary pulmonary embolism to right atrial myxoma].  

PubMed

A case of pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to atrial myxoma right. The myxoma is a primary cardiac tumor, namely, has his origin in the cardiac tissue. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, including myxomas, the most common type. Have a predilection for females and the most useful tool for diagnosis is echocardiography. About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium of the heart and rest are in the right atrium. Right atrial myxomas in some sometimes associated with tricuspid stenosis and atrial fibrillation. The most common clinical manifestations include symptoms of this neoplasm constitutional, and embolic phenomena resulting from the obstruction to the flow intracavitary. The treatment of this condition is surgical. PMID:24095171

Vico Besó, L; Zúñiga Cedó, E

2012-07-17

5

Metal, mineral waste processing and secondary recovery  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 40 million tons of precious metals chemical wastes are produced in the United States every year. An estimated five percent of these wastes are being reused/recycled to recover the precious and critical metals they contain. The rest of these chemical wastes are disposed of by the methods incineration, dumping at sea and dumping on land. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the research work published during 1985-1986 on metal, mineral waste processing, secondary recovery and safe disposal.

Reddy, R.G.

1987-04-01

6

Wedge and subselective pulmonary angiography in pulmonary hypertension secondary to venous obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary wedge or subselective angiography provided key diagnostic information in two cases of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary venous obstruction. Whereas conventional pulmonary angiograms and ventilation-perfusion lung scans were interpreted as showing embolism, plain radiographs demonstrated Kerley B lines, suggesting venous obstruction. Subselective or wedge angiography of nonopacified arteries verified their anatomical patency and also revealed venous stenoses, collaterals, and atrophy indicative of obstruction.

Bowen, J.S.; Bookstein, J.J.; Johnson, A.D.; Peterson, K.L.; Moser, K.M.

1985-06-01

7

A case of secondary syphilis presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules  

PubMed Central

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. The prevalence of this disease has recently increased worldwide. However, pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is extremely rare. A 51-year-old heterosexual male patient presented with multiple pulmonary nodules with reactive serology from the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and positive fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption testing. A hematogenous metastatic malignancy was suspected and an excisional lung biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination showed only central necrosis with abscess and plasma cell infiltration, but no malignant cells. The patient reported sexual contact with a prostitute 8 weeks previously and a penile lesion 6 weeks earlier. Physical examination revealed an erythematous papular rash on the trunk. Secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodules was suspected, and benzathine penicillin G, 2.4 million units, was administered. Subsequently, the clinical signs of syphilis improved and the pulmonary nodules resolved. The final diagnosis was secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodular involvement.

Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Ju-Han; Lee, Eung-Seok; Kim, Il-Hwan; Park, Hyung Joo; Shin, Chol

2013-01-01

8

Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite,

Lauf

1997-01-01

9

[Pulmonary and pleural reaction patterns to artificial mineral fibers --rockwool].  

PubMed

Epidemiological and animal studies about the fibrogenic and carcinogenic properties of natural mineral fibers required the development of man made vitreous fibers as substitutes for asbestos containing material. The question about the possible fibrogenic and carcinogenic properties of man-made vitreous fibers is not yet answered. By means of different experimental animal studies we tried to investigate the man made vitreous fibers-related pulmonary and pleural diseases. The experimental administration of rockwool induce lesions in the lung of the rats. The lung showed an extensive granulomatous inflammation. In the observation time of 10 months we did not find any malignant tumor of the lung and the pleura. PMID:7511301

Respondek, M; Voss, B; Wiethege, T; Kerenyi, T; Müller, K M

1993-01-01

10

Secondary hydrothermal mineral system in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral systems generally develop around the deep root of the volcanoes down to the degassing magma chamber due the selective enrichment process of elements within the host-rock. The mineralization process depends on i) volcanic structure, ii) magma and fluid chemistry, iii) host-rock type and texture, iv) temperature and pressure conditions, and v) action timing that affect the transport and precipitation conditions of elements in the solution. Firstly, it generates a hydrothermal system that in a later phase may generate considerable metallogenic mineralization, in terms of both spatial extension and specie abundance. The study of secondary assemblages through depth and, possibly, through time, together with the definition of the general geological, structural, mineralogical and petrological context is the background to understand the genesis of mineral-to-metallogenic systems. We report our study on the Campi Flegrei volcano of potassic Southern Italy belt. It is a sub-circular caldera characterized by an active high-temperature and fluid-rich geothermal system affected by seismicity and ground deformation in the recent decades. The circulating fluids originate at deeper level within a degassing magma body and give rise at the surface up to 1500 tonnes/day of CO2 emissions. Their composition is intermediate between meteoric water and brines. Saline-rich fluids have been detected at ~3000 in downhole. The hydrothermal alteration varies from argillitic to phillitic, nearby the caldera boundary, to propilitic to thermo-metamorphic facies towards its centre. The Campi Flegrei caldera was defined as analogue of mineralized system such as White Island (New Zealand) that is an example of an active magmatic and embryonic copper porphyry system. In order to enhance the knowledge of such a type of embryonic-like metallogenic system, we have carried out macroscopic and microscopic investigations, SEM-EDS and electron microprobe analyses on selected samples from deep wells drilled in the '80s by the Agip Oil Company at the Campi Flegrei caldera. The new data have been merged with those available in the current volcanological, mineralogical and petrological literature in order to generate an innovative model and define the relationship between the caldera structure and the secondary mineralogy.

Mormone, A.; Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

2012-04-01

11

Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction: Contemporary diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction is often a poor prognostic marker in chronic heart\\u000a failure. In this article, we review evidence supporting modern strategies addressing pulmonary hypertension in patients with\\u000a left ventricular systolic dysfunction, including right-sided heart catheterization with vasoreactivity testing and subsequent\\u000a parenteral, oral, and inhaled therapy. We delineate a diagnostic approach to secondary pulmonary hypertension

Ravi V. Shah; Marc J. Semigran

2008-01-01

12

Segmentation and quantification of pulmonary artery for noninvasive CT assessment of sickle cell secondary pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disease that results in high mortality and morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. PAH diagnosis is invasive via right heart catheterization, but manual measurements of the main pulmonary artery (PA) diameters from computed tomography (CT) have shown promise as noninvasive surrogate marker of PAH. The authors propose a semiautomated computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tool to quantify the main PA size from pulmonary CT angiography (CTA). Methods: A follow-up retrospective study investigated the potential of CT and image analysis to quantify the presence of PAH secondary to SCD based on PA size. The authors segmented the main pulmonary arteries using a combination of fast marching level sets and geodesic active contours from smoothed pulmonary CTA images of 20 SCD patients with proven PAH by right heart catheterization and 20 matched negative controls. From the PA segmentation, a Euclidean distance map was calculated and an algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute subvoxel precise centerlines of the PA trunk (PT) and main left?right PA (PM). Maximum distentions of PT and PM were automatically quantified using the centerline and validated with manual measurements from two observers. Results: The pulmonary trunk and main were significantly larger (p<0.001) in PAH?SCD patients (33.73±3.92 mm for PT and 25.17±2.90 for PM) than controls (27.03±2.94 mm for PT and 20.62±3.06 for PM). The discrepancy was qualitatively improved when vessels’ diameters were normalized by body surface area (p<0.001). The validation of the method showed high correlation (mean R=0.9 for PT and R=0.91 for PM) and Bland–Altman agreement (0.4±3.6 mm for PT and 0.5±2.9 mm for PM) between CAD and manual measurements. Quantification errors were comparable to intraobserver and interobserver variability. CAD measurements between two different users were robust and reproducible with correlations of R=0.99 for both PT and PM and Bland–Altman agreements of ?0.13±1.33 mm for PT and ?0.08±0.84 mm for PM. Conclusion: Results suggest that the semiautomated quantification of pulmonary artery has sufficient accuracy and reproducibility for clinical use. CT with image processing and extraction of PA biomarkers show great potential as a surrogate indicator for diagnosis or quantification of PAH, and could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance.

Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A.; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Mukherjee, Nisha; Summers, Ronald M.; Minniti, Caterina; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kato, Gregory; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

2010-01-01

13

Effects of cinacalcet on bone mineral density in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent, is effec- tive in treating both primary and secondary hyper- parathyroidism. Because hyperparathyroidism induces mineralized bone loss, we investigated the effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic kidney disease. Methods. Ten patients who were receiving haemo- dialysis and four patients, who had stage 4 chronic

Yeong-Hau H. Lien; Arnold L. Silva; David Whittman

2005-01-01

14

The impact of calcimimetics on mineral metabolism and secondary hyperparathyroidism in end-stage renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of calcimimetics on mineral metabolism and secondary hyperparathyroidism in end-stage renal disease. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is often complicated by elevations in calcium and phosphorus either as a result of the disease per se or due to toxicity from current therapeutic options. These disturbances in mineral metabolism limit the successfulness of therapy and have been implicated as contributing to the

Geoffrey A. Block

2003-01-01

15

Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite–silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of secondary calcite–silica minerals in primary and secondary porosity of the host Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain has been hotly debated during the last decade. Proponents of a high-level nuclear waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain have interpreted the secondary minerals to have formed from cool, descending meteoric fluids in the vadose zone; critics, citing the presence of two-phase

Nicholas S. F Wilson; Jean S Cline; Yuri V Amelin

2003-01-01

16

Alterations in endothelial control of the pulmonary circulation in exercising swine with secondary pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Secondary pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction (MI) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and activation of the endothelin (ET) system. Here, we investigated whether an increased ET-mediated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence contributes to pulmonary hypertension after MI, and whether this increased ET vasoconstriction is caused by impaired nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoid production. For this purpose, chronically instrumented swine with and without MI ran on a treadmill at 0–4 km h?1. Mixed ETA/ETB receptor blockade (tezosentan) was performed in the absence and presence of single or combined inhibition of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, with N?-nitro-l-arginine) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX, with indometacin). In normal swine, mixed ETA/ETB blockade decreased pulmonary vascular resistance, but only during exercise. In MI swine, an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor influence was observed in the pulmonary circulation both at rest and during exercise. Inhibition of COX resulted in pulmonary vasoconstriction at rest in MI, but not in normal swine; this vasoconstriction in MI swine was normalized by ETA/ETB receptor blockade. Inhibition of eNOS enhanced the vasodilator response to ETA/ETB blockade, indicating that NO blunts the pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET. However, this vasodilator response was enhanced to a similar degree in MI and normal swine. In summary, swine with a recent MI are characterized by an exaggerated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET. This increased ET-mediated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence is not caused by a loss of NO bioavailability, and is blunted by an increased prostanoid-mediated vasodilatation. In conclusion, an increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction, which does not appear to be the result of loss of endothelial vasodilators, contributes to pulmonary hypertension after MI.

Merkus, Daphne; Houweling, Birgit; de Beer, Vincent J; Everon, Zaida; Duncker, Dirk J

2007-01-01

17

Human pulmonary acinar airspace segmentation from three-dimensional synchrotron radiation micro CT images of secondary pulmonary lobule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of abnormalities relative to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims for a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SR?CT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semi-automatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule imaged by the SR?CT. The method began with a segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. Follow-on stages then constructed 3-D air space separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. Finally, a graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems were interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Additionally, the isolated acinar airspace was segmented into subacini in which the airway was considered as the stem using the graph-partitioning approach. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SR?CT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

Kawata, Y.; Hosokawa, T.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

2011-03-01

18

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Secondary to Pneumocystis jiroveci Infection in an Infant with Common Variable Immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

The authors report an infant with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) with Pneumocystis pneumonia who developed secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). This is the youngest infant reported to develop PAP secondary to Pneumocystis infection in an immunocompromised state. He was effectively managed with anti-microbials, frequent lung toilet, optimized mechanical ventilation, and supportive care. PMID:23645284

Raj, Dinesh; Bhutia, Tsultem Doma; Mathur, Sandeep; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lodha, Rakesh

2013-05-01

19

A Case of Extrinsic Compression of the Left Main Coronary Artery Secondary to Pulmonary Artery Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) secondary to pulmonary artery dilatation is a rare syndrome. Most cases of pulmonary artery hypertension but no atherosclerotic risk factors rarely undergo coronary angiography, and hence, diagnoses are seldom made and proper management is often delayed in these patients. We describe a patient that presented with pulmonary hypertension, clinical angina, and extrinsic compression of the LMCA by the pulmonary artery, who was treated successfully by percutaneous coronary intervention. Follow-up coronary angiography showed patent stent in the LMCA in the proximity of the dilated main pulmonary artery. This case reminds us that coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention should be considered in pulmonary hypertension patients presenting with angina or left ventricular dysfunction.

Choi, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Jin-Sung; Park, Won-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo

2013-01-01

20

Form and Composition of Secondary Mineralization in Fractures in Columbia River Basalts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Examination of basalt alteration rinds suggests that pyroxene is altered, along with mesostasis, from the inception of hydrothermal alteration along cooling fractures in Columbia River basalts. The only phyllosilicate secondary mineral in fractures is tri...

J. P. McKinley S. A. Rawson D. G. Horton

1986-01-01

21

Luminescence of secondary uranium minerals at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminescence spectra were recorded with an ISP-51 spectrograph which was equipped with a photoelectric FI~P-1 attachment, an FI~U-38 photomultiplier, and an t~PP-09mZ recording potentiometer. A test tube, which was made of quartz glass and contained a mineral sample of 5 mg or more, was placed into a transparent Dewar vessel containing liquid nitrogen. Luminescence of the mineral was excited

B. S. Gorobets; G. A. Sidorenko

1974-01-01

22

Miliary nodules due to secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis in rheumatic heart disease.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hemosiderosis is defined as the clinical and functional consequence of iron overload of the lungs, which usually occurs due to recurrent intra-alveolar bleeding. It can manifest as miliary mottling and should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with miliary nodules on chest radiography, especially those with mitral stenosis. The management of secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis secondary to valvular heart disease includes valvuloplasty and/or valve replacement. The radiological opacities may disappear with successful treatment of the underlying valvular disease in many patients. However, they may persist with no physiological impairment to the patient. Here, we present a 32-year-old man with mitral stenosis who presented with fever and miliary shadows on chest radiography, which was ultimately diagnosed as secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21390194

Agrawal, Gyanendra; Agarwal, Ritesh; Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Mahesh, Venkat; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar

2011-02-28

23

Etiological Factors Underlying Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) results from constriction of the blood vessels that supply blood to the lungs. Consequently, it becomes difficult for blood to pass through the lungs, making it harder for the heart to pump blood forward. This stress leads to enlargement of the heart and eventually can cause fluid to build up in the liver and other tissues,

Sotir Polena; Eirene Mamakos; Anwar Hague; Christos Iakovou; Rick Conetta; Rajen Maniar; Mohammad Babury; Pedro A. Sevilla; Gerges Seifen; Pasaka Griciene; Jonas Gintautas

2006-01-01

24

Longitudinal study of pulmonary function in coal miners in Lorraine, France  

SciTech Connect

A longitudinal study of pulmonary function and radiological change has been conducted on 141 nonsmoking coal miners and 256 smoking coal miners from Lorraine, France. At the time of the first examination occasioned by radiological change or shortness of breath, the men averaged between 46.6 years and 50.9 years of age, and they retired approximately 8 years after entering the study. They have been followed for average periods of about 18 years and a mean of five FEV1 observations per man were made over that period. Changes in radiological category have been documented. Average rates of decline of FVC and FEV1 were similar, and varied between -47 ml/yr in nonsmoking miners still alive, to -78 ml/yr in deceased smoking miners. These accelerated rates were similar before and after retirement from the mine.

Bates, D.V.; Pham, Q.T.; Chau, N.; Pivoteau, C.; Dechoux, J.; Sadoul, P.

1985-01-01

25

An emboligenic pulmonary abscess leading to ischemic stroke and secondary brain abscess  

PubMed Central

Background Ischemic stroke by septic embolism occurs primarily in the context of infective endocarditis or in patients with a right-to-left shunt and formation of a secondary cerebral abscess is a rare event. Erosion of pulmonary veins by a pulmonary abscess can lead to transcardiac septic embolism but to our knowledge no case of septic embolic ischemic stroke from a pulmonary abscess with secondary transformation into a brain abscess has been reported to date. Case presentation We report the case of a patient with a pulmonary abscess causing a septic embolic cerebral infarction which then transformed into a cerebral abscess. After antibiotic therapy and drainage of the abscess the patient could be rehabilitated and presented an impressive improvement of symptoms. Conclusion Septic embolism should be considered as cause of ischemic stroke in patients with pulmonary abscess and can be followed by formation of a secondary cerebral abscess. Early antibiotic treatment and repeated cranial CT-scans for detection of a secondary abscess should be performed.

2012-01-01

26

Pulmonary function of U. S. coal miners related to dust exposure estimates  

SciTech Connect

This study of 7,139 U.S. coal miners used linear regression analysis to relate estimates of cumulative dust exposure to several pulmonary function variables measured during medical examinations undertaken between 1969 and 1971. The exposure data included newly derived cumulative dust exposure estimates for the period up to time of examination based on large data bases of underground airborne dust sampling measurements. Negative associations were found between measures of cumulative exposure and FEV1, FVC, and the FEV1/FVC ratio (p less than 0.001). In general, the relationships were similar to those reported for British coal miners. Overall, the results demonstrate an adverse effect of coal mine dust exposure on pulmonary function that occurs even in the absence of radiographically detected pneumoconiosis.

Attfield, M.D.; Hodous, T.K. (Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States))

1992-03-01

27

Bilateral pulmonary emboli secondary to indwelling hemodialysis reliable outflow catheter.  

PubMed

We present a 33-year-old dialysis-dependent female who presented with new onset split second heart sound. Following a failed left upper extremity dialysis fistula, a right upper extremity hemodialysis reliable outflow (HeRO) graft was performed in 2011. Her subsequent cadaveric renal transplant had delayed function necessitating concurrent use of hemodialysis. However, as renal function improved, hemodialysis was discontinued. Two weeks following transplantation, the HeRO graft occluded. Subsequent clinical and radiological assessment confirmed widespread pulmonary emboli. Following cessation of hemodialysis and subsequent HeRO graft occlusion, removal was deemed appropriate to reduce further thromboembolic phenomenon. Right atrial thrombi are complications associated with central venous catheters. However, their actual incidence varies significantly. Right heart thromboemboli are associated with a 4% to 6% pulmonary embolism rate. Katzman et al assessed 38 patients who underwent HeRO graft and reported 1 (2.6%) patient with right atrial emboli and likely pulmonary embolism. Although thrombotic complications remain rare, consideration of graft removal should always be evaluated particularly in the absence of an alternative thrombotic source. PMID:23567802

Coan, Kathryn E; O'Donnell, Mark E; Fankhauser, Grant T; Bodnar, Zachary; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy; Stone, William M

2013-04-08

28

Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Congenital Systemic-to-Pulmonary (Left-to-Right) Shunts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital left-to-right shunts remains a matter of concern not only in underserved\\u000a areas, but also in developed countries, in both un-operated on and operated on patients. The risk of developing advanced pulmonary\\u000a vascular disease generally but not invariably depends on the size and location of the defect. Patients with restrictive ventricular\\u000a septal defects (VSDs) are

Antonio A. Lopes

29

Geopolymers from Algerian metakaolin. Influence of secondary minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of secondary phases (illite, quartz) on the geopolymerization reaction of metakaolin has been investigated by comparing two metakaolins, one prepared from a pure kaolinite and the other from illite- and quartz-containing Algerian kaolin from the Tamazert region, respectively. Geopolymerization was achieved by mixing the metakaolins with an alkaline sodium silicate solution at room temperature and curing at 50 °C.

Fatima Zibouche; Hacène Kerdjoudj; Jean-Baptiste d'Espinose de Lacaillerie; Henri Van Damme

2009-01-01

30

[Secondary Osteoporosis or Secondary Contributors to Bone Loss in Fracture. Abnormal bone metabolism in pulmonary diseases].  

PubMed

Abnormal bone metabolism in pulmonary diseases has been recently investigated mainly in COPD, as well as osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoid therapy for lung diseases. COPD involves not only the lungs but also extrapulmonary abnormalities as systemic effects. Of these comorbidities, osteoporosis has been becoming an important target for therapeutic intervention in the management of COPD. This paper reviews the abnormal bone metabolism associated with pulmonary diseases including COPD. PMID:23999369

Hirai, Toyohiro

2013-09-01

31

Prior Swine Influenza Virus Infection Enhances Pulmonary Responses to Secondary Haemophilus parasuis Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine Influenza virus (SIV) infection and associated complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. It is appreciated that SIV is often complicated by secondary bacterial infection. Tracheal epithelial cells (TEC) and pulmonary cells respond to infection with proinflammatory cytokin...

32

Effects of the secondary minerals of the natural pozzolans on their pozzolanic activity  

SciTech Connect

Natural pozzolans have been widely used as substitutes for Portland cement, because of their binding properties. Some of them are natural volcanic rocks which contain secondary minerals such as clays and zeolites corresponding to products of the alteration of the rock. The objective of this study was to document the potential effect of the secondary minerals on the strength development of pozzolanic mortars. We chose to investigate this effect by thermally destabilising these minerals in three different pozzolanic deposits (poz-1, poz-2 and poz-3). We first did a detailed mineralogical study, to identify the occurrence and the nature of the different secondary minerals. Kaolinite is abundant in poz-1 and different types of zeolite were identified in poz-2 and poz-3. Thermal treatments were monitored by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, in order to document mineralogical transformations. The effect on the pozzolanic activity has been tested by strength measurements on normalised mortars at 1, 7 and 28 days. Strength of all blended cements is enhanced while destabilising secondary alteration minerals. For kaolinite, we showed that a strength improvement occurs as soon as it is destructured, even if it is not transformed in metakaolin. For zeolites, destabilisation takes place at low temperature (350 deg. C), but as recrystallisation products are easily formed, activation temperature window is narrow. Endly, we have evidence that the presence of calcite in pozzolans has an effect on early strength. Therefore this study is giving new perspectives for a better use of natural pozzolanic materials in the cement industry.

Habert, G. [LMTG, CNRS/Universite Paul Sabatier, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, 58 Bd Lefebvre, 75732 Paris (France)], E-mail: guillaume.habert@lcpc.fr; Choupay, N. [Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue de Montmurier, BP 15, 38291 St Quentin Fallavier cedex (France); Montel, J.M.; Guillaume, D. [LMTG, CNRS/Universite Paul Sabatier, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [LMDC, INSA/Universite Paul Sabatier, 135 Avenue de Rangueuil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)

2008-07-15

33

Death after adenotonsillectomy secondary to massive pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States. Although relatively safe, there is a small risk of post-operative mortality. The majority of deaths come from airway compromise or hemorrhage. The authors present a case of a 32-month-old child who underwent routine adenotonsillectomy for sleep disordered breathing and chronic pharyngitis who was found unresponsive and pulseless in his bed on the morning of postoperative day 2. The cause of death determined by post mortem autopsy was massive pulmonary embolism (PE). PE is a rare event in children and has never been reported as the cause of death following adenotonsillectomy in a child. This case is reviewed in addition to recent literature regarding obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for venous thrombosis and PE. PMID:23419932

Green, Katherine K; Mudd, Pamela; Prager, Jeremy

2013-02-16

34

Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the incubation. Other possible mechanisms include the presence of soluble Fe as an alternative energy source in the goethite treatment, the presence of toxic soluble Al in the gibbsite treatment, the loss of available phosphorus in the secondary mineral treatments due to sorption by secondary mineral surfaces, and variations in mineral surfaces as microhabitats. These findings suggest that Al and Fe oxides, such as goethite or gibbsite, are a factor in determining microbial community structure.

Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

2011-12-01

35

CT and image processing non-invasive indicators of sickle cell secondary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

This retrospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to quantify for the presence and extent of pulmonary hypertension secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). A combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery from smoothed CT-Angiography images from 16 SCD patients and 16 matching controls. An algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute the centerline of the segmented arteries to measure automatically the diameters of the pulmonary trunk and first branches of the pulmonary arteries. Results show that the pulmonary trunk and arterial branches are significantly larger in diameter in SCD patients as compared to controls (p-values of 0.002 for trunk and 0.0003 for branches). For validation, the results were compared with manually measured values and did not demonstrate significant difference (mean p-values 0.71). CT with image processing shows great potential as a surrogate indicator of pulmonary hemodynamics or response to therapy, which could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance. PMID:19162792

Linguraru, Marius George; Orandi, Babak J; Van Uitert, Robert L; Mukherjee, Nisha; Summers, Ronald M; Gladwin, Mark T; Machado, Roberto F; Wood, Bradford J

2008-01-01

36

Nitrification potential of secondary-succession upland oak forests: 1. Mineralization and nitrification during laboratory incubations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to examine factors regulating N mineralization and nitrification in upland oak (Quercus spp.) forests of the Missouri Ozarks. Soils were collected from three sites representing secondary oak succession. Sampling dates represented different stages in the phenological development of the vegetation during a 1-yr period. Soils were incubated in the laboratory, and changes in soil NOââ and

J. M. Donaldson; G. S. Henderson

2009-01-01

37

Bacterial and iron oxide aggregates mediate secondary iron mineral formation: green rust versus magnetite.  

PubMed

In the presence of methanoate as electron donor, Shewanella putrefaciens, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, is able to transform lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) to secondary Fe (II-III) minerals such as carbonated green rust (GR1) and magnetite. When bacterial cells were added to a gamma-FeOOH suspension, aggregates were produced consisting of both bacteria and gamma-FeOOH particles. Recently, we showed that the production of secondary minerals (GR1 vs. magnetite) was dependent on bacterial cell density and not only on iron reduction rates. Thus, gamma-FeOOH and S. putrefaciens aggregation pattern was suggested as the main mechanism driving mineralization. In this study, lepidocrocite bioreduction experiments, in the presence of anthraquinone disulfonate, were conducted by varying the [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio in order to determine whether different types of aggregate are formed, which may facilitate precipitation of GR1 as opposed to magnetite. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the relative cell surface area and lepidocrocite concentration within the aggregates and captured images were characterized by statistical methods for spatial data (i.e. variograms). These results suggest that the [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio influenced both the aggregate structure and the nature of the secondary iron mineral formed. Subsequently, a [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio above 1 x 10(7) cells mmol(-1) leads to densely packed aggregates and to the formation of GR1. Below this ratio, looser aggregates are formed and magnetite was systematically produced. The data presented in this study bring us closer to a more comprehensive understanding of the parameters governing the formation of minerals in dense bacterial suspensions and suggest that screening mineral-bacteria aggregate structure is critical to understanding (bio)mineralization pathways. PMID:20398066

Zegeye, A; Mustin, C; Jorand, F

2010-04-12

38

Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals from Chemical Weathering of Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Data from corrosion and radionuclide sequestration studies on two waste glasses indicated chemical weathering resulted in the formation of zeolite minerals such as herschelite and analcime. We also found that these minerals incorporated {approx}8 - 22%, {approx}1- 13% and {approx}8 - 25% of spiked 125-I, 99-Tc, and 75-Se respectively. Increasing concentrations of radionuclides in spike solution resulted in higher degree of sequestration as observed by significantly higher proportion of stable isotopes ({approx}70 - 95% I, {approx}58 - 100% Re, and {approx}100% Se) in secondary minerals. The radionuclide incorporation mechanisms for these minerals appear to be mainly isomorphic substitution of Se and Re in tetrahedral sites and iodide substitution for framework oxygen.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; McGrail, B PETER.; Legore, Virginia L.

2002-09-01

39

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from the death certificates were ascertained and converted to the codes from the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-9). Mortality comparisons were made with the male population in The Netherlands, resulting in standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). 3367 miners had radiological manifestation of CWP at medical examinations. RESULTS: 80% of the miners died during the follow up period. Excess mortalities from CWP (SMR 4523) and COPD (SMR 179) were found. Coal miners without CWP also showed an increased mortality from COPD (SMR 2913). A diminished lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), or FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio) at medical examination resulted in a significantly increased SMR for COPD (322 and 212 respectively) whereas normal lung function yielded expected mortalities from COPD. A positive correlation also emerged between diminished lung function and the SMR due to CWP. The body mass index (BMI) at the moment of medical examination was correlated with the risk of dying of COPD and CWP: a decreasing BMI resulting in an increased SMR. CONCLUSIONS: Not only infectious diseases and CWP but also COPD is an important cause of occupational mortality in miners with extensive exposure to coal mine dust. No obvious connection between pre-existing CWP and the COPD mortality exists. Impaired FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios are predictors of an increased risk of COPD death. The BMI seems to indicate the severity of the COPD, resulting in premature death.

Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J

1997-01-01

40

Role of endothelin receptor activation in secondary pulmonary hypertension in awake swine after myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

We previously observed that pulmonary hypertension secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) in swine is characterized by elevated plasma endothelin (ET) levels and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor influence contributes to secondary pulmonary hypertension after MI and investigated the involvement of ETA and ETB receptor subtypes. Chronically instrumented swine with (MI swine; n = 25) or without (normal swine; n = 19) MI were studied at rest and during treadmill exercise (up to 4 km h?1), in the absence and presence of the ETA antagonist EMD 122946 or the mixed ETA/ETB antagonist tezosentan. In normal swine, exercise caused a small decrease in PVR. ETA blockade had no effect on PVR at rest or during exercise. Conversely, ETA/ETB blockade decreased PVR but only during exercise (at 4 km h?1, from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 2.3 ± 0.1 mmHg min l?1; P ? 0.05). MI increased pulmonary arterial pressure and PVR both at rest and during exercise (both P ? 0.05). The increased pulmonary arterial pressure correlated with the increased plasma ET levels in resting MI swine (r = 0.71; P ? 0.01). Furthermore, the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 infusion was enhanced after MI (P ? 0.05). ETA/ETB blockade decreased PVR in MI swine from 3.6 ± 0.3 to 3.1 ± 0.5 mmHg min l?1 at rest and from 3.4 ± 0.3 to 2.4 ± 0.2 mmHg min l?1 during exercise at 4 km h?1 (both P ? 0.05). This increased response to mixed ETA/ETB blockade in MI compared to normal swine appeared to be the result of an increased ETA-mediated vasoconstriction, as ETA blockade decreased PVR in MI swine from 3.4 ± 0.4 to 2.8 ± 0.2 mmHg min l?1 at rest and from 3.1 ± 0.3 to 2.6 ± 0.2 mmHg min l?1 at 4 km h?1 (both P ? 0.05). In conclusion, increased plasma ET levels together with increased pulmonary resistance vessel responsiveness to ET result in an exaggerated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET in swine with a recent MI. This vasoconstrictor influence is the result of an emergent tonic ETA-mediated vasoconstriction in addition to the exercise-induced ETB-mediated vasoconstriction that is already present in normal swine.

Houweling, Birgit; Merkus, Daphne; Sorop, Oana; Boomsma, Frans; Duncker, Dirk J

2006-01-01

41

Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a regional primary alteration being overprinted by a secondary mineralogy. The intense hydrothermal alteration at both sites shows significant differences in the secondary mineralogy. At Roman Ruins, the upper 25 m of hydrothermally altered rocks are characterized by a rapid change from secondary cristobalite to quartz, implying a high temperature gradient. From 10 to 120 mbsf the clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and chlorite. The chlorite formation temperature calculated from oxygen isotope data lies at 250° C in 116 mbsf which is similar to the present fluid outflow temperatures of 240-250° C (Douville et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 627-643). Drilling in the Snowcap field recovered evidence for several stages of hydrothermal alteration. Between 50 and 150 mbsf, cristobalite and chlorite are the most abundant alteration minerals while hydrothermal pyrophyllite becomes abundant in some places At 67 mbsf, the isotopic composition of pyrophyllite gives a temperature for ist formation at 260° C whereas at 77 and 116 mbsf the pyrophyllite displays the highest temperatures of formation (>300° C). These temperatures are close to the maximum measured borehole temperatures of 313° C. The appearance of assemblages of chlorite, chlorite-vermiculite, chlorite-vermiculite-smectite and illite-smectite as well as the local development of corrensite below 150 mbsf suggests that the alteration at Snowcap may be more complex than that beneath Roman Ruins. Detailed geochemical studies of the authigenic clay mineral phases will provide further insights into the chemical changes due to hydrothermal alteration.

Lackschewitz, K. S.; Kummetz, M.; Kummetz, M.; Ackermand, D.; Botz, R.; Devey, C. W.; Singer, A.; Stoffers, P.

2001-12-01

42

Alteration Products and Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The martian meteorites contain alteration products and secondary minerals that are a critical part of understanding their near-surface histories on both Mars and Earth. In some martian meteorites, suspected martian preterrestrial alteration products can be distinguished from terrestrial weathering effects Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), we are studying natural fracture surfaces of ALH 84001 chips, including samples from both the interior and the exterior of the meteorite. Exterior samples include fusion crust surfaces, which are important in determining the extent of terrestrial weathering of meteorites. The focus of this study is weathering features and secondary minerals other than the distinctive carbonate globules that continue to be studied by many researchers.

Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

1998-01-01

43

Strontium Isotopes in Secondary Silicate Minerals Produced During Paleogroundwater Flow, Socorro, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical microsampling of silicate alteration phases produced during past episodes of groundwater flow, combined with Sr isotopic data, can potentially be used to determine the age of the alteration phases and to define paleogroundwater flow paths. Recent studies of the K-metasomatized, mid-Tertiary Lemitar Tuff near Socorro, central New Mexico (Fritz and Farmer, Chem, Geol., 2006) suggested that secondary adularia produced during metasomatism may record the original Sr isotopic compositions of altering fluids, the later providing information regarding the source of the solutes in the fluids. Here we expand our microsampling of secondary minerals in the altered Lemitar Tuff to a wider geographic area with the intent of determining if spatial variations in fluid Sr isotopic compositions are recorded in these minerals and if these variations can be used prescribe the direction of paleogroundwater flow. Samples were obtained of K-metasomatized tuff and overlying Popotosa Conglomerate along along an ~40 km transect through the entire region of alteration from potential recharge area in Precambrian granitic rocks of the Magdalena Mountains to the west, and discharge region in similar rocks some 4 km to the east. Most of the new adularia microsamples plot on a steeper errorchron (~12 m.y.) with lower apparent initial ratios (~0.711) than determined for the adularia samples analyzed by Fritz and Farmer (2006) (~7 m.y., ~0.721), regardless of geographic position. Unlike the samples obtained in the early study, our new microsamples contain varying proportions of secondary clay minerals, which are difficult to avoid during sampling. Clay mineral-rich adularia microsamples have higher Sr contents (100 ppm) and lower measured 87Sr/86Sr (~0.711) than their clay poor counterpart, suggesting that Sr -errorchron" may be a mixing line between a high Rb/Sr, high 87Sr/86Sr adularia and low Rb/Sr, low 87Sr/86Sr clay minerals. If so, then the clay minerals must either have formed at later time than adularia and incorporated Sr from a fluid containing solely tuff-derived Sr, or the Sr incorporated into clay minerals must have come solely from altering, low 87Sr/86Sr, igneous plagioclase, unlike the adularia. In either case, the intimate association between clay minerals and adularia, and differences in either the timing or mode of their crystallization, renders it difficult to extract with our current methodology unambiguous information regarding the Sr isotopic compositions of the K-metasomatizing fluids.

Farmer, G. L.; Rougvie, J.; Szilvagyi, E.

2008-12-01

44

Form and composition of secondary mineralization in fractures in Columbia River basalts  

SciTech Connect

Examination of basalt alteration rinds suggests that pyroxene is altered, along with mesostasis, from the inception of hydrothermal alteration along cooling fractures in Columbia River basalts. The only phyllosilicate secondary mineral in fractures is trioctahedral smectite of Fe-saponite composition, throughout the examined thickness of the basalt column. This smectite is compositionally distinct from the minor amounts of mesostasis smectite found in otherwise unaltered outcrop samples of basalt.

McKinley, J.P.; Rawson, S.A.; Horton, D.G.

1986-05-01

45

Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

46

Mineral dissolution and secondary precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions affecting subsurface porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89 °C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2012-11-01

47

Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity  

SciTech Connect

Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2012-11-23

48

Simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

Thromboembolism presenting with malignancy is common in adults but rare in children. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy admitted to our hospital with syncope. Computed tomography revealed thromboembolism in both the lungs. Magnetic resonance imaging found thromboembolism in the inferior vena cava and a large heterogeneous mass in the pelvis. Pelvic osteosarcoma was confirmed by computed tomography-guided biopsy. Despite intensive chemotherapy and local radiation, only transient response was noted, the tumor remaining unresectable. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma in children. We also emphasize syncope as a unique feature of pulmonary thromboembolism. Accordingly, thromboembolism should be kept in mind as the first manifestation of occult malignancy, even in children. PMID:23274375

Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng; Chao, Yu-Hua; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chen, Pei-Yu; Wu, Han-Ping; Wu, Kang-Hsi

2013-11-01

49

Cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism: From improved mineral levels to improved mortality?  

PubMed

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is an almost inevitable complication of advanced kidney failure. The introduction of the calcimimetic cinacalcet for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on dialysis was based on its ability to reduce elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Subsequent clinical studies confirmed the beneficial effects of cinacalcet on biochemical parameters reflecting mineral disturbances and bone disease. In this review we summarise the impact of cinacalcet on biochemical, intermediate and clinical outcomes. We also present previously unpublished mineral metabolism data from 144 Dutch dialysis patients treated with cinacalcet who participated in the pan-European ECHO observational study. Although secondary hyperparathyroidism tended to be more severe in our Dutch cohort, compared with the entire ECHO cohort, cinacalcet was nevertheless effective in reducing PTH in these patients. Two recent clinical studies evaluated, respectively, the efficacy of cinacalcet in improving the intermediate endpoint of cardiovascular calcifications (ADVANCE trial), and its impact on clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events (EVOLVE trial). The ADVANCE trial provided evidence that cinacalcet may indeed improve calcification in both large arteries and cardiac valves. The EVOLVE trial, however, did not meet its clinical primary endpoint (time to all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, hospitalisation for unstable angina, heart failure or a peripheral vascular event), although secondary and sensitivity analysis suggested a beneficial effect. The clinical implications of these important studies are also addressed in this review. PMID:24038560

Vervloet, M G; du Buf-Vereijken, P W G; Potter van Loon, B-J; Manamley, N; Reichert, L J M; Smak Gregoor, P J H

2013-09-01

50

Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition Ax[(W,Fe)(O,OH)3]·yH2O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)Å, c=19.55(1)Å, space group P63/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)Å, c=50.49(1)Å, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111)py pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111)py blocks have the same thickness, 6 Å, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12 Å. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111)py oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO3.

Grey, Ian E.; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine; Mills, Stuart J.

2006-12-01

51

Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals  

SciTech Connect

Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

Grey, Ian E. [CSIRO Minerals, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)]. E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D. [Geosciences Department, Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne, Vic. 3001 (Australia); Bougerol, Catherine [Equipe CEA-CNRS NPSC SP2M/DRFMC/CEA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Mills, Stuart J. [CSIRO Minerals, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Geosciences Department, Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne, Vic. 3001 (Australia)

2006-12-15

52

The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the

Kate Maher; Carl I. Steefel; Art F. White; Dave A. Stonestrom

2009-01-01

53

Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly applied in adults with acute refractory respiratory failure that is deemed reversible. Bleeding is the most frequent complication during ECMO support. Severe pre-existing bleeding has been considered a contraindication to ECMO application. Nevertheless, there are cases of successful ECMO application in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock or head trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. ECMO has proved to be life-saving in several cases of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hemorrhage of various causes, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's disease). We successfully applied ECMO in a 65-year-old woman with acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to diffuse massive pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, manifested as severe pulmonary-renal syndrome. ECMO sustained life and allowed disease control, together with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, corticoids, and renal replacement therapy. The patient was successfully weaned from ECMO, extubated, and discharged home. She remains alive on dialysis at 17 months follow-up. PMID:23926421

Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Petermann, Arndt; Visouli, Aikaterini; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Ketteler, Markus; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Brachmann, Johannes

2013-07-24

54

Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly applied in adults with acute refractory respiratory failure that is deemed reversible. Bleeding is the most frequent complication during ECMO support. Severe pre-existing bleeding has been considered a contraindication to ECMO application. Nevertheless, there are cases of successful ECMO application in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock or head trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. ECMO has proved to be life-saving in several cases of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hemorrhage of various causes, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s disease). We successfully applied ECMO in a 65-year-old woman with acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to diffuse massive pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, manifested as severe pulmonary-renal syndrome. ECMO sustained life and allowed disease control, together with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, corticoids, and renal replacement therapy. The patient was successfully weaned from ECMO, extubated, and discharged home. She remains alive on dialysis at 17 months follow-up.

Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Petermann, Arndt; Visouli, Aikaterini; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Ketteler, Markus; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Brachmann, Johannes

2013-01-01

55

Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail. PMID:20851443

Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

2010-09-09

56

Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals ? But when you think of minerals, food isn't the first thing that comes to mind. Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron ...

57

Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog  

SciTech Connect

Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

2012-05-01

58

Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618.

Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

2011-01-01

59

Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

2009-02-01

60

Secondary Fe-Mn-oxides in minerals heavily damaged by alpha-recoil: possible implications for palaeomagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-micron Fe,Mn-oxides in columbite-tantalite minerals are bound to metamict domains in the host. These nano-oxides are secondary minerals as the metamict zones formed through accumulation of damages from alpha-recoil, each of which in a small volume destroys the crystal lattice of the U and Th bearing columbite-tantalite host. Transmission electron microscope investigations demonstrate that the oxides fall in the compositional

Rolf L. Romer; Norbert Nowaczyk; Richard Wirth

2007-01-01

61

Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B. (1991) EPSL, 101, 180-195. [12] Swindle T. D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2215-2227. [13]

Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

1995-09-01

62

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on minerals starts with a definition of minerals and compares crystalline and amorphous minerals. The composition is discussed and a chart shows the relative amounts of elements in minerals. Next, there is a discussion of the characteristics by which minerals are identified including luster, color, streak, hardness, and cleavage and fracture along with special properties such as magnetism. The characteristics of calcite, talc, hematite, magnetite, and galena are then observed.

63

Evidence for an unsaturated-zone origin of secondary minerals in Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated zone (UZ) in Miocene-age welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Secondary calcite and silica minerals deposited on fractures and in cavities in the UZ tuffs are texturally, isotopically, and geochemically consistent with UZ deposition from meteoric water infiltrating at the surface and percolating through the UZ along fractures. Nonetheless, two-phase fluid inclusions with small and consistent vapor to liquid (V:L) ratios that yield consistent temperatures within samples and which range from about 35 to about 80 C between samples have led some to attribute these deposits to formation from upwelling hydrothermal waters. Geochronologic studies have shown that calcite and silica minerals began forming at least 10 Ma and continued to form into the Holocene. If their deposition were really from upwelling water flooding the UZ, it would draw into question the suitability of the site as a waste repository.

Whelan, Joseph F.; Roedder, Edwin; Paces, James B.

2001-04-29

64

Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This project, renewal of a previous EMSP project of the same title, is in its first year of funding at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The purpose is to continue investigating rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals found in the Hanford subsurface and leaked waste tank solutions. The goals are to understand processes that result in (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. A post-doctoral scientist, Dr. Sherry Samson, has been hired and two masters of science students are beginning to conduct experimental research. One research project that is underway is focused on measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms. The first set of experiments is being conduced at room temperature. Subsequent experiments will examine the role of temperature because tank solutions in many cases were near boiling when leakage is thought to have occurred and temperature gradients have been observed beneath the SX and BX tank farms. The dissolution experiments are being conducted in stirred-flow kinetic reactors using powdered labradorite feldspar from Pueblo Park, New Mexico.

Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchio, Neil C.

2003-06-01

65

Diagenesis of basalts from the Pasco Basin, Washington. I. Distribution and composition of secondary mineral phases  

SciTech Connect

The principal components of secondary mineral assemblages found in Pasco Basin basalts are iron-rich smectite (nontronite), clinoptilolite, and silica. Silica occurs as quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and opal-CT. Extractable iron within the nontronite suggests the presence of an iron-bearing oxyhydroxide phase intercalated with the nontronite. Other components present in minor or trace amounts are mordenite, celadonite, apatite, pyrite, phillipsite, gypsum, crionite, and chabazite. The generalized precipitation sequence with time and/or depth was found to be clay (usually nontronite) ..-->.. clinoptilolite ..-->.. silica and/or clay. Nontronite, the first phase to form, is present at nearly all sampled depths. Clinoptilolite is apparently restricted to depths below about 350 m. Quartz is ubiquitous whereas opal and cristobalite appear to be abundant only below 600 m. Mordenite occurs only at depths below about 900 m, which correlates roughly with the first occurrence of dissolution-etched clinoptilolite. These observations as well as comparisons with data on secondary minearl assemblages from other basaltic and felsic systems suggest that the geochemical evolution of Pasco Basin basalts probably occurred under conditions similar to those existing today.

Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

1982-01-01

66

Geochemical fixation of rare earth elements into secondary minerals in sandstones beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombé, Gabon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study geochemical processes for migration and fixation of fissiogenic rare earth elements (REE) in association with uranium dissolution, in situ isotopic analyses using an ion microprobe were performed on U- and REE-bearing secondary minerals, such as coffinite, françoisite, uraniferous goethite, and uraninite found in a sandstone layer 30 to 110 cm beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombé, Gabon. Phosphate minerals such as phosphatian coffinite and françoisite with depleted 235U ( 235U/ 238U = 0.00609 to 0.00638) contained large amount of fissiogenic light REE, while micro-sized uraninite grains in a solid bitumen aggregate have normal U isotopic values ( 235U/ 238U = 0.00725) and small amount of fissiogenic REE components. The proportions of fissiogenic and non-fissiogenic REE components in four samples from the core of BAX03 vary in depth ranging from 30 cm to 130 cm beneath the reactor, which suggests mixing between fissiogenic isotopes from the reactor and non-fissiogenic isotopes from original minerals in the sandstone. Significant chemical fractionation was observed between Ce and the other REE in the secondary minerals, which shows evidence of an oxidizing atmosphere during their formation. Pb-isotopic analyses of individual minerals do not directly provide chronological information because of the disturbance of U-Pb decay system due to recent geologic alteration. However, systematic Pb-isotopic results from all of the minerals reveal the mobilization of fissiogenic isotopes, Pb and U from the reactor in association with dolerite dyke intrusion ˜0.798 Ga ago and the formation of the secondary minerals by mixing event between 2.05 Ga-old original minerals and reactor materials due to recent alteration.

Hidaka, Hiroshi; Janeczek, Janusz; Skomurski, Frances N.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

2005-02-01

67

The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

SciTech Connect

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

2009-02-25

68

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is from James Madison University's Department of Geology and Environmental Science. It provides an introduction to minerals, an alphabetical list of minerals and dichotomous keys to identifying minerals in PDF. There are also links to other department pages on igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Fichter, Lynn S.

2000-09-13

69

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about minerals! Directions: Make a poster about minerals. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about minerals. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

70

Attenuation of pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction in the rat by Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in left ventricular dysfunction is attributable not only to backward failure of the left ventricle, but also to increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in some patients. Recently, Rho-kinase has been known as a potent growth stimulator and mediator of vasoconstriction, and Rho-kinase inhibitors could ameliorate PVR, little is known about the role of Rho-kinase in left ventricular dysfunction-induced PH. We utilized the ascending aortic-banded rat and assessed the effect of Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil on the development of PH secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Subsequently, in rats subjected to aortic banding for 6 weeks, there were increases in mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness, active RhoA, Rho-kinase II, Rho-kinase activity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1(ET-1) concomitant with decreased levels in NO and cGMP in the lung. Treatment with fasudil at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day from days 1 to 28 or from days 29 to 42 decreased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure by 57% and 56%, right ventricular hypertrophy by 31% and 30%, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness by 50% and 50%, and pulmonary expression of Rho-kinase II by 41% and 28%, respectively, as well as augmented pulmonary expression of eNOS by 16% and 31% and NO by 50% and 76%, respectively, when compared with the vehicle controls. In conclusion, these results suggest that inhibition of Rho-kinase may provide therapeutic potential for preventing and attenuating the development of PH in left ventricular dysfunction. Further translational study in human is needed to substantiate the findings. PMID:20717937

Dai, Zen-Kong; Wu, Bin-Nan; Chen, I-Chen; Chai, Chee-Yin; Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Chen, Ing-Jun; Tan, Mian-Shin

2010-08-17

71

Secondary reactive oxygen species production after PDT during pulmonary tumor growth in sera of nude mice.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), mediated by a sensitizer exposed to light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2), induces tumor responses varying from one person to another. Cancer growth induces oxidative stress at any step of its development from induction to treatment, which could also modify response to PDT. After the initial amount of (1)O2 delivered, secondary oxidative species (SOS) are also generated inducing additional damages. Using an in vitro assay we saw variations among mice strains concerning their serum capability to generate SOS after (1)O2 production. Nude mice had a higher capability to generate SOS as compared to the non mutated strain. Capability to generate SOS evolved during growth of orthotopically-grafted pulmonary cancers (A549), with either values corrected for hemolysis or not. Immediately after graft SOS production decreased, then increased again, reaching a plateau phase after 10 days which lasted for 20 days and finally increased steeply during the last phase of tumor growth, preceding cachexia and death. This profile differed profoundly from the one observed after heterotopic tumor grafts for which hemolysis induced artifacts masking important variations in SOS production. Our results demonstrate experimentally a relationship between the general health status of an individual, cancer progression and serum capability to generate SOS during PDT. These findings could explain some PDT failures as well as some unexpected successes on large tumors and should be taken into account when determining treatment parameters. They may also explain why different effects are observed on different experimental models with similar sensitizers. PMID:23465374

Douillard, Samuel; Rozec, Bertrand; Bigot, Edith; Aillet, Lorena; Patrice, Thierry

2012-06-27

72

Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase blockade by BW755C does not prevent the secondary phase of septic pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

The infusion of Group B beta hemolytic streptococci (GBS) in newborn animals generates a dual phase pulmonary hypertensive response. The initial, acute phase responds to cyclooxygenase or thromboxane inhibition, and appears to be thromboxane mediated. The second phase is characterized by a more moderate rise in pulmonary vascular resistance, accompanied by an increase in microvascular permeability. It has been speculated that this phase may be leukotriene mediated. In an attempt to clarify this, we have studied and compared the effects of the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, Dazmegrel (DAZ), and the combined cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, on the cardiopulmonary hemodynamics of the secondary phase of GBS induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Ten piglets were infused with GBS, and all animals developed a significant increase in pulmonary artery pressure (to 39 +/- 5 and 36 +/- 5 mmHg for DAZ and BW755C animals respectively). After one hour of GBS, either DAZ or BW755C was administered. Data were collected for another two hours following drug administration. GBS infusion was continued throughout. Both DAZ and BW755C were associated with transient, acute reductions in pulmonary artery pressure (to 22 +/- 5 and 22 +/- 8 mmHg, respectively). However, after 60 minutes, PAP again began to rise in both groups (PAP 30 +/- 5 and 30 +/- 11 mmHg respectively by 240 minutes). There were no differences between the groups at any time. These data do not support a significant role for lipoxygenase products in mediating the secondary phase of septic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:2506581

Hammerman, C; Aramburo, M J; Hill, V

1989-08-01

73

9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

1998-12-01

74

Sorption and Redox Reactions of As(III) and As(V) within Secondary Mineral Coatings on Aquifer Sediment Grains.  

PubMed

Important reactive phenomena that affect the transport and fate of many elements occur at the mineral-water interface (MWI), including sorption and redox reactions. Fundamental knowledge of these phenomena are often based on observations of ideal mineral-water systems, for example, studies of molecular scale reactions on single crystal faces or the surfaces of pure mineral powders. Much less is understood about MWI in natural environments, which typically have nanometer to micrometer scale secondary mineral coatings on the surfaces of primary mineral grains. We examined sediment grain coatings from a well-characterized field site to determine the causes of rate limitations for arsenic (As) sorption and redox processes within the coatings. Sediments were obtained from the USGS field research site on Cape Cod, MA, and exposed to synthetic contaminated groundwater solutions. Uptake of As(III) and As(V) into the coatings was studied with a combination of electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques to assess concentration gradients and reactive processes, including electron transfer reactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microprobe (XMP) analyses indicated that As was primarily associated with micrometer- to submicrometer aggregates of Mn-bearing nanoparticulate goethite. As(III) oxidation by this phase was observed but limited by the extent of exposed surface area of the goethite grains to the exterior of the mineral coatings. Secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site, and may need to be included explicitly in reactive transport models. PMID:24041305

Singer, David M; Fox, Patricia M; Guo, Hua; Marcus, Matthew A; Davis, James A

2013-09-27

75

Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

1998-10-23

76

Change in the dissolution rates of alkali feldspars as a result of secondary mineral precipitation and approach to equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction rates of congruent and incongruent dissolution of sanidine in NaHCO3 solution (0.1 m) and albite in KHCO3 solution (0.1 m) as well as the reaction rates of precipitation of secondary minerals (analcime and sanidine) have been measured at 300°C, 88 bars, and pH 9. At congruent stage, the reaction rates change, as equilibrium is approached, according to the following

Victor A. Alekseyev; Ludmila S. Medvedeva; Nina I. Prisyagina; Sergey S. Meshalkin; Aleksey I. Balabin

1997-01-01

77

Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering;\\u000a vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-;\\u000a Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and;\\u000atransport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes.;

Shas V. Mattigod; R. Jeffrey Serne; Virginia L. Legore; Kent E. Parker; Robert D. Orr; David E. McCready; James S. Young

1998-01-01

78

Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

1998-02-01

79

The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A. F.; Stonestrom, D. A.

2009-01-01

80

Using SEM and EDS Data to Evaluate the Evolution of Secondary Minerals in Incipiently Altered Volcanic Rocks of Southeast Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary processes such as weathering and hydrothermal alteration are known to affect the geochemistry of volcanic rocks following emplacement. Data suggest that even at the earliest stages of these processes, secondary products such as clays and zeolites develop. These secondary minerals may serve as the host for trace elements that are mobilized from the glassy matrix and primary minerals. Phenocrysts exhibiting different degrees of weathering were compared using EDS scans and secondary-electron imaging, in order to better characterize the secondary products, and their role in element mobility. Three geologic units from Tecuamburro volcanic complex in southeast Guatemala were sampled to examine secondary mineral formation in incipiently weathered rocks. The samples range in age from 0.8 to 2.6 Ma and in composition from basalt to dacite. Samples are petrographically characterized by plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide phenocrysts, and a glassy groundmass containing microlites similar to the phenocrysts. Each hand sample (appx. 10-20cm diameter) was divided into 3 zones: core, intermediate, and rind. In core plagioclases, EDS data show no obvious variation in Ca-Si ratios across the grains. Accessory phases such as phosphates and Fe-Ti oxides are also present, and randomly distributed in the core plagioclase grains. Secondary-electron images of a plagioclase from the core reveal fractures already filled with secondary material (e.g. clays). Core pyroxenes contain Fe-Ti oxides both randomly distributed throughout the grains, and along fractures and cleavages. In the intermediate zone, the edges of plagioclase grains are depleted in Ca relative to the grain centers. Fractures in the intermediate plagioclases contain Fe-Ti oxides along with clays, while pyroxene fractures contain both Fe-Ti oxides and phosphates. In the rind, plagioclase Ca-Si ratios vary greatly within individual grains. These variations are interpreted as secondary when contrasted with the homogenous core plagioclase grains. Fractures in rind pyroxenes contain kaolinite, and Fe-Ti oxides are abundant in fractures and along grain edges. Phosphates in the rind are uncommon, and are not associated with either plagioclase or pyroxene. Secondary images of a rind plagioclase show etch pits, clay minerals in fractures and on the surface, and possible zeolites along large fracture walls. The nature and abundance of secondary material does increase within the profile of these incipiently weathered rocks. However, even the relatively "fresh" cores contain clays and oxides in fractures. Ca-Si ratios in plagioclase grains dramatically change from core to rind, and strongly suggest alteration. Clays, oxides, and phosphates are common in fractures and edges of phenocrysts from the intermediate zone. Fractures in the grains from the rind contain abundant clays and oxides. The occurrence of secondary phases even in the least altered samples leads us to believe that trace elements may also be mobile at these early stages of alteration. Further study of the early-forming secondary phases will clarify their role in the mobility of these elements.

Wade, J. A.; Patino, L. C.; Velbel, M. A.

2001-12-01

81

Secondary ion mass spectrometric investigation of penetration of coconut and mineral oils into human hair fibers: relevance to hair damage.  

PubMed

An attempt has been made to show the difference in the penetrability of coconut oil and mineral oil in human hair. We have used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Characteristic ions formed by the pure components when bombarded with gallium ions have been identified with their m/z values. The distribution of the ion, characteristic of the particular treatment, has been established in the cross sections of hair treated with coconut and mineral oils. The results show that coconut oil penetrates the hair shaft while mineral oil does not. The difference may be due to the polarity of the coconut oil compared to the nonpolar nature of the mineral oil. The affinity of the penetrant to the protein seems to be the cause for this difference in their behavior. This study also indicates that the swelling of hair is limited by the presence oil. Since the process of swelling and deswelling of hair is one of the causes of hair damage by hygral fatigue, coconut oil, which is a better penetrant than mineral oil, may provide better protection from damage by hygral fatigue. PMID:11413497

Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Rele, A S; Mohile, R B

82

Respiratory symptoms secondary to aortopulmonary collateral vessels in tetralogy of Fallot absent pulmonary valve syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodynamically significant systemic-to-pulmonary artery collaterals may represent an underappreciated cause of cardiorespiratory compromise in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (TOF\\/APV). We retrospectively reviewed the angiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, operative, and autopsy reports of the 50 patients with TOF\\/APV managed at our institution in the past 10 years and demonstrated that at least 7 of 50 patients (14%) had

Alison L. Knauth; Audrey C. Marshall; Tal Geva; Richard A. Jonas; Gerald R. Marx

2004-01-01

83

Genetic polymorphisms in alveolar macrophage response-related genes, and risk of silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese iron miners.  

PubMed

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a prominent role in influencing the development of lung inflammation and injury. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of AMs response-related genes TNF-alpha, iNOS, and NRAMP1 (SLC11A1) in susceptibility to silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and to analyze the interaction of dust exposure and genetic susceptibility to silicosis, interactions of TNF-alpha-308 and Natural Resistance-associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP1) INT4, D543N polymorphisms to PTB. Several epidemiological designs were used: retrospective investigations on dust exposure, case-control studies of 184 silicosis cases and 111 miners occupationally exposed to silica dust, and 1:2 matched case-control studies of 61 PTB cases and 122 PTB-free miners. The miners and controls were recruited from an iron mining operation in Anhui province, China. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was applied to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. Despite the recruitment of high dust exposure among the controls, silicosis patients still had significantly higher dust exposure than controls (242.6 +/- 98.8 vs. 217.6 +/- 100.7 mg a/m(3)). The mutation of iNOS Ser608Leu is associated with protection against silicosis and against severity of silicosis in the miners. There is a 0.47-fold (95% CI: 0.28-0.79) decrease in risk of silicosis for individuals with C/T, T/T genotype compared with the wild-type homozygous (C/C) individuals after adjustment for occupational exposure, smoking, and drinking. The protection effect of the iNOS polymorphism was particularly detected in the > or = 150 mg a/m(3) exposure group (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.91). However, no interaction of dust exposure with the iNOS polymorphism was observed. Furthermore, the variant NRAMP1 INT4 genotype is significantly associated with PTB in miners. No association of other polymorphisms (NRAMP1 D543N, TNF-alpha-308) and susceptibility to silicosis or PTB in Chinese miners was found. Our data showed a 3.26-fold (95% CI: 1.47-7.23) increased risk of PTB for miners carrying both the NRAMP1 D543N G/G and NRAMP1 INT4 G/C+C/C genotypes. Additionally, in miners with TNF-alpha-308 G/G genotype, the risk of PTB increased 2.38-fold if they carry the NRAMP1 INT4 G/C+C/C genotype (95% CI: 1.14-4.98). In conclusion, the C>T mutation of iNOS Ser608Leu may be an important protective factor to miners. On the other hand, the variant NRAMP1 INT4 may play a role in the development of PTB in Chinese miners. Therefore, the novel information can be used as guideline for further mechanistic investigations and for strengthening specific protection protocols for workers. PMID:17223386

Qu, Yabin; Tang, Yunxia; Cao, Duozhi; Wu, Fen; Liu, Jing; Lu, Guoliang; Zhang, Zhongbin; Xia, Zhaolin

2007-01-16

84

A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) ? 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

Goodfellow, Bradley W.

2012-12-01

85

Detoxification and mineralization of Acid Blue 74: study of an alternative secondary treatment to improve the enzymatic decolourization.  

PubMed

Many reports describe the decolourization of dyes by fungal enzymes. However, these enzymes do not contribute to dye mineralization but only to its biotransformation into less coloured or colourless molecules persisting in solution. Therefore, it is essential to analyse the identity of the metabolites produced during enzymatic treatments and its biodegradation into an appropriate system. The present work examines the decolourization/detoxification of a simulated effluent (containing Acid Blue 74) by fungal enzymes and proposes a secondary treatment using an anaerobic system to improve the enzymatic decolourization through the complete mineralization of the dye. Ligninolytic enzymes were produced by solid culture using the thermo-tolerant fungus Fomes sp. EUM1. The enzymes produced showed a high rate of decolourization (>95 % in 5 h) and were stable at elevated temperature (40 °C) and ionic strength (NaCl, 50 mM). Isatin-5-sulphonic acid was identified via (1)H-NMR as oxidation product; tests using Daphnia magna revealed the non-toxic nature of this compound. To improve the enzymatic degradation and avoid coupling reactions between the oxidation products, the effluent was subjected to an anaerobic (methanogenic) treatment, which achieved high mineralization efficiencies (>85 %). To confirm the mineralization of isatin-5-sulphonic acid, a specific degradation study, which has not been reported before, with this single compound was conducted under the same conditions; the results showed high removal efficiencies (86 %) with methane production as evidence of mineralization. These results showed the applicability of an anaerobic methanogenic system to improve the enzymatic decolourization/detoxification of Acid Blue 74 and achieve its complete mineralization. PMID:23247918

Méndez-Hernández, J E; Ramírez-Vives, F; Solís-Oba, M; Solís-Oba, A; Sobrino-Figueroa, A S; Loera, O

2012-12-18

86

Secondary minerals from extrapedogenic per latus acidic weathering environments at geomorphic edges, Eastern Nebraska, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic weathering of the sulfidic Upper Cretaceous Carlile and Pierre Shales in Nebraska has led to the precipitation of the Al sulfate–hydroxide minerals aluminite, alunite, “basaluminite”\\/felsöbányaite (e.g.,), the aluminum hydroxides gibbsite and bayerite, and the rare Al phosphate hydroxide vashegyite. Kaolinite has also been produced as a result of this acidic weathering. These minerals do not appear as neoformed constituents

R. M. Joeckel; K. D. Wally; B. J. Ang Clement; P. R. Hanson; J. S. Dillon; S. K. Wilson

2011-01-01

87

Control of pit-lake water chemistry by secondary minerals, Summer Camp pit, Getchell mine, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Summer Camp pit of the Getchell mine in northern Nevada, the sulfate mineralogy is complex and includes gypsum, jarosite, pickeringite–halotrichite, copiapite, melanterite, langite, and bukovskyite that occur along with scorodite–mansfieldite and Ca–Cu–Zn arsenate minerals. Leaching of these minerals by meteoric water seasonally contributes As, Fe, Ca, trace metals, sulfate, and hydrogen ions to the lake. During the early

R. J. Bowell; J. V. Parshley

2005-01-01

88

Secondary minerals and regolith profiles in basaltic rocks in northeastern US and in Svalbard, an Arctic Mars analogue site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data reported from the Mars Rovers, previous missions, and remote sensing have yielded a body of exciting evidence documenting that a Critical Zone nourished by water may also exist or have existed on Mars. However, the extent to which weathering is responsible for secondary mineral formation on Mars is not clear. We are investigating plagioclase and pyroxene weathering and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides and clays in regolith profiles developed on rocks of basaltic composition from three different sites (Pennsylvania, Virginia, Svalbard), located in very different climatic conditions. Two of these sites were formed under a cool temperate climate, while the Svalbard profile is formed in a dry polar climate that has been identified as a Mars analogue. The two sites located in the northeastern US show similar rates of plagioclase dissolution, while slower rates were observed at Svalbard. Depth of weathering is also much greater in Pennsylvania and Virginia than in Svalbard, where weathering has only proceeded since the last glaciation. Nonetheless, weathering in Svalbard is accelerated by spalling of altered surfaces, presumably due to temperature cycling. We are using a variety of techniques including Fe isotope measurements to better understand secondary mineral precipitation in regolith. Knowledge of the climatic effects upon these processes on Earth can ultimately be applied to better understand weathering mechanisms on Mars.

Brantley, S. L.; Yesavage, T. A.; Bazilevskaya, E.

2011-12-01

89

Secondary alteration of the impactite and mineralization in the basal Tertiary sequence, Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 65 Ma Chicxulub impact crater formed in the shallow coastal marine shelf of the Yucatán Platform in Mexico. Impacts into water-rich environments provide heat and geological structures that generate and focus sub-seafloor convective hydrothermal systems. Core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) hole, drilled by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), allowed testing for the presence of an impact-induced hydrothermal system by: a) characterizing the secondary alteration of the 100 m-thick impactite sequence; and b) testing for a chemical input into the lower Tertiary sediments that would reflect aquagene hydrothermal plume deposition. Interaction of the Yax-1 impactites with seawater is evident through redeposition of the suevites (unit 1), secondary alteration mineral assemblages, and the subaqueous depositional environment for the lower Tertiary carbonates immediately overlying the impactites. The least-altered silicate melt composition intersected in Yax-1 is that of a calc-alkaline basaltic andesite with 53.4-56 wt% SiO2 (volatile-free). The primary mineralogy consists of fine microlites of diopside, plagioclase (mainly Ab 47), ternary feldspar (Ab 37 to 77), and trace apatite, titanite, and zircon. The overprinting alteration mineral assemblage is characterized by Mg-saponite, Kmontmorillonite, celadonite, K-feldspar, albite, Fe-oxides, and late Ca and Mg carbonates. Mg and K metasomatism resulted from seawater interaction with the suevitic rocks producing smectite-Kfeldspar assemblages in the absence of any mixed layer clay minerals, illite, or chlorite. Rare pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite occur near the base of the impactites. These secondary alteration minerals formed by low temperature (0-150 °C) oxidation and fixation of alkalis due to the interaction of glass-rich suevite with down-welling seawater in the outer annular trough intersected at Yax-1. The alteration represents a cold, Mg-K-rich seawater recharge zone, possibly recharging higher temperature hydrothermal activity proposed in the central impact basin. Hydrothermal metal input into the Tertiary ocean is shown by elevated Ni, Ag, Au, Bi, and Te concentrations in marcasite and Cd and Ga in sphalerite in the basal 25 m of the Tertiary carbonates in Yax-1. The lower Tertiary trace element signature reflects hydrothermal metal remobilization from a mafic source rock and is indicative of hydrothermal venting of evolved seawater into the Tertiary ocean from an impact generated hydrothermal convective system.

Ames, Doreen E.; Kjarsgaard, Ingrid M.; Pope, Kevin O.; Dressler, Burkhard; Pilkington, Mark

2004-07-01

90

Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

Rochelle, C.A. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK). Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

1989-01-01

91

Secondary Recovery: Change of the Viscosity and Compressibility of Mineral Oils by Dissolved Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secondary and tertiary oil recovery methods for an enhancement of the production rate are mostly based on a reduction of the mobility ratio water/oil. This can be achieved e.g. by lowering of the oil viscosity by heat or dissolved gases. To investigate th...

E. Kuss H. Killesreiter

1981-01-01

92

Efficacy of caspofungin as secondary prophylaxis in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation with prior pulmonary and\\/or systemic fungal infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplanted patients with a history of invasive fungal infection (IFI) are at high risk of developing relapse and fatal complications. Eighteen patients affected by hematological malignancies and a previous IFI were submitted to allogeneic stem cell transplantation, using Caspofungin as a secondary prophylaxis. Patients had a probable or proven fungal infection and 16 had a pulmonary localization. No side effects

P de Fabritiis; A Spagnoli; P Di Bartolomeo; A Locasciulli; L Cudillo; G Milone; A Busca; A Picardi; R Scimè; A Bonini; L Cupelli; P Chiusolo; A Olivieri; S Santarone; M Poidomani; S Fallani; A Novelli; I Majolino

2007-01-01

93

Successful treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunts (Abernethy type 2) by living donor liver transplantation after surgical shunt ligation.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in a patient (7-year-old boy) with Abernethy type 2 congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunts (CEPS). This patient underwent a surgical shunt ligation as the first treatment for pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary hypertension was improved and controlled successfully 4 years after the first operation. However, pulmonary hypertension recurred gradually because of multiple intrahepatic portosystemic shunts; therefore, LDLT was performed as a radical treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. His pulmonary arterial pressure was also controlled 22 months after LDLT, the postoperative continuous intravenous prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) treatment could be withdrawn successfully. We suggest that clinicians carefully follow up the recurrent portosystemic shunt and cardiopulmonary disorders secondary to Abernethy type 2 CEPS. PMID:19761556

Iida, Taku; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Doi, Hiraku; Yagi, Shintaro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Imai, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Okamoto, Shinya; Uemoto, Shinji

2009-09-15

94

Weathering of Rocks in Gusev Crater Inferred From Correlations Between Primary and Secondary Fe-bearing Minerals Identified by Spirit's Moessbauer Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has by now identified more than six different rock classes during its traverse from the landing site across the plains and into the Columbia Hills. The classification is based on the rocks' chemical composition, and can be further divided into several subclasses on the basis of mineralogical composition from Moessbauer spectra. Rocks in Gusev Crater show various degrees of alteration, both between different rock classes and within individual rock classes. Fe3+/FeTotal ratios determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy were used as a measure of the alteration of individual rocks. Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer identified eight different Fe-bearing mineral phases: The primary minerals olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, and magnetite as well as the secondary minerals hematite, goethite, an unspecified nanophase ferric oxide phase, and a ferric sulfate. For all rock and soil targets the amounts of Fe in individual primary minerals were plotted against Fe3+/FeTotal ratios, and the amounts of Fe in individual secondary minerals. A good correlation is observed between olivine and Fe3+/FeTotal in all rock and soil classes, whereas a good correlation between pyroxene and Fe3+/FeTotal is only observed in pervasively altered rocks in the Columbia Hills. Ilmenite and magnetite show no apparent correlation with Fe3+/FeTotal ratios. Plots between primary and secondary minerals indicate that Fe from olivine or pyroxene is altered to a range of secondary phases rather than one individual secondary mineral. However, remarkable correlations exist between olivine and hematite in Pot of Gold Class rocks and between magnetite and goethite in Clovis Class rocks. The results suggest that the slow alteration of olivine in rocks and soils is the only currently active alteration process in Gusev Crater.

Schroeder, C.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D. S.

2006-12-01

95

Secondary mineralization pathways induced by dissimilatory iron reduction of ferrihydrite under advective flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (hydr)oxides not only serve as potent sorbents and repositories for nutrients and contaminants but also provide a terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. The microbial reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides and the subsequent secondary solid-phase transformations will, therefore, have a profound influence on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe as well as associated metals. Here we elucidate the pathways and mechanisms

Colleen M. Hansel; Shawn G. Benner; Jim Neiss; Alice Dohnalkova; Ravi K. Kukkadapu; Scott Fendorf

2003-01-01

96

Effect of mineral dust on secondary organic aerosol yield and aerosol size in ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is a significant contributor to atmospheric particles, the role of mineral dust in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been fully recognized. In this study, alumina was chosen as the surrogate to investigate the effect of mineral dust on ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation in a 2 m3 smog chamber at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH). Results showed that alumina seeds could influence both the SOA yield and the aerosol size in the photo-oxidation process. Compared to the seed-free system, the presence of alumina seeds resulted in a slight reduction of SOA yield, and also influenced the final concentration of O3 in the chamber. As an important oxidant of ?-pinene, the decrease in O3 concentration could reduce the formation of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) and consequently inhibited SOA formation. In addition, the size of aerosol was closely related with the mass loading of alumina seeds. At low alumina concentration, SVOCs condensed onto the pre-existing seed surface and led to aerosol size growth. When alumina concentration exceeded about 5 ?g m?3, SVOC species that condensed to each seed particle were dispersed by alumina seeds, resulting in the decrease in aerosol size.

Liu, Chang; Chu, Biwu; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; He, Hong; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming

2013-10-01

97

Chronostratigraphy of Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy): secondary mineral microtextures and 39Ar-40Ar systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eruptive history of Monte Vulture has been the subject of several geochronological investigations during the past decades, which reliably dated only a small number of eruptions. Understanding the causes of sub-optimum data yield in the past requires an interdisciplinary approach. We re-analyzed samples from previous works and present new data on samples from the main volcano-stratigraphic units of Monte Vulture, so as to provide an improved, consistent chronostratigraphic database. Imaging of minerals by cathodoluminescence and backscattered electrons reveals that heterochemical, high-temperature deuteric reaction textures are ubiquitous. Such observations are common in metamorphic rocks but had not frequently been reported from volcanic rocks. In view of the mineralogical complexity, we base our chronological interpretation on isochemical steps, defined as steps for which the Cl/K and/or the Ca/K ratios are constant. Isochemical steps carry the isotopic signature of chemically homogeneous mineral phases and therefore allow a well-constrained age interpretation. Comparison of old and new 39Ar-40Ar data proves the reproducibility of age spectra and their shapes. This quantifies the analytical reliability of the irradiation and mass-spectrometric analyses. Anomalous age spectra are a reproducible property of some specific samples and correlate with mineralogical anomalies. The present data allow us to fine-tune the age of the volcanostratigraphic units of Monte Vulture during the known interval of main volcanic activity from ca. 740 to 610 ka. After a very long stasis, the volcanic activity in the Monte Vulture area resumed with diatremic eruptions, one of which (Lago Piccolo di Monticchio, the site of a palynological-paleoclimatological drilling) was dated at ca. 140 ka.

Villa, Igor M.; Buettner, Annett

2009-12-01

98

Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.

2013-10-01

99

Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts

Jane M. Hammarstrom; Robert R. Seal II; Allen L. Meier; John C. Jackson

2003-01-01

100

Mineral species as functions of p H and oxidation-reduction potentials, with special reference to the zone of oxidation and secondary enrichment of sulphide ore deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of diagrams has been prepared showing some stability and solubility relations among lead, zinc, and copper minerals found in the zones of oxidation and secondary enrichment of sulphide ore deposits. The stability and solubility relations are expressed as functions of p H and oxidation-reduction potential. These diagrams show theoretical equilibrium relations, and are sufficiently similar to relations found

Robert M. Garrels

1954-01-01

101

Sudden death due to massive hemoptysis secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis--a case report.  

PubMed

Forensic pathologists deal not only with criminal, accidental and suicidal deaths, but also with a wide range of deaths from natural causes. Natural deaths at times can be sudden, unexpected and unattended by the relatives or friends or eye witnesses. In such cases, even though there is no criminal element in their causation, the case has to be investigated and medico-legal autopsy has to be conducted to know the exact cause of death, thus putting an end to the allegations raised. A 55-year-old male was found dead lying in his room in a pool of blood without any obvious injuries under suspicious circumstances with disturbed furniture in his room. The case was investigated due to suspicious circumstances of his death and absence of history of significant medical illness. The autopsy revealed the death was due to asphyxiation as a result of massive hemoptysis secondary to fibro-cavitatory tuberculosis. PMID:23910849

Hugar, Basappa S; Jayanth, S H; Chandra, Y P Girish; Shankar, B S Udaya

2013-04-16

102

Mineral association changes the secondary structure and dynamics of murine amelogenin.  

PubMed

Amelogenin is one of the key protein constituents responsible for the exquisite organization of the calcium phosphate crystals in enamel. Amelogenin forms into nanospheres in solution, while its association with hydroxyapatite is also essential to enamel development. Structural information of full-length amelogenin in either of these physiologically important forms has the potential to provide mechanistic information; however, these data are limited because of the difficulty of determining the structure of large protein complexes and proteins bound to surfaces. To obtain structural insights into amelogenin during these early stages of enamel development, we used a lysine-specific (13)C-, (15)N-labeled sample of murine amelogenin to provide insight into the structure of the hydroxyapatite (HAP)-binding domains of the protein. A combination of one-and two-dimensional solid-state NMR experiments was used to obtain molecular-level insights into the secondary structure and dynamics of full-length amelogenin within a nanosphere-gel and on the surface of HAP. Regions of amelogenin that appear to be primarily random coil in the nanosphere-gel adopt a ?-strand structure and are less mobile with HAP binding, indicative of a structural switch upon binding that may be important in the role of amelogenin in enamel development. PMID:24130249

Lu, J X; Xu, Y S; Buchko, G W; Shaw, W J

2013-11-01

103

Pulmonary thrombosis associated with antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Diabetes insipidus is a well-recognized complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with post-traumatic diabetes insipidus will require antidiuretic hormone (ADH) replacement therapy and tend to show dehydration. On the other hand, some negative effects of ADH on blood coagulation, such as increased platelet cohesion and the promotion of von Willebrand factor release, have also been reported. However, the incidence of thrombosis during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy is disputed. PRESENTATION OF CASE A case of pulmonary thrombosis associated with ADH replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury is presented here. DISCUSSION In our case, there were three factors that may have contributed to the observed thrombosis (dehydration, bed rest for a long period and ADH replacement therapy). CONCLUSION We believe that controlling urinary output and monitoring urinary and serum osmotic pressure are necessary for the management for diabetes insipidus patients after traumatic brain injury. In particular, we must carefully monitor the management of such patients during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy.

Naito, Kiyohito; Watari, Taiji; Yasunari, Eisuke; Yamano, Miki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu; Kaneko, Kazuo

2012-01-01

104

Secondary tungsten minerals in quartz veins in the Ishidera area, Wazuka, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan: anthoinite, mpororoite, and Fe-free hydrokenoelsmoreite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary minerals of tungsten that are the products of alteration of scheelite present in quartz veins in the Ishidera area, Wazuka, Kyoto Prefecture, have been examined using XRD, SEM-EDS, EPMA, and XRF. From the results, three tungsten minerals were identified: anthoinite, mpororoite, and hydrokenoelsmoreite. The two former minerals have not been reported to be found in Japan. This is, therefore, the first discovery of anthoinite and mpororoite in Japan. The two minerals form a white powdery mixture with pseudomorphing scheelite. Chemical analysis of the mixture shows that the Al/W ratio is approximate to 1 and that the Fe2O3 content is very low, suggesting that the ideal formulae of anthoinite and mpororoite are WAlO3(OH)3 and WAlO3(OH)3·2H2O, respectively, even though the original mpororoite had a high content of Fe2O3 substituting for Al2O3. In addition to these two minerals, another tungsten mineral was also found within the scheelite-pseudomorphs. It occurs as aggregates of regular octahedral crystals up to 50 ?m in length. The XRD data are in good agreement with those for hydrokenoelsmoreite, but chemical analysis shows that the major components are WO3, Al2O3, and H2O with no Fe2O3. Up to this time, only Fe-containing hydrokenoelsmoreite, once termed ferritungstite according to the old nomenclature, has been widely reported to be found in Japan. This paper is the first to report the occurrence of such an Fe-free hydrokenoelsmoreite in Japan. It is likely that these three secondary minerals of tungsten at Wazuka were formed in an environment where the supply of H2O and Al2O3 and the leaching of calcium ions from scheelite took place simultaneously. The source of Al is ascribed to the decomposition of muscovite in the quartz veins.

Shimobayashi, Norimasa; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Tsuruta, Kenji

105

Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were

J. M. Hammarstrom; R SEALII; A. L. Meier; J. M. Kornfeld

2005-01-01

106

Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: Implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of ¹⁸O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Handford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filing vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the ¹⁸O

J. R. Evans; W. C. Steinkampf; D. G. Horton; G. C. Solomon; L. D. White

1989-01-01

107

Genetic polymorphisms in alveolar macrophage response-related genes, and risk of silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese iron miners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a prominent role in influencing the development of lung inflammation and injury. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of AMs response-related genes TNF-?, iNOS, and NRAMP1 (SLC11A1) in susceptibility to silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and to analyze the interaction of dust exposure and genetic susceptibility to silicosis, interactions of TNF-?-308 and

Yabin Qu; Yunxia Tang; Duozhi Cao; Fen Wu; Jing Liu; Guoliang Lu; Zhongbin Zhang; Zhaolin Xia

2007-01-01

108

Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)?1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)?0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)?4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22?2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ?1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ?4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ?2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

2013-11-01

109

Assessment of toxic potential of primary and secondary particulates/aerosols from biodiesel vis-à-vis mineral diesel fuelled engine.  

PubMed

Toxicity of engine out emissions from primary and secondary aerosols has been a major cause of concern for human health and environmental impact. This study aims to evaluate comparative toxicity of nanoparticles emitted from a modern common rail direct injection engine (CRDI) fuelled with biodiesel blend (B20) vis-à-vis mineral diesel. The toxicity and potential health hazards of exhaust particles were assessed using various parameters such as nanoparticle size and number distribution, surface area distribution, elemental and organic carbon content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the particle surfaces, followed by toxic equivalent factor assessment. It was found that biodiesel particulate toxicity was considerably lower in comparison to mineral diesel. PMID:23631768

Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Dixit, Neelabh; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra

2013-04-30

110

Secondary open-angle glaucoma and central retinal vein occlusion in a patient with primary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man with primary pulmonary hypertension presented with dilated episcleral veins and increased intraocular pressures. His increased intraocular pressure was resistant to therapy with topical and systemic anti-glaucoma medications. He developed serous macular detachment in one eye that resolved spontaneously. He later presented with central retinal vein occlusion in the same eye, which responded to intravitreal bevacizumab. Ocular manifestations of primary pulmonary hypertension develop as a result of reduced venous outflow due to increased venous pressures. Management of ocular complications in patients with systemic disease resulting in short life expectancy remains a challenge. PMID:19205497

Senthil, Sirisha; Kaur, Bhavleen; Jalali, Subhadra; Garudadri, Chandrashekar

111

Chronic Increase of Bone Turnover Markers After Biliopancreatic Diversion is Related to Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and Weight Loss. Relation with Bone Mineral Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is the most effective bariatric procedure. Around 70% of these patients have secondary hyperparathyroidism\\u000a (SH) in the long term as a consequence of calcium and vitamin D malabsorption. This work was aimed to study the influence\\u000a of SH on bone turnover and its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Bone turnover markers were determined in 63 BPD

José Antonio Balsa; José I. Botella-Carretero; Roberto Peromingo; Carmen Caballero; Teresa Muñoz-Malo; Juan J. Villafruela; Francisco Arrieta; Isabel Zamarrón; Clotilde Vázquez

2010-01-01

113

EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion of the number of sites where reactions can occur. Results were also finalized on a component of a previous project related to the Hanford waste tanks that had the goal of measuring the incorporation of rhenium, an analogue of radioactive technetium, in iron and aluminum-oxides minerals as they aged in tank sludges at higher temperatures. Small amounts of rhenium were occluded in the iron-rich solids and the amount increased with aging time. Results from the quartz and biotite experiments are in a form that can be used in models of fluid flow in the Hanford subsurface. Results from the rhenium experiments can be used to understand aspects of closing certain of the Hanford tanks.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2004-04-22

114

In vivo and in vitro studies on the roles of neutrophil extracellular traps during secondary pneumococcal pneumonia after primary pulmonary influenza infection  

PubMed Central

Seasonal influenza virus infections may lead to debilitating disease, and account for significant fatalities annually worldwide. Most of these deaths are attributed to the complications of secondary bacterial pneumonia. Evidence is accumulating to support the notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) harbor several antibacterial proteins, and trap and kill bacteria. We have previously demonstrated the induction of NETs that contribute to lung tissue injury in severe influenza pneumonia. However, the role of these NETs in secondary bacterial pneumonia is unclear. In this study, we explored whether NETs induced during pulmonary influenza infection have functional significance against infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacterial and fungal species. Our findings revealed that NETs do not participate in killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo and in vitro. Dual viral and bacterial infection elevated the bacterial load compared to animals infected with bacteria alone. Concurrently, enhanced lung pathogenesis was observed in dual-infected mice compared to those challenged with influenza virus or bacteria alone. The intensified NETs in dual-infected mice often appeared as clusters that were frequently filled with partially degraded DNA, as evidenced by punctate histone protein staining. The severe pulmonary pathology and excessive NETs generation in dual infection correlated with exaggerated inflammation and damage to the alveolar-capillary barrier. NETs stimulation in vitro did not significantly alter the gene expression of several antimicrobial proteins, and these NETs did not exhibit any bactericidal activity. Fungicidal activity against Candida albicans was observed at similar levels both in presence or absence of NETs. These results substantiate that the NETs released by primary influenza infection do not protect against secondary bacterial infection, but may compromise lung function.

Narayana Moorthy, Anandi; Narasaraju, T.; Rai, Prashant; Perumalsamy, R.; Tan, K. B.; Wang, Shi; Engelward, Bevin; Chow, Vincent T. K.

2013-01-01

115

Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in secondary sulfate minerals in soils of mined areas in Southeast Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils in mined areas in southeastern Spain are commonly characterized by extreme acidity, high salinity, and metals. These present challenges to establish vegetation as a management option for these environmentally-problematic landscapes. We collected salt efflorescence and the corresponding soil materials to better understand the geochemical cycling of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils of mined areas. Mineral composition was

D. M. Carmona; Á. Faz Cano; J. M. Arocena

2009-01-01

116

Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

Hammarstrom, J. M.; Seal, II, R. R.; Meier, A. L.; Kornfeld, J. M.

2005-01-01

117

Temporal patterns of net soil N mineralization and nitrification through secondary succession in the subtropical forests of eastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linking temporal trends of soil nitrogen (N) transformation with shifting patterns of plants and consequently changes of litter\\u000a quality during succession is important for understanding developmental patterns of ecosystem function. However, the successional\\u000a direction of soil N mineralization and nitrification in relation to species shifts in the subtropical regions remains little\\u000a studied. In this study, successional patterns of net soil

En-Rong Yan; Xi-Hua Wang; Ming Guo; Qiang Zhong; Wu Zhou; Yong-Fu Li

2009-01-01

118

Use of Cu isotopes to distinguish primary and secondary Cu mineralization in the Cañariaco Norte porphyry copper deposit, Northern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant proportion of the copper in the Cañariaco Norte porphyry copper deposit in northern Peru occurs in chalcocite and covellite-rich veins and disseminations that exist from the surface to depths greater than 1 km. The overall range of Cu isotopic ratios of 42 mineral separates from Cañariaco varies from -8.42 to 0.61 ‰, with near-surface chalcocite and Fe oxides having isotopically depleted values compared to chalcocite, covellite, and chalcopyrite from deeper levels. The majority (34 of 36) of measured Cu sulfides have a typical hypogene copper isotope composition of ?65Cu = 0.18 ± 0.38 ‰, with no enriched isotopic signature existing in the Cañariaco Norte sulfide data. Thus, the copper isotope data indicate that most of the chalcocite and covellite formed from high-temperature hypogene mineralization processes and that only a minor portion of the deposit is enriched by supergene processes. The nonexistence of an enriched ?65Cu reservoir suggest the presence of an undiscovered lateral/exotic Cu occurrence that enriched 65Cu that remained in solution during weathering. Regardless of the cause, the comparative analysis of the Cu isotope dataset reveals that little exploration potential for an extensive supergene enrichment blanket exists because the weathering history at Cañariaco Norte was not conducive to preservation of enriched Cu at depth beneath the leach cap.

Mathur, Ryan; Ruiz, Joaquin; Casselman, Michael J.; Megaw, Peter; van Egmond, Robert

2012-10-01

119

Comment on: “Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite-silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada” by N. S. F. Wilson, J. S. Cline, and Y. V. Amelin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for the geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. A reliable assessment of the future performance of the repository will require detailed paleohydrogeological information. Hydrogenic secondary minerals from the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain are being studied as paleohydrogeological indicators. A phenomenological model envisaging the deposition of secondary minerals by meteoric fluids infiltrating downward though the vadose zone was proposed in the reviewed paper. Our evaluation reveals that the model is not supported by empiric evidence reported in the paper.

Dublyansky, Yuri V.; Smirnov, Sergey Z.; Pashenko, Sergey E.

2005-09-01

120

Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.  

PubMed

Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. "Fast" Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having "low" cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with "high" cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction. PMID:20476735

O'Loughlin, Edward J; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M

2010-06-15

121

DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2009-05-04

122

Lemon-flavored cod liver oil and a multivitamin-mineral supplement for the secondary prevention of otitis media in young children: pilot research.  

PubMed

We measured blood levels of fatty acids, vitamin A, and trace metals in children undergoing ambulatory surgery for placement of tympanostomy tubes and a comparison group having other ambulatory surgical procedures. We then performed a small, outpatient, secondary prevention study using nutritional supplements chosen on the basis of those blood levels. The study subjects had lower levels of red blood cell eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than did adult controls. Consistent with previous reports, the levels of vitamin A were < or = 40 microg/dL for 69% of our subjects, and the plasma selenium levels for children were lower than published values for adults. We then studied one otitis media (OM) season; 8 children (0.8 to 4.4 years of age) received 1 teaspoon of lemon-flavored cod liver oil (containing both EPA and vitamin A) and 1 half-tablet of a selenium-containing children's chewable multivitamin-mineral tablet per day. During this OM season, study subjects received antibiotics for OM for 12.3% +/- 13.4% (SD; p < .05) fewer days during supplementation than before supplementation. Larger, controlled trials are warranted to assess the utility of cod liver oil (of acceptable purity and taste) and a children's multivitamin-mineral preparation containing selenium, both for the prevention of OM and for the acceptance of delayed prescription of antibiotics for this disorder. PMID:12126022

Linday, Linda A; Dolitsky, Jay N; Shindledecker, Richard D; Pippenger, C E

2002-07-01

123

Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of 18O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Hanford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filling vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the 18O content of ground water at the time the mineral assemblage formed. A fossil profile of ??18O values projected for ground water in a 1500 m vertical section beneath the reservation suggests that the vertical mixing of shallow and deep ground water indicated by present-day hydrochemical data was also occurring during Neogene time. These data also suggest that a unidirectional depletion of 18O and deuterium recorded in Pleistocene ground waters may have extended considerably further back in time. This shift is tentatively attributed to the orographic depletion of 18O associated with the progressive uplift of the Cascade Range since the middle Miocene. -Authors

Hearn, Jr, P. P.; Steinkampf, W. C.; Horton, D. G.; Solomon, G. C.; White, L. D.; Evans, J. R.

1989-01-01

124

Lower Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Young Adults With Crohn Disease as a Possible Secondary Compensatory Effect on the Disturbance of Bone and Mineral Metabolism.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a bone-derived circulating phosphaturic factor that decreases serum concentration of phosphate and vitamin D, suggested to actively participate in a complex renal-gastrointestinal-skeletal axis. Serum FGF-23 concentrations, as well as various other laboratory parameters involved in bone homeostasis, were measured and analyzed with regard to various diseases and patients' characteristics in 44 patients with Crohn disease (CD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) included in this cross-sectional study. Serum FGF-23 levels were significantly lower in patients with CD (900.42 ± 815.85pg/mL) compared with HC (1410.94 ± 1000.53pg/mL), p = 0.037. Further analyses suggested FGF-23 as a factor independent from various parameters including age (r = -0.218), body mass index (r = -0.115), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (r = 0.126), parathyroid hormone (r = 0.084), and bone mineral density (BMD) of hip and lumbar (r = 0.205 and r = 0.149, respectively). This observation remained even after multivariate analyses, exhibiting that BMD was not affected by FGF-23, although parameters such as age (p = 0.026), cumulative prednisolone dose (p < 0.0001), and smoking status (p = 0.024) were strong determinants of BMD regarding hip. Lower FGF-23 levels in patients with bowel inflammation are accompanied but not directly correlated with lower vitamin D levels, showing no impact on BMD determination of young adults with CD. The downregulation of serum FGF-23 levels in CD appears as a secondary compensatory effect on the bone and mineral metabolism induced by chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:23623649

Oikonomou, Konstantinos A; Orfanidou, Timoklia I; Vlychou, Marianna K; Kapsoritakis, Andreas N; Tsezou, Aspasia; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Potamianos, Spyros P

2013-04-25

125

The efficacy of cinacalcet combined with conventional therapy on bone and mineral metabolism in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Cinacalcet, the first calcimimetic to be approved for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in the chronic kidney disease patients, offers a novel therapeutic approach to SHPT. The aim of this meta-analysis is to access the efficacy and safety of cinacalcet on bone and mineral metabolism disorders in the dialysis patients with SHPT. Randomized controlled trials on cinacalcet combined with vitamin D and/or phosphate binders in the dialysis patients with SHPT were identified in Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and the Cochrane library. Data were analyzed with RevMan software. We compared the proportion of patients achieving the biochemical targets recommended by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines and the incidence of adverse events between the cinacalcet and control groups. Six trials involving 2,548 patients were included. A greater proportion of patients in the cinacalcet group compared with the conventional group achieved the KDOQI targets. The relative risks (RRs) were parathyroid hormone (PTH) (RR = 3.51, 95 % CI: 2.38-5.17), calcium (RR = 2.04, 95 % CI: 1.76-2.37), phosphorus (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 0.83-1.60), and calcium-phosphorus product (Ca × P) (RR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.69), the number of patients simultaneously achieving the KDOQI targets for PTH + Ca × P was also greater (RR = 3.89, 95 % CI: 2.36-6.41), with p < 0.001 for each. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hypocalcemia, which had a higher incidence in the cinacalcet group, but were usually mild to moderate in severity and transient. Compared with conventional therapy, treatment with cinacalcet results in more patients achieving KDOQI targets and offers an effective and safety therapeutic option for controlling mineral and bone disorders in the dialysis patients with SHPT. PMID:22669774

Li, Dan; Shao, Leping; Zhou, Haiyan; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yan

2012-06-06

126

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02

127

Pulmonary Transfusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Background In recent years, pulmonary transfusion reactions have gained increasing importance as serious adverse transfusion events. Methods Review of the literature. Results Pulmonary transfusion reactions are not extremely rare and, according to hemovigilance data, important causes of transfusion-induced major morbidity and death. They can be classified as primary with predominant pulmonary injury and secondary as part of another transfusion reaction. Primary reactions include transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion-associated dyspnea (TAD). Secondary pulmonary reactions are often observed in the wake of hemolytic transfusion reactions, hypotensive/anaphylactic reactions, and transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. Conclusion Knowledge and careful management of cases of pulmonary transfusion reactions are essential for correct reporting to blood services and hemovigilance systems. Careful differentiation between TRALI and TACO is important for taking adequate preventive measures.

Bux, Jurgen; Sachs, Ulrich J. H.

2008-01-01

128

Natural radionuclide mobility and its influence on U-Th-Pb dating of secondary minerals from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extreme U and Pb isotope variations produced by disequilibrium in decay chains of 238U and 232Th are found in calcite, opal/chalcedony, and Mn-oxides occurring as secondary mineral coatings in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These very slowly growing minerals (mm my-1) contain excess 206Pb and 208Pb formed from excesses of intermediate daughter isotopes and cannot be used as reliable 206Pb/238U geochronometers. The presence of excess intermediate daughter isotopes does not appreciably affect 207Pb/235U ages of U-enriched opal/chalcedony, which are interpreted as mineral formation ages. Opal and calcite from outer (younger) portions of coatings have 230Th/U ages from 94.6 ?? 3.7 to 361.3 ?? 9.8 ka and initial 234U/238U activity ratios (AR) from 4.351 ?? 0.070 to 7.02 ?? 0.12, which indicate 234U enrichment from percolating water. Present-day 234U/238U AR is ???1 in opal/chalcedony from older portions of the coatings. The 207Pb/235U ages of opal/chalcedony samples range from 0.1329 ?? 0.0080 to 9.10 ?? 0.21 Ma, increase with microstratigraphic depth, and define slow long-term average growth rates of about 1.2-2.0 mm my-1, in good agreement with previous results. Measured 234U/238U AR in Mn-oxides, which pre-date the oldest calcite and opal/chalcedony, range from 0.939 ?? 0.006 to 2.091 ?? 0.006 and are >1 in most samples. The range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71156-0.71280) in Mn-oxides overlaps that in the late calcite. These data indicate that Mn-oxides exchange U and Sr with percolating water and cannot be used as a reliable dating tool. In the U-poor calcite samples, measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios have a wide range, do not correlate with Ba concentration as would be expected if excess Ra was present, and reach a value of about 1400, the highest ever reported for natural Pb. Calcite intergrown with opal contains excesses of both 206Pb and 207Pb derived from Rn diffusion and from direct ??-recoil from U-rich opal. Calcite from coatings devoid of opal/chalcedony contains 206Pb and 208Pb excesses, but no appreciable 207Pb excesses. Observed Pb isotope anomalies in calcite are explained by Rn-produced excess Pb. The Rn emanation may strongly affect 206Pb-238U ages of slow-growing U-poor calcite, but should be negligible for dating fast-growing U-enriched speleothem calcite.

Neymark, L. A.; Amelin, Y. V.

2008-01-01

129

Pulmonary angiography  

MedlinePLUS

The test is used to detect blood clots ( pulmonary embolism ) and other blockages in the blood flow in ... of pulmonary vessels Blood clot in the lungs (pulmonary embolism) Narrowed blood vessel Primary pulmonary hypertension Tumor in ...

130

Epoprostenol-induced pulmonary vasodilatation in patients with pulmonary hypertension measured by electrical impedance tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been proposed as a method to monitor dynamic changes in the pulmonary vascular bed. In this study we examined the validity of EIT in the measurement of pulmonary vasodilatation in eight patients with primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension when given the vasodilating agent epoprostenol (Flolan®). Therefore, catheterization of the pulmonary artery was performed in the

H J Smit; A Vonk Noordegraaf; R J Roeleveld; J G F Bronzwaer; P E Postmus; P M J M de Vries; A Boonstra

2002-01-01

131

Pulmonary Hypertension in Hemolytic Disorders  

PubMed Central

The inherited hemoglobin disorders sickle cell disease and thalassemia are the most common monogenetic disorders worldwide. Pulmonary hypertension is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia, and hemolytic disorders are potentially among the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic disorders is likely multifactorial, including hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, chronic hypoxemia, chronic thromboembolic disease, chronic liver disease, and asplenia. In contrast to patients with traditional forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, patients with hemolytic disorders have a mild-to-moderate degree of elevation in mean pulmonary pressures, with mild elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance. The hemodynamic etiology of pulmonary hypertension in these patients is multifactorial and includes pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary venous hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension secondary to a hyperdynamic state. Currently, there are limited data on the effects of any specific treatment modality for pulmonary hypertension in patients with hemolytic disorders. It is likely that maximization of treatment of the primary hemoglobinopathy in all patients and treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension would be beneficial. However, there is still a major need for large multinational trials of novel therapies for this patient population.

Gladwin, Mark T.

2010-01-01

132

Enumeration of Thiobacilli within pH-Neutral and Acidic Mine Tailings and Their Role in the Development of Secondary Mineral Soil  

PubMed Central

The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicates, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 × 108 most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides (below 40 cm) to chlorides and phosphates (at the surface). Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings material prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy that they were being immobilized as bona fide fine-grain minerals containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone. Images

Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

1992-01-01

133

[26 years of research in pneumoconiosis in the field of British coal mines. Contribution of that research to the epidemiology of pulmonary disorders in miners].  

PubMed

Events leading to the start of the Pneumoconiosis Field Research in 1953 are reviewed. Research methods are outlined, progress is described, and the main results are summarised. Three medical surveys were conducted at approximately five-year intervals in 24 coal mines. A further two quinquennial surveys took place at 10 of them, thus completing 20 years' observations. Individual miners' exposures to dust have been measured throughout the periods of study and earlier exposures have been estimated. The dust exposure have been expressed as cumulative timeweighted mass concentrations of dust in the respirable range. Correlations have been demonstrated between this index of exposure and (a) risks of developing various degrees of simple pneumoconiosis, (b) the occurrence of chronic bronchitis symptoms, (c) level of breathing capacity, and (d) among miners with no pneumoconiosis, mortality attributed to respiratory diseases generally, chronic bronchitis and emphysema in particular, and to cancers of the digestive organs. Exposures to quartz amounting to less than about 10 per cent of mixed coal mine dust do not generally affect the probability of developing simple pneumoconiosis. But there is evidence that some miners may show unusual radiological changes over ten years when exposed to dust with a relatively high quartz content. Current work includes continuation of mortality studies and follow-up surveys of miners no longer working at the research collieries. The inter-disciplinary nature of the research team is emphasized and there are suggestions for further work on unresolved problems. PMID:555275

Jacobsen, M

1979-01-01

134

Type IV intestinal atresia, congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, and chronic pulmonary hypertension secondary to multiple vascular disruption syndrome in a monochorionic twin.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of multiple intestinal atresias, congenital bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria, and chronic pulmonary hypertension in a surviving monochorionic twin with co-twin demise. This constellation of congenital anomalies represents a multiple vascular disruption syndrome due to intrauterine vascular compromise in the setting of possible twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. PMID:23084212

Shue, Eveline H; Soares, Bruno; Courtier, Jesse; Hogue, Jacob; Shimotake, Thomas; MacKenzie, Tippi C

2012-10-01

135

Enumeration of thiobacilli within pH-neutral and acidic mine tailings and their role in the development of secondary mineral soil  

SciTech Connect

The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicate, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 [times] 10[sup 8] most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides to chlorides and phosphates. Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings materials prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone.

Southam, G.; Beveridge, T.J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1992-06-01

136

Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have chronic breathing problems, including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Sarcoidosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Cystic fibrosis During ...

137

Pulmonary Embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pulmonary Embolism? Pulmonary embolism (PULL-mun-ary EM-bo-lizm), or PE, ... prevent the complications of PE. Rate This Content: Pulmonary Embolism Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

138

Secondary and Interactive Effects of Chronic Gaseous Pollutant Exposure of Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers Influence of Chronic Air Pollution on Mineral Cycling in Forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature concerning the impact of'chronic air pollution on mineral element cycling in forests. The concept involves the forest trees taking up essential and other elements from the soil and surrounding en- vironment eventually to return them to the soil upon mortality and decay. Chronic pollutants are considered in the context of this cycling as another form

Paul J. Zinke

139

Secondary School Science Teachers as the Key to a Sustainable Workforce in the Mining and Mineral Processing Industry: Changing Peoples' Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an innovative professional de velopment program for school science teachers run collaboratively between the Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing and Murdoch University. Ultimately the initiative aims at increasing the pool of school students with strong science and mathematics backgrounds while highlighting the challenging careers available in the mineral resource sector including the gold i ndustry. The

Dan Churach; Nicholas J. Welham

140

Surgical resection of persistent pulmonary fungus nodules and secondary prophylaxis are effective in preventing fungal relapse in patients receiving chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation for leukemia.  

PubMed

Antifungal therapy may be unable to eradicate invasive mycosis in leukemia patients. The presence of persisting pulmonary nodules owing to mycosis seems to increase the risk of fungal relapse after chemotherapy and transplant procedures. Between 1997 and 2004, 10 acute leukemia patients underwent pulmonary surgery for invasive mycosis. The median time from diagnosis of mycosis to surgery was 135 days (range 21-147). Three patients underwent emergency surgery, owing to hemoptysis. In the other seven patients with nodule/cavitation remaining after antifungal treatment, surgery (three wedge resections, four lobectomies) was scheduled before transplant. Pathologic examination confirmed two aspergillosis and three zygomycosis. The only side effect was pneumothorax in one case. Nine patients were considered cured. Six patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (three allogeneic, three autologous) with antifungal prophylaxis without relapse during the transplant procedure. In selected patients scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, surgical resection of localized pulmonary fungus nodules combined with antifungal prophylaxis seem to be an effective treatment for preventing mycotic relapse. PMID:17384656

Nosari, A; Ravini, M; Cairoli, R; Cozzi, P; Marbello, L; Marenco, P; Grillo, G; Morra, E

2007-03-26

141

Stress-induced differences in primary and secondary resistance against bacterial sepsis corresponds with diverse corticotropin releasing hormone receptor expression by pulmonary CD11c+ MHC II+ and CD11c? MHC II+ APCs  

PubMed Central

Stress responses have been associated with altered immunity and depending upon the type of stressor, can have diverse effects on disease outcomes. As the first line of defense against potential pathogens, alterations in cellular immune responses along the respiratory tract can have a significant impact on the manifestation of local and systemic disease. Utilizing a murine model of respiratory pneumonia, the current study investigated the effects of restraint stress on the induction of primary and secondary immunity along the respiratory tract, influencing host susceptibility. Female CD-1 mice were subjected to three hours of restraint stress over a period of four days followed by primary and secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection via intranasal route. Stress exposure led to increased retention of bacterial carriage in the lungs, enhanced polymorphonuclear cells and a preferential decrease in pulmonary CD11c+ MHC II+ cells resulting in delayed lethality during primary infection but significant impairment of acquired immune protection after secondary infection. We also provide evidence to support a role for lung-associated corticotrophin releasing hormone regulation through peripheral CRH and diverse CRH receptor expression by MHC II+ antigen presenting cells (APCs). We conclude that repeated restraint stress has distinct influences on immune cell populations that appear to be important in the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses along the respiratory tract with the potential to influence local and systemic protection against disease pathogenesis.

Gonzales, Xavier F.; Desmutkh, Aniket; Pulse, Mark; Johnson, Khaisha; Jones, Harlan P.

2009-01-01

142

[Pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive ventilatory disorders--correlation between hemodynamic parameters and pulmonary function].  

PubMed

We evaluated 74 patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and compared pulmonary function tests as well as capillary blood gas values with pulmonary hemodynamic parameters. Thirty-four patients demonstrated pulmonary hypertension only at exercise, fourty patients had pulmonary hypertension at rest (mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 20 mm Hg). There was a significant correlation between capillary oxygen tension and mean pulmonary artery pressure as well as pulmonary vascular resistance, both at rest and during exercise. The relation between capillary PCO2 and pulmonary hemodynamics were statistically less significant. The correlation between criteria of pulmonary obstruction and/or increased lung volumes and mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were not as significant. The 34 patients with pulmonary hypertension only at exercise differed significantly from the other groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension at rest as seen in all pulmonary function parameters. Furthermore there was also a difference in the capillary oxygen tension during exercise, but not in the capillary carbon dioxide tension. In conclusion, of all pulmonary function tests the most efficient criteria for pulmonary hypertension are reduced FEV1/VC and low oxygen tension at rest respectively a fall during exercise. PMID:3983597

Gassner, A; Tizek, H; Fridrich, L; Pichler, M

1985-02-23

143

Case report: coronary steal secondary to a left main coronary artery-pulmonary artery fistula only manifest after coronary artery bypass surgery.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 64 year old man with two vessel coronary artery disease and a left main coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, but the coronary artery fistula was not closed. He developed recurrent angina due to coronary steal from the distal left anterior descending artery by the maturing coronary artery fistula. This was closed percutaneously by stenting the left main coronary artery with covered stents. The clinical implications and potential mechanisms of the coronary steal due to the coronary artery fistula are discussed. PMID:19410310

Murphy, Brian P; Gilbert, Tim

2009-05-01

144

Mineral Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help you to learn minerals! This module has two modes: an overview that takes you through some of the fundamentals of minerals and an interactive model that allows you to build your own virtual minerals.

2010-01-01

145

Pulmonary Talcosis: Imaging Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms\\u000a of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis)\\u000a are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous\\u000a administration of talc, is

Edson Marchiori; Sílvia Lourenço; Taisa Davaus Gasparetto; Gláucia Zanetti; Cláudia Mauro Mano; Luiz Felipe Nobre

2010-01-01

146

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return presenting with adult-onset pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a rare cause of adult onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that can present with a wide spectrum of severity from early childhood throughout adult life. We present two patients with PAH secondary to PAPVR who reflect this range of disease. The diagnosis and treatment of PAPVR and its role in pulmonary vascular disease is discussed. Cardiac and pulmonary physicians should be aware of this entity and its diagnosis and management options.

Sears, Edmund H.; Aliotta, Jason M.; Klinger, James R.

2012-01-01

147

Pulmonary Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary fibrosis harms the tissues deep in your lungs. The air sacs in your lungs and their supporting structures ... not get enough oxygen. One cause of pulmonary fibrosis is interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease is ...

148

Pulmonary Embolism  

MedlinePLUS

A pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the ... and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can cause Permanent ...

149

Pulmonary embolus  

MedlinePLUS

... blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... is low. In cases of severe, life-threatening pulmonary embolism, treatment may involve dissolving the clot. This is ...

150

Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.

151

Ore Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Perkins, Dexter

152

Acute respiratory failure secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated in the intensive care unit: a long term follow up study  

PubMed Central

Background: Traditionally, patients with acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are believed to have a poor outcome. A study was undertaken to explore both hospital and long term outcome in this group and to identify clinical predictors. Methods: A retrospective review was carried out of consecutive admissions to a tertiary referral ICU over a 6 year period. This group was then followed prospectively for a minimum of 3 years following ICU admission. Results: A total of 74 patients were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure due to COPD during the study period. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 0.74 (0.34) l. Eighty five per cent of the group underwent invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 2 days (range 1–17). The median duration of stay in the ICU was 3 days (range 2–17). Survival to hospital discharge was 79.7%. Admission arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and APACHE II score were independent predictors of hospital mortality on multiple regression analysis. Mortality at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years was 40.5%, 48.6%, 58.1%, and 63.5%, respectively. There were no independent predictors of mortality in the long term. Conclusions: Despite the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in most of the study group, good early survival was observed. Mortality in the long term was significant but acceptable, given the degree of chronic respiratory impairment of the group.

Breen, D; Churches, T; Hawker, F; Torzillo, P

2002-01-01

153

Secondary osteoporosis in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary osteoporosis comprises a minority of all osteoporosis cases. In this study we summarize the causes of secondary\\u000a osteoporosis we encountered in patients currently on follow-up in our osteoporosis outpatient clinic. A total of 1015 female\\u000a patients are involved in the study. Recorded data of the patients are evaluated retrospectively. Patients with spine bone\\u000a mineral density (BMD) 2.5 standard deviation

B. Çakir; E. Odabasi; M. Turan; S. Güler; M. Kutlu

2002-01-01

154

Mineral Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set challenges students to determine the chemical classification of minerals based on their chemical formula (provided). For oxygen-bearing minerals, students must also provide the valences of the various cations.

155

Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.  

PubMed

Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

2010-02-13

156

Mineral Chart  

MedlinePLUS

... Tanning How Can I Improve My Self-Esteem? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > Teens > Miscellaneous > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size Type ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

157

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

Mineralogy 4 Kids; America, Mineralogical S.

158

Minerals yearbook  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the latest available mineral data on more than 150 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals in the economies of these nations. A separate chapter reviews the international minerals industry in general and its relationship to the world economy.

Not Available

1988-01-01

159

Comparisons of the four Miller Range nakhlites, MIL 03346, 090030, 090032 and 090136: Textural and compositional observations of primary and secondary mineral assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrological and geochemical analyses of Miller Range (MIL) 03346 indicate that this meteorite originated from the same augitic cumulate layer(s) as the nakhlite Martian meteorites, but underwent rapid cooling prior to complete crystallization. As with the other nakhlites, MIL 03346 contains a secondary alteration assemblage, in this case consisting of iddingsite-like alteration veins in olivine phenocrysts, Fe-oxide alteration veins associated with the mesostasis, and Ca- and K,Fe-sulfate veins. We compared the textural and mineralogical compositions of MIL 090030, 090032, and 090136 with MIL 03346, focusing on the composition and Raman spectra of the alteration assemblages. These observations indicate that the meteorites are paired, and that the preterrestrial olivine-bound alteration assemblages were produced by weakly acidic brine. Although these alteration assemblages resemble similar assemblages in Nakhla, the absence of siderite and halite in the Miller Range nakhlites indicates that the parental alteration brine was comparatively HCO3- depleted, and less concentrated, than that which altered Nakhla. This indicates that the Miller Range nakhlite alteration brine experienced a separate evolutionary pathway to that which altered Nakhla, and therefore represents a separate branch of the Lafayette-Nakhla evaporation sequence. Thin-sections cut from the internal portions of these meteorites (away from any fusion crust or terrestrially exposed edge), contain little Ca-sulfate (identified as gypsum), and no jarosite, whereas thin-sections with terrestrially exposed edges have much higher sulfate abundances. These observations suggest that at least the majority of sulfate within the Miller Range nakhlites is terrestrially derived.

Hallis, Lydia J.; Taylor, G. J.

2011-12-01

160

[Pulmonary cryptococcosis].  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is a deep mycosis that develops in immunosuppressed individuals. Isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis is a rare disease. The authors describe an autopsy case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in a 69-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus suppressing the immune system. Pulmonary inflammatory changes were characterized by disseminated destructive changes, a weak exudative reaction and the formation of epithelioid cell granulomas with the presence of Pirogov-Langerhans giant multinucleate cells. Round fungal cells weakly stained with hematoxylin and eosin can be mistakenly taken as artifacts. The diagnosis of chronic pulmonary cryptococcosis was established only after histological study using the selective staining. PMID:19938707

Rogov, K A; Ivashneva, I L; Grishina, A V

161

Mineral Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine you are hiking with your family and this shiney looking crystal catches your eye. You bring it home and no one in your family is able to tell you what it is. How do you find out? First you need to practice. Identifying minerals. Click on the following link. Identify all five minerals. On your peice of paper tell me their Name Color Luster Cleavage/Fracture Hardness Glenco simple mineral identification Now try and identify 7 real minerals using a virtual key. Answer the following questions What properties do you use to identify the mineral? Which ...

Rmesser

2010-11-16

162

Absent pulmonary valve  

MedlinePLUS

Absent pulmonary valve syndrome; Congenital absence of the pulmonary valve; Pulmonary valve agenesis ... Absent pulmonary valve occurs when the pulmonary valve doesn't form or develop properly while the baby is in ...

163

Reply to 'Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?', by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov  

SciTech Connect

Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon.

Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur

2005-03-14

164

Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J.A. Barbera `, V.I. Peinado, S. Santos. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its presence is associated with shorter survival and worse clinical evolution. In COPD, pulmonary hypertension tends to be of moderate severity and progresses slowly. However, transitory increases of pulmonary

J. A. Barbera; V. I. Peinado; S. Santos

2003-01-01

165

Pulmonary homograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Retrospective analysis was performed to determine the suitability of pulmonary homograft as an aortic valve substitute. Methods: From January 1994 through June 1999, 147 patients (mean age, 32.2 ± 17.3 years) underwent aortic valve replacement with either an aortic homograft (group 1: n = 103, 25 fresh antibiotic preserved and 78 cryopreserved) or a pulmonary homograft (group 2: n

Shiv Kumar Choudhary; Anita Saxena; Bharat Dubey; A. Sampath Kumar

2000-01-01

166

Pulmonary embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying

N. R. Dunnick; G. E. Newman; L. M. Perlmutt; S. D. Braun

1988-01-01

167

Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a relatively uncommon lung disease that generally, but not invariably, occurs in cigarette smokers. The pathologic hallmark of PLCH is the accumulation of Langerhans and other inflammatory cells in small airways, resulting in the formation of nodular inflammatory lesions. While the overwhelming majority of patients are smokers, mechanisms by which smoking induces this disease are not known, but likely involve a combination of events resulting in enhanced recruitment and activation of Langerhans cells in small airways. Bronchiolar inflammation may be accompanied by variable lung interstitial and vascular involvement. While cellular inflammation is prominent in early disease, more advanced stages are characterized by cystic lung destruction, cicatricial scarring of airways, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Pulmonary function is frequently abnormal at presentation. Imaging of the chest with high resolution chest CT scanning may show characteristic nodular and cystic abnormalities. Lung biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis, although may not be required in instances were imaging findings are highly characteristic. There is no general consensus regarding the role of immunosuppressive therapy in smokers with PLCH. All smokers must be counseled on the importance of smoking cessation, which may result in regression of disease and obviate the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. The prognosis for most patients is relatively good, particularly if longitudinal lung function testing shows stability. Complications like pneumothoraces and secondary pulmonary hypertension may shorten life expectancy. Patients with progressive disease may require lung transplantation.

2012-01-01

168

[Pulmonary dirofilariasis].  

PubMed

Dirofilariosis usually concerns dogs among which it is transmitted by mosquito bites. Human infection is rare and we describe here a case observed in a 75 years old woman in New Caledonia. A systematic pulmonary radiograph showed suspicious pulmonary nodules. At microscopic examination one can see pulmonary infarctus with thrombosis and Dirofilaria immitis inside a vessel. Diagnosis is usually made by histologic examination because biological investigations are of a little interest. Surgical treatment is enough. Chemioprophylaxia for dogs can reduce the risks of man infection. PMID:7904713

Monchy, D; Levenes, H; Guegan, H; Poey, C; Dubourdieu, D

169

Mineral Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners search for various kinds of items made from minerals around their home or school, including toothpaste, wall paint, kitty litter, and bricks. The PDF contains a check off list as well as recommended sites for more information on minerals.

Science, Lawrence H.

2010-01-01

170

Mineral Densities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given cubic cell edge dimensions and asked to calculate mineral densities and vice versa. The final question of this homework assignment provides students with a mineral density and unit cell edge length in order to determine the number of formula units per cell.

171

Mystery Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will discover that minerals have specific characteristics that help to identify them. They will learn that minerals are formed by inorganic processes, are crystalline solids with an internal orderly arrangement of atoms, have specific chemical compositions, and have specific physical and chemical characteristics. They will also learn that minerals are commonly identified by the physical properties they possess, such as hardness, color, crystal shape, specific gravity, and streak. In addition, they will discover some other useful properties such as reaction with hydrochloric acid or a characteristic taste. They should also understand that color is not always a useful property for identifying minerals because it can vary. The students will also develop listening and observational skills and learn the uses of a few common minerals.

Morgan, Susan

172

Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in association with pulmonary metastases from extrathoracic tumours  

PubMed Central

Three cases of pulmonary osteoarthropathy secondary to pulmonary metastases from extrathoracic tumours are described. Analysis of the reported cases shows that most of them were secondary to osteosarcoma, nasopharyngeal tumour, fibrosarcoma, and uterine tumour. Fibrous tumours and tumours with a predominantly fibrous stroma tend to be associated with osteoarthropathy more than others. This suggests that the fibrous stroma may be a factor in the stimulation of the reflex mechanism responsible for osteoarthropathy. Images

Yacoub, M. H.; Simon, G.; Ohnsorge, J.

1967-01-01

173

Pulmonary Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... therapies can sometimes help ease symptoms and improve quality of life. For some people, a lung transplant might be ... or slow the disease's progress. Others help improve quality of life. Medications Many people diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis are ...

174

Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis refers to the spectrum of disease caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Clinical manifestations vary depending upon both the extent of infection and the immune status of the host. Coccidioidomycosis has been reported to involve almost all organ systems; however, pulmonary disease is the most common clinical manifestation. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis continues to rise, and primary coccidioidal pneumonia accounts for 17 to 29% of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia in endemic regions. The majority of patients with coccidioidomycosis resolve their initial infection without sequelae; however, several patients develop complications of disease ranging in severity from complicated pulmonary coccidioidomycosis to widely disseminated disease with immediately life-threatening manifestations. This review focuses on complications of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis with an emphasis on the management of primary coccidioidal infection, solitary pulmonary nodules, pleural effusions, cavitary disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), miliary disease, and sepsis. PMID:22167403

Thompson, George R

2011-12-13

175

Pulmonary nodule.  

PubMed

A pulmonary nodule is a frequent and often incidental finding, and still represents a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Although most solitary nodules are related to benign disease, some represent stage I lung cancers. and need to be distinguished from benign nodules in a cost-effective manner. The aim of diagnostic assessment should be to allow early treatment of small malignant nodules but avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery, with their attendant risks, in patients with benign disease. The advent of Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) technology has sparked new interest in the non-invasive assessment of pulmonary nodules. Thanks to its ability to scan the whole thoracic volume with thinner collimations, this technology allows a more accurate identification and characterisation of pulmonary nodules, as well as the determination of perfusion patterns and growth rates. In this paper we present an algorithm for the diagnostic workup of incidentally detected small pulmonary nodules in subjects without known malignancy. PMID:16292237

Feragalli, Beatrice; Guido, Francesca; Larici, Anna Rita; Storto, Maria Luigia; Bonomo, Lorenzo

2005-10-01

176

Metal, mineral waste processing and secondary recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 40 million tons of precious metals chemical wastes are produced in the United States every year. An estimated five percent of these wastes are being reused\\/recycled to recover the precious and critical metals they contain. The rest of these chemical wastes are disposed of by the methods incineration, dumping at sea and dumping on land. In this paper, an

1987-01-01

177

[Pulmonary-renal syndrome].  

PubMed

The pulmonary-renal syndrome is defined as a combination of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. The coexistence of these two clinical conditions is due to diseases with different pathogenic mechanisms. Primary systemic vasculitis and Goodpasture syndrome are the most frequent etiologies. Systemic lupus erythematosus, connective tissue diseases, negative anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis and those secondary to drugs are far less common causes. An early diagnosis based on clinical, radiologic, laboratory and histologic criteria enables early treatment, thus diminishing its high morbidity-mortality rate. Therapy is based on high doses of corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and plasmapheresis. PMID:20053612

Risso, Jorge A; Mazzocchi, Octavio; De All, Jorge; Gnocchi, César A

2009-01-01

178

Understanding Pulmonary Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Disparities Reports Lung Disease Finder Lung Disease List Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Ask an ... for ENews Home > Lung Disease > Pulmonary Fibrosis Understanding Pulmonary Fibrosis What is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is ...

179

Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Lung Disease > Pulmonary Fibrosis Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis If you have pulmonary fibrosis there are steps you can take to stay ... get you help. In depth resources on pulmonary fibrosis A A A Share Print Lung Cancer Education ...

180

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... for ENews Home > Lung Disease > Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease that comes ... may improve a person's chances of recovery. Understanding Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Preventing Hantavirus ...

181

Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the major types of pulmonary vascular disease follows: Pulmonary Embolism A pulmonary embolism happens when the blood flow through the lung's ... pain, fainting and a rapid heart rate. A pulmonary embolism can damage the heart, and if not treated ...

182

Pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

1988-11-01

183

Pulmonary toxicity in stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with high dose (74 Gy) 3-dimensional conformal thoracic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy following induction chemotherapy: A secondary analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 30105  

PubMed Central

Purpose CALGB 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high dose (74 Gy) 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) following two cycles of induction chemotherapy for stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of > 18 month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3DCRT was not feasible due to treatment related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3DCRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials Patient, tumor, and treatment related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment related pulmonary toxicity. Results Older age, higher N stage, larger PTV1, smaller TLV/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment related toxicity. A high risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20>38% was associated with 80% of grade 3–5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high dose 3DCRT with concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

Salama, Joseph K.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Gu, Lin; Wang, Xiaofei; Morano, Karen; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Crawford, Jeffrey C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Blackstock, A. William; Vokes, Everett E.

2011-01-01

184

Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

2011-11-15

185

Low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with pulmonary embolism: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder with severe complications. The diagnosis is often difficult, since the clinical manifestations are non-specific and the treatment is controversial, as the natural history of the disease is not completely understood. Case presentation We describe the cases of two patients with pulmonary artery aneurysms. The first patient was a 68-year-old Caucasian man with an idiopathic low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm together with a pulmonary embolism. The patient preferred a conservative approach and was stable at the 10-month follow-up visit after being placed on anti-coagulant treatment. The second patient was a 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm also presented together with a pulmonary embolism. The aneurysm was secondary to pulmonary valve stenosis. She received anti-coagulants and, after stabilization, underwent percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty. Conclusion Pulmonary embolism may be the initial presentation of a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm. No underlying cause for pulmonary embolism was found in either of our patients, suggesting a causal association with low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm.

2011-01-01

186

Pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates.  

PubMed

Pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates include an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the lungs as detected by bronchoalveolar lavage or tissue biopsy, with or without blood eosinophilia. The disease can be idiopathic (simple pulmonary eosinophilia, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, hypereosinophilic syndrome), secondary (to drugs, parasites, fungal and mycobacterial infection, irradiation, toxic products) or associated with diffuse lung diseases (connective tissue diseases and some neoplasms). Pathologists faced with eosinophils in the lungs (either on cytology or biopsy) should keep in mind several possibilities, although a diagnosis of certainty is rarely based on morphology alone. Correlation with laboratory tests, imaging studies and clinical presentation has a key role, even if some pulmonary eosinophilic diseases are sufficiently characteristic on clinico-radiologic ground to not require a biopsy (e.g. some drug reactions, parasitic infections, idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis). Nevertheless, pathologists can play a central role because they can be the first to note eosinophils in the lungs of a very sick patient. Knowledge of histologic features and a striking collaboration with other physicians are necessary to achieve correct diagnosis and to establish adequate treatments. PMID:21428117

Rossi, G; Tironi, A; Dore, R; Nannini, N; Mengoli, M C; Bertolani, M; Richeldi, L

2010-12-01

187

Correlates of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse the correlates of reduced bone mineral density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with special regard to a possible protective role of hypercapnia.One hundred and four consecutive COPD inpatients in stabilized respiratory conditions underwent a comprehensive assessment of their health status. Bone mineral density was measured by X-ray absorptiometry at

R. ANTONELLI INCALZI; P. CARADONNA; P. RANIERI; S. BASSO; L. FUSO; F. PAGANO; G. CIAPPI; R. PISTELLI

2000-01-01

188

Overview of current therapeutic approaches for pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

There have been tremendous strides in the management of pulmonary hypertension over the past 20 years with the introduction of targeted medical therapies and overall improvements in surgical treatment options and general supportive care. Furthermore, recent data shows that the survival of those with pulmonary arterial hypertension is improving. While there has been tremendous progress, much work remains to be done in improving the care of those with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension, who constitute the majority of patients with this disorder, and in the optimal treatment approach in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will review general and targeted medical treatment, along with surgical interventions, of those with pulmonary hypertension.

Stamm, Jason A.; Risbano, Michael G.; Mathier, Michael A.

2011-01-01

189

Pulmonary Complications in Patients with Severe Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary complications are prevalent in the critically ill neurological population. Respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), pulmonary edema, pulmonary contusions and pneumo/hemothorax, and pulmonary embolism are frequently encountered in the setting of severe brain injury. Direct brain injury, depressed level of consciousness and inability to protect the airway, disruption of natural defense barriers, decreased mobility, and secondary neurological insults inherent to severe brain injury are the main cause of pulmonary complications in critically ill neurological patients. Prevention strategies and current and future therapies need to be implemented to avoid and treat the development of these life-threatening medical complications.

Lee, Kiwon; Rincon, Fred

2012-01-01

190

Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has potent properties for the treatment of a variety of vascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke and pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, there are few data about the role of TMP in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage. This study examined the effect of TMP on hypoxia-induced pulmonary

Le Zhang; Mengyang Deng; Shiwen Zhou

2011-01-01

191

Secondary sulfates found in an old adit from Rosia Montana, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigation on several secondary minerals formed in old mining galleries in the Cârnic district (Ro?ia Montan?, Romania) enabled us to characterize ten minerals. Out of these ten identified minerals, the discovery of jokokuite is the first reported occurrence in the Carpathians. A second mineral identified as apjohnite represents a new occurrence in Romania. Along with these two rare minerals,

Bogdan P. Onac; Daniel Veres; Joe Kearns; Mirona Chirienco; Radu Breban

2012-01-01

192

Imaging findings in pulmonary vasculitis.  

PubMed

Vasculitis is a destructive inflammatory process affecting blood vessels. Pulmonary vasculitis may develop secondary to other conditions or constitute a primary idiopathic disorder. Thoracic involvement is most common in primary idiopathic large-vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behçet disease) and primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitides (Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Primary pulmonary vasculitides are rare, and their signs and symptoms are nonspecific, overlapping with those of infections, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. The radiologic findings in primary pulmonary vasculitis vary widely and can include vessel wall thickening, nodular or cavitary lesions, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations, among others. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage usually results from primary small-vessel vasculitis in the lungs. To diagnose vasculitis, medical teams must recognize characteristic combinations of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic features. PMID:23168065

Castañer, Eva; Alguersuari, Anna; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Spinu, Cristina; Mata, Josep M

2012-12-01

193

Reversible pulmonary hypertension in a cat.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old, neutered female domestic shorthair cat was presented for sudden respiratory distress following palliative radiotherapy and the combined administration of a single dose of carboplatin for the treatment of recurrent fibrosarcoma. Clinical and radiographic findings were suggestive of pleural effusion. Echocardiography revealed marked right-sided cardiac enlargement associated with tricuspid regurgitation and Doppler evidence of pulmonary hypertension. After 25 days of treatment for congestive heart failure and suspected pulmonary thromboembolism, clinical signs and echocardiographic and Doppler evidence of right-sided cardiac enlargement and pulmonary hypertension had completely resolved. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of reversible pulmonary hypertension, likely secondary to pulmonary thromboembolism, in a cat. PMID:21539573

Baron Toaldo, M; Guglielmini, C; Diana, A; Giunti, M; Dondi, F; Cipone, M

2011-05-01

194

Pathology and pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension is a devastating, life-threatening disorder with no curative options, characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and secondary right ventricular failure. Although the etiologies of pulmonary arterial hypertension are multiple and its pathogenesis is complex, there is growing evidence that inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, aberrant vascular wall cell proliferation, as well as mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene play a crucial role in triggering pathological vascular remodeling. The present article outlines the current understanding of this disease from the point of view of pathology and pathobiology. PMID:24037624

Guignabert, Christophe; Dorfmuller, Peter

2013-09-13

195

[Pulmonary paragonimiasis].  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by a trematode of the genus Paragonimus(1,2). Infestation is rare in Spain, but the influx of people from endemic areas should make us keep this condition in the differential diagnosis of our patients(2,5). We report the case a patient from Ecuador and resident in Spain for 7 years with active pulmonary tuberculosis on arrival in Spain and later diagnosed with of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to persistent haemoptysis. The diagnosis was established by surgical lung specimen showing granulomas containing parasite eggs and the macroscopic view of the fluke within a lung cavity. Initial tuberculosis treatment and current treatment with praziquantel controlled both conditions. PMID:21420222

Gómez-Seco, Julio; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Marcel José; Rodríguez-Nieto, María Jesús; Gómez-Escolar, Pablo Fernández; Presa-Abos, Teresa; Fortes-Alen, José

2011-03-21

196

Pulmonary calcinosis.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and pathological features are described of a case of pulmonary calcinosis complicating cystic disease of the renal medulla. A histopathological study of the lung revealed calcification in the alveolar walls and in the blood vessels, predominantly in the pulmonary veins and venules. The calcified deposits were also studied by electron microscopy, and appearances suggestive of active growth of the deposits were recognised. Chemical analysis of the lung revealed a calcium content some 55 times greater than that of a normal lung. There was a five-fold increase in magnesium content. Reference is made to the literature demonstrating that the chemical composition of metastic calcification differs according to whether it is visceral or non-visceral in type. Images

Heath, D; Robertson, A J

1977-01-01

197

Hydrothermal Experiments on Refractory Minerals Related to CAIs: Implications for Aqueous Alteration in Parent Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrites contain secondary minerals such as nepheline, calcite and phyllosilicates [1]. There is no consensus on whether secondary minerals were produced by reaction with a solar nebular gas [2] or by aqueous alteration in parent bodies [3]. We performed hydrothermal experiments on several minerals common in CAIs to study aqueous alteration in parent bodies. Experiments:

K. Nomura; M. Miyamoto

1995-01-01

198

Regulation of Pulmonary Vascular Tone in Health and Disease: Special emphasis on exercise and pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

High bloodpressure in the pulmonary circulation is \\u000acalled pulmonary hypertension (PH). In patients with PH, the balance \\u000abetween vasodilators and vasoconstrictors is disturbed. PH is an \\u000aimportant cause of death; it is characterized by elevated levels of \\u000apulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. \\u000aSecondary PH occurs after myocardial infarction and is often the \\u000acause of eventual right ventricular failure.

B. Houweling

2007-01-01

199

Vitamins and Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS? HOW MUCH DO I ... HARMFUL? FOR MORE INFORMATION WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? Vitamins and minerals are sometimes called micronutrients. ...

200

Vitamins and Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ... of them each day. What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system, ...

201

78 FR 21958 - Non-Competitive One-Year Extension With Funds for Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program (H37...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...year (FY) 2012. The Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program supports projects that seek to prevent, monitor, and treat pulmonary and respiratory diseases in active and inactive miners. This extension with funds will allow the Office of Rural Health...

2013-04-12

202

Mineral Commodities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise introduces mineral commodities (elements). Students consider the elements aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, uranium, lead, gold, mercury and tin and match them with their definintions in a table. Then they use minable grade (minable weight percent) and normal crustal abundance (crustal weight percent) to calculate the concentration factor for several commodities to determine their economic minability. Students then graph their calculations and explain their trend.

Perkins, Dexter

203

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

Richrigby

2010-02-23

204

Unusual ventilation perfusion scintigram in a case of immunologic pulmonary edema clinically simulating pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

A case of immunologic pulmonary edema secondary to hydrochlorothiazide allergy developed in a 55-year-old woman that clinically simulated pulmonary embolism. The patient had abnormal washin images with normal washout images on an Xe-133 ventilation study. On the perfusion study, large bilateral central and posterior perfusion defects were present that showed an unusual mirror image pattern on the lateral and posterior oblique views. Resolution of radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred over a 3-day period in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy.

Campeau, R.J.; Faust, J.M.; Ahmad, S.

1987-11-01

205

Cardiopulmonary adaptation to exercise in coal miners  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-six coal miners, without associated functional chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), assessed by normal airway resistance, were divided into three groups: (1) Group C, normal x-ray; (2) Group S1, micronodular silicosis; and (3) Group S2, complicated silicosis. All subjects were evaluated while at rest and during exercise. Significant lung volume reduction was observed in the S2 Group only. Blood gases, pulmonary pressure, and cardiac output were found to be within the normal range for all three groups when at rest. The pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were higher, however, for the S1 and S2 Groups when compared to the C Group. During exercise, pulmonary hypertension was observed in 50% of the patients with complicated silicosis. When all data (N = 26) were included, the high values for pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance correlated well with the loss in vital capacity (VC) and the decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/). From the initial 26 patients, 19 were selected on the basis of their normal airway resistance and FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0//VC ratio. This selection did not alter the differences noted for the pulmonary pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance, which previously existed between the groups, even though the correlations were not statistically significant. We conclude that silicosis without associated COLD leads to minimal hemodynamic impairment at rest and during exercise, and that airway resistance does not detect impairment of flow as effectively as FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/ reduction. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance observed, especially in complicated silicosis, may be best explained by the loss of lung parenchyma and possible impairment of small airways.

Scano, G.; Garcia-Herreros, P.; Stendardi, D.; Degre, S.; De Coster, A.; Sergysels, R.

1980-11-01

206

Haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema: post-pulmonary embolectomy.  

PubMed Central

A case of haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema after successful pulmonary embolectomy is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed. Thirteen cases are analysed as well as the four survivors. The aetiology appears to be ischaemic damage of the capillary bed. This had previously been called incomplete infarction by Castleman. The incidence is low after acute pulmonary embolectomies but appears to be much higher after chronic endarterectomies, especially with severe pulmonary hypertension. Therapy is outlined. Images

Garvey, J W; Wisoff, G; Voletti, C; Hartstein, M

1976-01-01

207

Pulmonary mucormycosis.  

PubMed

Mucormycosis (formerly zygomycosis) is a life-threatening opportunistic mycosis that infects a broad range of hosts with qualitative or quantitative defects in innate immunity, including patients with severe neutropenia, recipients of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and those with iron overload states. Mucormycosis has recently emerged as breakthrough sinopulmonary infection in hematologic patients and recipients of transplantation being on antifungal prophylaxis with Aspergillus-active antifungals that lack activity against Mucorales. Unlike pulmonary aspergillosis, the prognosis and outcome of pulmonary mucormycosis have not improved significantly over the last decade, mainly because of difficulties in early diagnosis and the limited activity of current antifungal agents against Mucorales. Recent evidence suggests a critical role for iron metabolism and fungal-endothelial cell interactions in pathogenesis of mucormycosis, and holds promise for development of novel therapeutic strategies. Currently, prompt initiation of antifungal therapy with a lipid amphotericin B-based regimen, reversal of underlying host factors, and aggressive surgical approach offers the best chances for survival of patients infected with this devastating mycosis. PMID:22167397

Hamilos, Georgios; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2011-12-13

208

[Pulmonary endometriosis].  

PubMed

Endometriosis in less common locations can become a diagnostic pitfall both from the clinical and morphological point of view, as this diagnosis is only seldom considered in the first series of differential diagnoses. This was true also for our patient reported. 48-year-old woman underwent left superior lobectomy for the clinical diagnosis of pulmonary neoplasm. Slightly prominent subpleural whitish nodular partly cystic tissue was histologically identified as pulmonary endometriosis. It consisted of proliferative to hyperproliferative endometrial glands surrounded by proliferation type stroma. Focally slight cytological glandular atyplas and immature squamous metaplasia were present. Later another focus was located by x-ray examination. Without any surgery, it responded to six month treatment with competitive gonadoliberin agonist (GnRH analogue) Zoladex. Three years after the treatment no signs of the disease have been present. The correct clinical diagnosis accompanied with cautious morphological verification may prevent unnecessary extensive surgery. However, even some correctly diagnosed and morphologically verified cases may require radical operative removal. Either approach (conservative therapy and surgery) completed with subsequent dispensarisation may prevent both the common (cycle related progressive tissue damage) and rare (tissue destruction, malignant transformation) complications. PMID:11374226

Dusková, J; Vítková, I

2001-04-12

209

Cyclic stretch increases VEGF expression in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via TGF-1 and reactive oxygen species: a requirement for NAD(PH) oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that TGF-1 and VEGF expression are increased in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) layer of the pulmonary vessels of lambs with pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow. Further we found that TGF-1 expression increased prior to VEGF. Due to the increased blood flow in these lambs the SMC in the pulmonary vessels are exposed

Stephen M. Black; Albert Grobe; Eugenia Mata-Greenwood; Yelina Noskina

2004-01-01

210

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm caused by Streptococcus constellatus.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of mycotic pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm (PAP) secondary to a lung abscess due to Streptococcus constellatus. PAP was confirmed by the pathological findings of the pseudoaneurysm, the presence of bacteria, and the microbiological analysis. PAP is uncommon, but it is important to recognize this condition because PAP can lead to fatal hemoptysis. PMID:24128874

Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Gyotoku, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Kohno, Shigeru

2013-04-30

211

Retinoids and Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Retinoic acid has antimitogenic effects on smooth muscle cells. Studies on the systemic circulation suggest that it may reduce vascular thickening. Relationships between retinoids and pulmonary hypertension\\/pulmonary vascular remodeling, however, have not been explored. Thus, the present study examined retinoid levels in plasma of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and the effects of retinoic acid on human pulmonary artery

Ioana R. Preston; Guangwen Tang; Jason U. Tilan; Nicholas S. Hill; Yuichiro J. Suzuki

2010-01-01

212

Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism  

PubMed Central

Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar

2011-01-01

213

Secondary atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a drop is subjected to a surrounding dispersed phase that is moving at an initial relative velocity, aerodynamic forces\\u000a will cause it to deform and fragment. This is referred to as secondary atomization. In this paper, the abundant literature\\u000a on secondary atomization experimental methods, breakup morphology, breakup times, fragment size and velocity distributions,\\u000a and modeling efforts is reviewed and

D. R. Guildenbecher; C. López-Rivera; P. E. Sojka

2009-01-01

214

Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine a number of key mineral properties and how they are displayed by different minerals. Mineral properties examined include crystal habit, cleavage, parting, fracture, hardness, tenacity, specific gravity, luster, color, and streak.

Perkins, Dexter

215

Rocks and Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

216

Minerals and Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to rock and mineral collecting. It contains information for worldwide mineral and fossil collectors with articles, mineral photos, videos, a search engine and free classified ads.

Mineraltown.com

217

Alaska's Mineral Industry, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alaska's mineral industry experienced positive growth during 1989, especially in the hard-rock mining and exploration sectors, but suffered declines in mineral development expenditures, in sand-and-gravel, and in stone production. Overall value of mineral...

T. K. Bundtzen R. C. Swainbank J. R. Deagen J. L. Moore

1990-01-01

218

Mineral Sands Down Under  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

219

State Mineral Summaries, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The State Mineral Summaries publication provides estimated data and summaries of mineral activities at the State level for 1992. Most of the estimates are based on nine months data. Individual State summaries are published separately as State Mineral Indu...

1993-01-01

220

Minerals yearbook vol. I: metals and minerals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This volume, covering metals and minerals, contains chapters on approximately 90 commodities. In addition, this volume has chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on statistical surveying methods used by Minerals Information, plus a statistical summary.

U.S. Geological Survey

221

Takayasu's arteritis mimicking unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis in a child with severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Affliction of the pulmonary arteries in Takayasu's arteritis is uncommon. Moreover the incidence of pulmonary artery involvement in this condition is often underestimated because of asymptomatic nature in most patients. Severe involvement may however present with pulmonary artery hypertension and hemoptysis, which may prove to be fatal. This case report describes a 9-year-old girl with severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure secondary to total occlusion of the right pulmonary artery. Detailed clinical examination and computed tomography (CT) angiography confirmed this diagnosis. PMID:21674131

Kumar, Sudeep; Moorthy, Nagaraja; Kapoor, Aditya; Kumar, Sunil

2011-06-15

222

Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease  

PubMed Central

Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images

McPhee, Stephen J.

1984-01-01

223

STUDIES ON PULMONARY EDEMA  

PubMed Central

1. Guinea pigs die shortly after bilateral cervical vagotomy, even when continuous artificial respiration effected through a tracheal cannula is carried out. Death is caused by severe pulmonary edema and congestion. 2. Direct observation of the lungs after bilateral vagotomy demonstrates that pulmonary edema develops gradually and increases slowly in amount and severity. Congestion precedes and accompanies the development of the edema. 3. Neuropathic pulmonary edema in the guinea pig is caused by disturbance to or abolition of the pulmonary vasomotor nerves. 4. The evidence obtained by experiments on animals suggests that neuropathic pulmonary edema in man is caused by disturbances, either central or peripheral, to the vasomotor control of the pulmonary vessels.

Farber, Sidney

1937-01-01

224

JAMA Patient Page: Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Pulmonary Hypertension T he pulmonary artery is the main vessel ... mercury (mm Hg). In an individual with pulmonary hypertension , the average pressure in the pulmonary artery can ...

225

Secondary Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

226

HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... lead to PH. A direct cause and effect relation between HIV infection and pulmonary hypertension has not ... in bringing pulmonary hypertension into the national and international consciousness. PHA is constantly increasing its services to ...

227

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

MedlinePLUS

Alveolar proteinosis; Pulmonary alveolar phospholipoproteinosis ... In some cases, the cause of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is unknown. In others, it occurs with lung infection or an immune problem. It also can occur with cancers of ...

228

Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Resources Accomplishments About Us Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis 10866 W. Washington Blvd #343 • Culver City, CA ... their respective owners. ©2001 – 2011 Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis Site Last Updated: October 25, 2013

229

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a rare but severe, ... respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantavirus. What are the symptoms of HPS? Early Symptoms: • ...

230

Living with Pulmonary Embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

231

Surgical treatment of a pulmonary artery aneurysm due to a regurgitant quadricuspid pulmonary valve.  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient with a pulmonary artery (PA) aneurysm secondary to a regurgitant quadricuspid pulmonary valve, in which both lesions were successfully repaired. The patient, a 16-year old boy, was known to have had pulmonary regurgitation and progressive dilation of the PA for years. He was operated on when he developed symptoms of effort, a dilated right ventricle and a PA of 55 mm. The quadricuspid pulmonary valve was an intraoperative finding. It had a dilated annulus, two normal cusps, a third with a 'sparrow-nest' configuration and the fourth was severely hypoplastic (which explained the valve regurgitation). The valve was repaired through tricuspidisation of the quadricuspid pulmonary valve (annular plication at the level of the hypoplastic cusp, freeing of excedentary tissue from the 'sparrow-nest' cusp and its reattachment to the plicated annulus). The aneurysm was treated through a reduction pulmonary arterioplasty. Early assessment showed the minimal regurgitation of the valve and a normal diameter PA. The outcome was uneventful, with a stable correction after 44 months of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first repair of a quadricuspid pulmonary valve, through tricuspidisation. PMID:22422877

Iosifescu, Andrei George; Dorobantu, Lucian Florin; Anca, Traian Mihai; Iliescu, Vlad Anton

2012-03-14

232

Interventional Therapy of Supravalvular Pulmonary Stenosis via a Mechanical Valve in the Pulmonary Position.  

PubMed

There is an increasing number of patients with congenital heart disease and pathology of the right ventricular outflow tract in whom a mechanical pulmonary valve replacement is chosen for permanent palliation. Despite corrective surgery, some of these patients may have residual or secondary supravalvular pulmonary stenosis or peripheral pulmonary stenosis, which necessitate interventional therapy after valve replacement. There is a general understanding that interventional therapy via a mechanical valve in pulmonary position may induce mechanical valve dysfunction and should therefore be avoided. We report our experience in three patients with a St. Jude Medical mechanical valve in pulmonary position and supravalvular pulmonary stenosis or a peripheral pulmonary stenosis where we have safely performed standard interventions (i.e., balloon angioplasty and stent implantation) across the mechanical valve without any complications. Our specific technique using a long sheath as safety guard, which holds the mechanical valve open during the procedure but allows the positioning of all mechanical devices and catheters necessary for the procedures, is described. In all patients, the long-term follow-up of the valve function is excellent. PMID:23601034

Habash, Sheeraz; Haas, Nikolaus A; Laser, Kai Thorsten

2013-04-22

233

Introduction to Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity can be used as the introduction for a unit on mineral or crystal structure. It requires the students to create shapes cooperatively and put them together. This is analogous to individual crystals forming or to minerals forming. They will understand that minerals are made up of structures in certain patterns, and that these structures determine some of the properties of the minerals.

234

Mineral Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners participate in a scavenger hunt, searching for and recognizing minerals and products that contain minerals. They make note of their finds on a Mineral Scavenger Hunt checklist. Learners search for the materials in their classroom, at home, or even in stores. This resource includes discussion questions to encourage learner reflection about how minerals play a role in daily life.

History, National M.

2010-01-01

235

[Pulmonary manifestations of malaria].  

PubMed

We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible. PMID:3035632

Rauber, K; Enkerlin, H L; Riemann, H; Schoeppe, W

1987-05-01

236

Evaluation of pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary embolism is a common disease entity that is difficult to diagnose accurately by noninvasive methods. Ventilation-perfusion is a pivotal study in the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. The role of standard and newer modalities in evaluating pulmonary embolism is discussed in this article. 65 references.

Blinder, R.A.; Coleman, R.E.

1985-09-01

237

Pulmonary physiology in pregnancy.  

PubMed

This section reviews anatomic and functional changes of the respiratory system during pregnancy. Pulmonary function during exercise in pregnancy and in the obese gravida, sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy, and pulmonary changes in the pregnant woman living at altitude are discussed in detail. Assessment of pulmonary function and interpretation of the arterial blood gas during pregnancy are also discussed. PMID:20436304

Bobrowski, Renee A

2010-06-01

238

Minerals 4 Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Minerals 4 Kids contains four Web-based activities offered for K-12 Education by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA). These activities are entitled: Minerals in Your House, Mineral Groups, Mineral Properties, and All About Crystals. Also included are links to Mineral Games, the Rock Cycle diagram that leads to descriptions of the three rock types, and Ask-A-Mineralogist that enables the user to submit a mineralogical question. Many of these activities are linked to other mineralogy-related Web sites. Minerals in Your House is designed to introduce the concept of how minerals are present in common household items found in the bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen. Mineral Groups introduces mineral classification according to chemical composition. The learner can explore each of the seven major chemical groups and several minor chemical groups. Mineral Properties introduces learners to the physical properties of minerals such as hardness, cleavage, streak, color, luster, specific gravity, as well as other miscellaneous properties (i.e., magnetic, effervescence, striations, etc.). Mineral Properties, additionally, contains a five-step Mineral Identification process that uses the physical properties to narrow down a mineral's identity that, ultimately, leads to a Mineral Identification Chart. All About Crystals enables the learner to become familiar with symmetry, crystal symmetry, crystal chemistry, and crystal forms. This activity includes online 3-D models, an activity that enables the user to draw and explore symmetry patterns, a variety of detailed descriptions with figures, and an extensive vocabulary

Mcmillan, Nancy

239

Pulmonary vascular reactivity and hemorheology in patients with chronic cor pulmonale: Responses to pentoxifylline at rest and during exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study was carried out in order to evaluate changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity and in hemorheology induced by pentoxifylline\\u000a infusion (100 mg) at rest and during standardized exercise in patients with chronic cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive\\u000a pulmonary disease. The administration of pentoxifylline at rest was associated with reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure\\u000a (p<0.01), pulmonary vascular resistance

Carlo Sturani; Gualtiero Palareti; Mario Poggi; Mario Schiavina; Paola Torricelli; Spyridion Papiris; Sergio Coccheri; Giuseppe Gunella

1986-01-01

240

Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography  

SciTech Connect

Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography was performed in 14 patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism. In 13 of 14, useful clinical information was obtained. Four patients were found to have pulmonary emboli. In nine patients, digital subtraction angiography was performed through pulmonary artery catheters already in place for monitoring critically ill patients. Conventional angiography in nine patients confirmed the findings by digital angiography. This initial experience suggests that digital subtraction pulmonary angiography provides adequate image quality in certain circumstances with several advantages over conventional angiography.

Goodman, P.C.; Brant-Zawadski, M.

1982-08-01

241

[Pulmonary cryptococcosis exhibiting diffuse multiple nodular shadows].  

PubMed

We report a case of pulmonary cryptococcosis showing diffuse multiple nodular shadows in all lung fields. A 39-year-old woman with no immunological abnormalities was admitted with complaints of cough and sputum. She had experienced measles 4 weeks prior to admission. Chest x-ray films revealed diffuse nodular opacities throughout the lung fields, a finding suggestive of metastatic lung cancer. Detailed examinations, including transbronchial lung biopsy, were not conclusive. A diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis was made on the basis of findings from video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis usually appears as a solitary nodule or limited infiltration. Immunologically compromised hosts commonly demonstrate various abnormal shadows, such as the multiple nodular shadows observed in our patient. It has been reported that measles infection can cause temporary immune suppression. Secondary immunodeficiency resulting from the preceding infection with measles could explain the unusual chest x-ray findings in this case. PMID:10064958

Inui, N; Chida, K; Suda, T; Toyoshima, M; Todate, A; Ide, K; Tsukamoto, K; Sato, J; Tsuchiya, T; Nakamura, H

1998-12-01

242

Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

2011-02-01

243

Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of secondary acids and am- monium on individual mineral dust particles during ACE- Asia has been measured with an online single-particle mass spectrometer, the ATOFMS. Changes in the amounts of sul- phate, nitrate, and chloride mixed with dust particles cor- relate with air masses from different source regions. The uptake of secondary acids depended on the individual dust

R. C. Sullivan; S. A. Guazzotti; D. A. Sodeman; K. A. Prather

2007-01-01

244

Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of secondary acids and ammonium on individual mineral dust particles during ACE-Asia has been measured with an online single-particle mass spectrometer, the ATOFMS. Changes in the amounts of sulphate, nitrate, and chloride mixed with dust particles correlate with air masses from different source regions. The uptake of secondary acids depended on the individual dust particle mineralogy; high amounts

R. C. Sullivan; S. A. Guazzotti; D. A. Sodeman; K. A. Prather

2007-01-01

245

Pleomorphic malignant histiocytoma of pulmonary arteries presenting as pulmonary aneurysms.  

PubMed

Pulmonary aneurysms and primary neoplasms of the great vessels are very rare entities; pulmonary aneurysms are commonly associated with congenital heart diseases, and less frequently in atherosclerosis, medial cystic necrosis, trauma, infection, and inflammatory processes. Many patients have pulmonary hypertension, most frequently resulting from pulmonary artery sarcomas mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism. Symptoms are vague. In 30% of cases, rupture and death occur, related to pulmonary aneurysms. We present the case of a patient with a diagnosis of pulmonary artery pleomorphic malignant histiocytoma that presented as a right pulmonary aneurysm thrombosis and a contained rupture of a left pulmonary aneurysm. PMID:23438543

De La Cerda Belmont, Gustavo Armando; Lezama Urtecho, Carlos Alberto

2013-03-01

246

Aspects of mineral transformation during weathering of volcanic material (the microscopic and submicroscopic level)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral transformation at the earth surface is a complex process. In volcanic ejecta, such transformations tend to be fairly rapid. Many weathering studies on volcanic materials have been carried out at different scales of observations, mostly using bulk samples. However, to get a proper understanding of the mechanisms of weathering of primary minerals and formation secondary minerals it is necessary

A. G. Jongmans

1994-01-01

247

Mineral Spectroscopy Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This server is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on mineral absorption in the visible, infrared, Raman and Mossbauer spectra. Both data coordinates and images of the spectra are available for selected minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs, but individuals throughout the world also contribute to this ever growing community resource. In addition to data files, the site provides an extensive list of references to papers on mineral optical spectroscopy. Citations are available sorted both by mineral name and by first authors of papers.

Rossman, George

248

Heavy Mineral Processing at Richards Bay Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located on the eastern shores of South Africa, 180 km north of Durban, Richards Bay Minerals (RBM) produces approximately 2.0 million metric tonnes of product annually making RBM a leading producer of titania slag, high purity pig iron, rutile and zircon. Heavy minerals are extracted from the nearby dunes by dredging and concentration on a floating gravity separation plant, followed

G. E. Williams; J. D. Steenkamp; Richards Bay Minerals; Richards Bay

249

Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.  

PubMed Central

Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction.

Heppleston, A G

1991-01-01

250

The current treatment of pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary vascular hypertension in general is a progressive, nearly always fatal condition that until recently has had very few treatment options. Our understanding of the pulmonary vascular disease process has opened the window to earlier screening techniques, diagnosis, and treatment options. However, all current treatment options are complex and expensive and therefore require clinical support strategies often necessitating specialized pulmonary hypertension treatment centers. Whether idiopathic or secondary, pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by the deregulated proliferation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells and intimal smooth muscle cells, both resistant to cellular apoptosis. Early recognition of such disregulation may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment and thus alteration in the disease process. Screening of high-risk populations such as those with connective tissue disorders, HIV disease, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, and those exposed to certain drugs and toxins such as methamphetamines and the diet drugs Dexfenfluramine and Fenfluramine is of utmost importance. Similarly, early symptom recognition in these high-risk groups is essential to earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20073161

Lloyd, Kenneth Scott

2009-01-01

251

Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium  

MedlinePLUS

... Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Healthy Living Listen Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Article Body Three minerals— calcium , phosphorus, and magnesium—account for 98% of ...

252

Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals Aloe The aloe plant, a member of the lily family, is a common household plant originally from Africa. Arnica ... Central and South America. Calcium Calcium is a mineral that is vital for a number of bodily ...

253

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

254

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What minerals are in your toothpaste? A pencil? A telephone? This interactive resource adapted from the U.S. Geological Survey illustrates the variety of minerals used in everyday items found in kitchens, bathrooms, offices, and yards.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

255

Minerals Yearbook: Cuba, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nickel was the most important mineral commodity to the Cuban economy followed by cobalt, which was produced as a byproduct of nickel mining. Other minerals produced in the country included cement, clays, crushed stone, feldspar, salt, and silica sand. Cub...

O. Bermudez-Lugo

2008-01-01

256

Dewatering of mineral slurries  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Mineral slurries are effectively dewatered by a process employing an aminofunctional silicone emulsion as a dewatering aid. The process provides for mixing the dewatering aid with the aqueous mineral slurry and thereafter separating the treated slurry into a mineral portion and an aqueous portion. The use of the aminofunctional silicones provide for reduced moisture content and/or increased production rate in a mineral slurry dewatering process.

Cooper; Ian V. (Georgetown, CA)

1985-06-25

257

Sedimentary and Related Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of sedimentary minerals and rocks. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine a tray of Halides, Carbonates, Borates, and Clays and record their physical properties, composition, habit, and occurence. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences of the minerals. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe sedimentary minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Perkins, Dexter

258

Seaweed minerals as nutraceuticals.  

PubMed

Seaweed is known as an abundant source of minerals. Mineral composition of seaweed is very changeable because of many exogenous and endogenous factors and differs also within the same species. Principally, seaweed is an excellent source of some essential elements. Mainly, iron and iodine are in high concentration. Seaweeds could be prospective as functional foods and also producers of mineral nutraceuticals. PMID:22054962

Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila; Orsavová, Jana

2011-01-01

259

Seaweed Minerals as Nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seaweed is known as an abundant source of minerals. Mineral composition of seaweed is very changeable because of many exogenous and endogenous factors and differs also within the same species. Principally, seaweed is an excellent source of some essential elements. Mainly, iron and iodine are in high concentration. Seaweeds could be prospective as functional foods and also producers of mineral

Ladislava Mišurcová; Ludmila Mach?; Jana Orsavová

2011-01-01

260

Minerals in our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This downloadable poster (36 in. by 60 in.) describes how minerals are used in household substances and objects, listed by name, with numbers corresponding to locations in a typical house. For example, in the kitchen, appliances contain steel and copper, clay minerals are found in china, and table salt contains the mineral halite.

261

INTRODUCTION TO MINERALS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand the basic properties of minerals. . DATES: You can begin this activity on December 11. You should complete it by December 15. OBJECTIVE: You will visit Web sites to learn more about minerals. You will record 10 interesting facts about minerals on a blank sheet of paper. After visiting the last Web ...

Hughes, Mr.

2005-10-23

262

Color in Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do minerals have color? When is that color diagnostic, and when is it likely to fool you? Why is color important, and what can it tell us about the chemistry of minerals? This exercise will try to answer some of these questions, and to introduce students to the fascinating world of mineral spectroscopy, where chemistry meets mineralogy.

Dyar, Darby

263

Plasma Endothelin1 Level in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Relationship with Natriuretic Peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by the vascular endothelium. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of ET-1 in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: We measured plasma ET-1 levels during right heart catheterization both at rest and during exercise on room air and

Tatsuo Fujii; Toshihiro Otsuka; Shigehiro Tanaka; Hiroshi Kanazawa; Kazuto Hirata; Masakazu Kohno; Naotsugu Kurihara; Junichi Yoshikawa

1999-01-01

264

Atrial septal defect closure in a patient with “irreversible” pulmonary hypertensive arteriopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of irreversible pulmonary hypertension in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) is thought to preclude shunt closure. We report the case of a woman with plexiform pulmonary arteriopathy secondary to an ostium secundum ASD who was able to successfully undergo percutaneous shunt closure following therapy with chronic intravenous prostacyclin (Flolan). One year after closure, the patient was weaned

Markus Schwerzmann; Moiz Zafar; Peter R. McLaughlin; Dean W. Chamberlain; Gary Webb; John Granton

2006-01-01

265

[Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema].  

PubMed

We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. This syndrome, including upper-lobe emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower lung was recently described in smokers or ex-smokers (mean age: 65 years). Exertional dyspnea is always present. Pulmonary functions are subnormal while carbon monoxyde transfer is reduced and exercise hypoxemia is present. High resolution CT-scan is key of diagnosis with upper lobes emphysema with diffuse infiltrating fibrosing disease at the bases. Pulmonary hypertension is present is almost 50% of patients, representing the principal negative pronostic factor. Five years survival is 54.6% (median survival 6, 1 years). PMID:21595311

Frey, Jean-Georges

2011-04-13

266

Primary pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Toevaluate theeffects ofprostacyclin (prostaglandin 12) on pulmonary vascular tonein primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), we performed right-heart catheterization on sevenpatients with PPHandmadehemodynamic measurements before andafter infusing incremental doses ofprostacyclin. In maximaldoses of2-12ng\\/kg\\/min (mean5.7± 3.1ng\\/kg\\/min), prostacyclin reduced mean pulmonary arterial pressurefrom62± 15to55± 16mm Hg(p< 0.05) andtotal pulmonary resistance from17.1 8.7to9.7+ 5.9units (p< 0.005), andincreased cardiac output from4.22 ± 1.64to6.57 ± 2.041\\/min

LEWISJ. RUBIN; BERTRON M. GROVES; MICHAEL FROSOLONO; FRANKLIN HANDEL

1993-01-01

267

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease ... In most cases, the cause of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is unknown. The high blood pressure occurs in the pulmonary arteries, which are the lung arteries directly connected to ...

268

Noninvasive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The previous work demonstrated that reflected ultrasound was a sensitive method for the detection of pulmonary embolism. However, the established pulmonary surface reflection coefficient measurement was not specific to pulmonary embolism. The overall obje...

K. B. Sagar T. Rhyne

1980-01-01

269

How Is Pulmonary Embolism Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Treated? Pulmonary embolism (PE) is treated with medicines, procedures, and other ... blood from pooling and clotting. Rate This Content: Pulmonary Embolism Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

270

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and aluminum dust exposure  

SciTech Connect

A 44-yr-old male presented shortness of breath, diffuse X-ray infiltrates, and physiologic evidence of a restrictive lung disease. Biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The patient had worked for the previous 6 yr as an aluminum rail grinder in a very dusty environment. Analysis of his lung tissue revealed greater than 300 X 10(6) particles of aluminum/g dry lung; all of the particles appeared as spheres of less than 1 mu diameter. We believe that this case represents an example of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis induced by inhalation of aluminum particles; this finding confirms animal studies which suggest that proteinosis can be produced by very large doses of many types of finely divided mineral dust.

Miller, R.R.; Churg, A.M.; Hutcheon, M.; Lom, S.

1984-08-01

271

USGS mineral deposit models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM publication is a compilation of 29 previously published mineral deposit model and related reports of the USGS. It in part reflects a history of mineral deposit model development within the USGS. Model types presented include descriptive, grade-tonnage, geoenvironmental, and geophysical. These models generally compile the geologic, geochemical, and geophysical characteristics of various types of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits. The models list attributes intended as guides for resource and geoenvironmental studies and for mineral exploration. They are presented using the lithologic-tectonic environmental mineral deposit classification scheme originally developed by Cox and Singer (1986).

edited by Stoeser, D. B.; Heran, William D.

2000-01-01

272

Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Perkins, Dexter

273

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-08

274

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

275

An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines  

SciTech Connect

A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.

1983-01-01

276

Scientists observe fungi-dissolving minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) live in moist dark recesses and never see daylight. They cling to the roots of trees in boreal forests, break down soil minerals and supply essential elements and nutrients to the trees. Along the way, they play a distinct but not yet well-understood role in bioweathering, a process in which water, air, and organisms interact to break down soil minerals within the first few meters of Earth's surface. In a synthetically designed and controlled laboratory environment, Gazzè et al. cultured EMF; the researchers monitored the process as the fungi colonized a soil mineral on a petri dish over a period of 7 months. The authors then extracted individual grains of chlorite, a common soil-forming clay mineral, and cleaned the mineral surfaces to look at how the fungi had affected the mineral surfaces they came in contact with. Using atomic force microscopy, a specialized process that allows observations of three-dimensional features at nanometer (10-9 meter) scales, the authors found numerous primary channels, of the order of a micron (10-6 meters) in width and up to 50 nanometers in depth, from which smaller secondary channels extended outward. The network of channels resembled a herringbone-like pattern—evidence of dissolution by EMF.

Bhattacharya, Atreyee

2012-10-01

277

PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L?1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L?1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.

NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

2012-01-01

278

Mineral Deposit Densities for Estimating Mineral Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of numbers of mineral deposits are fundamental to assessing undiscovered mineral resources. Just as frequencies\\u000a of grades and tonnages of well-explored deposits can be used to represent the grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits,\\u000a the density of deposits (deposits\\/area) in well-explored control areas can serve to represent the number of deposits. Empirical\\u000a evidence presented here indicates that the processes

Donald A. Singer

2008-01-01

279

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

280

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) is a rare developmental disorder involving the lung, and characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation. The prevalence is unknown. PL presents at birth with severe respiratory distress, tachypnea and cyanosis, with a very high mortality rate at or within a few hours of birth. Most reported cases are sporadic and the etiology

Carlo Bellini; Francesco Boccardo; Corradino Campisi; Eugenio Bonioli

2006-01-01

281

Pulmonary Thromboembolectomy for Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Background Acute pulmonary thromboembolism is fatal because of abruptly occurring hypoxemia and right ventricular failure. There are several treatment modalities, including anticoagulation, thrombolytics, ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenator), and thromboembolectomy, for managing acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Materials and Methods Medical records from January 1999 to December 2004 at our institution were retrospectively reviewed for pulmonary thromboembolectomy. There were 7 patients (4 men and 3 women), who underwent a total of 8 operations because one patient had post-operative recurrent emboli and underwent reoperation. Surgery was indicatedfor mild hypoxemia and performed with CPB (cardiopulmonary bypass) in a beating heart state. Results The patients had several symptoms, such as dyspnea, chest discomfort, and palpitation. Four patients had deep vein thromboembolisms and 3 had psychotic problems, specifically schizophrenia. Post-operative complications included hemothorax, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. There were two hospital deaths, one each by brain death and right heart failure. Conclusion Emergency operation should be performed when medical treatments are no longer effective.

Yi, Inho; Cho, Kyu Seok; Kim, Bum Shik; Kim, Soo-Cheol; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Jung-Heon; Youn, Hyo Chul

2011-01-01

282

Pulmonary disorders complicating pregnancy.  

PubMed

The pulmonary physiologic changes associated with pregnancy increase oxygen transport to the developing fetus. Because of these changes, the fetus is allowed an extra measure of protection against insults that would decrease blood or oxygen flow to the uteroplacental unit. The goal of treating a patient with pulmonary disease in pregnancy should be to maximize pulmonary function throughout gestation. Experts in pulmonary disease should be readily available for patients with significant pulmonary disorders or worsening disease during pregnancy. Pregnancy affords all providers the opportunity to address the major respiratory health problem in the United States, which is smoking. This concerns not only the patient's personal health, but also that of her unborn offspring. PMID:1484655

McColgin, S W; Glee, L; Brian, B A

1992-12-01

283

Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty.  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous pulmonary valvuloplasty was performed in 27 patients with congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. A fall in the transvalve gradient of at least 15 mm Hg occurred in 22 patients. In five there was little change in the severity of the stenosis; in three of these the pulmonary valve was dysplastic. None of the successfully treated patients had a dysplastic valve. The two other failures, early in the series, were probably due to inadequate balloon size. In one patient the procedure was performed twice, with a successful result from the second dilatation with a larger balloon. Follow up studies in a further six patients showed no evidence of restenosis in those who had been successfully treated and no late improvement in the remainder. There were no important complications. Percutaneous pulmonary valvuloplasty should be the initial treatment for congenital pulmonary valve stenosis, although when the valve is dysplastic the result is less likely to be satisfactory. Images

Tynan, M; Baker, E J; Rohmer, J; Jones, O D; Reidy, J F; Joseph, M C; Ottenkamp, J

1985-01-01

284

Exercise induced pulmonary vasoconstriction.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary vascular resistance normally falls or remains unchanged during exercise. Seven children with pulmonary hypertension were exercised during cardiac catheterisation after operative correction of ventricular septal defect (6) and truncus arteriosus (1). Except for the presence of moderate pulmonary hypertension, resting haemodynamics in these seven children were similar to those of normal children of equal age, but during exercise the postoperative patients showed a rise rather than a fall (+2% vs -18%) in total pulmonary vascular resistance. Two of the seven children had a substantial increase in pulmonary arteriolar resistance during exercise (from 509 to 715 dyne s cm-5 in one patient and from 606 to 828 dyne s cm-5 in the other). These two patients did not differ from normal children in respect of arterial or mixed venous oxygen saturations or of pH with exercise, nor was left atrial pressure related to the rise in pulmonary resistance. These two patients, however, had only a small rise in cardiac output during exercise (6.8% and 43.1%) in spite of a substantial increase in oxygen consumption (121% and 373%). One of the patients with exercise-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction had an 82% increase in resting pulmonary vascular resistance over a five year period subsequent to her first exercise study. Analysis of these data, and those previously reported, suggests that exercise induced pulmonary vasoconstriction may occur in 10 to 25% of patients who survive correction of certain congenital cardiac defects. The vasoconstriction cannot be attributed to abnormal changes in blood gases or left atrial pressure, and may be an early sign of progressive pulmonary hypertension.

Kulik, T J; Bass, J L; Fuhrman, B P; Moller, J H; Lock, J E

1983-01-01

285

Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum  

PubMed Central

Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.

Dixit, Ramakant; George, Jacob

2012-01-01

286

Atrial septal defect closure in a patient with "irreversible" pulmonary hypertensive arteriopathy.  

PubMed

The presence of irreversible pulmonary hypertension in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) is thought to preclude shunt closure. We report the case of a woman with plexiform pulmonary arteriopathy secondary to an ostium secundum ASD who was able to successfully undergo percutaneous shunt closure following therapy with chronic intravenous prostacyclin (Flolan). One year after closure, the patient was weaned off Flolan over a period of 7 months following the institution of oral Bosentan therapy. Our case illustrates how aggressive vasodilator therapy with prostaglandins may be capable of reducing pulmonary artery pressure and permitting shunt closure in a patient once considered to have "inoperable" pulmonary arteriopathy. PMID:15992947

Schwerzmann, Markus; Zafar, Moiz; McLaughlin, Peter R; Chamberlain, Dean W; Webb, Gary; Granton, John

2005-07-01

287

Trapped Miner Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Accident due to roof fall and collapse of side gallery is a regular occurrence in underground coal mines which causes death\\u000a of huge number of miners. To save valuable miners’ life, a suitable system is required for detecting the precise location\\u000a of a trapped miner and helping the rescue team or mine management in displacing the debris from the right

L. K. Bandyopadhyay; S. K. Chaulya; P. K. Mishra

288

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Minerals are all around us. They're in our kitchens and bathrooms, our classrooms and school buildings, and our cars and bicycles. This interactive feature lets users discover which minerals are found in items they probably encounter every day. Rolling the cursor over items in an illustrated room accesses pop-ups that describe what mineral products may be found in them. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

289

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Minerals are all around us. They're in our kitchens and bathrooms, our classrooms and school buildings, and our cars and bicycles. This interactive feature lets users discover which minerals are found in items they probably encounter every day. Rolling the cursor over items in an illustrated room accesses pop-ups that describe what mineral products may be found in them. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2008-01-01

290

Investigating suspected pulmonary embolism during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the commonest cause of maternal death in UK. It is a frequently occurring diagnostic challenge. The false negative and false positive rates for the diagnosis of PE are spectacularly high. Undiagnosed PE has a mortality rate as high as 30%, which falls to 2-8% if the condition is diagnosed and treated appropriately. [Rodger M, Wells PS. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Thromb Res 2001;103:v225-38; Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Task Force on Pulmonary Embolism, European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2000;21(16):1301-36]. Physiologic changes of pregnancy further complicate the diagnosis of PE. Although the danger of maternal and foetal death secondary to maternal PE and unnecessary anticoagulation far outweighs the risk of radiation involved in scanning, doctors still hesitate to request appropriate investigation because of concern regarding radiation exposure to the foetus and the absence of any clear, updated guideline. Worried parents need to be counselled appropriately before tests to alleviate anxiety and misunderstanding. PMID:16549345

Mallick, Srikumar; Petkova, Dimitrina

2006-03-23

291

Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary embolism: successful surgical intervention.  

PubMed

Because of its rarity and the similarity of its presentation to that of pulmonary thromboembolic disease, the diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma is often not considered early in patients presenting with recurrent or chronic pulmonary emboli. We present a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma that was treated as pulmonary embolism for 3 years before surgical resection was carried out. Two years after the resection the patient is well with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:8633981

Akomea-Agyin, C; Dussek, J E; Anderson, D R; Hartley, R B

1996-05-01

292

Mineral Information Office opens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines opened their Mineral Information Office June 21 in Washington, D.C. The new office joins the Survey's recently renovated Earth Science Information Center in the Department of Interior building.The Mineral Information Office offers computer and video disc access to the geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and cartographic information of both agencies, including the 127,000 items in the Survey's library and current statistics compiled by the Bureau of Mines on worldwide mineral production and use of more than 100 commodities. The staff has mineral experts to help customers.

293

Mineral Industry Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Surveys Mineral Industry Survey's Web site provides "periodic on-line statistical and economic publications designed to provide timely statistical data on production, distribution, stocks, and consumption of significant mineral commodities." Visitors to the site will find an alphabetical listing of minerals that includes everything from Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, and Asbestos, to Zeolite, Zinc, and Zirconium. Once clicked, a brief description of the mineral is provided along with links to yearly information publications as well as special publications such as its historical statistics, other agency links, contact information, and more.

294

USGS: Mineral Resources Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Mineral Resources Program funds science to provide and communicate current, impartial information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources." This website divides the mineral resource information, project descriptions, and products for the United States into four main regional categories: Eastern, Central, Western, and Alaska. Researchers can discover new grant opportunities and can obtain access to the National Geochemical Survey's database. Students and educators can find statistics and information on how the United State's supply-and-demand for minerals and materials affects the economy, security, and environment.

295

Reagan issues mineral policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

296

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter

297

Canadian Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Natural Resources Canada Minerals and Metals Sector, the Canadian Minerals Yearbook Web site provides mineral industry information from 1994 to 2001. Downloadable files from each year include a Year in Review, Reserves of Selected Major Metals, Recent Production Decisions, and a Mineral and Metal Commodity Review. An example of the information provided comes from the 2001 Review: "In 2000, Canadian reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, molybdenum, silver and gold decreased because there were no decisions to bring new mines into production and the amount of new ore discovered at existing mining operations was insufficient to replace the quantity of ore that was mined during the year."

2001-01-01

298

Pulmonary vascular imaging  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

1987-03-01

299

Pulmonary rehabilitation: An overview  

PubMed Central

The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has increased recently in developing countries. On the other hand, structured or non-structured rehabilitation services for COPD patients are not routinely available in these countries. We, therefore, planned this review to re-emphasize the emerging benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD population. Aim of this review is to stimulate pulmonary physicians in India and other resource-poor areas of the world so that they start using pulmonary rehabilitation or its components more often. The search included standard english literature PubMed citation of relevant original articles, review articles and practice guidelines. The articles and reviews were searched including standard MeSH terms – Rehabilitation (TIAB) and pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/therapy (MAJOR) and guidelines (TIAB). Available 58 articles in English including 23 reviews from July 2001 to October 2010 were screened for evidence-based benefits regarding respiratory rehabilitation as a whole or its different components. The cross references and current citations relating to primary articles were also included for description. No attempt was done to make a systematic analysis because our purpose was not to derive evidence-based recommendations from database and because sufficient evidence is already available for benefits of selected components of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. Pulmonary rehabilitation has emerged as an important modality as an adjunct to other therapies in patients of COPD. Limited and more cost-effective protocols are to be developed and executed by healthcare providers, especially in developing countries like India.

Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

2011-01-01

300

Familial Fibrocystic Pulmonary Dysplasia  

PubMed Central

At least 31 cases of familial fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia, within 10 families, have been described in the world literature. The mode of genetic transmission of this disease, however, has been uncertain until now. The author observed three unequivocal and five probable cases of familial fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia among 56 members of one family. Diagnostic criteria included progressive dyspnea and cyanosis, digital clubbing, pulmonary hypertension, negative sweat tests, polycythemia, arterial hypoxia and hypocapnia, chest radiographs showing diffuse bilateral pulmonary fibrosis, and diffuse fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia at postmortem examination (two cases). Among the three unequivocal cases one father-to-son transmission was observed. Non-sex-linked dominant transmission of familial fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia is thereby proved for the first time. One patient also developed a bronchial carcinoma in addition to fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia; this is considered to be a cause-and-effect relationship and not a coincidental complication. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11

Koch, Bernd

1965-01-01

301

Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis.  

PubMed

Minute pulmonary meningothelial nodules are rare lesions histologically composed of small nests of epithelioid cells located within the interstitium of the lung. These nodules are generally asymptomatic and are usually found incidentally at autopsy or in surgical specimens resected for unrelated causes. The lesions are most often single, although multiple lesions with unilateral involvement of one or even all lobes of the same lung have been described. To our knowledge, cases of meningothelial nodules with disseminated bilateral pulmonary involvement associated with clinical symptoms of restrictive pulmonary disease and radiologic evidence of diffuse reticulonodular pulmonary infiltrates have not been previously documented. We have studied 5 patients presenting with diffuse bilateral pulmonary involvement by numerous minute pulmonary meningothelial nodules. The patients were 4 women and a man aged 54 to 75 years who presented clinically with dyspnea and shortness of breath and the lesions were discovered on open lung biopsies performed for the evaluation of diffuse bilateral interstitial lung infiltrates found on chest x-rays and computed tomography scans. In 3 patients, there was a previous history of malignancy and the radiologic findings were suspected of representing diffuse metastatic disease. Histologically, the lesions were composed of small clusters of epithelioid cells with round to oval nuclei devoid of atypia and surrounded by abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical studies showed positivity of the tumor cells for epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin, and negative staining for cytokeratin, actin, S-100 protein, CD34, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. Electron microscopic examination in 1 case confirmed the ultrastructural features of meningothelial cells, including complex cytoplasmic interdigitations joined by well-developed desmosomes and abundant intracytoplasmic intermediate filaments. The diffuse bilateral involvement of lung parenchyma in the present cases can lead to confusion on clinical and radiologic grounds with a variety of interstitial pulmonary processes, including idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and lymphangitis carcinomatosa. Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis should be considered in the clinical differential diagnosis of diffuse interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. PMID:17414111

Suster, Saul; Moran, Cesar A

2007-04-01

302

Pulmonary disorders in athletes.  

PubMed

Exercise is rarely limited by pulmonary causes in normal individuals. Cardiac output and peripheral muscle disease are usually the limiting factors. Although minute ventilation rises steeply during exercise, normal individuals maintain a substantial breathing reserve. Exercise in patients, however, can be limited by pulmonary disorders. Acute pulmonary causes (exercise-induced bronchospasm, vocal cord dysfunction, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and exercise-induced urticaria) or chronic disorders (obstructive and restrictive lung disorders) reduce exercise tolerance. Exercise testing has proved the mainstay for diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:21658546

Weder, Max M; Truwit, Jonathon D

2011-07-01

303

Ureteric and pulmonary endometriosis.  

PubMed

Pulmonary lesions and ureter involvement are rare complications of endometriosis. We describe the first case with an involvement of both sites in this condition. The radiographs showed "pulmonary metastases" together with clinical findings of a hydronephrosis, mimicing a malignant metastatic gynecologic tumor of unknown primary. A laparoscopy showed severe endometriotic lesions; therefore the findings were most likely related to the condition of endometriosis. The patient was treated with gosereline acetate for six months (Zoladex). Control radiographs showed complete regression of the pulmonary lesions and the patient is symptom free at 36 months after diagnosis. PMID:11561747

Ludwig, M; Bauer, O; Wiedemann, G J; Diedrich, K

2001-08-01

304

[Precapillary pulmonary hypertension: effect of Captopril].  

PubMed

The immediate and sustained haemodynamic effects of Captopril (CPT), an oral inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, were studied in six patients (pts) with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) (pulmonary artery pressure: mean +/- SD value = 57 +/- 20 mmHg). Two pts had primary PH, 2 embolic PH and 2 Eisenmenger Physiology (EP). Administration of 100 mg of CPT in a single oral dose produced a significant decrease only in systemic arterial pressure (SAP) (p less than 0.025) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (p less than 0.05) in 5 of 6 pts. Heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), pulmonary arterial (PAP), pulmonary wedge (PWP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) did not change significantly. These results were confirmed in a repeat haemodynamic study after 4 months of long-term treatment with 50 or 100 mg of CPT 3 times daily. In 1 pt with EP and severe congestive heart failure (CHF) the same chronic treatment produced a marked decrease in HR (from 114 to 88 b/min), RAP (from 10 to 1 mmHg), PWP (from 15 to 6 mmHg), PVR (from 41 to 30 UR), SVR (from 58 to 43 UR). Systemic CI increased from 1.68 to 2.60 l/min/m2 and pulmonary CI from 1.64 to 2.5 l/min/m2; no changes were seen in PAP and SAP. These data suggest that CPT is not effective on pulmonary haemodynamics in pts with precapillary PH and normal CI whereas the drug seems to influence favourably the pulmonary circulation in pts with PH secondary to or associated with left ventricular failure. The necessity of evaluating not only PVR but PAP as well, in studying the effect of vasodilators especially in pts with precapillary PH and normal CI, is discussed. In fact a reduction of PAR without decrease of PAP, as frequently seen in previous reports, is probably due to a primary increase of CI induced by the drug. PMID:6761221

Sanguinetti, M; Galiè, N; Magelli, C; Orselli, L; Magnani, B

1982-01-01

305

Chemical differences between minerals from mineralizing and barren intrusions from some North American porphyry copper deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major-element analyses (by electron microprobe) and copper contents (by ion-probe) are reported for primary biotite, amphibole, magnetite, pyroxene, ilmenite, sphene and secondary biotite from intrusive rocks from mineralizing and barren stocks. The districts studied include Christmas, Globe-Miami, Sierrita and Tombstone, in Arizona; Bingham and Alta, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Brenda, British Columbia. Amphiboles from barren rocks are relatively iron-rich and display only minor compositional variation. In contrast, amphiboles from mineralizing rocks span the range from magnesio-hornblende to actinolite, commonly even within one grain. Barren intrusions (type B) that are temporally distinct from mineralizing intrusions, and barren intrusions outside areas of known mineralization have higher Cu contents in their constituent minerals than do mineralizing intrusions. Barren intrusions (type A) that are deep-level temporal equivalents of Cu-bearing porphyritic rocks are depleted in copper. This suggests that copper is abstracted from not only the apical portions of porphyries but from parts of the deeper parent intrusions. The Cu contents of biotites (av. 23 ppm) and magnetites (97 ppm) from barren type B intrusions contrast with those from mineralizing intrusions, with biotites containing 7 ppm Cu and magnetites 3 ppm Cu. Primary amphiboles from all intrusive rock types have low copper contents, typically 2 to 5 ppm. In the continental North American deposits, the amount of copper available by liberation from or non-incorporation into amphibole, biotite and magnetite during magmatic crystallization or the early hydrothermal stage is low, perhaps too low to be the sole source of copper mineralization, unless copper is abstracted from large volumes (˜ 100 km3) of rock. These results contrast with a study of the island-arc porphyry copper at Koloula, Guadalcanal, where it was argued that sufficient copper for mineralization could have been abstracted from relatively small volumes of host rocks that originally contained as much Cu as the contemporaneous barren rock types.

Hendry, D. A. F.; Chivas, A. R.; Long, J. V. P.; Reed, S. J. B.

1985-05-01

306

PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

Graham, Ms.

2011-10-13

307

Digging into Minnesota Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

308

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

309

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position

Lyday

1990-01-01

310

Rocks & Mineral Solitaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a solitaire game designed to help students identify rocks and minerals. The card game would be used by the students after class discussions about rock/mineral categories and classifications. Several sets of the card game, managed by the teacher, would be available for the students. The cards could be used both during and after class.

Catania, Andrea J.; Education, San D.

311

Mineral Spirits Purification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses a process for purifying mineral spirits which have been used to clean Otto Fuel II propelled torpedoes by heating the mineral spirits to decompose 1,2-propanediol dinitrate and remove hydrogen cyandide and other gaseous d...

D. R. Knudsen S. L. Collignon

1987-01-01

312

Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

2007-01-01

313

What is a Mineral?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), gives a description of minerals and the growth of crystals. The site offers various links with examples of different compositions and classifications of common minerals. The site provides three different levels of explanation--beginner, intermediate, and advanced.

2008-08-04

314

Minerals, Crystals and Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.

315

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color poster shows how we use minerals in our everyday life. It depicts common household items (furniture, appliances, plumbing fixtures, personal products, etc.) which are keyed by number to short descriptions that provide information on the minerals used in the manufacture of these items.

Galloway, John P.; Frank, Dave; Weathers, Judy

2010-10-08

316

VITAMINS AND MINERALS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Specify key vitamins and minerals and their functions. . DATES: You can begin this activity on May 21. You should complete it by May 25. OBJECTIVE: A healthy body needs vitamins and minerals. You\\'ve probably heard these words before, but do you really know what they mean? This activity will help you better understand the ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-05

317

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rapidly progressive and deadly disease, resulting from incomplete resolution of acute pulmonary embolism. Historically, the incidence of CTEPH was significantly underestimated but it may be as high as 3.8% following acute pulmonary embolism. Although the medical management of CTEPH may be supportive, the only curative treatment is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). However, a careful screening programme is mandatory to select CTEPH patients who are likely to benefit from PEA. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic pitfalls, surgical treatment, outcome after surgery, and the potential benefit of medical treatment in inoperable CTEPH patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

Reesink, H.J.; Kloek, J.J.; Bresser, P.

2006-01-01

318

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

PFTs; Spirometry; Spirogram; Lung function tests ... Pulmonary function tests are done to: Diagnose certain types of lung disease (such as asthma , bronchitis , and emphysema) Find the cause of shortness of breath Measure whether exposure ...

319

Defining Pulmonary Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

PULMONARY FIBROSIS (PF) DESCRIBES A CONDITION in which the lung tissue becomes thickened, stiff, and scarred. 1 The medical terminology used to describe this scar tissue is fibrosis. The alveoli (air sacs) and the blood vessels ...

320

Pulmonary Venous Blood Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulsatile characteristics of blood flow in major pulmonary veins were determined from chronically implanted dogs. From these data, five distinct positive flow maxima or waves are proposed to describe the variety of waveforms observed over a cardiac cycle....

E. Kinnen A. J. Stankus

1968-01-01

321

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)  

MedlinePLUS

... FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite Outbreak of Hantavirus Infection in Yosemite National Park As of November ... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ...

322

Pulmonary ventilation during hemodialysis.  

PubMed

During hemodialysis a decrease in pulmonary ventilation has been reported. The elimination of CO2 across the dialyzer has been suggested as the cause of the pulmonary hypoventilation. Our purpose was to analyze the factors that could have influenced the pulmonary ventilation of 7 patients with chronic renal failure during hemodialysis, performed against an acetate dialysate with constant addition of CO2, bubbling into the dialysis bath. In spite of the large volume of CO2 mainly as bicarbonate, eliminated across the dialyzer there was no significant decrease of ventilation. The values of pH in the venous line were extremely low and the values of PvCO2 were artificially maintained around 35.0 mm Hg. Thus, the total CO2 delivered to the lungs, but mainly the levels of pH and PCO2 in the venous line play an important role in the control of pulmonary ventilation of these patients. PMID:6817152

Romaldini, H; Stabile, C; Faro, S; Lopes Dos Santos, M; Ramos, O L; Ratto, O R

1982-01-01

323

Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

NONE

1993-12-31

324

Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

Not Available

1983-01-01

325

Lung scan perfusion defects limited to matching pleural effusions: low probability of pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

Patients with a new pleural effusion are often sent for a ventilation-perfusion scan to exclude a pulmonary embolism. This retrospective study assessed the probability of pulmonary embolism when a pleural effusion and a perfusion defect of similar size are the only significant imaging abnormalities. In 451 reports of patients who were scanned for suspected pulmonary embolism, 53 had perfusion defects secondary to pleural effusion without other significant perfusion defects. Using pulmonary angiography, venography, analysis of pleural fluid, clinical course, and other radiographic and laboratory studies to establish the final diagnosis, only two patients had documented venous thrombotic disease: one had pulmonary emboli, the other thrombophlebitis. Lung scans having significant perfusion defects limited to pleural effusions and matching them in size have a low probability for pulmonary embolism.

Bedont, R.A.; Datz, F.L.

1985-12-01

326

Pharmacotherapy of Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. While it can occur idiopathically, it is more commonly associated with other cardiac or lung diseases. While most of the available therapies were tested in adult populations, and most therapies in children remain off-label, new reports and randomized trials are emerging that inform the treatment of pediatric populations. This review discusses currently available therapies for pediatric pulmonary hypertension, their biologic rationales, and evidence for their clinical effectiveness.

Steinhorn, Robin H.

2012-01-01

327

Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary embolism (PE)is a relevant clinical occurrence. Despite advances in diagnostic modalities,PE remains a commonly\\u000a under diagnosed and lethal disease. In North America it has been reported that the occurrence of 600 000 PE cases are accountable\\u000a for 50 000 to 200 000 deaths annually [1–4 ]. Unexpected deaths due to pulmonary embolism are frequently diagnosed post mortem. When diagnosis

R. G. G. Terzi; M. Mello Moreira

328

[Pulmonary allergic reactions].  

PubMed

Allergic diseases of the lungs may affect the airways, the pulmonary parenchyma and the pulmonary vessels. The most relevant representatives are allergic asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and the Churg-Strauss syndrome. The type of allergic reaction and the pathophysiological consequences vary considerably between these entities. New drugs target specific mechanisms based on new insights into the pathogenetic processes of the underlying disease. PMID:22806148

Koczulla, A R; Beutel, B; Greulich, T; Jerrentrup, A; Vogelmeier, C

2012-08-01

329

Pulmonary Mycobacterium szulgai infection.  

PubMed

There has been an increase in the number of pulmonary infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the non HIV-infected population with a heightened awareness clinically and in the laboratory of the significance of these respiratory isolates and newer identification techniques. As far as we are aware, this is the first case report of pulmonary Mycobacteium szulgai infection in Ireland. PMID:23155916

McSweeney, F G B; O'Brien, M E; Sheehan, S; Plant, B; Corcoran, G

2012-09-01

330

Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart dysfunction that results from chronic thromboembolic involvement of the pulmonary\\u000a vascular bed is potentially curable with surgical endarterectomy. Over the past several decades, growing clinical experience\\u000a has brought about increased recognition of this treatable form of PH. Moreover, advances in cardiothoracic surgical techniques\\u000a have given an increasing number of patients with chronic

Lara M. Wittine; William R. Auger

2010-01-01

331

Arginase and pulmonary diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that arginase, which converts l-arginine into l-ornithine and urea, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. In asthma, chronic obstructive\\u000a pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis, increased arginase activity in the airways may contribute to obstruction and\\u000a hyperresponsiveness of the airways by inducing a reduction in the production of bronchodilatory nitric

Harm Maarsingh; Tonio Pera; Herman Meurs

2008-01-01

332

Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A 21-year-old man presented to hospital with a two-month history of productive cough with no other symptoms. Radiology revealed a cavitating lesion in the left upper lobe for which a variety of diagnoses were considered. A biopsy revealed primary pulmonary Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin’s lymphoma is an uncommon initial presentation; lung lesions usually occur later in the course of the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient began chemotherapy and full remission was achieved.

Lluch-Garcia, R; Briones-Gomez, A; Castellano, E Monzo; Sanchez-Toril, F; Lopez, A; Brotons, B

2010-01-01

333

Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Emphysema  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary rehabilitation is an established treatment for patients with chronic lung disease. Benefits include improvement in exercise tolerance, symptoms, and quality of life, with a reduction in the use of health care resources. As an adjunct to surgical programs, such as lung volume reduction surgery, pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important role not just in preparing patients for surgery and facilitating recovery but also in selecting patients and ensuring informed choices about treatment options after optimal medical care. In the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), subjects completed 6–10 weeks of comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation before randomization and continued rehabilitation throughout the trial, both at home and with intermittent supervision at either an NETT center or an NETT-certified satellite center. Sessions included a combination of upper and lower extremity exercise, education, and psychosocial support. Before randomization, pulmonary rehabilitation resulted in highly significant changes in exercise capacity, dyspnea, and quality of life. As expected, improvements were significantly greater in those without prior rehabilitation experience. Results for patients completing rehabilitation at satellites were similar to those at NETT centers. Prerandomization pulmonary rehabilitation had a significant effect on outcome after lung volume reduction surgery. NETT identified subgroups with differential outcome by treatment (surgical vs. nonsurgical), defined in part by postrehabilitation maximum exercise capacity. Overall, NETT demonstrated the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in improving function, symptoms, and health status in a large cohort of patients with advanced emphysema treated in a cross-section of programs in the United States.

Ries, Andrew L.; Make, Barry J.; Reilly, John J.

2008-01-01

334

Biological Control on Mineral Transformation in Soils ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of primary minerals is commonly linked to biological processes through the production of carbonic and organic acids. Plants can also play a role in weathering by removing soluble constituents and enhancing diffusion gradients within the soil. Here we investigate the synthesis of secondary minerals and the role of plants in removing elements that act as building blocks for these minerals. In order to minimize losses from leaching, we have sampled a chronosequence of soils forming on lava flows on Hawaii Island that receive about 200 mm of rain annually and have never been subjected to high levels of rainfall. The P concentration in the soils drops from almost 3000 mg/kg on a 1.5 ky lava flow to around 1000 mg/kg on a 350 ky lava flow. This loss of P can only be ascribed to P-uptake by plants with subsequent removal through the loss of above ground biomass through fire and/or wind removal. Over the same time frame the amount of plagioclase in the soils drops from around 22% of the <2 mm soil fraction on the youngest lava flow to virtually 0% on the 350 ky flow, suggesting a substantial release of Si. Elevated silicon in arid, basaltic soil environments often leads to formation of smectite, a feature not observed along the chronosequence. In fact, plagioclase is replaced by the kaolin mineral halloysite with allophane as an apparent precursor. Kaolin minerals are associated with moderate to intense leaching environments rather than the mild leaching conditions that influence these soils. We selected an intermediate age soil profile (170 ky lava flow) to conduct an in-depth investigation of the soil mineral composition. We detected a strong dominance of halloysite, the presence of gibbsite, but no smectite. Secondary halloysite formation is preferred over smectite formation when Si activities are relatively low, and the pH is acidic rather than alkaline. Although this mineral assemblage seems to imply formation under a wetter climatic regime, the oxygen isotopic composition of the halloysite suggests formation under soil environmental conditions similar to the present. The Si concentration in grass and tree leaves in the vicinity of the soil contain between 3 and 8% Si. Loss of these leaves to the nearby ocean (either as dried or burned residue) could be responsible for considerable Si removal in a manner similar to the P-removal. The resulting Si-deficient soil-water favors the formation of halloysite over smectite as is demonstrated by construction of mineral stability diagrams using the soil-water data from the soils along the chronosequence.

Ziegler, K.; Hsieh, J. C.; Chadwick, O. A.; Kelly, E. F.

2001-12-01

335

Vitamins and Minerals during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... once in a 24 hour period. Vitamins and minerals during pregnancy Vitamins and minerals help give your body the nutrients it needs ... for some people to get enough vitamins and minerals in their foods. They may need to take ...

336

Thromboembolism in pulmonary artery sarcoma.  

PubMed

Pulmonary artery sarcoma, although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. Clinically and radiologically, it may imitate pulmonary embolism, making diagnosis difficult and delaying treatment. Patients often have no symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. Visualization of filling defects within a pulmonary artery on contrast-enhanced CT cannot reliably differentiate between pulmonary thromboembolism and malignant lesions like leiomyosarcoma. FDG PET-CT offers the potential for identification of malignant lesions. The authors report a case with pulmonary artery thromboembolism due to thrombi formed on a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Integrated FDG PET-CT showed no FDG-uptake along the major part of the filling defect within the right main pulmonary artery suggesting blood clot and increased uptake along the posterior wall of the right main pulmonary artery and the left lower lobar artery suggesting malignancy. PMID:19300057

Farsad, Mohsen; Pernter, Patrizia; Triani, Antonio; Osele, Luzian; Wiedermann, Christian J

2009-04-01

337

Secondary syphilis: uncommon manifestations of a common disease.  

PubMed

Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. PMID:6702190

McPhee, S J

1984-01-01

338

Mineral facilities of Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

2010-01-01

339

Bronchiectasis due to pulmonary artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare entity. We report what we believe to be the first case of bronchiectasis resulting from a PAA, which in turn developed after a previous Senning procedure for transposition of the great vessels during infancy. The patient had bronchiectasis secondary to compression of the left main bronchus because of a PAA. Bronchiectasis is a condition indicating lung resection. Despite the patient receiving medical therapy to treat recurrent pneumonia, lobectomy was necessary to prevent this and other possible complications. PMID:23442938

Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Cerezo Madueño, Francisco; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

2013-02-26

340

Rivaroxaban for the treatment of pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

With the advent of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for the treatment of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE), a new era of oral anticoagulation for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) has begun. Rivaroxaban is the first NOAC to receive regulatory approval for the acute and continued treatment of DVT and PE, and for the secondary prevention of VTE. Here, the clinical trials of rivaroxaban in patients with VTE are reviewed, and the clinical use of rivaroxaban for patients with PE is discussed. Even though rivaroxaban will facilitate the therapeutic management of PE, its use in specific clinical situations needs further study. PMID:23807375

Vanassche, Thomas; Verhamme, Peter

2013-06-27

341

BAM R46: Mineral Oil  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM). -. BAM R46: Mineral Oil. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R46 Mineral Oil. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

342

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2012-10-01

343

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2011-10-01

344

Digging into Minnesota Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digging into Minnesota Minerals Web site is part of the larger Minnesota State Department of Natural Resources site. These fun and interesting pages explain how Minnesota came to acquire its most common minerals over geologic time, what the basic types of rocks are, mining history of the state, the geology found in state parks, and much more. Included are basic descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and even educational activities for teachers related to the minerals. This well-designed site would be a great addition to any grade school or high school science curriculum.

345

The Density of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to measure the density of various minerals. The activity will reinforce the usefulness of density as a physical test for identification of minerals. Using a selection of mineral specimens of varying densities, they will weigh each one in air, immerse it in a graduated cylinder of water, and measure the amount of water displaced by the specimen. Dividing the weight of the specimen by the volume of displaced water yields the density of the specimen. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

346

Chemical differences between minerals from mineralizing and barren intrusions from some North American porphyry copper deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major-element analyses (by electron microprobe) and copper contents (by ion-probe) are reported for primary biotite, amphibole, magnetite, pyroxene, ilmenite, sphene and secondary biotite from intrusive rocks from mineralizing and barren stocks. The districts studied include Christmas, Globe-Miami, Sierrita and Tombstone, in Arizona; Bingham and Alta, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Brenda, British Columbia. Amphiboles from barren rocks are relatively iron-rich and

D. A. F. Hendry; A. R. Chivas; J. V. P. Long; S. J. B. Reed

1985-01-01

347

Ventilation-perfusion mismatch due to obstruction of pulmonary vein  

SciTech Connect

A lobar perfusion defect in the presence of a normal arterial phase in the pulmonary angiogram may be due to stasis secondary to compression of a pulmonary vein by a hilar or perhilar mass. In this report we present a patient with metastasis to the right lung and hilum by malignant melanoma. A lobar perfusion defect was present in an area of lung that appeared normal by radiograph. This defect was shown to be due to stagnating blood flow reflected by delayed intense capillary phase in that lobe and late opacification of the corresponding draining vein.

Mendelson, D.S.; Train, J.S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Efremidis, S.C.

1981-12-01

348

Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Bates, Albion M.

2010-01-23

349

Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

Not Available

1984-01-01

350

Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

Not Available

1984-01-01

351

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

352

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

353

Private Mineral Gallery Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students make and display posters of the mineral they researched throughout the semester. The instructor and TA review the posters while students answer questions as they walk around and examine each other's posters.

Perkins, Dexter

354

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California ...

P. A. Lyday

1990-01-01

355

Minerals Yearbook 1990: Boron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals increased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California ...

P. A. Lyday

1991-01-01

356

Minerals Yearbook, 1993: Boron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals increased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to borosilicate glass, textile-grade glass fibers, and agriculture. California was...

P. A. Lyday

1994-01-01

357

Calcium Carbonate Mineralization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of ion transport across mineralizing epithelia of barnacles, in particular to quantify the effects of altered protein structure on crystal form and arrangement and the effects of the mol...

K. M. Wilbur A. LeFurgey

1995-01-01

358

Mineral Oil Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An isobutylene/dialkyl fumarate copolymer incorporated in mineral oils as a viscosity index improver and pour point depressant has improved hydrolysis stability in the presence of barium and other basic detergent additives. Low-temperature detergency is e...

J. E. Fields J. H. Johnson

1965-01-01

359

Characterization Lithium Mineralized Pegmatite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana d...

E. F. S. Pereira O. Luz Ferreira R. Z. L. Cancado J. Mauricio Neto

1986-01-01

360

Clinical case: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with pulmonary hypertension - clinical management  

PubMed Central

Background Combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with pulmonary emphysema (CPFE) is a syndrome with a characteristic presentation of upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. While CPFE is a strong determinant of secondary precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH), there is limited evidence regarding the management of patients with CPFE and PH. Case presentation A 63 year-old male presented in 2006 with dyspnoea on exertion having quit smoking in 2003. Clinical examination, together with high resolution computed tomography, bronchoalveolar lavage, and echocardiographic assessments, suggested a diagnosis of CPFE without PH. In 2007, the patient received intravenous cyclophosphamide, N-acetylcysteine, and short-term anticoagulation treatment. Due to remission of acute exacerbations, the patient received triple combination therapy (prednisone, N-acetylcysteine and azathioprine). Upon progressive clinical worsening, long-term supplemental oxygen therapy was initiated in 2009. Repeated right heart catheterisation in 2011 confirmed PH and worsening pulmonary haemodynamics, and off-label ambrisentan therapy was initiated. Dyspnoea remained at follow-up, although significant haemodynamic improvement was observed. Conclusion CFPE is a distinct but under-recognized and common syndrome with a characteristic presentation. Further studies are needed to ascertain the etiology, morbidity, and mortality of CPEF with or without PH, and to evaluate novel management options.

2013-01-01

361

Pulmonary Hypertension in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive diffuse parenchymal disease with a poor prognosis. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often complicates the course of IPF and may even be found in patients with preserved lung function. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms of PH in IPF include vascular destruction, pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling due to overexpression of cytokines and growth factors. PH in

Georgia Pitsiou; Despina Papakosta; Demosthenes Bouros

2011-01-01

362

Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals  

SciTech Connect

The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

Not Available

1989-01-01

363

Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like compounds (choline). Recent investigations with multi-ingredient formulas are especially

Bonnie J. Kaplan; Susan G. Crawford; Catherine J. Field; J. Steven A. Simpson

2007-01-01

364

Solid Mineral Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nigeria as a nation is blessed with abundant solid mineral resources distributed fairly in all the states of the federation\\u000a (Fig. 10.1; Table 10.1). According to reports by the Geological Survey of Nigeria Agency, Nigeria has some 34 known major\\u000a mineral deposits distributed in locations across the country and offers considerable attraction for investors. Exploration\\u000a in Nigeria for several solid

Nuhu Obaje

365

[Synthetic mineral fibers].  

PubMed

The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (< or = 3-3.5 microns) and the length of the fibres (< 100 microns), their biopersistence, which is much shorter for man-made mineral fibres than for asbestos fibres, their physicochemical structure and surface properties, and the exposure level. The chemical composition of the various types of man-made mineral fibres depends directly on the raw material used to manufacture them. While naturally occurring fibres are crystalline in structure, most man-made mineral fibres are amorphous silicates combined with various metal oxides and additives. Observations using intracavitary administration have provided evidence that some types of man-made mineral fibres are bioactive in cellular and animal experiments and may induce lung tumours and mesothelioma. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies show more realistic results but differences are observed between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumours. There is no firm evidence that exposure to various wools is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. A possible exception may be mentioned for refractory ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are insufficient at this time concerning neoplastic diseases in refractory ceramic fibres. PMID:10231901

Boillat, M A

1999-03-27

366

Fluorescent minerals, a review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

Modreski, P. J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

1996-01-01

367

[Recovered water mineralization technique].  

PubMed

The possibility to mineralize water by metering out concentrated salt solutions in the amounts necessary to bring it to within the potable water standards with intermediate exchange of chlorine ions for bicarbonate-ions has been demonstrated. The proposed technique ensures physiological quality and stability of recovered water mineralized with solutions of inorganic salts. Stability of concentrated salt solutions kept in metering syringes and potable water was evaluated. Organoleptic tests of resultant potable water were conducted. PMID:11840873

Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Berezkin, S V; Kurochkin, M G; Skuratov, V M

2001-01-01

368

Gems and Gem Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of a Gem and Minerals class at the University of Texas. The course objectives are to explore the following topics: what are gems and minerals, methods of identification, physical and optical propoerties, crystallography and optics, lapidary arts, the geology of major gem localities, and the value of gems. The site offers access to the course syllabus, handouts, exams with interactive answer-checking, and reference material for common gems.

369

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium  

SciTech Connect

The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine, compound, or metal, depending upon the end use. Most lithium compounds were consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum.

Ober, J.A.

1989-01-01

370

Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron  

SciTech Connect

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

Lyday, P.A.

1988-01-01

371

Iron oxide modified minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of iron oxide nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of various clay mineral matrices (muscovite, montmorillonite\\u000a and vermiculite) have been prepared by the alkaline oxidative hydrolysis of iron sulphate in the presence of mineral matrices.\\u000a The composites have been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM and SQUID. Correspondence between the hyperfine parameters\\u000a and the iron oxide particle size and magnetic

M. Mashlan; H. Bartonkova; D. Jancik; J. Tucek; P. Martinec

372

Iron oxide modified minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of iron oxide nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of various clay mineral matrices (muscovite, montmorillonite\\u000a and vermiculite) have been prepared by the alkaline oxidative hydrolysis of iron sulphate in the presence of mineral matrices.\\u000a The composites have been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM and SQUID. Correspondence between the hyperfine parameters\\u000a and the iron oxide particle size and magnetic

M. Mashlan; H. Bartonkova; D. Jancik; J. Tucek; P. Martinec

2009-01-01

373

Pulmonary Pathophysiology of Fat Embolism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case is reported of a 22-year-old white male with pulmonary fat embolism. Tests were performed to determine the associated pulmonary dysfunction. These demonstrated severe hyperventilation, a large alveolar-arterial gradient for oxygen, physiologic righ...

D. Forsyth L. Wiener

1964-01-01

374

Pulmonary Sarcoidosis: I. Pathophysiologic Correlations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-four patients with clinical and histologically proved sarcoidosis without other pulmonary disease were studied with chest roentgenograms, pulmonary function studies, and percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung. The conclusions drawn fell into three ...

R. L. Young R. E. Lordon R. A. Krumholz L. E. Harkleroad G. E. Branam

1967-01-01

375

Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... cirrhosis. How does liver disease relate to pulmonary hypertension? Liver disease can cause what is known as “ ... provide them with the best PH care. Pulmonary Hypertension: A Patient’s Survival Guide: This extraordinary 300+ page ...

376

Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor recently told me that I have pulmonary hypertension, and also asked me if I had ever ... provide them with the best PH care. Pulmonary Hypertension: A Patient’s Survival Guide: This extraordinary 300+ page ...

377

Noninvasive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The noninvasive nature of diagnosing pulmonary embolism was investigated along two different lines: labeling of platelets with indium-111-oxine as a tracer to identify pulmonary emboli by gamma camera imaging (hot spot imaging) and by determination of pla...

A. A. Sasahara

1981-01-01

378

Pulmonary Function in Normal Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulmonary function tests (pfts) often are used in both humans and small animal species as physiologic biomarkers of pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of toxic atmospheres. Physiologic biomarkers, used in conjunction with histopathological and bio...

G. S. Whitehead E. C. Kimmel J. E. Reboulet K. R. Still

1999-01-01

379

Lung Imaging in Pulmonary Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although it has been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol in...

G. V. Taplin S. K. Chopra

1976-01-01

380

How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed? Pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed based on your medical history, a ... emergency room often are the ones to diagnose PE with the help of a radiologist. A radiologist ...

381

Chemical processing does not always impair heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral dust particles are the most abundant heterogeneous ice nuclei in the atmosphere. They also frequently become mixed with secondary material during atmospheric transport. The effect that such atmospheric processing has on the ice nucleation properties of dust particles remains under investigation. We have studied changes in the ice nucleation ability of various mineral dust sources after exposure to nitric

R. C. Sullivan; P. J. Demott; A. J. Prenni; L. Minambres; S. M. Kreidenweis; O. Moehler

2010-01-01

382

Impact of Process and Energy Efficiency in Mineral Processing on Abatement of Carbon Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral processing industry is facing tough challenges regarding abatement of carbon emissions, the use of water and energy. Mine activities requires bulk material handling, mineral ore transportation with haul trucks and machinery with important use of diesel fuel that produce direct emissions while plant operations have an intensive use of electrical energy with important indirect emissions. Based on available secondary

Jorge Pontt; Juan Yianatos; Luis Bergh; Waldo Valderrama; Fernando Rojas; Manuel Olivares; Hernán Robles; Manuel López

2010-01-01

383

Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

NONE

1993-12-31

384

Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

NONE

1994-12-31

385

Echocardiography in Pulmonary Vascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will focus on the principles and uses of the Doppler echocardiography (DE) examination in patients with pulmonary\\u000a vascular disease (PVD). That is, patients who have pulmonary hypertension that is related to a marked increase in the pulmonary\\u000a vascular resistance (PVR) and loss of large pulmonary artery (PA) compliance. We will also address the role of DE in the

Paul R. Forfia

386

Pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis affects the lungs in more than 90% of cases. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, and chest pain. The entire respiratory tract can be involved. The most common areas of involvement are the airways and interstitium. Airway disease can lead to airway obstruction while interstitial lung disease can lead to restrictive disease. Patients may have a mix of these areas of involvement. For the symptomatic patient, the identification of disease involvement can usually be determined by pulmonary function testing and chest imaging. The chest X-ray staging system has been widely used in sarcoidosis, high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) can provide detailed information regarding lung involvement. Unfortunately the various patterns seen on HRCT have limited the ability to develop a simple scoring system. Special studies such as bronchoscopy can be useful for detecting large airway disease. Other chest manifestations include adenopathy, pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary muscle weakness. Fibrotic lung disease can lead to bronchiectasis, which can become infected. PMID:22579234

Baughman, Robert P; Lower, Elyse E; Gibson, Kevin

2012-05-10

387

Modelling pulmonary blood flow  

PubMed Central

Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity.

Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

2008-01-01

388

Modelling pulmonary blood flow.  

PubMed

Computational model analysis has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

Tawhai, Merryn H; Burrowes, Kelly S

2008-03-16

389

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.  

PubMed

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) continues to fascinate cardiopulmonary physiologists and clinicians since its definitive description in 1946. Hypoxic vasoconstriction exists in all vertebrate gas exchanging organs. This fundamental response of the pulmonary vasculature in air breathing animals has relevance to successful fetal transition to air breathing at birth and as a mechanism of ventilation-perfusion matching in health and disease. It is a complex process intrinsic to the vascular smooth muscle, but with in vivo modulation by a host of factors including the vascular endothelium, erythrocytes, pulmonary innervation, circulating hormones and acid-base status to name only a few. This review will provide a broad overview of HPV and its mechansms and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HPV in normal physiology, disease and high altitude. PMID:23795729

Swenson, Erik R

2013-06-01

390

Measuring the Hardness of Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

Bushby, Jessica

2005-01-01

391

Economic MInerals in Geothermal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal resources may carry minerals in water, sinters and precipitates, and in steam. The utilization of these minerals is hampered by a lack of interest on the part of geochemists, by institutional obstacles, and by incomplete data on the quantity and quality of the minerals. The potential of obtaining minerals from geothermal resources is discussed. Nearly all geothermal hot water

Barnea

1979-01-01

392

Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of secondary acid products and ammonium on individual mineral dust particles during ACE-Asia has been measured in real-time using ATOFMS. Changes in the amounts of sulphate, nitrate, and chloride mixed with dust particles corresponded to different air mass source regions. During volcanically influenced periods, dust mixed with sulphate dominated. This rapidly switched to dust predominantly mixed with chloride

R. C. Sullivan; S. A. Guazzotti; D. A. Sodeman; K. A. Prather

2006-01-01

393

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE MINERAL MINING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a multimedia (air, liquid and solid wastes) environmental assessment of the domestic mineral mining industry. The primary objective of the study was to identify the major pollution problems associated with the industry. A secondary objective was to define res...

394

Radiation-associated lung cancer: A comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Microsoft Academic Search

A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure.

C. E. Land; Y. Shimosato; G. Saccomanno; S. Tokuoka; O. Auerbach; R. Tateishi; S. D. Greenberg; S. Nambu; D. Carter; S. Akiba

1993-01-01

395

Physical inactivity and idiopathic pulmonary embolism in women: prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the association between physical inactivity (that is, a sedentary lifestyle) and incident idiopathic pulmonary embolism. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study. Participants 69 950 female nurses who completed biennial questionnaires from 1990 to 2008. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was idiopathic pulmonary embolism confirmed in medical records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models controlled for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, smoking, pack years, race, spouse’s educational attainment, parity, menopause, non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, multivitamin supplements, hypertension, coronary heart disease, rheumatological disease, and dietary patterns. The primary exposure was physical inactivity, measured in hours of sitting each day. The secondary exposure was physical activity, measured in metabolic equivalents a day. Results Over the 18 year study period, there were 268 cases of incident idiopathic pulmonary embolism. There was an association between time of sitting and risk of idiopathic pulmonary embolism (41/104 720 v 16/14 565 cases in most inactive v least inactive in combined data; P<0.001 for trend). The risk of pulmonary embolism was more than twofold in women who spent the most time sitting compared with those who spent the least time sitting (multivariable hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 4.20). There was no association between physical activity and pulmonary embolism (P=0.53 for trend). Conclusions Physical inactivity is associated with incident pulmonary embolism in women. Interventions that decrease time sitting could lower the risk of pulmonary embolism.

2011-01-01

396

Pulmonary hypertension in POEMS syndrome.  

PubMed

POEMS syndrome is a rare clonal plasma cell disease. Patients with POEMS syndrome are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension, but the data on its incidence and impact on outcome are limited. We reviewed records of 154 POEMS syndrome patients with complete duplex echocardiography data for estimation of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP) at the time of diagnosis. Forty-two (27%) of 154 patients with pulmonary hypertension (estimated sPAP ?50 mmHg) were identified. Median age was 46 years (range 31-71 years). Patients with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have peripheral edema (P=0.04), ascites (P=0.02), pleural effusion (P=0.005), and have longer time from onset to diagnosis (P=0.004) when compared with those without pulmonary hypertension. Restrictive abnormalities and decreased diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide were observed in 83% and 96% patients with pulmonary hypertension, compared with 50% and 72% in patients without pulmonary hypertension, respectively. Reversibility of pulmonary hypertension was observed after treatment of POEMS syndrome. After median follow of 32 months, survival of patients with pulmonary hypertension was worse than those without (median overall survival 54 months vs. median not reached, P=0.021). In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension is a common feature of POEMS syndrome, and is associated with signs of extravascular volume overload. Although active treatment of POEMS syndrome can reverse pulmonary hypertension, survival of these patients is worse than those without pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22983590

Li, Jian; Tian, Zhuang; Zheng, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Wei; Duan, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yong-Tai; Cao, Xin-Xin; Zhou, Dao-Bin

2012-09-14

397

Experimental models of pulmonary infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental models of pulmonary infection are being discussed, focused on various aspects of good experimental design, such as choice of animal species and infecting strain, and route of infection\\/inoculation techniques (intranasal inoculation, aerosol inoculation, and direct instillation into the lower respiratory tract). In addition, parameters to monitor pulmonary infection are being reviewed such as general clinical signs, pulmonary-associated signs, complication

Irma A. J. M. Bakker-Woudenberg

2003-01-01

398

Noninvasive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project was to develop a new method for the use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and test its application in an animal model and in patients with pulmonary embolism and other focal pulmonary diseases. The a...

K. B. Sagar T. L. Rhyne

1981-01-01

399

Occurrence of secondary magnetite within biodegraded oil  

SciTech Connect

Samples of solid bitumen from the Thornton Quarry (Illinois) and the Cynthia Quarry (Mississippi) were found to be strongly magnetic and to have rock magnetic properties suggesting that the magnetizable grains present are magnetite. Studies of magnetic isolates revealed that magnetite is present primarily as spherical crystal aggregates that appear identical to magnetite spherules isolated from remagnetized Paleozoic carbonate units from other localities. Organic geochemical analyses of the solid bitumen suggest an origin by microbial attack on what once was liquid crude oil. The occurrence of secondary magnetite as inclusions within solid bitumen suggests a relationship between crude oil biodegradation and development of that mineral in their samples. The authors infer that secondary magnetite in other geologic environments may be related to the presence of hydrocarbons. The discovery of a natural association of secondary magnetite and hydrocarbons has important implications for paleomagnetism and for petroleum exploration.

McCabe, C.; Sassen, R.; Saffer, B.

1987-01-01

400

Schwannoma of the pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

Schwannoma (neurilemmoma) originating from the pulmonary artery has not before been described. A 65 year-old male presented with dyspnoea on exertion. CT scan was negative for pulmonary thromboembolism, but showed a well circumscribed, heterogeneous mass, 52 mm × 45 mm × 41 mm, straddling the left pulmonary artery and compressing the left atrium. The mass was found at surgery to be originating from the lateral wall of the left pulmonary artery. The tumour was completely resected, and the pulmonary artery reconstructed. The mass was found to be a benign schwannoma on histopathology. PMID:22883626

Elstner, Kristen; Granger, Emily; Wilson, Stephanie; Kumaradevan, Nirmala; Chew, Melvin; Harris, Craig

2012-08-09

401

Mineral hydrolysis kinetics  

SciTech Connect

Dissolution rate laws for silicate mineral weathering can be related to kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions. This relation is being tested with an experimental/analytical/theoretical program for measuring the dissolution kinetics of orthosilicate minerals for use in ionic modeling and molecular dynamics computer simulations of solid, aqueous solution, and solid/liquid interface. To date, dissolution rate have been measured for a suite of endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals (both olivine and willemite structures) as well as a few inosilicate minerals (pyroxenes). Dissolution rates appear to correlate well with solvent exchange rates around the hydrated divalent cations. Siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds are relatively unreactive at low pH`s close to zero point of neutral charge for quartz. The correlation suggests that silicic acid would be released from the reacting surfaces after protonation and hydration of bonds between divalent metals and structural oxygens; congruent dissolution is confirmed by Rutherford backscattered analysis of the near-surface of an acid-reacted forsterite. In the ionic modeling, except for liebenbergite, there is a general trend of increasing lattice energy with decreasing dissolution rate for endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals at pH 2. 3 figs, 4 refs.

Westrich, H.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Arnold, G.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casey, W.H. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Land, Air, and Water Resources

1993-07-01

402

Minerals and foreign policy  

SciTech Connect

There is no such thing as a purely domestic or foreign minerals issue. Domestic policies, such as the setting aside of public lands as wilderness regions or enforcement of stringent clean air standards on smelters, may link directly to our world trade and supply position and affect foreign-policy interests. Conversely, economic and political events in far corners of the world may affect whether an American plant will be able to obtain a certain critical industrial or strategic commodity. The State Department attaches importance to a strong domestic-mining sector which can contribute to our defense, economic, and foreign-policy objectives. The Department will continue to give a high priority of nonfuel mineral-supply issues in the conduct of foreign affairs. The inquiry into problems of national minerals policy, which Congressman Santini and others in Congress currently are making in connection with the Presidential non-fuel minerals policy review, has been very helpful. An active and sustained interest by the relevant Congressional committees, in consultation with the Administration, can add significantly to our understanding of minerals issues and can facilitate the implementation of more effective policies to deal with them.

Calingaert, M.

1980-01-01

403

Fluoride and mineralized tissues.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the interaction of fluoride with the material properties of bone and teeth, which is of clinical, scientific, and public health interest. These tissues are composed primarily of collagen (protein) and hydroxyapatite (mineral), and their mechanical function depends on the properties of the constituents, their proportions, the interface, and the three-dimensional structure. Changing any of these may have clinical consequences. Fluoride interacts with mineralized tissues in a number of ways. At low doses, the fluoride may be passively incorporated into the mineral, stabilizing it against dissolution; this is one of the mechanisms by which municipally fluoridated water reduces the incidence of dental caries. At higher doses, such as those used for treatment of osteoporosis, the fluoride may alter the amount and structure of tissue present, including altering the interface between the collagen and mineral. At very high doses, skeletal and dental fluorosis occurs, characterized by debilitating changes in the skeleton and by marked mottling and discoloration of teeth, which may be accompanied by increased wear of the enamel. These effects have been observed in communities where the local drinking water has naturally high fluoride levels. Understanding the influence of fluoride on mineralized tissues is, therefore, of considerable significance. PMID:19740071

Chachra, Debbie; Vieira, Anya P G F; Grynpas, Marc D

2008-01-01

404

Pulmonary Septic Emboli due to Azygos Vein Septic Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

The triad of extrapulmonary infection, contiguous septic vein thrombosis, and septic pulmonary embolism is a rare complex but associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Septic azygos vein thrombosis is extremely rare and potentially serious since it may also cause pulmonary emboli and sudden death. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with history of IV drug abuse who presented with epidural abscess and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. Later she developed signs of septic pulmonary embolism secondary to septic azygos vein thrombosis. With early diagnosis, appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and control of the infectious source, resolution of the illness can be expected for most patients with avoidance of potential complications.

Pradhan, Ginius; Muoneke, Mary; Altaqi, Basel

2013-01-01

405

A rare nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism after vertebroplasty.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is used to treat osteoporotic compression fractures and bone loss due to malignancy. The cement used can serve as a potential nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). An 87-year-old woman with recent L2 vertebroplasty presented with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Thoracoabdominal CT scan revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli associated with a 9 cm cement fragment in the inferior vena cava (IVC) extending proximally from the level of the right superior renal vein, likely secondary to cement leak from the vertebral plexus into the IVC. She refused catheter extraction was managed conservatively. There are 51 reported cases of cement pulmonary embolism. IVC foreign bodies serving as a nidus for PTE have been reported with IVC filters with an incidence of 6.2%. This is the second reported case of vertebroplasty cement serving as a nidus for PTE. Treatment depends on time interval between the procedure and the symptom onset. PMID:24154998

Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Bansal, Ojas; Townley, Theresa A

2013-10-23

406

Scaling of Secondary Craters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secondary craters are common features around fresh planetary-scale primary impact craters throughout most of the Solar System. They derive from the ejection phase of crater formation, thus secondary scaling relations provide constraints on parameters affe...

S. K. Croft

1991-01-01

407

Pleuro-pulmonary amoebiasis  

PubMed Central

Experience with amoebic infestation of the pleural space and the lung in an area where amoebiasis is endemic is described. The manifestations of pleuro-pulmonary amoebiasis are outlined, and, for completeness, a note is added on pericardial amoebiasis and the technique of pericardiocentesis. Images

Le Roux, B. T.

1969-01-01

408

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation, and strongly associated with tobacco smoking, is estimated to cause >2.5 million deaths per year worldwide. Active smokers have more acute exacerbations, which correlate with long-term decline in lung function. The diagnosis, severity assessment and monitoring of COPD rely heavily but not exclusively on spirometry. Smoking cessation reduces exacerbation

S Singh

2003-01-01

409

Solitary Pulmonary Nodule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 150,000 solitary pulmonary nodules are found each year on chest imaging. The major concern of the patient is whether or not the nodule is cancerous. This can typically be difficult to distinguish from a benign cause on imaging studies alone. Characte...

L. Folio R. Johnson

2010-01-01

410

Multiple cystic pulmonary hamartomas.  

PubMed Central

A patient with multiple cystic hamartomas presented with a pneumothorax and later developed a cystic myxomatous vaginal polyp. This and three of the cysts were resected. She remains well 13 years later. Multiple cystic hamartomas are uncommon and may be misdiagnosed as pulmonary metastases. Images

Mushtaq, M; Ward, S P; Hutchison, J T; Mann, J S

1992-01-01

411

Multiple cystic pulmonary hamartomas.  

PubMed

A patient with multiple cystic hamartomas presented with a pneumothorax and later developed a cystic myxomatous vaginal polyp. This and three of the cysts were resected. She remains well 13 years later. Multiple cystic hamartomas are uncommon and may be misdiagnosed as pulmonary metastases. PMID:1494774

Mushtaq, M; Ward, S P; Hutchison, J T; Mann, J S

1992-12-01

412

Massive Pulmonary Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) carries an exceptionally high mortality rate. We explored how often adjunctive therapies, particularly thrombolysis and inferior vena caval (IVC) filter placement, were performed and how these therapies affected the clinical outcome of patients with massive PE. Methods and Results—Among 2392 patients with acute PE and known systolic arterial blood pressure at presentation, from the International

Nils Kucher; Elisa Rossi; Marisa De Rosa; Samuel Z. Goldhaber

2010-01-01

413

Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

Rytuba, J. J.

2003-01-01

414

The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Kearns, Cynthia A.

415

Maneuverable full face miner  

SciTech Connect

A full face miner including a simplified conveying arrangement and designed for easy maneuverability into and out of mine sites. A plow operatively mounted to and longitudinally movable with each of a pair of rotatable cutting heads of the miner provide for the conveyance of cut coal to a middle conveying portion for ultimate transport away from the mine site. The mounting mechanism for the cutting heads is designed so that at least the end portions thereof are movable from a position generally parallel to the mine face to a position generally perpendicular to the mine face and extending in front of and in line with the central conveying means, for ease of withdrawal from the mining area. A motive power source, such as a powered crawler or powered wheels, is provided which is movable into operative engagement with the ground to transport the miner to and from the mining site when in a collapsed position.

Delli-gatti, F. A.; Justice, J. C.

1980-12-16

416

Soil C and N dynamics in primary and secondary seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and size of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and turnover were compared in secondary and primary forests in a seasonally dry tropical region of Mexico. Total soil C and N, microbial biomass C and N, mineral (ammonium and nitrate) N pools and potential mineralization and nitrification were measured in samples collected during the dry and rainy

Vinisa Saynes; Claudia Hidalgo; Jorge D. Etchevers; Julio E. Campo

2005-01-01

417

Microbially mediated mineral carbonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O ? (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily implemented and economically efficient alternative to other technologies currently under development for mineral sequestration. Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC (2008) Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19, 235-240. Ferris FG, Wiese RG, Fyfe WS (1994) Precipitation of carbonate minerals by microorganisms: Implications of silicate weathering and the global carbon dioxide budget. Geomicrobiology Journal, 12, 1-13. Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL, Jr., Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy, 20, 1153-1170. Power IM, Wilson SA, Thom JM, Dipple GM, Gabites JE, Southam G (2009) The hydromagnesite playas of Atlin, British Columbia, Canada: A biogeochemical model for CO2 sequestration. Chemical Geology, 206, 302-316. Thompson JB, Ferris FG (1990) Cyanobacterial precipitation of gypsum, calcite, and magnesite from natural alkaline lake water. Geology, 18, 995-998.

Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

2010-12-01

418

Advancements for continuous miners  

SciTech Connect

Design changes and new technology make the modern continuous miner more user friendly. Two of the major manufacturers, Joy Mining Machinery and DBT, both based near Pittsburgh, PA, USA, have recently acquired other OEMs to offer a greater product line. Joy's biggest development in terms of improving cutting time is the FACEBOSS Control System which has an operator assistance element and Joy Surface Reporting Software (JSRP). Joy's WetHead continuous miners have excellent performance. DBT is researching ways to make the machines more reliable with new drive systems. It has also been experimenting with water sprays to improve dust suppression. 4 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2007-06-15

419

Vitamin/mineral composition  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition comprising Shilajit or an extract thereof in a vitamin and/or mineral preparation. Shilajit is a compact mass of vegetable organic matter, composed of a gummy matrix interspersed with vegetable fibres and minerals. Substances which have been identified in Shilajit include moisture, gums, albuminoids, calcium, potassium, nitrogen, silica, resin, vegetable matter, magnesium, sulphur, iron, chloride, phosphorous, iodine, glycosides, tannic acid, benzoic acid and a number of vitamins and enzymes. The invention further relates to a method to restore energetic balance or intensity, or to support or enhance a bioenergetic field in a mammal comprising administering to a mammal an effective amount of Shilajit or an extract thereof.

Rowland; David (Nobel, CA)

1995-04-11

420

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

SciTech Connect

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

Lyday, P.A.

1990-08-01

421

HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis; relation to pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background Chest-X-ray has several limitations in detecting the extent of pulmonary disease in sarcoidosis. It might not reflect the degree of pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis when compared to computed tomography of the thorax. We aimed to investigate the HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis and to find out the existence of possible relations between HRCT findings and PFTs. In addition, we aimed to investigate the accordance between HRCT findings and conventional chest-X-ray staging of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Method 45 patients with sarcoidosis with a mean age 29.7+/? 8.4 years were evaluated. Six of them were female and 39 were male. The type, distribution and extent of the parameters on HRCT/CTs were evaluated and scored. Chest-X-rays were evaluated for the stage of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Correlations were investigated between HRCT/CT parameter scores, Chest X-Ray stages and pulmonary function parameters. Results Nodule, micronodule, ground glass opacity and consolidation were the most common HRCT findings. There were significant correlations between pulmonary function parameters, HRCT pattern scores, and chest-X-ray stages. A significant correlation between chest-x-ray score and total HRCT score was found. Conclusions Pulmonary sarcoidosis patients might have various pulmonary parenchymal changes on HRCT. Thorax HRCT was superior to chest-X-ray in detecting pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities. The degree of pulmonary involvement might be closely related to the loss of pulmonary function measured by PFTs. Chest-X-ray is considered to have a role in the evaluation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

2013-01-01

422

The effect of risedronate on bone mineralization as measured by micro-computed tomography with synchrotron radiation: Correlation to histomorphometric indices of turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of our study was to determine changes in bone mineralization in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated for 3 years with risedronate or placebo. A secondary goal was to determine the relationship between mineralization and indices of bone turnover measured on the same biopsies. The degree of mineralization was measured by micro-computed tomography using Synchrotron radiation (Synchrotron ?CT) in

Babul Borah; Erik L. Ritman; Thomas E. Dufresne; Steven M. Jorgensen; Sheng Liu; Jarek Sacha; Roger J. Phipps; Russell T. Turner

2005-01-01

423

Minimal-invasive approach to study pulmonary, metabolic and renal responses to alimentary acid-base changes in conscious rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background Systemic acid-base balance is maintained by the complex interplay of renal and pulmonary control functions and metabolic\\u000a adaptations, whereby intake and mineral composition of feed are important factors. Aim of the study It was intended to explore the role of alimentary acid-base load and carbonic anhydrase activity for regulatory responses\\u000a of renal, pulmonary or metabolic origin in rabbits

H. Kiwull-Schöne; H. Kalhoff; F. Manz; L. Diekmann; P. Kiwull

2001-01-01

424

Ice nucleation properties of the most abundant mineral dust phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ice nucleation properties of the nine most abundant minerals occurring in desert aerosols (quartz, albite, microcline, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, calcite, gypsum, and hematite) were investigated by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In this instrument, the pure minerals are exposed to water vapor at variable pressures and temperatures. The crystallization of ice on the mineral particles is observed by secondary electron imaging, and the supersaturation for an activated particle fraction of 1-3% is determined as function of temperature. In all experiments, condensation of water prior to ice formation was not observed within detectable limits, even at water supersaturation. The highest temperatures for 1-3% activation vary between -10°C and -16°C for the nine minerals investigated, and the corresponding onset relative humidities relative to ice RHi between 107 and 117%. Supersaturation temperature curves for initial ice formation (1-3% activation) in the temperature range typical for mixed-phase clouds were measured for all nine minerals. The temperature dependence of the onset relative humidity is strongly dependent on mineralogy. Kaolinite, montmorillonite, and hematite show a strong increase in RHi with decreasing temperature, whereas RHi is almost constant for illite, albite, quartz, and calcite. The highly variable ice nucleation properties of the various mineral dust components should be considered for parameterization schemes. Illite and kaolinite are the most important minerals to consider, as they have high ice nucleation efficiency and are common components of desert aerosols.

Zimmermann, Frank; Weinbruch, Stephan; Schütz, Lothar; Hofmann, Heiko; Ebert, Martin; Kandler, Konrad; Worringen, Annette

2008-12-01

425

The Physical Characteristics of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (an online minerals store), the Physical Characteristics of Minerals Web site offers a detailed description of how minerals are identified. Each page gives good information and examples of a particular characteristic (e.g, color, hardness, cleavage, feel, and taste). Also, on the first page are links to dozens of minerals that are categorized by name, class, interesting groupings, and great localities. These give the class, subclass, group, uses, physical characteristics, and sample photographs of that particular mineral. Anyone interested in geology, minerals, or gemstones will find this site very informative and fun to explore.

1998-01-01

426

The prevalence and significance of a patent foramen ovale in pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

In order to determine the prevalence and significance of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in pulmonary hypertension, 58 patients were studied with transesophageal echocardiography, right-sided heart catheterization, and exercise testing. In order to examine if a PFO might be associated with a better outcome, survival was estimated, based on a formula derived from the National Institutes of Health Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Registry, for the patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). A PFO was found in 26 percent (15 of 58) of all patients studied, 25 percent (10 of 40) of those with PPH, and 28 percent (5 of 18) of those with secondary pulmonary hypertension. We found no significant difference in any hemodynamic variable or exercise tolerance between the patients with and without a PFO, or for subsets of patients with primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. We also found no significant difference in the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-year estimated survival, for the patients with PPH between those with and without a PFO. The prevalence of a PFO in pulmonary hypertension appears similar to the normal population. A PFO provides no detectable influence on resting hemodynamics or exercise tolerance in patients with pulmonary hypertension and is not clearly associated with patients expected to survive longer. PMID:8252939

Nootens, M T; Berarducci, L A; Kaufmann, E; Devries, S; Rich, S

1993-12-01

427

The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease  

PubMed Central

Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A2BR or treatment with the A2BR antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A2BR attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A2BR activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A2BR antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease.—Karmouty-Quintana, H., Zhong, H., Acero, L., Weng, T., Melicoff, E., West, J. D., Hemnes, A., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackwell, T. S., Xia, Y., Johnston, R. A., Zeng, D., Belardinelli, L., Blackburn, M. R. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease.

Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D.; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A.; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R.

2012-01-01

428

Posttraumatic pulmonary pseudocysts as a manifestation of child abuse.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic pulmonary pseudocysts (PTPPCs) are air-, fluid-, or blood-filled spaces in the lung parenchyma. They are rare findings and are associated with substantial blunt force trauma to the chest. Cases in the literature have primarily reported PTPPCs as a result of motor vehicle accidents. There has not been a case of PTPPC reported in the child abuse literature. This case report describes a child with a PTPPC secondary to inflicted abusive injury. PMID:22307189

Wyvill, Verena; Starling, Suzanne P; Clayton, Michelle

2012-02-01

429

Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals  

SciTech Connect

This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

Not Available

1980-01-01

430

Secondary power systems  

SciTech Connect

In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

Not Available

1985-01-01

431

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15

Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

1995-01-01

432

Learning from the pulmonary veins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review the basic embryology and anatomy of the pulmonary veins and the various imaging techniques used to evaluate the pulmonary veins, as well as the radiologic findings in diseases affecting these structures. Specific cases highlight the clinical importance of the imaging features, particularly the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography (CT). Pulmonary vein disease can be broadly classified into congenital or acquired conditions. Congenital disease, which often goes unnoticed until patients are adults, mainly includes (a) anomalies in the number or diameter of the vessels and (b) abnormal drainage or connection with the pulmonary arterial tree. Acquired disease can be grouped into (a) stenosis and obstruction, (b) hypertension, (c) thrombosis, (d) calcifications, and (e) collateral circulation. Pulmonary vein stenosis or obstruction, which often has important clinical repercussions, is frequently a result of radiofrequency ablation complications, neoplastic infiltration, or fibrosing mediastinitis. The most common cause of pulmonary venous hypertension is chronic left ventricular failure. This condition is difficult to differentiate from veno-occlusive pulmonary disease, which requires a completely different treatment. Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially severe condition that can have a local or distant cause. Calcifications have been described in rheumatic mitral valve disease and chronic renal failure. Finally, the pulmonary veins can act as conduits for collateral circulation in cases of obstruction of the superior vena cava. Multidetector CT is an excellent modality for imaging evaluation of the pulmonary veins, even when the examination is not specifically tailored for their assessment. PMID:23842969

Porres, Diego Varona; Morenza, Oscar Persiva; Pallisa, Esther; Roque, Alberto; Andreu, Jorge; Martínez, Manel

433

Pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The increase in pulmonary artery pressures is often mild to moderate, but some patients may suffer from severe pulmonary hypertension, and present with a progressively downhill clinical course because of right-sided heart failure added to ventilatory handicap. The cause of pulmonary hypertension in COPD is generally assumed to be hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction leading to permanent medial hypertrophy. However, recent pathological studies point, rather, to extensive remodeling of the pulmonary arterial walls, with prominent intimal changes. These aspects account for minimal reversibility with supplemental oxygen. There may be a case for pharmacological treatment of pulmonary hypertension in selected patients with advanced COPD and right-sided heart failure. Candidate drugs include prostacyclin derivatives, endothelin antagonists and inhaled nitric oxide, all of which have been reported of clinical benefit in primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it will be a challenge for randomized controlled trials to overcome the difficulties of the diagnosis of right ventricular failure and the definition of a relevant primary endpoint in pulmonary hypertensive COPD patients.

Naeije, Robert; Barbera, Joan A

2001-01-01

434

Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

Not Available

1987-01-01

435

Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals  

SciTech Connect

Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

Not Available

1990-01-01

436

Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals  

SciTech Connect

The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

Not Available

1985-01-01

437

Problem of secondary porosity: Frio Formation (Oligocene), Texas Gulf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary porosity, formed by the dissolution of both carbonate and silicate minerals, especially K-feldspars, is widely developed in sandstones of the Frio Formation (Oligocene) in the Texas Gulf Coast. CO2 produced by decarboxylation of organic matter is commonly suggested as the acid required for dissolution. Material balance calculations indicate that CO2 produced by decarboxylation of organic matter in Frio Formation

Paul D. Lundegard; Lynton S. Land; William E. Galloway

1984-01-01

438

Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics during hemorrhagic shock in baboons.  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic response to four hours of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation has been studied in 17 baboons using both open and closed chest models. No pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension occurred during shock or resuscitation except for an increase in lft ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) secondary to intravascular volumee overload with Dextran. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased during shock but returned to control levels with reinfusion of shed blood and correction of acidosis. PVR was moderately elevated following reinfusion of shed blood if acidosis was not corrected or if volum resuscitation was inadequate. No increase in gradients occurred between PA pressure and left atrial (LA) pressure or LVEDP and there was no gradients between small pulmonary vein and LA pressure. Arterial PO2 uniformly increased during shock and remained at or above control levels of reinfusion. Gross or histologic evidence of "congestive atelectasis" or "shock lung" was not observed. These observations suggest that in the subhuman primate, hemorrhage alone does not produce significant injury to the lung during shock or the immediate postresuscitation interval. Hemorrhage alone did not produce changes in the lung which would result in increased pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure following appropriate resuscitation.

Bredenberg, C E; Nomoto, S; Webb, W R

1980-01-01

439

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Boron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed be sales to textile-grade glass fibers, and soaps and detergents. California was the only d...

P. A. Lyday

1993-01-01

440

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Boron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to textile-grade glass fibers, sales to distributors, and borosilicate glasses. Ca...

P. A. Lyday

1992-01-01

441

Minerals Yearbook, 1990: Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is on the Mineral Industry of Indiana. The State's position as the Nation's leading steel producer was solidified by several events, including completion of the $525 million I/N Tek cold rolling mill at New Carlisle in March. Other noteworthy d...

W. J. West

1992-01-01

442

Mixtures and mineral reactions  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the physicochemical evolution of natural rocks through systematic analysis of the compositional properties and phase relations of their mineral assemblages. This book brings together concepts of classical thermodynamics, solution models, and atomic ordering and interactions that constitute a basis of such analysis, with examples of application to subsolidus petrological problems.

Saxena, S.; Ganguly, J.

1987-01-01

443

Mineral Resources Research Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the United States nearly one billion tons of material per year are subjected to comminution processes in the mineral and cement industries at an approximate power consumption of 25 billion kilowatt-hours. Clearly, even small improvements in the efficie...

A. J. Lynch R. L. Wiegel

1972-01-01

444

Introduction to Mineral Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is short problem set to be used in class. It helps focus discussion, while providing a starting point for discussing mineral reactions and phase diagrams. Students are exposed to ternary composition diagrams and to phase diagrams. They are also introduced to the phase rule, although in quite a superficial way.

Perkins, Dexter

445

Ocean mineral revenue sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the importance of ocean mineral revenue sharing, from both the oil and gas of the continental margin and the manganese nodules of the deep seabed, at the United Nations Law of the Sea Conference. First the paper examines margin revenue sharing as proposed in Article 82, Informal Composite Negotiating Text. It estimates the amount of oil and

Vincent J. Nigrelli

1978-01-01

446

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Office of Geology, Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, for collecting information on all nonfuel miner...

D. H. White S. C. Knox M. B. E. Bograd

1993-01-01

447

Fossils and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Black Hills Institute features information about different types of fossils, minerals, meteorites, and geology in general. Each topic has a brief description, with links to a more detailed explanation. Various samples and books are abailable for purchase on the site.

Research, Inc. B.

448

Identification of Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The lab described in this article was developed to satisfy two major goals. First, the activity is designed to show students the proper techniques used to identify the seven characteristics of all minerals. Second, the lab gives students a glimpse into the life of a professional field geologist. The author has students complete this lab at the…

Allison, Diane

2005-01-01

449

Spectral reflectance of carbonate minerals in the visible and near infrared (0.35-2.55 um): Anhydrous carbonate minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared (0.35-2.55 um) offers a rapid, inexpensive, nondestructive technique for determining the mineralogy and gaining information on the minor element chemistry of carbonate minerals and rocks. Spectra of all commonly occurring anhydrous end-member carbonate minerals contain seven strong absorption bands at wavelengths >1.6 um due to vibrations of the carbonate radical. Positions, widths, and spacing between carbonate bands are diagnostic of mineralogy. Differences in positions of carbonate bands between spectra of different minerals are primarily due to differences in mass of the major cation, with cation electronegativity playing a secondary role. Spectra of calcite group minerals may contain absorption features due to transition metal cations such as Fe and Mn, which can also aid in mineral identification. Spectra confirm the occurrence of both cations in the divalent state. Fe2+ produces a broad feature near 1.1 um whose position and degree of doubling are related to the size and degree of distortion of the octahedral site, as predicted by crystal field theory. Mn2+ and Fe2+ produce very strong absorption bands in the minerals for which they are the major cation (rhodochrosite and siderite, respectively), making it easy to distinguish these from other carbonate minerals, even when presence of water bands may make it difficult to determine accurately carbonate band positions.

Gaffey, Susan J.

1987-02-01

450

Does interferon-  improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does interferon-c improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? A. Prasse, K-M.Muller, C. Kurz, H. Hamm, J.C. Virchow Jr. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with progressive and devastating deterioration of lung function and a fatal prognosis, despite aggressive therapeutic attempts, which, in the majority of cases are futile. Recently, a preliminary study of

A. Prasse; K. M. Muller; C. Kurz; H. Hammz; J. C. Virchow Jr

2003-01-01

451

Automatic multiscale enhancement and segmentation of pulmonary vessels in CT pulmonary angiography images for CAD applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are developing a computerized pulmonary vessel segmentation method for a computer-aided pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system on computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) images. Because PE only occurs inside pulmonary arteries, an automatic and accurate segmentation of the pulmonary vessels in 3D CTPA images is an essential step for the PE CAD system. To segment the pulmonary vessels within

Chuan Zhou; Heang-Ping Chan; Berkman Sahiner; Lubomir M. Hadjiiski; Aamer Chughtai; Smita Patel; Jun Wei; Jun Ge; Philip N. Cascade; Ella A. Kazerooni

2007-01-01

452

Embolisation of an acute inflammatory pulmonary artery aneurysm using an Amplatzer(R) vascular plug  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAA) are rare. To date there are no cases in the literature describing formation secondary to oesophageal perforation. We present an unusual case of ruptured inflammatory segmental PAA. A patient with oesophageal squamous cell cancer presented with shortness of breath and sepsis following endoscopic dilatation of an oesophageal stricture. Imaging demonstrated oesophageal perforation and a pulmonary parenchymal collection containing an inflammatory PAA. Following initial conservative management, he then re-presented with haemoptysis secondary to PAA rupture. He was treated with embolisation using an Amplatzer® vascular plug (AVP) and went on to make an uneventful recovery.

Ahmad, M; Vatish, J; Willis, A; Jones, R; Melhado, R

2012-01-01

453

Pulmonary clear cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

A case of pulmonary clear cell carcinoma is demonstrated. A large left lower lobe mass, without lymphadenopathy was detected on a screening chest X-ray, and a left lower lobectomy was performed. The tumor was composed predominantly of clear cells with some areas showing cells typical for small cell carcinoma. Ultrastructurally, the larger clear cell had cytoplasm containing many rough endoplasmic reticuli and free ribosomes, while the smaller dark cell showed a serrated nucleus and scanty cytoplasm having many free ribosomes without neurosecretory granules. This is the first report on pulmonary clear cell carcinoma with small cell carcinoma patterns, and this case will throw doubt on the conclusion of previous studies that clear cell carcinoma is not a separate entity. PMID:1921401

Inase, N; Takayama, S; Nakayama, M; Miura, H; Kimula, Y

1991-10-01

454

Autophagy in pulmonary diseases.  

PubMed

(Macro)autophagy provides a membrane-dependent mechanism for the sequestration, transport, and lysosomal turnover of subcellular components, including proteins and organelles. In this capacity, autophagy maintains basal cellular homeostasis and healthy organelle populations such as mitochondria. During starvation, autophagy prolongs cell survival by recycling metabolic precursors from intracellular macromolecules. Furthermore, autophagy represents an inducible response to chemical and physical cellular stress. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy, and its regulatory proteins, may critically influence vital cellular processes such as programmed cell death, cell proliferation, inflammation, and innate immune functions and thereby may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of human disease. The function of autophagy in disease pathogenesis remains unclear and may involve either impaired or accelerated autophagic activity or imbalances in the activation of autophagic proteins. This review examines the roles of autophagy in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, with emphasis on pulmonary vascular disease and acute and chronic lung diseases. PMID:22035347

Ryter, Stefan W; Nakahira, Kiichi; Haspel, Jeffrey A; Choi, Augustine M K

2011-10-24

455

[Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].  

PubMed

Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about 1 % of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2004, World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous or sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance. There are five subtypes: spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, pleomorphic carcinoma, carcino-sarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the others subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastasis are frequent with atypical locations such as peritoneal or retroperitoneal sites. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here, we present a review of litterature in order to better describe these tumors. PMID:22889810

Vieira, Thibault; Duruisseaux, Michaël; Ruppert, Anne-Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Antoine, Martine; Wislez, Marie

2012-10-01

456

Alphabetical Listing of Mineral Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This directory provides an alphabetical listing of more than 4,000 mineral species. Clicking on each mineral name provides access to information including chemical formula and composition, locality and name origin, physical properties, optical properties, images, and many others.

457