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Pulmonary complications in lead miners  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.



Excess lung function decline in gold miners following pulmonary tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew if any studies of the association between pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and lung function loss have had access to premorbid lung function values.MethodsUsing a retrospective cohort design, the study recruited employed South African gold miners who had undergone a pulmonary function test (PFT) between January 1995 and August 1996. The ‘exposed’ group comprised 185 miners treated for pulmonary TB after

J Ross; R I Ehrlich; E Hnizdo; N White; G J Churchyard



A case of secondary syphilis presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules  

PubMed Central

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. The prevalence of this disease has recently increased worldwide. However, pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is extremely rare. A 51-year-old heterosexual male patient presented with multiple pulmonary nodules with reactive serology from the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and positive fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption testing. A hematogenous metastatic malignancy was suspected and an excisional lung biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination showed only central necrosis with abscess and plasma cell infiltration, but no malignant cells. The patient reported sexual contact with a prostitute 8 weeks previously and a penile lesion 6 weeks earlier. Physical examination revealed an erythematous papular rash on the trunk. Secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodules was suspected, and benzathine penicillin G, 2.4 million units, was administered. Subsequently, the clinical signs of syphilis improved and the pulmonary nodules resolved. The final diagnosis was secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodular involvement. PMID:23526483

Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Ju-Han; Lee, Eung-Seok; Kim, Il-Hwan; Park, Hyung Joo; Shin, Chol



Warfarin and bosentan interaction in a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to bilateral pulmonary emboli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bosentan is an endothelin-receptor antagonist that reportedly induces both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C9 enzymes, which are also involved in warfarin metabolism. We present a case report describing a probable drug interaction between warfarin and bosentan in a patient with pulmonary hypertension.Case summary: A 52-year-old black female (weight, 77 kg) diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension secondary to bilateral pulmonary

Mikayla L. Spangler; Shailendra Saxena



Weathering and Secondary Minerals in the Martian Meteorite Shergotty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shergotty martian meteorite contains weathering features and secondary minerals much like those in Nakhla, including secondary silicates, NaCl, and Ca-sulfate. It is likely that the weathering occurred on Mars.

Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; McKay, David S.



Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

Berkley, J. L.



Hemoptysis due to pulmonary pseudosequestration secondary to gastro-pulmonary fistula after a revisional bariatric operation.  


We report the case of a patient with a history of a complicated revisional bariatric operation who developed a lung pseudosequestration secondary to a gastro-pulmonary fistula. As the patient presented with recurrent hemoptysis, she was initially submitted to embolization of the aberrant vessels and later to a definite operation, which consisted on a diversion of the gastric fistula into a Roux-en-Y intestinal loop. It is an exceptional case about late complications of bariatric surgery, and it underlines the importance of discarding these complications even when the clinical manifestations affect another anatomic region different from the operated abdomen. PMID:25276245

Santacruz, Carlos Cerdán; Rodríguez, María Conde; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; García, Antonio José Torres



Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.



Pulmonary Fibrosis Secondary to FOLFOX Chemotherapy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 54-year-old female presented with a 2-week history of increasing shortness of breath and fever. She had a history of a poorly differentiated sigmoid adenocarcinoma for which she underwent an anterior resection 6 months prior to admission, followed by 12 cycles of adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy. The patient was treated for a severe community-acquired pneumonia; however, she remained hypoxic. A chest CT revealed extensive right-sided fibrotic changes, tractional dilatation of the airways and ground glass density, which had developed since a staging CT scan performed 2 months previously. Although her symptoms improved with steroid therapy, repeat imaging revealed that right hydropneumothorax had developed, and this required the insertion of a chest drain. Following its successful removal, the patient continues to improve clinically and radiographically. The rapid onset and nature of these changes is consistent with a drug-induced fibrotic lung disease secondary to FOLFOX chemotherapy. The phenomenon is underreported and yet, it is relatively common: it occurs in approximately 10% of patients who are treated with antineoplastic agents, although information specifically relating to FOLFOX-induced pulmonary toxicity is limited. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but is often hard to differentiate from other lung conditions, making the diagnosis a challenge. Pulmonary toxicity is an important complication associated with antineoplastic agents. It should be considered in any patient on a chemotherapeutic regimen who presents with dyspnoea and hypoxia in order to try to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:25408660

Soon, Wai Cheong; West, Kate; Gibeon, David; Bowen, Elizabeth Frances



Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to siderosis causing symptomatic respiratory disease: a case report  

E-print Network

impairment. Although not the first of its kind, we present an unusual case of pulmonary siderosis with symptomatic respiratory disease, most likely secondary to associated fibrosis. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient...

McCormick, Liam M; Goddard, Martin; Mahadeva, Ravi



A patient with severe hypoxia secondary to a large iatrogenic pulmonary artery to pulmonary vein fistula.  


Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are uncommon communications between the pulmonary arteries and veins, most commonly associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. They can also be associated with a variety of other conditions, and can be single or multiple. We present a case of a female patient with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve repair, who presented to the hospital with severe hypoxia. She was found to have a large pulmonary artery to superior pulmonary vein fistula that was successfully repaired using a septal occluder. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a large pulmonary artery to superior pulmonary vein fistula following mitral valve repair. PMID:25312888

Diab, Khalil; Cucci, Anthony; Kukreja, Sandeep; Gupta, Rajat



A Case of Extrinsic Compression of the Left Main Coronary Artery Secondary to Pulmonary Artery Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) secondary to pulmonary artery dilatation is a rare syndrome. Most cases of pulmonary artery hypertension but no atherosclerotic risk factors rarely undergo coronary angiography, and hence, diagnoses are seldom made and proper management is often delayed in these patients. We describe a patient that presented with pulmonary hypertension, clinical angina, and extrinsic compression of the LMCA by the pulmonary artery, who was treated successfully by percutaneous coronary intervention. Follow-up coronary angiography showed patent stent in the LMCA in the proximity of the dilated main pulmonary artery. This case reminds us that coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention should be considered in pulmonary hypertension patients presenting with angina or left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:24133364

Choi, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Jin-Sung; Park, Won-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo



Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low-temperature environments in which SO2 is scrubbed out by groundwater or where H2S is oxidized. Jarosite-group minerals associated with smectite in only slightly altered volcanic rock are formed largely from aqueous sulfate derived from supergene oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite above the water table. Soluble Al- and Fehydroxysulfates form in low-pH surface environments, especially around fumaroles, and from the oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite. Anhydrite/gypsum, often associated with native sulfur and occasionally with small amounts of barite, also commonly form around fumaroles. Some occurrences of anhydrite/gypsum may be secondary, derived from the dissolution and reprecipitation of soluble sulfate. Edifice collapse may also reveal deep veins of anhydrite/gypsum??barite that formed from the mixing of saline fluids with magmatic sulfate and dilute meteoric water. Alteration along structures associated with both hydrothermal and supergene sulfates, as well as the position of paleo-water tables, may be important factors in edifice collapse and resulting debris flows at some volcanoes. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zimbelman, D.R.; Rye, R.O.; Breit, G.N.



Hydrothermal Alteration in the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new data on secondary mineral assemblages, clay and whole rock chemistry and clay mineral strontium and lithium isotopic compositions of altered rocks and sediments from the active, ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field reflecting various alteration conditions (e.g. fluid mixing, water-rock interaction). The altered ultramafic rocks are mainly consist of lizardite, chrysotile whereas magnetite and pyrite are minor minerals. Chlorite, chlorite-smectite mixed-layer (e.g., corrensite), smectite and talc are additional common phases in the clay fraction of most of these samples.Iron-hydroxides and iron sulfides are the main components of the hydrothermal crusts, with some amounts of pyroxene, chlorite, illite and pyrite. The hydrothermal sediments beneath the crusts are characterized by quartz, smectite and chlorite as main minerals. Analyses of clay separates representing a variety of alteration styles demonstrates that significant and characteristic changes in the bulk rock chemical composition are associated with various alteration conditions. The elements Cr, Cu, Pb and U appears to have a general enrichment in the lizardite and chlorite concentrates in comparison to a depleted mantle. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of clay concentrates vary between 0.7083 and 0.7096 suggesting that the clays either formed as a result of seawater alteration or hydrothermal alteration with various portions of seawater. The strontium isotopic ratio of a chlorite sample from hydrothermal sediments beneath the hydrothermal crust is much lower than the isotopic data reported for the lizardites suggesting precipitation from fluid with lower seawater content. The Li isotopic composition (?7Li) of the clay separates varies between -5.4 and +6.4‰. Thus, the clays are enriched in 6Li relative to both seawater (~31‰) and hydrothermal vent fluids from the Logatchev field (~6‰) suggesting that 6Li is preferentially retained in alteration products. When considered together with the Sr isotope data, these Li isotope data may be used to estimate the temperature of formation of the clay concentrates.

Lackschewitz, K. S.; Augustin, N.; Devey, C. W.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; James, R.



[A case of spectacular shrinking deficit caused by paradoxical cerebral embolism secondary to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula].  


We report a case of spectacular shrinking deficit caused by paradoxical cerebral embolism through pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF). A 79-year-old female suddenly developed right hemiplegia, paresthesia, and speech disturbance symptoms that were improved within 20 min, indicating a diagnosis of spectacular shrinking deficit. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute cerebral infarcts in the left parietal cortex of the left middle cerebral arterial territory. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan revealed a pulmonary AVF in the middle lobe of the right lung. The patient had deep venous thrombosis in her left lower leg. She had no clinical signs of telangiectasia, did not exhibit recurrent epistaxis, and had no family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Therefore, she was diagnosed with paradoxical cerebral embolism secondary to the pulmonary AVF without HHT. Pulmonary AVF should be considered in patients with cerebral embolism, even when presenting with spectacular shrinking deficit. PMID:24323935

Ito, Ai; Ii, Yuichiro; Higashigawa, Takatoshi; Murashima, Shuichi; Tomimoto, Hidekazu



Pulmonary dysfunction in gold miners with reactive airways.  


In a cross sectional study of a working population of black South African gold miners a sample of 1197 older miners was examined. Airway reactivity determined by a greater than 10% response of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to inhaled salbutamol was detected in 139 (12%) of the men. No relation was found between the extent of exposure to the underground environment and the frequency of airway reactivity. There was evidence of increased chronic airflow limitation in the men with reactive airways. This increase persisted after controlling for age, tobacco smoking, and for the presence and degree of silicosis. On average, the presence of reactive airways was associated with reduced (after bronchodilator) forced vital capacity (FVC) of 118 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16 to 220 ml, FEV1 of 168 ml (95% CI 74-262 ml), FEV1/FVC% of 3% (95% CI 2.3-3.7%), and maximal mid-expiratory flow of 300 ml/s (95% CI 86-514 ml/s). Although there was no evidence that airway reactivity was induced by this occupational exposure, those with reactive airways appeared to be more susceptible to the adverse effects of the underground environment on the bronchial tree. PMID:2611161

Cowie, R L



Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SR?CT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SR?CT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SR?CT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.



[Paroxysmal melanoptysis secondary to the cavitation of pulmonary pneumoconiosis conglomerate].  


Progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) secondary to pneumoconiosis involves the formation of fibrotic masses that eventually cause death from multiple complications. We present a rare but potentially serious complication in a patient with coal pneumoconiosis with PMF, in whom the appearance of paroxysmal melanoptysis was attributed to the cavitation of one of the pneumoconiotic masses. We emphasize the need for differential diagnosis to exclude other more common causes, as well as the use of bronchoscopy for diagnosis and confirmation. Strict control is needed to prevent possible respiratory failure when melanoptysis is massive. PMID:8689018

Haro, M; Vizcaya, M; Sánchez, E; Coloma, R; Loeches, N; Arévalo, M



Coronary artery air embolism causing pulmonary edema secondary to acute coronary syndrome in a diver.  


Air embolism in the coronary arteries is a known complication of coronary angiography. Diving is a non-iatrogenic cause of arterial air embolism, commonly presenting with neurological and musculoskeletal symptoms. This is the first known case of coronary air embolism confirmed on coronary angiography in a diver presenting with pulmonary edema secondary to acute coronary syndrome. The possible mechanisms of coronary air embolism during a dive are reviewed in this article. PMID:19057040

Sammut, Mark Adrian; Cassar, Andrew; Felice, Herbert



The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub CAI, I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub CAI) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub CAI) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub CAI) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for CAI. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for CAI in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted CAIs by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "CAI age" thus determined, T(sub CAI,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub CAI) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub CAI, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub CAI)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5) and a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4558.6 Ma for the LEW86010 angrite. However. the (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of "intermediate" age D'Orbigny-clan angrites and Asuka 881394 are inconsistent with radioactive decay from CAI values with a Mn-55 half-life of 3.7+/-0.4 Ma. in spite of consistency between (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I). Nevertheless, it appears that the Mn-Cr method with I(Mn)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) can be used to date primary igneous events and also secondary mineralization on asteroid parent bodies. We summarize ages thus determined for igneous events on differentiated asteroids and for carbonate and fayalite formation on carbonaceous asteroids.

Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.



Secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum: A case report  

PubMed Central

Chordomas are low- to intermediate-grade malignant tumors that recapitulate the notochord. Chordomas belong to the dysontogenetic bone tumors and appear primarily in the region of the axial skeleton. Chordomas are divided into conventional, chondroid, sarcomatoid and dedifferentiated subtypes. The different subtypes of chordoma have varied survival periods. According to the literature to date, secondary pulmonary and lymph-node metastases occur most frequently, followed by liver, bone and skin metastases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of one subtype of chordoma metastasizing or transforming into another subtype with a different histopathology. This study presents a 24-year-old man with secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from a primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum. The patient was alive at the end of November, 2009 and the survival time exceeded eight years. This is the first case of a patient with primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum with complete remission in whom a secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arose from the primary cancer. PMID:24959247




Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ??6mm, R-wave in V6 ??3mm, S-wave in V6 ??3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ?25?mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ??6?mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P?=?0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it.

Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh



Effects of the secondary minerals of the natural pozzolans on their pozzolanic activity  

SciTech Connect

Natural pozzolans have been widely used as substitutes for Portland cement, because of their binding properties. Some of them are natural volcanic rocks which contain secondary minerals such as clays and zeolites corresponding to products of the alteration of the rock. The objective of this study was to document the potential effect of the secondary minerals on the strength development of pozzolanic mortars. We chose to investigate this effect by thermally destabilising these minerals in three different pozzolanic deposits (poz-1, poz-2 and poz-3). We first did a detailed mineralogical study, to identify the occurrence and the nature of the different secondary minerals. Kaolinite is abundant in poz-1 and different types of zeolite were identified in poz-2 and poz-3. Thermal treatments were monitored by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, in order to document mineralogical transformations. The effect on the pozzolanic activity has been tested by strength measurements on normalised mortars at 1, 7 and 28 days. Strength of all blended cements is enhanced while destabilising secondary alteration minerals. For kaolinite, we showed that a strength improvement occurs as soon as it is destructured, even if it is not transformed in metakaolin. For zeolites, destabilisation takes place at low temperature (350 deg. C), but as recrystallisation products are easily formed, activation temperature window is narrow. Endly, we have evidence that the presence of calcite in pozzolans has an effect on early strength. Therefore this study is giving new perspectives for a better use of natural pozzolanic materials in the cement industry.

Habert, G. [LMTG, CNRS/Universite Paul Sabatier, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, 58 Bd Lefebvre, 75732 Paris (France)], E-mail:; Choupay, N. [Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue de Montmurier, BP 15, 38291 St Quentin Fallavier cedex (France); Montel, J.M.; Guillaume, D. [LMTG, CNRS/Universite Paul Sabatier, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [LMDC, INSA/Universite Paul Sabatier, 135 Avenue de Rangueuil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)



Vertebral fractures and bone mineral density in idiopathic, secondary and corticosteroid associated osteoporosis in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate bone mineral density (BMD) in men with symptomatic osteoporosis and compare BMD in patients with idiopathic, secondary and corticosteroid associated osteoporosis.METHODSAge, number of vertebral fractures at presentation and BMD were investigated in men presenting to a bone metabolism clinic with idiopathic (n=105; group 1), secondary (n=67; group 2) and corticosteroid osteoporosis (n=48; group 3). BMD was measured in

S F Evans; M W J Davie



Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the incubation. Other possible mechanisms include the presence of soluble Fe as an alternative energy source in the goethite treatment, the presence of toxic soluble Al in the gibbsite treatment, the loss of available phosphorus in the secondary mineral treatments due to sorption by secondary mineral surfaces, and variations in mineral surfaces as microhabitats. These findings suggest that Al and Fe oxides, such as goethite or gibbsite, are a factor in determining microbial community structure.

Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.



Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite MIL 03346 as Detected by Raman Imaging Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a preliminary study of MIL 03346,168 thin section by using the Raman imaging spectroscopy. Our goal is to get the spatial relationship of secondary hydrated minerals in this meteorite and to seek evidences that may hint their origins.

Ling, Z. C.; Wang, A.



The Paris CM chondrite: Secondary minerals and asteroidal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least-altered CM identified so far (Hewins et al.). Compared to other CMs, Paris exhibits (1) a higher concentration of Fe-Ni metal beads, with nickel contents in the range 4.1-8.1 wt%; (2) the systematic presence of thin lamellae and tiny blebs of pentlandite in pyrrhotite grains; and (3) ubiquitous tochilinite/cronstedtite associations with higher FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 ratios. In addition, Paris shows the highest concentration of trapped 36Ar reported so far for a CM chondrite (Hewins et al.). In combination with the findings of previous studies, our data confirm the reliability of (1) the alteration sequence based on the chemical composition of tochilinite/cronstedtite associations to quantify the fluid alteration processes and (2) the use of Cr content variability in type II ferroan chondrule olivine as a proxy of thermal metamorphism. In contrast, the scales based on (1) the Fe3+ content of serpentine in the matrix to estimate the degree of aqueous alteration and (2) the chemical composition of Fe-Ni metal beads for quantifying the intensity of the thermal metamorphism are not supported by the characteristics of Paris. It also appears that the amount of trapped 36Ar is a sensitive indicator of the secondary alteration modifications experienced by chondrites, for both aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Considering Paris, our data suggest that this chondrite should be classified as type 2.7 as it suffered limited but significant fluid alteration and only mild thermal metamorphism. These results point out that two separated scales should be used to quantify the degree of the respective role of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in establishing the characteristics of CM chondrites.

Marrocchi, Yves; Gounelle, Matthieu; Blanchard, Ingrid; Caste, Florent; Kearsley, Anton T.



Pulmonary invasive mucormycosis in a patient with secondary iron overload following deferoxamine therapy  

PubMed Central

Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an acute and often fatal opportunistic fungal infection. Predisposing factors in the development of mucormycosis are nonspecific and include hyperglycemia, hematologic malignancies, neutropenia, pharmacologic immunosuppression, solid organ or bone marrow/stem cell transplantation, burns, trauma, malnutrition, and intravenous drug use. Mucormycosis has also been described in patients with iron and aluminum overload, patients on dialysis, and patients receiving iron chelating therapy. We describe a 75-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome and iron overload secondary to multiple red blood cell transfusions who had been treated with deferoxamine chelation therapy. He was admitted to the hospital for atrial fibrillation, developed multiple organ failure, and died. Pulmonary invasive mucormycosis was demonstrated at autopsy. This case further documents an association between invasive mucormycosis, iron overload, and deferoxamine therapy. PMID:18982078

Reyes, Hector M.; Tingle, Eric J.; Fenves, Andrew Z.; Spiegel, Jennifer



Mineral dissolution and secondary precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions affecting subsurface porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89 °C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong





Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...


Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A x[(W,Fe)(O,OH) 3] ·yH 2O are described. Phyllotungstite ( A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3) Å, c=19.55(1) Å, space group P6 3/ mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia ( A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1) Å, c=50.49(1) Å, space group P-6 m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111) py pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111) py blocks have the same thickness, 6 Å, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12 Å. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111) py oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO 3.

Grey, Ian E.; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine; Mills, Stuart J.



Pulmonary edema secondary to chronic upper airway obstruction. Hemodynamic study in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 22-month-old girl with the syndrome of hypoventilation, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and pulmonary edema due to adenoidal hypertrophy is described. Adenoidectomy resulted in relief of all symptoms and signs within 24 h. Hemodynamic study using pulmonary artery catheter showed that the pulmonary artery pressure returned to normal 48 h after relief of the obstruction. The normal left ventricular end-diastolic

S. Sofer; R. Baer; Y. Gussarsky; A. Lieberman; J. Bar-Ziv



Secondary flow velocity patterns in a pulmonary artery model with varying degrees of valvular pulmonic stenosis: pulsatile in vitro studies.  


The objective of this study was to characterize in detail the secondary flow velocity patterns in an in vitro model of a human (adult) pulmonary artery with varying degrees of valvular pulmonic stenosis. A two-dimensional laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) system was used to map the flow fields in the main (MPA), left (LPA), and right (RPA) branches of the pulmonary artery model. The study was conducted in the Georgia Tech right heart pulse duplicator system. A pair of counter-rotating secondary flows were observed in each daughter branch in which the fluid moved outwardly along the side walls and then circled back inwardly toward the center of the vessel. For the case of the "normal" valve, the two counter-rotating secondary flows were symmetric about the centerline. The strength of secondary flows in the RPA was much stronger than in the LPA. However, as the pulmonic valve became more stenotic, the two counter-rotating secondary flows in both the LPA and RPA were no longer symmetric. In addition, the strength of secondary flows in both daughter branches increased with increasing degree of valvular stenosis. The increment in the LPA was, however, greater than in the RPA. The study demonstrates the importance of analyzing complex biological flows from a three-dimensional viewpoint. PMID:2308309

Sung, H W; Yoganathan, A P



Pulmonary laceration secondary to a traumatic soccer injury: a case report and review of the literature.  


Pulmonary lacerations are an uncommon injury typically associated with high-impact trauma. Most cases occur as a result of high-speed road traffic collisions. Although chest wall and pleural injuries are commonly associated with sports-related thoracic trauma, pulmonary injuries are far less common. There are only a few reported cases of significant pulmonary trauma associated with sports injuries, the majority of which have described pulmonary contusions occurring as a result of thoracic injury sustained while playing high-impact contact sports such as American football. Pulmonary laceration occurring as result of soccer-related thoracic trauma has never previously been reported. PMID:24060323

Idriz, Sanjin; Abbas, Ausami; Sadigh, Sufi; Padley, Simon



Variation of lithium isotope geochemistry during basalt weathering and secondary mineral transformations in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium isotopes are a potential tracer of silicate weathering but the relationship between lithium isotope compositions and weathering state still need to be established with precision. Here, we report Li concentrations and Li isotope compositions of soils developed along a 4 million year humid-environment chronosequence in the Hawaiian Islands. Li concentrations are variable with depth and age, ranging from 0.24 to 21.3 ppm, and significant Li depletions (up to 92%) relative to parent basalts are systematically enhanced towards the surface. Our calculations show that the relative contribution from atmospheric deposits to the Li soil budget remains small, with a maximum contribution from dust Li of 20% at the oldest site. This is explained by the capacity of the weathering products to retain, within the profiles, the Li coming from basalt alteration, and allows us to explore more specifically the role of alteration processes on soil Li isotope signatures. The ?7Li values display a large range between -2.5‰ and +13.9‰. The youngest soils (0.3 ka) display the same ?7Li value as fresh basalt, regardless of depth, despite ?30% Li loss by leaching, indicating that there is little Li isotope fractionation during the incipient stage of weathering. ?7Li values for the older soils (?20 ka) vary non-linearly as a function of time and can be explained by progressive mineral transformations starting with the synthesis of metastable short-range order (nano-crystalline) minerals and followed by their transformation into relatively inert secondary minerals. Results highlight significant Li isotope fractionation during secondary mineral formation and in particular during Li uptake by kaolinite. Finally, we suggest that the non-monotonous evolution of the regolith ?7Li value over the last 4 Ma is consistent with climatic variations, where congruent release of Li isotopes occurs during warmer periods.

Ryu, Jong-Sik; Vigier, Nathalie; Lee, Sin-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Chadwick, Oliver A.



Secondary mineral evidence of large-scale water table fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

At Yucca Mountain, currently under consideration as a potential permanent underground repository for high-level radioactive wastes, the present-day water table is 500 to 700 m deep. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ) is part of the natural barrier system and is regarded as a positive attribute of the potential site. The USGS has studied the stable isotopes and petrography of secondary calcite and silica minerals that coat open spaces in the UZ and form irregular veins and masses in the saturated zone (SZ). This paper reviews the findings from the several studies undertaken at Yucca Mountain on its mineralogy.

Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.; Marshall, B.D [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch; Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)



Clinical features of three cases with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome developed during the course of Behçet's disease.  


We have previously reported that myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is the most common underlying disease in cases of secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Here, we present 3 MDS cases in which PAP developed during the course of Behçet's disease (BD). All patients carried trisomy 8 in the bone marrow. Chest HRCT scans showed variable distribution of ground glass opacities, but none of the scans showed so called "crazy paving appearance". Two patients with intestinal BD who underwent potent immunosuppressive therapy died of sepsis. These findings demonstrate that PAP secondary to MDS may be occasionally associated with BD. PMID:24388375

Handa, Tomohiro; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Baba, Motoo; Takada, Toshinori; Nakata, Koh; Ishii, Haruyuki



Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Secondary to Anorexigens and Other Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several drugs and toxins have been shown to be associated with the development of pulmonary vascular hypertension. Pulmonary\\u000a hypertension (PH) related to these factors has been classified as primary PH (PPH), currently referred to as idiopathic pulmonary\\u000a arterial hypertension, because its morphological findings, clinical manifestations, hemodynamic measures, and pathological\\u000a changes were reported to be similar to those of PPH. In

Kim Bouillon; Yola Moride; Lamiae Bensouda-Grimaldi; Lucien Abenhaim


Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.  


Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail. PMID:20851443

Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D



Alteration of bentonite by hyperalkaline fluids: A review of the role of secondary minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning potential solid products of the interaction of cement pore fluids with bentonite have been reviewed with respect to accurate prediction of bentonite alteration in the long-term. Calcium (aluminium) silicate hydrates (C(A)SH), zeolites, feldspars, hydroxides, carbonates, polymorphs of silica, and some sheet silicates (all of varying degrees of crystallinity) are potential products of cement-bentonite interaction. Evidence from natural systems and laboratory studies suggests that most, or all of these phases, may precipitate on timescales of interest to safety assessment of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. These data indicate that growth kinetics of secondary minerals is equally as important as thermodynamic stability in controlling occurrence. C(A)SH show variable Ca/Si ratio and Al contents. At high pH (>11), the growth of C(A)SH minerals provides a means by which OH - ions from cement pore fluids may be titrated. Although thermodynamic data exist for a number of naturally-occurring crystalline C(A)SH minerals, they are of doubtful quality and should be applied with caution in predictive modelling. Zeolites are likely to form at lower pH than for C(A)SH, with the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite decreasing with increasing pH of the fluid. Zeolite stability is also strongly dependent upon silica activity in the fluid phase. Although silica activity in bentonite pore fluids will be spatially (and temporally) variable as hyperalkaline alteration proceeds, it is likely that minerals which could form would be those stable in quartz-saturated or supersaturated fluids. Currently available thermodynamic data for zeolites tend to overestimate their stability, leading to inaccurate predictions of their occurrence. Notwithstanding this uncertainty, it is considered that the following secondary minerals are the most likely to form in low temperature cement-bentonite systems: calcite, dolomite, chalcedony, C(A)SH of variable Ca/Si ratio, K-feldspar, illite, phillipsite, analcime, clinoptilolite, and heulandite. The relatively more siliceous zeolites (clinoptilolite, phillipsite) are likely to form at lower pH (distal regions of migrating cement pore fluids), whereas C(A)SH, illite, feldspars, and the more aluminous zeolites (analcime, heulandite) are more likely to form at higher pH and hence, the more proximal regions of migrating cement pore fluids. Predominantly Na-, K-bearing solids will be transformed to those dominated by Ca as the composition of cement pore fluids evolves with time.

Savage, David; Walker, Colin; Arthur, Randy; Rochelle, Chris; Oda, Chie; Takase, Hiro


Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.



Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.  


Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. PMID:21879833

Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C



Incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension in adults with atrial septal or sinus venosus defects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the incidence of raised pulmonary artery pressure and resistance in adults with isolated atrial septal defect within the oval fossa (so called secundum defect) or sinus venosus defect.?DESIGN—A historical, retrospective, unrandomised study.?SETTING—A tertiary referral centre.?METHODS—Cardiac catheterisation was performed in all patients, with measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and resistance. Pulmonary to systemic flow ratio was calculated using the Fick principle. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure > 30 mm Hg, and increased resistance as an Rp/Rs ratio > 0.3.?PATIENTS—All patients with a secundum atrial septal or sinus venosus defect who presented between July 1988 and December 1997 were enrolled in the study.?RESULTS—Pulmonary artery pressure and resistance in the patients with sinus venosus defect (n = 31) was higher than in patients with atrial septal defect (n = 138). Pulmonary hypertension was present in 26% of patients with sinus venosus and in 9% of patients with atrial septal defect. The incidence of raised pulmonary vascular resistance was 16% in patients with sinus venosus and 4% in patients with atrial septal defect. The increase in resistance occurred at a younger age in sinus venosus defect than in atrial septal defect.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with sinus venosus defect have higher pulmonary pressures and resistances and develop these complications at younger age than patients with atrial septal defects. Thus they should be managed differently than patients with "simple" atrial septal defects.???Keywords: sinus venosus defect; atrial septal defect; pulmonary hypertension; congenital heart defects PMID:10377305

Vogel, M; Berger, F; Kramer, A; Alexi-Meshkishvil..., V; Lange, P



Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B. (1991) EPSL, 101, 180-195. [12] Swindle T. D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2215-2227. [13]

Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on minerals starts with a definition of minerals and compares crystalline and amorphous minerals. The composition is discussed and a chart shows the relative amounts of elements in minerals. Next, there is a discussion of the characteristics by which minerals are identified including luster, color, streak, hardness, and cleavage and fracture along with special properties such as magnetism. The characteristics of calcite, talc, hematite, magnetite, and galena are then observed.


Accuracy of Doppler-derived indices in predicting pulmonary vascular resistance in children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunting.  


This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Doppler echocardiography-derived indices in children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunting. Doppler-derived indices including the acceleration time corrected (AcTc), deceleration time corrected, deceleration index, peak velocity, heart-rate-corrected inflection time (InTc), and a new index (the acceleration slope [Acc = peak flow velocity/AcTc]) were measured from the pulmonary artery (PA) systolic flow curve before and after 100 % oxygen administration in the main, left, and right PAs of 33 children. The acquired data were compared between low and high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) groups and between responders and nonresponders to the vasoreactivity test. The AcTc values differed significantly between the low and high PVR groups before and after oxygen administration in the main (P = 0.032 and <0.001, respectively), right (P = 0.011 and <0.001, respectively), and left (P < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively) PAs. The AcTc cutoff point in the main PA was 3.44 before oxygen administration (81% sensitivity and 91% specificity). The InTc in the main PA and its changes differed significantly between the low and high PVR groups before and after oxygen administration and between the responders and nonresponders (P = 0.016, 0.046, and 0.021, respectively). The velocity changes of the PA in the main PA differed significantly between the responders and nonresponders to oxygen administration (P < 0.001). The Acc and its changes differed significantly between the low and high PVR groups after oxygen administration and between the responders and nonresponders to oxygen administration (P = 0.044 and 0.006, respectively). Doppler echocardiographic examination using PA systolic flow indices in addition to PA reactivity testing is a promising technique for assessing PVR in children with congenital heart disease. PMID:24150686

Tabib, Avisa; Khorgami, Mohammad Rafie; Meraji, Mahmoud; Omidi, Negar; Mirmesdagh, Yalda



Geochemical fixation of rare earth elements into secondary minerals in sandstones beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombé, Gabon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study geochemical processes for migration and fixation of fissiogenic rare earth elements (REE) in association with uranium dissolution, in situ isotopic analyses using an ion microprobe were performed on U- and REE-bearing secondary minerals, such as coffinite, françoisite, uraniferous goethite, and uraninite found in a sandstone layer 30 to 110 cm beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombé, Gabon. Phosphate minerals such as phosphatian coffinite and françoisite with depleted 235U ( 235U/ 238U = 0.00609 to 0.00638) contained large amount of fissiogenic light REE, while micro-sized uraninite grains in a solid bitumen aggregate have normal U isotopic values ( 235U/ 238U = 0.00725) and small amount of fissiogenic REE components. The proportions of fissiogenic and non-fissiogenic REE components in four samples from the core of BAX03 vary in depth ranging from 30 cm to 130 cm beneath the reactor, which suggests mixing between fissiogenic isotopes from the reactor and non-fissiogenic isotopes from original minerals in the sandstone. Significant chemical fractionation was observed between Ce and the other REE in the secondary minerals, which shows evidence of an oxidizing atmosphere during their formation. Pb-isotopic analyses of individual minerals do not directly provide chronological information because of the disturbance of U-Pb decay system due to recent geologic alteration. However, systematic Pb-isotopic results from all of the minerals reveal the mobilization of fissiogenic isotopes, Pb and U from the reactor in association with dolerite dyke intrusion ˜0.798 Ga ago and the formation of the secondary minerals by mixing event between 2.05 Ga-old original minerals and reactor materials due to recent alteration.

Hidaka, Hiroshi; Janeczek, Janusz; Skomurski, Frances N.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Gauthier-Lafaye, François




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about minerals! Directions: Make a poster about minerals. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about minerals. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at ...

Walls, Mrs.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is from James Madison University's Department of Geology and Environmental Science. It provides an introduction to minerals, an alphabetical list of minerals and dichotomous keys to identifying minerals in PDF. There are also links to other department pages on igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Fichter, Lynn S.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides students with basic information on mineralogy. It explains how the term "mineral" is defined, the properties that are used to identify minerals, their importance in daily life, and some general facts. For each identifying property, an example mineral and photograph are provided. Addresses to websites with additional information are also included.

Passow, Michael


Ablation of the secondary heart field leads to tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in chick and mouse embryos have identified a previously unrecognized secondary heart field (SHF), located in the ventral midline splanchnic mesenchyme, which provides additional myocardial cells to the outflow tract as the heart tube lengthens during cardiac looping. In order to further delineate the contribution of this secondary myocardium to outflow development, we labeled the right SHF of

Cary Ward; Harriett Stadt; Mary Hutson; Margaret L. Kirby



Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis in patients with pulmonary disease secondary to bone marrow transplantation.  


This study presents four patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation and subsequently developed pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, hitherto reported as an idiopathic condition. All presented clinically with pneumothorax and subpleural fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography. In addition to the expected obliterative bronchiolitis, histopathology showed coexistent subpleural changes, and the relationship of pathology in multiple anatomic compartments in post bone marrow transplantation pulmonary disease is discussed. PMID:21822205

von der Thüsen, Jan H; Hansell, David M; Tominaga, Masaki; Veys, Paul A; Ashworth, Michael T; Owens, Catherine M; Nicholson, Andrew G



Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metastasis and secondary paresis in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna).  


A 16-yr-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented with an acute history of lethargy, inappetance, ataxia, and paralysis. The bird had rapidly progressed from a normal state to complete inability to perch or ambulate within a 48-hr period. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral hind limb paresis with upper motor neuron signs present in both legs and the vent. Radiographs identified multiple nodular soft-tissue opacities within the cranial coelomic cavity and a single nodule superimposed with the thoracic spine. The bird was euthanized and submitted for necropsy, which revealed a primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with multiple sites of osseous metastasis, including the vertebrae, and subsequent spinal cord compression. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in this species, although reports of similar tumors in other psittacines have been published. This report, along with others previously published, suggests that vertebral metastasis of primary pulmonary tumors may be more common in psittacine species than previously recognized and, as such, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in psittacine birds exhibiting signs of neurologic dysfunction attributed to a spinal cord lesion. PMID:23272361

Fredholm, Daniel V; Carpenter, James W; Schumacher, Loni L; Shumacher, Loni L; Moon, Rachel S



The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Maher, K.; Steefel, C.I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.



Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) and its mineral structure: implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral.  


Austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm(-1) are assigned to the ?2, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3-) unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm(-1) correspond to the ?1, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3(-) unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm(-1) for IR and 3270 cm(-(1) both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals. PMID:25087167

Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L



Tracking rainfall variations in the late Pleistocene using U isotopes in dated secondary soil minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past changes in rainfall are an important indicator of variations in atmospheric circulation. However, there are very few approaches that are uniquely sensitive to past changes in rainfall and use common materials that can be accurately dated. Secondary minerals in arid soils form directly from rainfall and can precipitate continuously over hundreds of thousands of years. Previous studies have used stable isotope measurements of soil carbonates to look at a variety of processes such as precipitation source and amount, evaporation, temperature, and vegetation. Often, the challenge with stable isotope approaches is to distinguish between these factors. In addition, stable isotope studies have not traditionally used high-resolution analytical techniques to capture the temporal variations within a given sample. The development of alternative isotopic systems that more directly reflect rainfall would provide a complimentary tool to more traditional strategies. In order to evaluate whether widely observed variations in the calculated initial U isotopic composition of dated soil minerals (e.g. (234U/238U)0) reflect changes in past rainfall, we sampled modern soil pore waters, soils and dust from a rainfall gradient in Fish Lake Valley, NV. In situ ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) techniques were used to determine the 230Th-U ages and (234U/238U)0 from uranium-rich soil opal collected at three field sites in western North America. Modern pore waters in desert soils from Fish Lake Valley, NV show systematic decreases in (234U/238U) with increasing rainfall. This is attributed to increasing infiltration flux and chemical weathering at higher rainfall rates, as the eolian influence should likely remain the same across the rainfall gradient. Although changes in the uranium concentration and isotopic composition of dust through time may also influence the (234U/238U) of soil water, these changes are likely minimal relative to changes in infiltration flux. The variations in (234U/238U)0 obtained from 230Th-U dating of soil opal span approximately the last 5-60 kyrs. Based on the modern pore water data, we interpret low (234U/238U)0 to indicate periods of higher rainfall, and high (234U/238U)0 to indicate periods of reduced rainfall. We observe nearly synchronous shifts during the last glacial-interglacial transition along the latitudinal transect of our field sites. Our initial results show that the transition from MIS 3 to 2 was likely characterized by increasing precipitation, with peak rainfall at the beginning of MIS 2. This corresponds to generally decreasing SST off of the California coast and rainier periods in speleothem records from the southwestern United States. Additionally (234U/238U)0 from our soil opal records co-varies with fluctuations in lake levels of large pluvial lake systems in western North America. The synchronous signal of increased rainfall during MIS 2 is consistent with a southward-shift in westerly storm tracks at the LGM. Our approach demonstrates an alternative method for increasing the spatial coverage and chronology of climate records in arid regions.

Ibarra, D. E.; Oster, J. L.; Maher, K.



Tumour-like pulmonary lesion in secondary syphilis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Radiographic studies have rarely identified tumours of purely syphilitic origin, which are more often present in tertiary syphilis. In this study, a pseudo-neoplastic lesion was detected in a patient with secondary syphilis and rapidly cured by penicillin. Images PMID:7326550

Schibli, H; Harms, M



Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun



Secondary minerals and regolith profiles in basaltic rocks in northeastern US and in Svalbard, an Arctic Mars analogue site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data reported from the Mars Rovers, previous missions, and remote sensing have yielded a body of exciting evidence documenting that a Critical Zone nourished by water may also exist or have existed on Mars. However, the extent to which weathering is responsible for secondary mineral formation on Mars is not clear. We are investigating plagioclase and pyroxene weathering and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides and clays in regolith profiles developed on rocks of basaltic composition from three different sites (Pennsylvania, Virginia, Svalbard), located in very different climatic conditions. Two of these sites were formed under a cool temperate climate, while the Svalbard profile is formed in a dry polar climate that has been identified as a Mars analogue. The two sites located in the northeastern US show similar rates of plagioclase dissolution, while slower rates were observed at Svalbard. Depth of weathering is also much greater in Pennsylvania and Virginia than in Svalbard, where weathering has only proceeded since the last glaciation. Nonetheless, weathering in Svalbard is accelerated by spalling of altered surfaces, presumably due to temperature cycling. We are using a variety of techniques including Fe isotope measurements to better understand secondary mineral precipitation in regolith. Knowledge of the climatic effects upon these processes on Earth can ultimately be applied to better understand weathering mechanisms on Mars.

Brantley, S. L.; Yesavage, T. A.; Bazilevskaya, E.



Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarized electronic absorption spectra of colourless chalcocyanite, CuSO4, have been measured using microscope-spectrometric techniques. The spectra are characterized by a structured and clearly polarized band system in the near-infrared spectral range with components centred at 11,720, 10,545, 9,100, and 7,320 cm-1, which have been assigned to crystal field d- d transitions of Cu2+ cations in pseudo-tetragonally elongated CuO6 polyhedra with point symmetry C i (). The polarization behaviour is interpreted based on a D 2( C 2?) pseudo-symmetry. Crystal field calculations were performed for the actual triclinic point symmetry by applying the Superposition Model of crystal fields, as well as in terms of a `classic' pseudo-tetragonal crystal field approach yielding the parameters Dq (eq) = 910, Dt = 395, and Ds = 1,336 cm-1, corresponding to a cubically averaged Dq cub = 679 cm-1. A comparative survey on crystal fields in Cu2+ minerals shows that the low overall crystal field strength in chalcocyanite, combined with a comparatively weak pseudo-tetragonal splitting of energy levels, is responsible for its unique colourless appearance among oxygen-based Cu2+ minerals. The weak crystal field in CuSO4 can be related to the lower position of the SO4 2- anion compared to, e.g. the H2O molecule in the spectrochemical series of ligands.

Wildner, Manfred; Giester, Gerald; Kersten, Monika; Langer, Klaus



Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

Rochelle, C.A. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK). Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))



The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey



Secondary Mineral Genesis from Chlorite and Serpentine in an Ultramafic Soil Toposequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

synthesis of smectite in poorly drained soils. For exam- ple, Istok and Harward (1982) found smectite, chlorite, The origin of secondary phyllosilicates in serpentinitic soils of dif- and serpentine within poorly drained soils, but found fering moisture regimes is incompletely understood. The objective of only serpentine and chlorite in well-drained upland soils. this study was to determine the genesis of

B. D. Lee; S. K. Sears; R. C. Graham; C. Amrhein; H. Vali



Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important geochemical reactions occur at the mineral-water interface, including sorption and desorption reactions of contaminants. Fundamental knowledge of the kinetics of these processes is based primarily on experimental observations of reactions at faces of single crystals or macroscopic data from pure mineral powder suspensions. Sorption reactions at crystal faces are generally very fast, on the order of microseconds or less, with reaction times often limited only by film diffusion at the mineral-water interface. In well-stirred suspensions of aquifer sediments, however, sorptive equilibrium can take many hours or days to achieve steady-state concentrations. We have examined the potential reasons for sorption rate limitation using uranium(VI) sorption by sediments from a sandy aquifer in Savannah River, South Carolina (USA). U(VI) sorption by sand-sized grains from the aquifer is dominated by reaction with secondary mineral coatings on quartz and feldspar grains. The coatings studied were on the order of 15 microns in thickness (i.e., from quartz grain to aqueous solution) and composed primarily of clay minerals and hematite of varying particle size. Microfocused-XRF imaging of elemental concentrations (e.g., U, Fe) of polished cross-sections of the grain/coating contact showed strong spatial correlations of U and Fe within the coatings, regardless of the length of reaction time (30 minutes to 4 weeks). The spatial resolution of the ?-XRF technique is of the order of 2 microns in horizontal directions, but the uncertainty of the observed spatial gradients is high due to grain curvature away from the polished surface and fluorescence contributed from the entire 30 micron thickness of a typical grain/epoxy thin section. TEM characterization of focused-ion-beam (FIB), vertically-extracted samples of the grain-coating contact shows that complex pore networks exist within the coatings of variable dimensions and unknown connectivity. Using scanning TEM (STEM) tomography, it can be seen that there are large numbers of pore throat sizes less than 10 nm within the coatings. We hypothesize that diffusion through these pores, which likely have electrically charged surfaces, controls the observed macroscopic rates of U(VI) sorption in batch experiments with sand grains. Evidence to support this hypothesis was observed by studying U and Fe fluorescence spatial variation within FIB samples (1 micron thick) at 200 nm spatial resolution. With this greater spatial resolution, it is possible to see U concentration variations within the coatings that are dependent on the time of sorption reaction, and illustrates how the coating environment constitutes a diffusion constraint to achieve adsorptive equilibrium between an aqueous phase and the mineral surfaces. Including this diffusion constraint within conceptual models for reactive contaminant transport may be significant at the field scale, because secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site. This is important in resolving long-term transport predictions at DOE sites, such as Hanford and Savannah River, where equilibrium versus kinetic reactive transport models are being evaluated.

Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.



Natural radionuclide mobility and its influence on U–Th–Pb dating of secondary minerals from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme U and Pb isotope variations produced by disequilibrium in decay chains of 238U and 232Th are found in calcite, opal\\/chalcedony, and Mn-oxides occurring as secondary mineral coatings in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These very slowly growing minerals (mmmy?1) contain excess 206Pb and 208Pb formed from excesses of intermediate daughter isotopes and cannot be used as reliable

L. A. Neymark; Y. V. Amelin



Effect of mineral dust on secondary organic aerosol yield and aerosol size in ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is a significant contributor to atmospheric particles, the role of mineral dust in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been fully recognized. In this study, alumina was chosen as the surrogate to investigate the effect of mineral dust on ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation in a 2 m3 smog chamber at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH). Results showed that alumina seeds could influence both the SOA yield and the aerosol size in the photo-oxidation process. Compared to the seed-free system, the presence of alumina seeds resulted in a slight reduction of SOA yield, and also influenced the final concentration of O3 in the chamber. As an important oxidant of ?-pinene, the decrease in O3 concentration could reduce the formation of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) and consequently inhibited SOA formation. In addition, the size of aerosol was closely related with the mass loading of alumina seeds. At low alumina concentration, SVOCs condensed onto the pre-existing seed surface and led to aerosol size growth. When alumina concentration exceeded about 5 ?g m-3, SVOC species that condensed to each seed particle were dispersed by alumina seeds, resulting in the decrease in aerosol size.

Liu, Chang; Chu, Biwu; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; He, Hong; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming



Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.



Water chemistry impacts on arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation: implications for managed aquifer recharge.  


Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic mobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is imperative to identify the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization during MAR. In this bench-scale study, arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite (FeAsS) was characterized for conditions relevant to MAR operations. Experimentally determined activation energies for arsenic mobilization from FeAsS under aerobic conditions were 36.9 ± 2.3 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium chloride, 40.8 ± 3.5 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium nitrate, and 43.6 ± 5.0 kJ/mol for secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. Interestingly, the sodium chloride system showed higher arsenic mobilization under aerobic conditions. In addition, secondary mineral precipitation varied among systems and further affected arsenic mobilization. For example, the wastewater system inhibited precipitation, while in the sodium chloride system, faster phase transformation of iron(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates was observed, resulting in hematite formation after 7 days. The phase transformation to hematite will result in less available surface area for arsenic attenuation. These new observations and activation energies can be useful to develop improved reactive transport models for the fate of arsenic during MAR, and develop strategies to minimize arsenic release. PMID:24621369

Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Schupp, Don; Jun, Young-Shin



A novel immunodeficiency syndrome as a rare cause of secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a diagnosis after 5 decades.  


Case report of a male patient with a five-decade follow-up history in a tertiary care hospital distinguished for malabsorption syndrome, failure-to-thrive, meningitis and recurrent bacterial, fungal and mycobacterial pulmonary infections. Additionally, he developed epidermodysplasia verruciformis, several in situ spinocellular carcinomas and an uncharacteristic parenchymal lung disease. Surgical lung biopsy suggested pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with fibrotic change. Retrospectively, severe monocytopenia had been overlooked in the past, as well as low B and NK cell blood counts. Flow cytometry confirmed the absence of the previous cell subsets along with an undetectable population of dendritic blood cells. Dendritic cell, monocyte, B and NK lymphoid Human Deficiency Syndrome (DCMLS) is a novel rare immunodeficiency described in 2010, linked to GATA-2 mutation. This syndrome should be highlighted as a rare cause of acquired PAP, with a radiological pattern encompassing potential fibrotic change. Failure to recognize monocytopenia may impede the chance to diagnose. PMID:24726085

Ferreira, Pedro G; Carvalho, Lina; Gamboa, Fernanda



Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions

E. J. OLoughlin; Christopher A. Gorski; Michelle M. Scherer; Maxim I. Boyanov; Kenneth M. Kemner



The role of secondary minerals in controlling the migration of arsenic and metals from high-sulfide wastes (Berikul gold mine, Siberia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of secondary minerals in controlling the migration of As, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd has been investigated in piles of high-sulfide waste at the Berikul Au mine, Kemerovo region, Russia. These wastes contain 40–45 wt.% sulfides and have been stored for approximately 50 a near the Mokry Berikul river. Sulfide oxidation generates acid pore solutions (pH=1.7) with high

R Gieré; N. V Sidenko; E. V Lazareva



Surviving sudden cardiac death secondary to anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: a case report and literature review.  


Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is an uncommon type of congenital coronary anomaly. In adults, the clinical picture of ALCAPA varies widely between being asymptomatic, presenting similarly to other heart diseases, or as malignant arrhythmias. Patients who have cardiac arrest are usually young and do not exhibit prior warning symptoms. In this article we describe a case of a 22-year-old healthy male, who experienced cardiac arrest during exertion. He was then diagnosed with ALCAPA, which was surgically corrected. PMID:25012636

Alsara, Osama; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K; Hajjar, Victor; Alsarah, Ahmad; Cho, Nam; Dhar, Gaurav



Pulmonary angiography  


... narrowing of the pulmonary vessels Pulmonary artery aneurysms Pulmonary hypertension -- high blood pressure in the arteries of the ... the lungs (pulmonary embolism) Narrowed blood vessel Primary pulmonary hypertension Tumor in the lung


Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner.  


Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers. PMID:20029040

Thrumurthy, S G; Kearney, S; Sissons, M; Haider, Y



Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)?1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)?0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)?4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22?2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ?1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ?4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ?2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika



Assessment of toxic potential of primary and secondary particulates/aerosols from biodiesel vis-à-vis mineral diesel fuelled engine.  


Toxicity of engine out emissions from primary and secondary aerosols has been a major cause of concern for human health and environmental impact. This study aims to evaluate comparative toxicity of nanoparticles emitted from a modern common rail direct injection engine (CRDI) fuelled with biodiesel blend (B20) vis-à-vis mineral diesel. The toxicity and potential health hazards of exhaust particles were assessed using various parameters such as nanoparticle size and number distribution, surface area distribution, elemental and organic carbon content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the particle surfaces, followed by toxic equivalent factor assessment. It was found that biodiesel particulate toxicity was considerably lower in comparison to mineral diesel. PMID:23631768

Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Dixit, Neelabh; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra



Enhancing Subsoil Root Activity and Uptake of Mineral N by Gypsum Applications to Secondary Forests Regenerating from Degraded Pastures in Central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of primary tropical forest to pasture radically alters belowground nutrient capture potential. In the absence of deep rooting, these changes can lead to the loss of mobile anions to the subsoil. Abandonment of pastures to invading secondary vegetation may result in the regeneration of some of the original belowground processes and retrieval of previously inaccessible N anions. We hypothesized that gypsum applications increases SF rooting depth and results in a greater portion of total N uptake from subsoil. We applied the following treatments to two replicates of three post-pasture SF age classes: phosphorus (50 kg P/ha as TSP), P + lime (2 t CaCO3/ha), P + lime + gypsum (1 t CaSO4/ha) and an unfertilized control. We sampled soil mineral N concentrations at 10, 150, and 300 cm depth. The youngest SF had less surface mineral N compared to the older forests. Greater surface NO3 and NH4 values in the older SF are reflective of reported increasing total soil N stocks with forest regrowth. Gypsum additions increase subsoil (150 - 180 cm depth) root activity and water uptake. However, our results demonstrated that rather than increasing subsoil N uptake by roots, gypsum applications resulted in 50 % or greater NO3 and NH4 concentrations at 150 cm depth than the other fertilizer treatments. Higher concentrations could be the result of enhanced root production and root turnover, more N mineralization at the topsoil, and/or loss of mobile N anions from surface layers. Secondary forests regrowing from pastures have the potential to increase total soil N rapidly (Feldpausch et al. in review) and prevent mobile N anions from leaching beyond the rooting zone. The more mature SF maintained higher NO3 and NH4 concentrations than the youngest forests, predominately in the first 10 cm. Gypsum can increase subsoil NO3 and NH4 concentrations, which may have important implications to nutrient manage in N-deficient systems.

Feldpausch, T. R.; Fernandes, E. C.; Lehmann, J.



Mineral catalyzed organic synthesis in hydrothermal systems: An experimental study using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal fluids enriched in hydrocarbons of apparent abiotic origin vent from Fe-Ni sulfide bearing chimney structures on the seafloor at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges. Here we show results from a hydrothermal experiment using carbon isotope labeling techniques and mineral analytical data that indicate that pentlandite ((Fe2Ni7)S8) enhances formation of C2 and C3 alkanes, while also contributing to the formation of other more complex hydrocarbons, such as alcohols and carboxylic acids. ToF-SIMS data reveal the existence of isotopically anomalous carbon on the pentlandite surface, and thus, for the first time, provide unambiguous evidence that mineral catalyzed surface reactions play a role in carbon reduction schemes under hydrothermal conditions. We hypothesize that hydroxymethylene (-CHOH) serves as intermediary facilitating formation of more complex organic compounds. The experimental results provide an explanation for organic synthesis in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems on earth, and on other water-enriched planetary bodies as well.

Fu, Qi; Foustoukos, Dionysios I.; Seyfried, William E.



Tumors of the Pulmonary Vascular Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary or secondary tumors of the lung can affect all levels of the pulmonary vascular bed, including the pulmonary arteries,\\u000a veins, and capillaries. Most primary tumors of the pulmonary vasculature are poorly differentiated, highly fatal sarcomas\\u000a of the large main pulmonary arteries and veins. Pulmonary arterial sarcoma (PAS) is far more prevalent than its venous counterpart,\\u000a although both arterial and

Eunhee S. Yi


2D imaging in a 3D world: Observing sub-grain scale variations and secondary mineral precipitates in reacted pore networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in 3D imaging techniques and analysis methods, and easier access to benchtop 3D X-ray microscopes, have led to a proliferation of 3D imaging studies of chemical alterations within porous media. However, 2D imaging methods continue to offer complementary insights into processes controlling sub-grain scale variations in mineralogy and intragranular porosity that are often difficult to observe with 3D methods. For example, 2D imaging studies of mineral precipitation-induced changes in the pore network structure including detailed observations of distributions of secondary mineral precipitates can be coupled with 3D image analysis of a pore network to determine the pore properties required to infer permeability. In this work, the combined advantages of 2D and 3D imaging methods are highlighted through 3D X-ray Computed Microtomography (X-ray CT) and 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of a reacted column experiment in the context of the Hanford, WA site and a sedimentary rock sample from the Alberta basin. Both samples were imaged using 3D X-ray CT imaging at a voxel resolution of 4 ?m and analyzed using 3DMA Rock to determine pore and throat size distributions as well as pore coordination numbers. Polished sections were then created from each sample and imaged using 2D SEM imaging with resolutions of 0.4 ?m for the reacted column and an order of magnitude larger for the sedimentary rock. 2D images were analyzed using an erosion dilation method to determine pore and throat size distributions that were then corrected using sample-specific bias correction factors. The permeability of each sample was predicted from pore network models informed with the 2D or 3D pore and throat size distributions and the coordination numbers determined from the 3D analysis. Differences in 2D and 3D image resolutions resulted in over- or under- estimating small pore throats and led to predicted permeabilities that differed by orders of magnitude. For both samples, higher resolution images resulted in over-estimating small pore throats and under-estimating expected permeability. While higher resolution images are generally favored, they may not improve predictions of permeability as they require additional processing to distinguish small flow-conducting pore throats from surface roughness features. While 3D imaging is required to determine the network coordination, 2D imaging is necessary to understand where secondary minerals precipitate within the pore network and to quantify sub-grain scale variations. These advantages are demonstrated through SEM imaging of polished sections from the reacted column experiment. 2D images revealed that secondary mineral precipitates occurred as a relatively uniform coating on grain surfaces, unrelated to mineralogy, pore size, or other factors. SEM images also revealed new observations of sub-grain scale variations that showed that Hanford sand grains have a high amount of intragranular porosity and mineral precipitates formed in intragranular regions. These observations, which are important to understanding the reactive system, could not have been made if 3D imaging was used exclusively.

Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.



Atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in hypoxic secondary pulmonary hypertension: relation to haemodynamic and blood gas variables and response to supplemental oxygen.  

PubMed Central

Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, measured in samples drawn from the pulmonary artery, were raised in nine of 17 patients with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension but normal right atrial pressures at rest. No relationship was seen between atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and mean pulmonary artery or right atrial pressure, or calculated pulmonary or systemic vascular resistance. Patients with the most severe hypoxaemia tended to have higher plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations; three patients with no past history of oedema had concentrations more than twice the upper limit of normal. Treatment with supplementary oxygen for 30 minutes reduced pulmonary vascular resistance in all patients but had no significant effect on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration. These findings suggest that atrial natriuretic peptide may be a factor in the control of sodium and water balance in hypoxic cor pulmonale, where the determinants of individual susceptibility to peripheral oedema are not well understood. PMID:2522688

Winter, R J; Davidson, A C; Treacher, D; Rudd, R M; Anderson, J V; Meleagros, L; Bloom, S R



Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.  

SciTech Connect

Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. 'Fast' Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d-1] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having 'low' cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with 'high' cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d-1] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction.

O'Loughlin, E. J.; Gorski, C. A.; Scherer, M. M.; Boyanov, M. I.; Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Iowa



Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.  


Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. "Fast" Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having "low" cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with "high" cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction. PMID:20476735

O'Loughlin, Edward J; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M



Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra ( of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

Crowley, J. K.; Williams, D. E.; Hammarstrom1, J. M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J. C.; Chou, I-Ming



Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of 18O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Hanford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filling vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the 18O content of ground water at the time the mineral assemblage formed. A fossil profile of ??18O values projected for ground water in a 1500 m vertical section beneath the reservation suggests that the vertical mixing of shallow and deep ground water indicated by present-day hydrochemical data was also occurring during Neogene time. These data also suggest that a unidirectional depletion of 18O and deuterium recorded in Pleistocene ground waters may have extended considerably further back in time. This shift is tentatively attributed to the orographic depletion of 18O associated with the progressive uplift of the Cascade Range since the middle Miocene. -Authors

Hearn, Jr, P. P.; Steinkampf, W. C.; Horton, D. G.; Solomon, G. C.; White, L. D.; Evans, J. R.



The prostaglandin challenge. Test to unmask obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connections in asplenia syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patient with complex congenital heart disease, severe pulmonary outflow obstruction, and visceral heterotaxia, may have 'silent' obstruction of the pulmonary venous return. Severe reduction of pulmonary blood flow secondary to pulmonary stenosis or atresia in such patients may prevent the usual radiographic appearance of pulmonary oedema. If such obstructed anomalous pulmonary venous connections are not diagnosed before operation, construction

R M Freedom; P M Olley; F Coceani; R D Rowe



Chronic Pulmonary Embolism Mimicking Pulmonary Angiosarcoma  

E-print Network

We present the case of a 41-year-old woman who presented with chest pain. CT for possible pulmonary embolism showed a mass filling the left main pulmonary artery, with imaging features suggestive of pulmonary angiosarcoma. Open thoracotomy for excision of the mass revelaed no mass, only evidence of a chronic pulmonary thrombus of the left pulmonary artery. We conclude that the radiologic features of chronic pulmonary thrombus may mimick those of pulmonary angiosarcoma. Case Report A 41-year-old woman presented to the emergency department complaining of a three-day history of leftsided chest pain. The pain was described as pressurelike, pleuritic, made worse with ambulation and when supine. It was constant, increasing in intensity and not associated with any alleviating factors, hence her request for evaluation. She had denied any history of trauma, fevers, cough, night sweats nor hemoptisis. She denied any dyspepsia, and noted no relief of her symptoms with over-the-counter antacids. Six weeks prior to the onset of her chest pain she had complained of right hip pain, radiating down the leg. This was diagnosed as radicular pain secondary to sciatica for which she had been under bed rest and analgesics. This slowly improved, and she had reinitiated full ambulation about two weeks preceding her presentation. Her past medical history was remarkable for depres-Citation: Perez-Lozada JCL, Torstenson G. Chronic pulmonary embolism mimicking pulmonary angiosarcoma. Radiology Case Reports. [Online] 2008;3:148. Copyright: © 2008 The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License, which permits reproduction and distribution, provided the original work is properly cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted.

Juan Carlos Le; Ro Perez Lozada; Guy Torstenson


Epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


Changes in the epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have resulted from changes in classification schemes and an increased emphasis on diagnosis because of the availability of effective therapies. The terms primary pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension are considered inappropriate, confusing, and should not be used. Recent registries of patients with PAH have provided improved data regarding prognosis in the era of advanced therapies. PMID:24267294

Taichman, Darren B; Mandel, Jess



Pulmonary dirofilariasis: report of a human case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dirofilaria immitis (dog heartworm) principally infests canine hosts. However, human pulmonary dirofilariasis is being reported with increasing frequency, and the following case illustrates essential features of the disease. It typically presents as a solitary pulmonary nodule without symptoms and invariably requires pulmonary resection to differentiate it from primary or secondary malignancy.

H K Leonardi; J D Lapey; F H Ellis



What other anomalies? Failure to wean post ventricular septal defect repair secondary to anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.  


A six week old infant underwent ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect closure. Preoperative echocardiography showed evidence of pulmonary hypertension. The post operative course was complicated failure to wean from ventilatory and inotropic support. Echocardiography showed severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and suggested some fistulous drainage of the left coronary artery into the right pulmonary artery; this anomalous drainage of the left coronary artery into the right pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) was confirmed with coronary angiogram. Re-implantation of the left coronary artery into the aorta was performed. Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was required to allow time for ventricular recovery. Supports were weaned gradually, with concurrent evidence of LV recovery and the child was discharged on postoperative day 30. ALCAPA is rare and typically presents at 8 weeks of age with symptoms of heart failure, as pulmonary pressure falls leading to myocardial ischaemia due to myocardial hypoperfusion with relatively desaturated blood. In our case the pulmonary hypertension and left to right shunt preoperatively were protective, maintaining forward flow of relatively oxygenated blood. While protective to the myocardium this made the preoperative diagnosis of ALCAPA difficult, as there was no flow reversal on Doppler echocardiography. Closure of the septal defects meant this protective effect was lost, with subsequent severe myocardial ischaemia and heart failure. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of ALCAPA, the 'protective' effects of pulmonary hypertension with ALCAPA, and the importance of early cardiac catheterization in the setting of unexplained failure to wean post cardiac surgery. PMID:22229525

Callaghan, Michael Andrew; O'Hare, Brendan; Casey, William



Pulmonary valve stenosis  


... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...


Lower fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in young adults with Crohn disease as a possible secondary compensatory effect on the disturbance of bone and mineral metabolism.  


Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a bone-derived circulating phosphaturic factor that decreases serum concentration of phosphate and vitamin D, suggested to actively participate in a complex renal-gastrointestinal-skeletal axis. Serum FGF-23 concentrations, as well as various other laboratory parameters involved in bone homeostasis, were measured and analyzed with regard to various diseases and patients' characteristics in 44 patients with Crohn disease (CD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) included in this cross-sectional study. Serum FGF-23 levels were significantly lower in patients with CD (900.42 ± 815.85pg/mL) compared with HC (1410.94 ± 1000.53pg/mL), p = 0.037. Further analyses suggested FGF-23 as a factor independent from various parameters including age (r = -0.218), body mass index (r = -0.115), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (r = 0.126), parathyroid hormone (r = 0.084), and bone mineral density (BMD) of hip and lumbar (r = 0.205 and r = 0.149, respectively). This observation remained even after multivariate analyses, exhibiting that BMD was not affected by FGF-23, although parameters such as age (p = 0.026), cumulative prednisolone dose (p < 0.0001), and smoking status (p = 0.024) were strong determinants of BMD regarding hip. Lower FGF-23 levels in patients with bowel inflammation are accompanied but not directly correlated with lower vitamin D levels, showing no impact on BMD determination of young adults with CD. The downregulation of serum FGF-23 levels in CD appears as a secondary compensatory effect on the bone and mineral metabolism induced by chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:23623649

Oikonomou, Konstantinos A; Orfanidou, Timoklia I; Vlychou, Marianna K; Kapsoritakis, Andreas N; Tsezou, Aspasia; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Potamianos, Spyros P



Acute hemodynamic effects of inhaled nitric oxide, dobutamine and a combination of the two in patients with mild to moderate secondary pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of low-dose dobutamine to maintain hemodynamic stability in pulmonary hypertension may have a detrimental effect on gas exchange. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhaled nitric oxide (INO), dobutamine and a combination of the two have beneficial effects in patients with end-stage airway lung disease and pulmonary hypertension. Method Hemodynamic evaluation was assessed 10 min after the administration of each drug and of their combination, in 28 candidates for lung transplantation. Results Administration of INO caused a reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), an increase in PaO2 with a significant reduction in venous admixture effect (Qs/Qt).Dobutamine administration caused an increase in cardiac index and MPAP, with a decrease in PaO2 as a result of a higher Qs/Qt. Administration of a combination of the two drugs caused an increase in the cardiac index without MPAP modification and an increase in PaO2 and Qs/Qt. Conclusion Dobutamine and INO have complementary effects on pulmonary circulation. Their association may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate pulmonary hypertension. PMID:11737925

Vizza, Carmine D; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Roma, Di Angelo; Iacoboni, Carlo; Pierconti, Federico; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino; Schmid, Giovanni; Pietropaoli, Paolo; Fedele, Francesco




SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.



Pulmonary hypertension  


... become larger. This condition is called right-sided heart failure, or cor pulmonale. Pulmonary hypertension may be caused ... heart Blood clots in the lung ( pulmonary embolism ) Heart failure Heart valve disease HIV infection Low oxygen levels ...


Pulmonary embolus  


Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... pulmonary embolus is most often caused by a blood clot in a vein. The most common blood ...


Pulmonary dirofilariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Pulmonary dirofilariasis is a rare entity caused by Dirofilaria immitis, the dog heartworm that is transmitted to humans by mosquitos. This filarial nematode enters the subcutaneous tissue, travels to the right ventricle where it dies, and then embolizes the pulmonary vasculature, causing a small pulmonary infarction, which subsequently appears as a solitary nodule. Although these nodules are usually identified

Alberto Echeverri; Robert F Long; William Check; Clay M Burnett



Mineral County Secondary Data Analysis  

E-print Network

% 7% 62% 13% Gender1 Male Female Male Female Male Female 50.8% 49.2% 50.1% 49.9% 49.2% 50 prevalence (Heart Attack) 4.0% 4.1% 6.0% All Sites Cancer 466.5 455.5 543.2 1 Community Health Data, MT, Missoula, and Ravalli Chronic Disease Hospitalization Rates County Montana Stroke1 Per 100

Maxwell, Bruce D.


Australian Mineral Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

Crowe, D. S.




PubMed Central

1. Bilateral cervical vagotomy in rabbits soon leads to death, usually within 8 to 24 hours. 2. Gradually increasing dyspnea, crises with expulsion of frothy, serous or sanguineous fluid from the mouth and nose, and terminal asphyxia are the important clinical features. 3. Postmortem examination reveals severe acute pulmonary edema and congestion, variable amounts of bronchopneumonia, and evidences of aspiration of food and secretions. This picture is similar to that found in the lungs in the bulbar form of poliomyelitis. 4. These changes are brought about by a combination of factors secondary to bilateral vagotomy: laryngeal paralysis (aspiration of food, slow asphyxia); loss of the vagal innervation of the lungs. 5. Laryngeal paralysis is not an essential factor in the production of severe pulmonary edema and death following bilateral cervical vagotomy. 6. To denote the pathogenesis of this type of edema, the term neuropathic pulmonary edema is employed. PMID:19870671

Farber, Sidney



Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1?mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5?mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. PMID:25389504

Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul



Case report: coronary steal secondary to a left main coronary artery-pulmonary artery fistula only manifest after coronary artery bypass surgery.  


We report the case of a 64 year old man with two vessel coronary artery disease and a left main coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, but the coronary artery fistula was not closed. He developed recurrent angina due to coronary steal from the distal left anterior descending artery by the maturing coronary artery fistula. This was closed percutaneously by stenting the left main coronary artery with covered stents. The clinical implications and potential mechanisms of the coronary steal due to the coronary artery fistula are discussed. PMID:19410310

Murphy, Brian P; Gilbert, Tim



High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 ?g L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 ?g L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 ?g L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 ?g L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the groundwater of marine origin are, in contrast, explained by relatively fast cation exchange reactions. As indicated by the field data and predicted by 1D solute transport modeling, alkali cations with low-energy hydration carried by intruding marine water are capable of (NH4+ in particular and K+ to some extent) replacing Cs+ on frayed edge (FES) sites on illite in the fracture coatings. The result is a rapid and persistent (at least in the order of decades) buildup of dissolved Cs concentrations in fractures where marine water flows downward. The identification of high Cs concentrations in young groundwater of marine origin and the predicted capacity of NH4+ to displace Cs from fracture solids are of particular relevance in the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock.

Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.



Effects of bound phosphate on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3) and formation of secondary minerals.  


Natural Fe(III) oxides typically contain a range of trace elements including P. Although solution phase and adsorbed P (as phosphate) have been shown to impact the bioreduction of Fe(III) oxides and the formation of "biogenic" secondary minerals, little is known about the potential effects of occluded/incorporated phosphate. We have examined the bioreduction of Fe(III) oxides (lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3)) containing 0-3 mass% P as "bound" (a term we use to include both adsorbed and occluded/incorporated) phosphate. Kinetic dissolution studies showed congruent release of Fe and P, suggesting that the phosphate in these materials was incorporated within the particles; however, 53% or 86% of the total phosphate associated with the lepidocrocites containing 0.7 or 3 mass% P, respectively, was extracted with 0.1 M NaOH and can be considered to be adsorbed, both to exterior surfaces and within micropores. In the absence of phosphate, lepidocrocite was rapidly reduced to magnetite by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and over time the magnetite was partially transformed to ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC). The presence of 0.2-0.7 mass% P significantly inhibited the initial reduction of lepidocrocite but ultimately resulted in greater Fe(II) production and the formation of carbonate green rust. The bioreduction of maghemite with and without bound phosphate resulted in solid-state conversion to magnetite, with subsequent formation of FHC. We also examined the potential redox cycling of green rust under alternating Fe(III)-reducing and oxic conditions. Oxidation of biogenic green rust by O2 resulted in conversion to ferric green rust, which was readily reduced back to green rust by S. putrefaciens CN32. These results indicate the potential for cycling of green rust between reduced and oxidized forms under redox dynamics similar to those encountered in environments that alternate between iron-reducing and oxic conditions, and they are consistent with the identification of green rust in soils/sediments with seasonal redox cycling. PMID:23909690

O'Loughlin, Edward J; Boyanov, Maxim I; Flynn, Theodore M; Gorski, Christopher A; Hofmann, Scott M; McCormick, Michael L; Scherer, Michelle M; Kemner, Kenneth M



Ten-year follow-up of a patient with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome and recurrent cerebral abscess secondary to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, one of us (MJM) published an article discussing several patients with Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome or hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia with secondary cerebral complications. These were intracerebral haemorrhage, ischaemic infarct and intracerebral abscess. We outlined the background of the syndrome as well as its genotype and predicted an increasingly important role for genetic testing. Our aim in this paper is to

Stephen T. Byrne; Matthew J. McDonald; Santosh I. Poonnoose



Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J.A. Barbera `, V.I. Peinado, S. Santos. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its presence is associated with shorter survival and worse clinical evolution. In COPD, pulmonary hypertension tends to be of moderate severity and progresses slowly. However, transitory increases of pulmonary

J. A. Barbera; V. I. Peinado; S. Santos



Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: a rare anterior mediastinal mass.  


Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare pulmonary vascular lesions which are associated with Osler Weber Rendu syndrome (hereditary haemorrhagic telangectasia). They act as right-to-left shunts and have cardiovascular and embolic complications. We present a patient with an apparent anterior mediastinal mass secondary to a pulmonary arteriovenous malformations which was successfully treated percutaneously. PMID:23043574

Walklin, Ryan Patrick; Entwisle, James; Cheung, Ying Kei; Dayal, Viswas



Pulmonary myelolipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelolipoma is an extremely rare, benign pulmonary lesion, usually presenting as an asymptomatic pulmonary nodule. We describe myelolipoma of the lung in a 54-year-old man, present on roentgenogram for 20 years, and we review the natural history, pathology, diagnosis, and management of such lesions.

Carlos J Sabate; David M Shahian



Pulmonary dirofilariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis in 39 patients are presented. The patients, all Americans, were between 8 and 80 years old (median, 58 years), including 23 men and 16 women. Twenty-two patients were asymptomatic (56%), and the pulmonary nodule was discovered on chest radiographs during a routine physical examination. Seventeen patients (44%) presented with respiratory symptoms or systemic complaints. Peripheral

Douglas B Flieder; César A Moran



The distribution of secondary mineral phases along an eroding hillslope and its effect on carbon stabilization mechanisms and the fate of soil carbon fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil redistribution processes can change soil carbon (C) dynamics drastically by moving carbon from high decomposition and re-sequestration environments at the eroding hillslope to low decomposition and burial at the depositional footslope and valley basin. This leads to not only spatially diverse soil carbon storage throughout the landscape, but also to qualitative changes of the transported carbon and the mineral phase. The interaction between those parameters and the effect on stabilization mechanisms for soil C are still a matter of debate. Here, we present an analysis that aims to clarify the bio/geo-chemical and mineralogical components involved in stabilizing C at various depths along an eroding cropped slope and how this affects the abundance of microbial derived carbon. We use the results of an incubation experiment combined with the abundance of amino sugars in different isolated soil C fractions as a tracer for the stability of the respective fraction. We applied further (i) a sequential extraction of the reactive soil phase using pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, and (ii) a qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, to analyze the changes in the mineral phase for the different isolated fractions along the slope transect. Our results emphasize the importance of physical protection within microaggregates to stabilize buried, chemically labile C. Our data further indicates that the stability of these aggregates is related to the presence of organo-mineral associations and poorly crystalline minerals. However, decreasing contents of these minerals with depth indicate a temporal limitation of this stabilization mechanism. Non-expandable clay minerals experience a relative enrichment at the depositional site while expandable clay minerals experience the same at the eroding site. These changes in clay mineralogy along the slope are partly responsible for the abundance of silt and clay associated C and the effectiveness of the clay fractions to stabilize C. In summary, our data clearly show that a variety of stabilization mechanisms together with changes in the organic and the mineral phase of soils need to be considered to understand this highly dynamic environment.

Doetterl, Sebastian; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Opfergelt, Sophie; Boeckx, Pascal; Bodé, Samuel; Six, Johan; Van Oost, Kristof



Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.  


Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are abnormal vascular structures that most often connect a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, bypassing the normal pulmonary capillary bed and resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. As a consequence, patients with PAVM can have hypoxemia and paradoxical embolization complications, including stroke and brain abscess. PAVMs may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, and simple or complex. Most PAVMs are hereditary and occur in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, an autosomal dominant vascular disorder, and screening for PAVM is indicated in this subgroup. PAVMs may also be idiopathic, occur as a result of trauma and infection, or be secondary to hepatopulmonary syndrome and bidirectional cavopulmonary shunting. Diagnostic testing involves identifying an intrapulmonary shunt, with the most sensitive test being transthoracic contrast echocardiography. Chest CT scan is useful in characterizing PAVM in patients with positive intrapulmonary shunting. Transcatheter embolotherapy is the treatment of choice for PAVM. Lifelong follow-up is important because recanalization and collateralization may occur after embolization therapy. Surgical resection is rarely necessary and reserved for patients who are not candidates for embolization. Antibiotic prophylaxis for procedures with a risk of bacteremia (eg, dental procedures) is recommended in all patients with PAVM because of the risk of cerebral abscess. PMID:24008954

Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Swanson, Karen L; Krowka, Michael J



Pulmonary thromboembolism after one and a half ventricle repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute pulmonary thromboembolism in a patient who had undergone bidirectional Glenn anastomosis was treated by percutaneous\\u000a selective intravascular thrombolysis. A 20-year-old woman was diagnosed with pulmonary stenosis and right ventricular hypoplasia,\\u000a complete occlusion of the left pulmonary artery secondary to a Blalock-Taussig shunt, and atrial septal defect. The patient\\u000a developed thromboembolism of the subsegmental branches of the right pulmonary artery

Koji Nomura; Hiromi Kurosawa; Kiyozo Morita; Kei Tanaka; Shogo Shimizu



Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.  


This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J



Critical ostial left main and right coronary artery stenosis secondary to takayasu arteritis in a young female simulating pulmonary embolism at presentation.  


A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with sudden-onset chest pain. Thirty-six hours earlier, she was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism, for which anticoagulation was started. Evaluation was significant for atrial fibrillation, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and echocardiography demonstrating a new wall motion abnormality. Symptoms resolved with spontaneous conversion to normal sinus rhythm and the patient was initiated on intravenous heparin and eptifibatide, followed by admission. Shortly after admission, the patient experienced recurrent chest pain with dynamic electrocardiographic (ECG) changes that prompted emergent cardiac catheterization. Prior to angiography, the patient developed pulseless cardiac arrest for which advanced cardiac lifesaving (ACLS) techniques were initiated. Coronary angiography showed critical ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. Despite transient periods of hemodynamic stability after successful stenting, the patient decompensated and was pronounced dead. Postmortem findings were consistent with Takayasu arteritis (TA). TA involving the coronary arteries is rare, presenting in fewer than 5% of cases. Diagnosis relies heavily on clinical suspicion. For our patient, dynamic ECG changes with wall motion abnormalities visible on echocardiography prompted diagnostic/therapeutic cardiac catheterization and stenting. Management involves high-dose systemic steroid therapy. However, due to recurrence of disease and adverse effects of prolonged steroid use, additional disease-modifying agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine, or cyclophosphamide may be used. With appropriate therapy, short-term prognosis is favorable. This case underlines the importance of having a high clinical suspicion for TA in the young female population with ischemic symptoms in order to allow early diagnosis in hopes of preventing further complications. PMID:23388240

Lee, Joshua S; Mount, George R; Schachter, David T



Primary Pulmonary Hypertension  


... ENews Home > Lung Disease > Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare lung ... Lung Association also provides patients with information about pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In-Depth Resources Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment ...


Fourier transform infrared studies of secondary structure and orientation of pulmonary surfactant SP-C and its effect on the dynamic surface properties of phospholipids  

SciTech Connect

SP-C, a highly hydrophobic, 3.7-kDa protein constituent of lung surfactant, has been isolated from bovine lung lavage, purified, and reconstituted into binary lipid mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPC). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been applied to examine SP-C secondary structure, the average orientation of {alpha}-helical segments relative to the bilayer normal in membrane films, and the effect of protein on the thermotropic properties of the phospholipid acyl chains. The helical segments exhibited an average angle of orientation of about 24{degree} with respect to the bilayer normal, suggesting a trans-bilayer orientation of the peptide. The observation that 70% of the peptide bond hydrogens are hard to exchange in D{sub 2}O further reflects the hydrophobic nature of the molecule. SP-C produced little effect on the thermotropic properties of the binary lipid mixture, as measured from acyl chain C-H and C-D stretching frequencies. However, the presence of 1 mol% protein markedly reduced the viscance and increased the elasticity of surface films, suggesting a mechanism by which SP-C facilitates the spreading of phospholipids on an aqueous surface. The possible physiological consequences of these observations are discussed.

Pastrana, B.; Mendelsohn, R. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark (United States)); Mautone, A.J. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (United States))



Mineral Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help you to learn minerals! This module has two modes: an overview that takes you through some of the fundamentals of minerals and an interactive model that allows you to build your own virtual minerals.



Malnutrition secondary to non-compliance with vitamin and mineral supplements after gastric bypass surgery: What can we do about it?  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Nutritional deficiency due to loss of follow up and non-compliance with routine mineral and multivitamin supplements is not uncommonly encountered following bariatric surgery. In this report, and utilizing a case study, we will address issues related to loss of long term medical follow up and the measures that can be taken to prevent it in this patient population. Case Report: The case of a 38-year-old female patient who was recently managed for severe vitamin deficiency and iron deficiency anemia following bariatric surgery is presented. Non-compliance with routine vitamin and mineral supplements was believed to be the main culprit of her condition. Articles published in English addressing issues related to non-compliance with supplementations and regular follow up after bariatric surgery were accessed from PubMed and are discussed. Conclusions: Multiple factors affecting long term follow up and compliance have been studied including age, financial costs, distance from the clinic and psychiatric comorbidities. Preventive measures have also been tested and some of them have shown significant benefit. More research is needed to identify other modifiable factors and preventive measures influencing compliance and long term follow up following bariatric surgery. PMID:23569531

Ahmad, Dina S.; Esmadi, Mohammad; Hammad, Hazem



Pulmonary Complications in Patients with Severe Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary complications are prevalent in the critically ill neurological population. Respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), pulmonary edema, pulmonary contusions and pneumo/hemothorax, and pulmonary embolism are frequently encountered in the setting of severe brain injury. Direct brain injury, depressed level of consciousness and inability to protect the airway, disruption of natural defense barriers, decreased mobility, and secondary neurological insults inherent to severe brain injury are the main cause of pulmonary complications in critically ill neurological patients. Prevention strategies and current and future therapies need to be implemented to avoid and treat the development of these life-threatening medical complications. PMID:23133746

Lee, Kiwon; Rincon, Fred



[Pulmonary metastasis of an ameloblastoma].  


We report the observation of a 78 year old patient who had a plexiform ameloblastoma since the age of 38. A systematic pulmonary radiographic examination revealed multiple dense nodules like "cannon ball secondaries". However the histology of these pulmonary nodules, obtained by open lung biopsy, was identical with the primary tumour and showed no evidence of malignancy. The dispersion to the lungs was probably explained by inhalation of tumour cells, itself favoured by 8 surgical curettages. The progress of these pulmonary lesions was as slow as the primary tumour. No therapeutic trial was attempted on the grounds of age, perfect clinical tolerance and the absence of any known therapeutic protocol which would be active. PMID:4012010

Hyvernat, P; Ollagnier, C; Freidel, M; Guibert, B; Rochet, M



Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.


Ore Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Perkins, Dexter


Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)



Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism during winter in pre-menopausal Bangladeshi and Somali immigrant and ethnic Finnish women: associations with forearm bone mineral density.  


Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the outcomes of vitamin D deficiency that negatively affects bone metabolism. We studied the ethnic differences in vitamin D status in Finland and its effect on serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) concentration and bone traits. The study was done in the Helsinki area (60°N) during January-February 2008. A total of 143 healthy women (20-48 years of age) from two groups of immigrant women (Bangladeshi, n 34 and Somali, n 48), and a group of ethnic Finnish women (n 61) were studied in a cross-sectional setting. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) and S-iPTH were measured. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements were taken at 4 and 66 % of the forearm length. In all groups, the distribution of S-25OHD was shifted towards the lower limit of the normal range. A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (S-25OHD < 50 nmol/l) was observed (89·6 %) in the Somali group. The prevalence of SHPT (S-iPTH>65 ng/l) was higher (79·1 %) in Somali women than in Finnish women (16 %). There was a significant association between S-25OHD and S-iPTH (r - 0·49, P < 0·001). Ethnicity and S-25OHD together explained 30 % of the variation in S-iPTH. The total bone mass at all sites of the forearm, fracture load and stress-strain index was higher (P < 0·001) in Bangladeshi and Finnish women than in Somali women. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, SHPT and low bone status in Somali women indicates a higher risk of osteoporosis. PMID:21824446

Islam, Md Zahirul; Viljakainen, Heli T; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Saarnio, Elisa; Laitinen, Kalevi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel



Regulation of Pulmonary Vascular Tone in Health and Disease: Special emphasis on exercise and pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

High bloodpressure in the pulmonary circulation is \\u000acalled pulmonary hypertension (PH). In patients with PH, the balance \\u000abetween vasodilators and vasoconstrictors is disturbed. PH is an \\u000aimportant cause of death; it is characterized by elevated levels of \\u000apulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. \\u000aSecondary PH occurs after myocardial infarction and is often the \\u000acause of eventual right ventricular failure.

B. Houweling



mineral sorters  

SciTech Connect

This article describes different types of mineral sorters used to preconcentrate run-of-mine ore. This method of preconcentration is feasible when the mineralized particles are liberated at a relatively coarse rock size, suitable for sorter processing, and when there is a reliable difference in a specific physical property between the valuable minerals and waste. This article reviews some of the latest models and applications of mineral sorting equipment, including those operating on photometric, radiometric, electrostatic and conductivity-magnetic principles.

Sassos, M.P.



Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

Mineralogy 4 Kids; America, Mineralogical S.


Mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

Furby, N. W.



Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Wood, Mr.



Solubilization of magnesium-bearing silicate minerals and the subsequent formation of glushinskite by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes may play a substantial role in the weathering and alteration of minerals. However, not enough concerns have been realized about the complexity of microbe-mineral interactions. The present work reports the interactions between fungi and minerals with emphasis on the role of silicate minerals as the metal donor for the precipitation of secondary mineral. Herein, two magnesium-bearing silicate minerals with

Lin Cai; Hou-Rong Xiao; Shu-Ming Huang; Han Li; Gen-Tao Zhou



[Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis].  


A clinicomorphological analysis of 41 pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (PLAM) cases has been performed. Focal (7 cases) and diffuse (34 cases) forms were identified. Expression of NMB-45, desmin, actin, vimentin prove myogenic nature of the disease and confirm combination of two morphogenesis directions - proliferation of smooth muscle cells at the active phase of the growth and fibrosis at late stages. The presence of estrogen and progesteron receptors in smooth muscle cells shows hormonal dependance of cell proliferation. Thus, LAM is multisystem disease linked with abdominal tumors (angiomyolipomas, angioleiomyomas). Prognosis in the focal form is favourable, that in the diffuse form- unfavourable. PMID:16323477

Dvorakovskaia, I V; Baranova, O P



Mineral Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine you are hiking with your family and this shiney looking crystal catches your eye. You bring it home and no one in your family is able to tell you what it is. How do you find out? First you need to practice. Identifying minerals. Click on the following link. Identify all five minerals. On your peice of paper tell me their Name Color Luster Cleavage/Fracture Hardness Glenco simple mineral identification Now try and identify 7 real minerals using a virtual key. Answer the following questions What properties do you use to identify the mineral? Which ...




Reply to 'Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?', by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov  

SciTech Connect

Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon.

Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur



Pulmonary macrophage transplantation therapy.  


Bone-marrow transplantation is an effective cell therapy but requires myeloablation, which increases infection risk and mortality. Recent lineage-tracing studies documenting that resident macrophage populations self-maintain independently of haematological progenitors prompted us to consider organ-targeted, cell-specific therapy. Here, using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor-?-deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) mice that develop a myeloid cell disorder identical to hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (hPAP) in children with CSF2RA or CSF2RB mutations, we show that pulmonary macrophage transplantation (PMT) of either wild-type or Csf2rb-gene-corrected macrophages without myeloablation was safe and well-tolerated and that one administration corrected the lung disease, secondary systemic manifestations and normalized disease-related biomarkers, and prevented disease-specific mortality. PMT-derived alveolar macrophages persisted for at least one year as did therapeutic effects. Our findings identify mechanisms regulating alveolar macrophage population size in health and disease, indicate that GM-CSF is required for phenotypic determination of alveolar macrophages, and support translation of PMT as the first specific therapy for children with hPAP. PMID:25274301

Suzuki, Takuji; Arumugam, Paritha; Sakagami, Takuro; Lachmann, Nico; Chalk, Claudia; Sallese, Anthony; Abe, Shuichi; Trapnell, Cole; Carey, Brenna; Moritz, Thomas; Malik, Punam; Lutzko, Carolyn; Wood, Robert E; Trapnell, Bruce C



Pulmonary Mycobacterium intracellulare disease with a solitary pulmonary nodule detected at the onset of pneumothorax.  


A 61-year-old man with a past history of pulmonary emphysema 6 years earlier was admitted to the emergency department at our hospital because of cough and dyspnea. Left pneumothorax was recognized on a chest radiograph. After his admission to the emergency department, chest drainage was inserted and the left lung was expanded. Afterwards, a nodular shadow (>1.5 cm) was found in the left upper lobe, and differentiation from pulmonary adenocarcinoma was required. As a definite diagnosis could not be made by bronchoscopy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed, and a solitary nodule in the left upper lobe was resected. Histologically, a caseating epitheloid granuloma with acid-fast bacilli was found. Regarding the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium intracellulare was identified from the surgically resected specimen. We have reported a peculiar case of pulmonary M. intracellulare disease, detected at the onset of left secondary pneumothorax caused by pulmonary emphysema, which required differentiation from pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:16944259

Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Minoru; Yoshida, Kouichiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Oka, Mikio



Unusual ventilation perfusion scintigram in a case of immunologic pulmonary edema clinically simulating pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

A case of immunologic pulmonary edema secondary to hydrochlorothiazide allergy developed in a 55-year-old woman that clinically simulated pulmonary embolism. The patient had abnormal washin images with normal washout images on an Xe-133 ventilation study. On the perfusion study, large bilateral central and posterior perfusion defects were present that showed an unusual mirror image pattern on the lateral and posterior oblique views. Resolution of radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred over a 3-day period in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy.

Campeau, R.J.; Faust, J.M.; Ahmad, S.



Identifying Minerals from Their Infra-red Spectra.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a British secondary school's use of a spectrometer to identify minerals. Discusses the origins of mineral spectra, the preparation of the specimen, the actual spectroscopic scanning, and the interpretation of the spectra. (TW)

Paterson, W. G.



Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.  


Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure due to vascular remodeling and increased vessel tension secondary to chronic hypoxia during the fetal and newborn period. In comparison to the adult, the pulmonary vasculature of the fetus and the newborn undergoes tremendous developmental changes that increase susceptibility to a hypoxic insult. Substantial evidence indicates that chronic hypoxia alters the production and responsiveness of various vasoactive agents such as endothelium-derived nitric oxide, endothelin-1, prostanoids, platelet-activating factor, and reactive oxygen species, resulting in sustained vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. These changes occur in most cell types within the vascular wall, particularly endothelial and smooth muscle cells. At the cellular level, suppressed nitric oxide-cGMP signaling and augmented RhoA-Rho kinase signaling appear to be critical to the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. PMID:23737164

Gao, Yuansheng; Raj, J Usha



Mineral Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson discusses the question 'What is a mineral?' in the context of the guessing game 'Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral?'. It introduces a definition of the term, discusses the criteria used in the definition, and presents the common physical properties used in mineral identification. The lesson includes an activity in which students observe and record the physical properties of ten specimens and attempt to identify them using an online reference for practice.

Pratte, John


Mineral slurries  

SciTech Connect

A pumpable slurry of mineral particles, e.g., coal, in water contains 50 to 85% by weight of mineral particles based on the combined weight of mineral particles and water. The mineral component contains at least 30% by weight of coarse particles having a particle size in the range 5 to 50 mm, 10 to 40% by weight of fine particles having a particle size less than 200 micron and the balance to 100% of intermediate sized particles. The slurry is stable without the use of additives and can be pumped through a pipeline.

Baker, P.J.; Brookes, D.A.; Johnson, M.



Mineral Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use written and online materials to answer a set of questions on the general properties and identification of minerals. They will learn about physical properties such as color, hardness, and cleavage; special properties such as fluorescence and effervescence; and complete a chart listing properties for a selection of minerals. Links to the necessary information are provided.

Passow, Michael


Mystery Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will discover that minerals have specific characteristics that help to identify them. They will learn that minerals are formed by inorganic processes, are crystalline solids with an internal orderly arrangement of atoms, have specific chemical compositions, and have specific physical and chemical characteristics. They will also learn that minerals are commonly identified by the physical properties they possess, such as hardness, color, crystal shape, specific gravity, and streak. In addition, they will discover some other useful properties such as reaction with hydrochloric acid or a characteristic taste. They should also understand that color is not always a useful property for identifying minerals because it can vary. The students will also develop listening and observational skills and learn the uses of a few common minerals.

Morgan, Susan


BMP signaling modulates hedgehog-induced secondary heart field proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonic hedgehog signaling in the secondary heart field has a clear role in cardiac arterial pole development. In the absence of hedgehog signaling, proliferation is reduced in secondary heart field progenitors, and embryos predominantly develop pulmonary atresia. While it is expected that proliferation in the secondary heart field would be increased with elevated hedgehog signaling, this idea has never been

Laura A. Dyer; Frini A. Makadia; Alexandria Scott; Kelly Pegram; Mary R. Hutson; Margaret L. Kirby



pulmonary trunk -> right pulmonary a., left pulmonary a. Branches of thoracic aorta  

E-print Network

Arteries Pulmonary pulmonary trunk -> right pulmonary a., left pulmonary a. Systemic Branches. -> middle cerebral aa. Circle of Willis - upon passing through foramen magnum, vertebral aa. -> basilar communicating a. vertebral a. -> basilar a. -> posterior cerebral aa. posterior communicating aa. join posterior

Houde, Peter


Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.  


Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by the accumulation of surfactant lipids and protein in the alveolar spaces, with resultant impairment in gas exchange. The clinical course can be variable, ranging from spontaneous resolution to respiratory failure and death. PAP in all forms is caused by excessive accumulation of surfactant within the alveolar spaces. Autoimmune PAP accounts for the vast majority of cases in humans and is caused by autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which results in impaired catabolism and clearance of surfactant lipids and proteins. Inherited or congenital forms of PAP are exceptionally rare and caused by mutations of genes encoding for surfactant proteins. Secondary forms of PAP are associated with diverse clinical disorders and are caused by reduced alveolar macrophage numbers or function with resultant reduced pulmonary clearance of surfactant. PAP is characterized by progressive exertional dyspnea and nonproductive cough with hypoxemia. Bilateral infiltrates are typically present on chest radiograph, and high-resolution computed tomography reveals diffuse ground-glass opacities and airspace consolidation with interlobular septal thickening in a characteristic "crazy paving" pattern. Although surgical lung biopsy will provide a definitive diagnosis, a combination of typical clinical and imaging features with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive material on bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies is usually sufficient. The standard of care for treatment of PAP remains whole lung lavage, but treatment is not required in all patients. Autoimmune PAP has also been successfully treated with GM-CSF, both inhaled and systemic, but the optimal dose, duration, and route of administration of GM-CSF have not been elucidated. PMID:23001804

Wang, Tisha; Lazar, Catherine A; Fishbein, Michael C; Lynch, Joseph P



Facts about Pulmonary Atresia  


... In babies with this defect, blood has trouble flowing to the lungs to pick up oxygen for ... the pulmonary valve that usually controls the blood flowing through the pulmonary artery is not formed, so ...


Pulmonary hypertension - at home  


Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. With PAH, the right ... al. ACCF/AHA 2009 expert consensus document on pulmonary hypertension: a report of the American College of Cardiology ...


Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  


... causes of death include pulmonary hypertension (HI-per-TEN-shun), heart failure , pulmonary embolism (EM-bo-lizm), pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah), and lung cancer. Genetics may play a role in causing IPF. ...


Pulmonary Sarcoidosis in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and radlologic characteristics of pulmonary sarcoldosis in 26 children are presented. Initial nonspecific symptomatology and decreased pulmonary function are almost Invariably accompanied by radiologic evidence of pulmonary disease. BIlateral hilar lymphadenopathy frequently associated with bilateral paratracheal adenopathy is characteristic. Other mediastinal lymphadenopathy (subcarlnal, anterior, and posterior) is sporadically present, and Is invarIably associated with the more specific bilateral patterns

David F. Merten; Donald A. Kirks; Herman Grossman



Secondary parkinsonism  


Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson's disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain problems, such ...


Cardiopulmonary adaptation to exercise in coal miners  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-six coal miners, without associated functional chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), assessed by normal airway resistance, were divided into three groups: (1) Group C, normal x-ray; (2) Group S1, micronodular silicosis; and (3) Group S2, complicated silicosis. All subjects were evaluated while at rest and during exercise. Significant lung volume reduction was observed in the S2 Group only. Blood gases, pulmonary pressure, and cardiac output were found to be within the normal range for all three groups when at rest. The pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were higher, however, for the S1 and S2 Groups when compared to the C Group. During exercise, pulmonary hypertension was observed in 50% of the patients with complicated silicosis. When all data (N = 26) were included, the high values for pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance correlated well with the loss in vital capacity (VC) and the decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/). From the initial 26 patients, 19 were selected on the basis of their normal airway resistance and FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0//VC ratio. This selection did not alter the differences noted for the pulmonary pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance, which previously existed between the groups, even though the correlations were not statistically significant. We conclude that silicosis without associated COLD leads to minimal hemodynamic impairment at rest and during exercise, and that airway resistance does not detect impairment of flow as effectively as FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/ reduction. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance observed, especially in complicated silicosis, may be best explained by the loss of lung parenchyma and possible impairment of small airways.

Scano, G.; Garcia-Herreros, P.; Stendardi, D.; Degre, S.; De Coster, A.; Sergysels, R.



Pulmonary hypertension complicating connective tissue disease.  


Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may complicate connective tissue disease (CTD), particularly systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma), and markedly increases mortality. More than 70% of cases of PH complicating CTD occur in SSc, which is the major focus of this article. Pulmonary complications (i.e., interstitial lung disease [ILD] and PH) are the leading causes of scleroderma-related deaths. "Isolated" PH (i.e., without ILD) complicates SSc in 7.5 to 20% of cases; secondary PH may also occur in patients with SSc-associated ILD. Several clinical markers and specific autoantibody profiles have been associated with PH in SSc. The role of PH-specific therapy is controversial, as prognosis and responsiveness to therapy are worse in SSc-associated PH compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We discuss medical therapies for CTD-associated PH and the role of lung transplantation for patients failing medical therapy. PMID:24037627

Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A; Saggar, Rajeev; Fishbein, Michael C; Saggar, Rajan



[Echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases].  


For the time between 1985 and 1990 we found in the literature 14 reports on 483 patients with chronic lung diseases and 140 healthy controls which were investigated by right ventricular catheter and echocardiographic methods. The critical review about ability of echocardiography to recognise the pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic lung diseases shows following results: 1. Acceleration time (time to peak velocity) revealed correlations to mean or systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) of -0.72 to -0.92. The sample volume of pulsed Doppler should be taken near the pulmonary valve and in the middle of pulmonary artery diameter. Correction of acceleration time by heart frequency is necessary in children (Akiba). 2. Tricuspid regurgitation to SPAP: r = 0.65-0.92, but sensitivity to recognise pulmonary hypertension was only 20 (to 91)%. Accurate quantitative measurement is possible only in 24 to 66% of the patients with chronic lung diseases. 3. Isovolemic relaxation time: r = 0.70-0.89, limitations by some cardiac influences--but also the ability to reflect effects of medication (Hatle). 4. End-diastolic diameter of tricuspid valve/m2 of body surface: r = 0.84, in connection with right ventricular end-diastolic diameter r = 0.90. Diameters of pulmonary valve, of right pulmonary artery, of right ventricle and characteristics of the flow in the Vena cava inferior have a smaller diagnostic value. Thickness of right ventricular systolic time intervals are without reliable informations about pulmonary hypertension. In conclusion there are some echocardiographic parameters with high diagnostic value in the noninvasive diagnostic of pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic pulmonary diseases. A table of practicable values and regression equations completes this review. PMID:1579562

Paditz, E



Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Mimicking Pulmonary Embolism  

PubMed Central

Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival. PMID:25425986

Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M.; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Hallman, Charles H.



Handbook of pulmonary emergencies  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A



Bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare. The estimated incidence is 1 in 14,000 in autopsies. Bilateral main pulmonary artery aneurysms have not been previously reported in the literature.A 36-year-old woman who has been diagnosed as having an ostium secundum defect with severe pulmonary hypertension was found dead. Autopsy revealed an emaciated body. The heart was enlarged. Right atrium and ventricle were

Sarathchandra Kodikara; Murugapillei Sivasubramanium



Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Masquerading as Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with pulmonary artery sarcoma, a very rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Her tumor was initially misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, and she underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is crucial. That alternative should always be considered before settling on a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Suspicion should be aroused by the failure of anticoagulant treatment to alleviate pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and systemic symptoms. Surgical resection of the tumor—preferably by pulmonary endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction as needed—is currently the most promising treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma. PMID:25425987

Coskun, Ugur; Calpar, Ilknur; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yanartas, Mehmet; Filinte, Deniz; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar



Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease  


Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease ... In most cases, the cause of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is unknown. The high blood pressure occurs in the pulmonary arteries, which are the lung arteries directly connected to the right side ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


MENU Return to Web version Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Overview What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also called COPD) is a lung disease that makes it ...


Pulmonary rehabilitation: future directions.  


Pulmonary rehabilitation is now an established standard of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although pulmonary rehabilitation has no appreciable direct effect on static measurements of lung function, it arguably provides the greatest benefit of any available therapy across multiple outcome areas important to the patient with respiratory disease, including dyspnea, exercise performance, and health-related quality of life. It also appears to be a potent intervention that reduces COPD hospitalizations, especially when given in the periexacerbation period. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation within the larger schema of integrated care represents a fruitful area for further research. PMID:24874138

Nici, Linda; ZuWallack, Richard L



Adjuvant therapy with methylene blue in the treatment of right ventricular failure after pulmonary embolectomy.  


Severe pulmonary embolism often leads to right ventricular failure after surgical embolectomy secondary to ischaemia reperfusion injury and acute lung injury (ALI). Acute right ventricular dysfunction is traditionally treated with inotropes and vasopressors to maintain cardiac output and coronary perfusion as well as selective pulmonary vasodilators to provide right ventricular afterload reduction. We report the first case of utilisation of methylene (MB) in a patient with acute right ventricular failure and vasoplegic shock after surgical pulmonary embolectomy. PMID:20952252

Raikhelkar, Jayashree K; Milla, Federico; Darrow, Bruce; Scurlock, Corey



Ultrasonic Estimation of Mechanical Properties of Pulmonary Arterial Wall Under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a disease that could benefit from improved ultrasonic diagnostic techniques. We perform high-frequency in vitro ultrasound measurements (25 MHz to 100 MHz) on fresh and fixed pulmonary arterial walls excised from normoxic and hypoxic Long-Evans rat models. Estimates of the elastic stiffness coefficients are determined from measurements of the speed of sound. Preliminary results indicate that hypoxia leads to up to increase of 20 % in stiffening of the pulmonary arterial wall.

Waters, Kendall R.; Mukdadi, Osama M.



Nitric oxide synthases in infants and children with pulmonary hypertension and congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

RATIONALE: Nitric oxide is an important regulator of vascular tone in the pulmonary circulation. Surgical correction of congenital heart disease limits pulmonary hypertension to a brief period. OBJECTIVES: The study has measured expression of endothelial (eNOS), inducible (iNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the lungs from biopsies of infants with pulmonary hypertension secondary to cardiac abnormalities (n =

Thomas Hoehn; Brigitte Stiller; Allan R McPhaden; Roger M Wadsworth



Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners  

SciTech Connect

Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.



Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners  

SciTech Connect

Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.



Mineral bioprocessing  

SciTech Connect

In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

Torma, A.E.



Mineral Commodities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise introduces mineral commodities (elements). Students consider the elements aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, uranium, lead, gold, mercury and tin and match them with their definintions in a table. Then they use minable grade (minable weight percent) and normal crustal abundance (crustal weight percent) to calculate the concentration factor for several commodities to determine their economic minability. Students then graph their calculations and explain their trend.

Perkins, Dexter


Unsuspected pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with a slow resolving pneumonia: A case report  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare condition with an incidence of one in two million and is classified as primary or secondary. This is the first reported case presenting as a slow resolving pneumonia.

Main, Stephanie; Somani, Vikas; Molyneux, Angus; Bhattacharya, Milan; Randhawa, Rabinder; Kavidasan, Ajikumar



Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...


Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...




The pulmonary endothelial cell.  

PubMed Central

The surface of the endothelial cells of the pulmonary trunk of the Wistar albino rat was studied by means of silver preparations and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This surface is the site of cytoplasmic projections and the opening of caveolae which together appear to be features associated with the active metabolic rôle of the pulmonary endothelial cell. Images PMID:483185

Heath, D; Smith, P



Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan



Secondary Abdominoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Abdominoplasty is the most frequent excisional body contour procedure performed in aesthetic surgery. Secondary abdominoplasty\\u000a refers to a new excisional procedure for a patient who has previously undergone an excisional abdominoplasty. In the authors’\\u000a practice, more than 7% of abdominoplasties are secondary cases and deserve special consideration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The authors present a retrospective analysis of their experience with 21 secondary cases

P. S. Cormenzana; N. M. Samprón; F. J. Escudero-Nafs



Pulmonary vascular imaging  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.



Non-infectious pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a successful and recognised treatment option for patients with a number of haematological and non-haematological malignant and non-malignant conditions. Pulmonary complications both infectious and non-infectious are common after BMT. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to pulmonary complications, including the type and duration of immunological defects produced by the underlying disease and treatment, the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the conditioning regimens employed. These complications are classified as early or late, depending on whether they occur before or after 100 days from transplantation. Early non-infectious pulmonary complications typically include pulmonary oedema, upper airway complications, diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, cytolytic thrombi, and pleural effusion. Bronchiolitis obliterans, veno-occlusive disease, and secondary malignancies occur late after BMT. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, GVHD, and radiation induced lung injury can occur in early or late period after BMT. PMID:12151565

Khurshid, I; Anderson, L



Excavating pulmonary metastases in carcinoma of the cervix  

PubMed Central

A case of excavating pulmonary metastases from carcinoma of the cervix is described. The secondary tumour had appeared nearly 4 years after apparent ‘cure’ of the primary lesion by radiotherapy. The diagnosis is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1197154

Kirubakaran, M. G.; Pulimood, B. M.; Ray, D.



Pulmonary function tests  


... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...


Absent pulmonary valve  


... that bring air to the lungs (bronchi) and cause breathing problems. Other heart defects that can occur with absent pulmonary valve include: Abnormal tricuspid valve Atrial septal defect Double ...


Pulmonary Hypertension and Computed Tomography Measurement of Small Pulmonary Vessels in  

E-print Network

in chronic obstruc- tive pulmonary disease. The in vivo relationship between pulmonary hypertension estimate the degree of pulmonary hypertension. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; emphysema obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (1­3). Vari- ous factors, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation


Pharmacotherapy of Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. While it can occur idiopathically, it is more commonly associated with other cardiac or lung diseases. While most of the available therapies were tested in adult populations, and most therapies in children remain off-label, new reports and randomized trials are emerging that inform the treatment of pediatric populations. This review discusses currently available therapies for pediatric pulmonary hypertension, their biologic rationales, and evidence for their clinical effectiveness. PMID:23036248

Steinhorn, Robin H.



Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2\\/100,000) than in women (13.2\\/100,000). The mean age at presentation

Eric B Meltzer; Paul W Noble



Traumatic pulmonary hernia: surgical versus conservative management.  


The therapeutic management of lung herniation, an uncommon complication of severe blunt chest trauma, remains controversial. We report here on two cases of traumatic lung herniation with different, yet successful, methods of therapeutic management according to the particular anatomic types. Because of the threat of tension pneumothorax, incarceration, or strangulation of the lung parenchyma in mechanically ventilated patients, surgical reduction of intercostal pulmonary hernias with narrow necks is usually recommended. In contrast, supraclavicular pulmonary hernias secondary to clavicle-sternal dislocation may be treated conservatively with serial clinical and thoracic imaging follow-up including chest computed tomographic scan. In this anatomical type of lung herniation, favorable spontaneous evolution is frequently observed, presumably because of the presence of a larger thoracic wall defect together with the absence of associated perforating bone trauma. The efficacy of the therapeutic approach proposed herein remains to be confirmed by further experience. PMID:9464779

François, B; Desachy, A; Cornu, E; Ostyn, E; Niquet, L; Vignon, P



Apelin and pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary arterial remodeling, abnormal angiogenesis and impaired right ventricular function. Despite progress in pharmacological therapy, there is still no cure for PAH. The peptide apelin and the G-protein coupled apelin receptor (APLNR) are expressed in several tissues throughout the organism. Apelin is localized in vascular endothelial cells while the APLNR is localized in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vessels and in the heart. Apelin is regulated by hypoxia inducible factor -1? and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2. Patients with PAH have lower levels of plasma-apelin, and decreased apelin expression in pulmonary endothelial cells. Apelin has therefore been proposed as a potential biomarker for PAH. Furthermore, apelin plays a role in angiogenesis and regulates endothelial and smooth muscle cell apoptosis and proliferation complementary and opposite to vascular endothelial growth factor. In the systemic circulation, apelin modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, induces eNOS-dependent vasodilatation, counteracts angiotensin-II mediated vasoconstriction, and has positive inotropic and cardioprotective effects. Apelin attenuates vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arteries, and chronic treatment with apelin attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The existing literature thus renders APLNR an interesting potential new therapeutic target for PH. PMID:22140623

Andersen, Charlotte U.; Hilberg, Ole; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E.; Simonsen, U.



Pulmonary diseases and corticosteroids.  


Steroids (corticosteroids) are anti-inflammatory drugs. Corticosteroids are used in many pulmonary conditions. Corticosteroids have a proven beneficial role in asthma, croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis), decreasing the risk and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, interstitial lung disease, hemangioma of trachea, Pulmonary eosinophillic disorders. Role of corticosteroids is controversial in many conditions e.g. idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, bronchiolitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyperplasia of thymus, bronchiolitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, aspiration syndromes, atypical pneumonias, laryngeal diphtheria, AIDS, SARS, sarcoidosis, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pulmonary haemorrhage, bronchitis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia in JRA, histiocytosis, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, bordtella pertusis, pulmonary involvement in histiocytosis. However these are used empirically in many of these conditions despite lack of clear evidence in favour. There is concern about their side effects, especially on growth. Systemic steroids are associated with significant adverse effects. Pulmonary conditions have a strategic advantage that inhaled corticosteroids are useful in many of these. Although inhaled preparations of corticosteroids have been developed to maximise effective treatment of lung diseases characterised by inflammation and reduce the frequency of harmful effects, these have not been eliminated. There are situations where only systemic steroids are useful. Clinicians must weigh the benefits against the potential detrimental effects. It is recommended that standard protocols for use of steroids available in literature should be followed, always keeping a watch on the potential hazards of prolonged use. PMID:19023529

Sethi, G R; Singhal, Kamal Kumar



Lung scan perfusion defects limited to matching pleural effusions: low probability of pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

Patients with a new pleural effusion are often sent for a ventilation-perfusion scan to exclude a pulmonary embolism. This retrospective study assessed the probability of pulmonary embolism when a pleural effusion and a perfusion defect of similar size are the only significant imaging abnormalities. In 451 reports of patients who were scanned for suspected pulmonary embolism, 53 had perfusion defects secondary to pleural effusion without other significant perfusion defects. Using pulmonary angiography, venography, analysis of pleural fluid, clinical course, and other radiographic and laboratory studies to establish the final diagnosis, only two patients had documented venous thrombotic disease: one had pulmonary emboli, the other thrombophlebitis. Lung scans having significant perfusion defects limited to pleural effusions and matching them in size have a low probability for pulmonary embolism.

Bedont, R.A.; Datz, F.L.



Perioperative pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertensive crisis during congenital heart surgery  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pulmonary hypertensive crisis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) who require cardiac surgery. At present, prevention and management of perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis is aimed at optimizing cardiopulmonary interactions by targeting prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide signaling pathways within the pulmonary circulation with various pharmacological agents. This review is aimed at familiarizing the practitioner with the current pharmacological treatment for dealing with perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis in PAH-CHD patients. Given the life-threatening complications associated with pulmonary hypertensive crisis, proper perioperative planning can help anticipate cardiopulmonary complications and optimize surgical outcomes in this patient population. PMID:25006417



Vitamins and Minerals  


... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), ... humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that your body needs ...


Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine a number of key mineral properties and how they are displayed by different minerals. Mineral properties examined include crystal habit, cleavage, parting, fracture, hardness, tenacity, specific gravity, luster, color, and streak.

Perkins, Dexter


Mineral Sands Down Under  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.



PubMed Central

Pulmonary vascular disease can be defined as either a disease affecting the pulmonary capillaries and pulmonary arterioles, termed pulmonary arterial hypertension, or as a disease affecting the left ventricle, called pulmonary venous hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary circulation characterized by endothelial dysfunction, as well as intimal and smooth muscle proliferation. Progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure impair the performance of the right ventricle, resulting in declining cardiac output, reduced exercise capacity, right heart failure, and ultimately death. While the primary and heritable forms of the disease are thought to affect over 5,000 patients in the U.S., the disease can occur secondary to congenital heart disease, most advanced lung diseases, and many systemic diseases. Multiple studies implicate oxidative stress in the development of PAH. Further, this oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways, whereby bioavailable NO is decreased and ROS and RNS production are increased. Many canonical ROS and NO signaling pathways are simultaneously disrupted in PAH, with increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and xanthine oxidoreductase, uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and reduction in mitochondrial number, as well as impaired mitochondrial function. Upstream dysregulation of ROS/NO redox homeostasis impairs vascular tone and contributes to the pathological activation of anti-apoptotic and mitogenic pathways, leading to cell proliferation and obliteration of the vasculature. This manuscript will review the available data regarding the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, and provide a description of targeted therapies for this disease. PMID:22401856

Tabima, Diana M.; Frizzell, Sheila; Gladwin, Mark T.





Vasculitis is defined as inflammation of a vessel wall. Hemorrhage is defined as the escape of blood from vessels. If pulmonary vasculitis and pulmonary hemorrhage are directly connected that inflammation of blood vessels leads to rupture and then hemorrhage, the classification of the pulmonary vasculitis and pulmonary hemorrhage syndromes would be simple. There are many schemes for classifying vasculitis, such as McCluskey 1983, Jennette 1997, Vuong 2002, and Saleh 2005. Classifications can be made by etiology, histologic reaction, size and type of vessels, and associated diseases. Recently CHCC1994 is revised to CHCC 2012. Vasculitis and mimics of pulmonary vasculitis includes idiopathic necrotizing vasculitis syndromes, miscellaneous systemic disorders including collagen-vascular diseases, pulmonary hemorrhage syndromes, vascular involvement in lymphoproliferative disorders, pulmonary hypertensive arterial changes, and granulomatous vasculitis. My presentation reviews all over and focuses on pathological features of pulmonary vasculitis and pulmonary hemorrhage syndromes. PMID:25188158

Matsubara, Osamu



Hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to oesophageal foreign body in a dog - a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertrophic osteopathy is a pathological disease process that occurs secondary to intra thoracic lesions that are either pulmonary or non pulmonary in origin. A 6-year-old female German shepherd cross was presented with complaints of losing body condition, anorexia, lameness, and swollen limbs. Clinical examination revealed swelling of all four limbs which were hard and painless on palpation. Radiographic examination of

Modesta Makungu; Joshua Malago; Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa; Donald Gregory Mpanduji; Magwishi Nkwabi Mgasa


Secondary heart field contributes myocardium and smooth muscle to the arterial pole of the developing heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arterial pole of the heart is the region where the ventricular myocardium continues as the vascular smooth muscle tunics of the aorta and pulmonary trunk. It has been shown that the arterial pole myocardium derives from the secondary heart field and the smooth muscle tunic of the aorta and pulmonary trunk derives from neural crest. However, this neural crest-derived

Karen L. Waldo; Mary R. Hutson; Cary C. Ward; Marzena Zdanowicz; Harriett A. Stadt; Donna Kumiski; Radwan Abu-Issa; Margaret L. Kirby



Welcome to the Wonderful World of Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit on rocks and minerals for secondary students features six lessons that employ web-based resources. It features an introductory lesson on minerals that employs a web quest, and additional lessons on classifying and experimenting with rocks and minerals, the rock cycle, and a unit review lesson that takes the form of a 'Jeopardy' contest. Each lesson plan includes worksheets, required links, and a rubric for assessment. Relevant Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) science standards are also provided.


Energy and mineral resource systems: An introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a welcome approach to understanding the fundamental role that energy and mineral resources play in the affairs of nations and individuals. Chapter 1 presents background material on energy in the human environment. Chapter 2 deals with historical changes in predominant energy sources, energy efficiencies based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, potential utility of secondary

B. A. Tapp; J. R. Watkins



Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: uncommon cause of pulmonary coin-lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary dirofilariasis is a rare entity caused by Dirofilaria, a dog worm that is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. The filarial nematode enters the subcutaneous tissue, travels to the right ventricle, dies and then embolizes the pulmonary vessels causing a small pulmonary infarction, which subsequently appears as a solitary nodule. Although these nodules are usually identified incidentally by chest radiography

Ottavio Rena; Monica Leutner; Caterina Casadio



Pulmonary complications of hemoglobinopathies.  


Hemoglobinopathies are diseases caused by genetic mutations that result in abnormal, dysfunctional hemoglobin molecules or lower levels of normal hemoglobin molecules. The most common hemoglobinopathies are sickle cell disease (SCD) and the thalassemias. In SCD, an abnormal hemoglobin alters the erythrocyte, causing a chronic hemolytic anemia, which can lead to pulmonary parenchymal damage and impaired vascular function. Pulmonary complications of SCD include the acute chest syndrome (ACS), reactive airways disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and pulmonary fibrosis. Episodes of ACS and the development of PH both increase the risk of death in patients with SCD. Both ? and ? thalassemia are characterized by impaired production of hemoglobin subunits, and severity of disease varies widely. Although screening studies suggest that PH is a common complication for patients with thalassemia, its impact on survival is unknown. Understanding the pathogenesis, diagnostic options, and prevention and treatment strategies for such complications is critical for clinicians who care for these patients. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and clinical presentation of pulmonary complications associated with hemoglobinopathies, with a focus on recent advances in pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:20923801

Vij, Rekha; Machado, Roberto F



Pulmonary Function Testing in Children  


... is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. It measures how much air is ... a number like you get when you Pulmonary Function Testing in Children Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) measure ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


... treated? Learn More What is COPD? Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or COPD, refers to a group of diseases ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults—United States, 2011. MMWR . 2012;61( ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


... COPD > In-Depth Resources > Facts & Figures Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Fact Sheet May 2014 Mortality Prevalence Gender ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Surveillance – United States, 1971-2000 . Morbidity and Mortality ...


Drug-induced pulmonary disease  


Drug-induced pulmonary disease is lung disease brought on by a bad reaction to a medicine. ... Maldonado F, Limper AH. Drug-induced pulmonary disease. In: Mason RJ, ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


... takes no energy to empty the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that ... Education Series © 2013 American Thoracic Society Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) AIR FLO W Swelling Restricted air ow ...



E-print Network

failure Pulmonary HTN - secondary Asthma History of respiratory disease - Pneumoconiosis: Atelectasis exacerbation) Lung Lesion Radiation Fibrosis Bronchiolitis Lupus (systemic erythematosus) Scoliosis Bronchitis ­ Acute - Neuromuscular disease: Stridor Bronchitis ­ Chronic Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Toxic effect

Goldman, Steven A.


[Three autopsy cases of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis].  


Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), also called semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, was first described in the early 1980s as a distinct type of pulmonary aspergillosis. CNPA was an indolent, cavitary, infectious process of the lung parenchyma secondary to local invasion by Aspergillus species. Diagnosis is confirmed by pathological evidence of lung tissue invasion by the fungus. Clinical diagnosis by combined clinical, radiological and laboratory findings is needed because histopathological confirmation cannot always be obtained in the clinical setting. CNPA is recognized as a clinical syndrome in Japan, and has been poorly defined histologically. We report three autopsy cases of CNPA evaluated histopathologically. Subjects were middle-aged to older men with a medical history of pulmonary mycobacterial infection who presented with pulmonary or systemic symptoms. Radiologically, progressive upper lobe cavitary infiltrates were seen with mycetomas and infiltration in lower lung fields. Clinically, CNPA was diagnosed based on 2007 Japanese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of deep fungal infection. Subjects died of respiratory failure within one month to three years of diagnosis despite antifungal therapy including micafungin, voriconazole, or itraconazole combined with broad spectrum antibiotics. Autopsy findings showed cavities containing the fungus but no fungal invasion of viable lung tissue. The area of progressive infiltration revealed bacterial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia or organizing diffuse alveolar damage without Aspergillus. In conclusion, CNPA is a chronic progressive clinical form of pulmonary aspergillosis with significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:23198580

Namesaya, Nobuaki; Tomioka, Hiromi; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Kida, Yoko; Kaneko, Masahiro; Fuji, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Eiji



Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

Staitieh, Bashar



Noninfectious pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection.  


: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

Staitieh, Bashar; Guidot, David M



Retrograde pulmonary perfusion as an adjunct to standard pulmonary embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism.  


Mortality rates for pulmonary embolectomy in patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism have decreased in recent years. However, it still ranges from 30 to 45% when surgery is performed on critically ill patients, and the mortality rates reach 60% in patients who have experienced a cardiac arrest before the procedure. The causes of death in these patients are generally attributed to right heart failure due to persistent pulmonary hypertension, intractable pulmonary oedema, and massive parenchymal and intrabronchial haemorrhage. Clinical and experimental findings indicate that venous air embolism causes severe or even lethal damage to the pulmonary microvasculature and the lung parenchyma consequent to the release of endothelium-derived cytokines. These findings are similar to those observed when severely compromised patients undergo pulmonary embolectomy for air entrapped in the pulmonary artery during embolectomy, which may lead to fatal outcomes. Retrograde pulmonary perfusion (RPP), besides enabling the removal of residual thrombotic material from the peripheral branches of the pulmonary artery, fills the pulmonary artery with blood and prevents pulmonary air embolism. We believe that the use of RPP as an adjunct to conventional pulmonary embolectomy decreases the morbidity and mortality rates associated with pulmonary embolectomy in critically ill patients. PMID:25298365

Spagnolo, Salvatore; Barbato, Luciano; Grasso, Maria Antonia; Tesler, Ugo Filippo



Parkinsonismi secondari  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a La diagnosi di malattia di Parkinson (MP) presuppone — oltre ai segni cardinali e alle modalità evolutive — la presenza di\\u000a una buona e persistente risposta alla terapia con levodopa. É questo un elemento essenziale nella diagnosi differenziale della\\u000a MP idiopatica dai parkinsonismi secondari, in cui la risposta alla levodopa è solitamente scarsa e di durata limitata.

Floriano Girotti; Vincenza Fetoni


Flash pulmonary edema in an orthotopic heart transplant recipient.  


Flash pulmonary edema (FPE) is a severe renovascular disease that leads to acute recurring pulmonary edema and acute systemic hypertension. Though rarely reported in the literature, its incidence is probably underestimated secondary to misdiagnosis, especially in patients with normal left ventricular function. We report the case of an orthotopic heart transplant recipient who presented with FPE despite having normal left ventricular function and no signs or symptoms of transplant rejection. Discovery of severe bilateral atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in this patient led to emergency hepatorenal bypass surgery and a favorable postoperative course. PMID:21118836

Kindo, Michel; Gerelli, Sébastien; Billaud, Philippe; Mazzucotelli, Jean-Philippe



Earth's Mineral Evolution  

E-print Network

Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

Downs, Robert T.


Mineralization of Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of viable and nonviable bacteria became mineralized with hydroxyapatite when implanted in dialysis bags in the peritoneal cavities of rats. The microscopic pattern of mineral deposition appeared analogous to that in the formation of oral calculus. Since nonviable organisms were mineralized at an accelerated rate, bacterial metabolic processes may not be essential for mineralization.

A. A. Rizzo; G. R. Martin; D. B. Scott; S. E. Mergenhagen



Introduction to Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity can be used as the introduction for a unit on mineral or crystal structure. It requires the students to create shapes cooperatively and put them together. This is analogous to individual crystals forming or to minerals forming. They will understand that minerals are made up of structures in certain patterns, and that these structures determine some of the properties of the minerals.


[Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].  


Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles. PMID:24461445

Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A



Modelling pulmonary blood flow  

PubMed Central

Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.



Effect of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary artery hypertension in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement  

PubMed Central

Aim: Long standing mitral valve disease is usually associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. Perioperative pulmonary hypertension is a risk factor for right ventricular (RV) failure and a cause for morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor-sildenafil citrate is widely used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension. There is a lack of evidence of effects of oral sildenafil on secondary pulmonary hypertension due to mitral valve disease. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary hypertension and incidence of RV failure in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients scheduled for mitral valve replacement with severe pulmonary hypertension (RV systolic pressure (RVSP) ?60 mmHg) on preoperative transthoracic echo were randomly treated with oral sildenafil 25 mg (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20) eight hourly for 24 h before surgery. Hemodynamic variables were measured 20 min after insertion of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) under anesthesia (T1), 20 min at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T2) and after 1,2, and 6 h (T3, T4, T5, respectively) during the postoperative period. Results: Systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in sildenafil group at all times. Ventilation time and postoperative recovery room stay were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil produces significant pulmonary vasodilatory effect as compared with placebo in mitral valve replacement patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. It also reduces ventilation time and intensive care unit (ICU) stay time as compared with placebo. It is concluded that sildenafil is effective in reducing pulmonary hypertension when administered preoperatively in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. PMID:24987174

Gandhi, Hemang; Shah, Bipin; Patel, Ramesh; Toshani, Rajesh; Pujara, Jigisha; Kothari, Jignesh; Shastri, Naman



Congenital Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals. Two clinically different pediatric types have been defined as congenital PAP which is fatal and a late-onset PAP which is similar to the adult form and less severe. The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole-lung lavage is the current standard treatment for PAP patients. We report a new congenital case of PAP. PMID:23710403

Hammami, Saber; Harrathi, Khaled; Lajmi, Khaled; Hadded, Samir; Ben Meriem, Chebil; Guediche, Mohamed Neji



The metabolic theory of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), complicating the translation of candidate therapies to patients because, typically, 1 treatment addresses only 1 abnormality. The realization that in addition to pulmonary artery vascular cells, other tissues and cells are involved in the syndrome of PAH (eg, immune cells, right ventricular cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle) further complicates the identification of optimal therapeutic targets. Here, we describe a metabolic theory that proposes that many apparently unrelated molecular abnormalities in PAH do have a common denominator; they either cause or promote a mitochondrial suppression (inhibition of glucose oxidation) in pulmonary vascular cells; in turn, the signaling downstream from this mitochondrial suppression can also explain numerous molecular events previously not connected. This integration of signals upstream and downstream of mitochondria has similarities to cancer and can explain many features of the PAH vascular phenotype, including proliferation and apoptosis resistance. This suppression of glucose oxidation (with secondary upregulation of glycolysis) also underlies the abnormalities in extrapulmonary tissues, suggesting a global metabolic disturbance. The metabolic theory places mitochondria at the center stage for our understanding of PAH pathogenesis and for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Current PAH therapies are each addressing 1 abnormality (eg, upregulation of endothelin-1) and were not developed specifically for PAH but for systemic vascular diseases. Compared with the available therapies, mitochondria-targeting therapies have the advantage of addressing multiple molecular abnormalities simultaneously (thus being potentially more effective) and achieving higher specificity because they address PAH-specific biology. PMID:24951764

Paulin, Roxane; Michelakis, Evangelos D



Lung surfactant alterations in pulmonary thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Beside neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, secondary surfactant deficiency may occur in patients with mature lungs. Recent studies revealed quantitative and qualitative changes of lung surfactant in pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) concerning the total phospholipids content in BAL fluid, alterations in surfactant phospholipids classes and a large-to-small aggregates ratio. Reduced expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A) mRNA and SP-A in lung tissue after pulmonary embolism was found. Serum levels of SP-A were significantly higher in patients with PTE than in other lung diseases, except COPD. Surfactant changes in PTE may result from damage of type II cells by hypoxia, leakage of plasma proteins into the airspaces and/or by reactive oxygen species. They can contribute to lung atelectasis and edema, and a further reduction in oxygen saturation as seen in clinical picture of PTE. Surfactant changes are reliable marker of lung injury that might become a prognostic indicator in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism. PMID:20156722



Diversity of bacterial iron mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial cells, growing naturally in freshwater and marine environments or experimentally in culture, can precipitate a variety of authigenic iron minerals. With the vast majority of bacteria biomineralization is a two-step process: initially metals are electrostatically bound to the anionic surfaces of the cell wall and surrounding organic polymers, where they subsequently serve as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The biogenic minerals have crystal habits and chemical compositions similar to those produced by precipitation from inorganic solutions because they are governed by the same equilibrium principles that control mineralization of their inorganic counterparts. As the latter stages of mineralization are inorganically driven, the type of biomineral formed is inevitably dependent on the available counter-ions, and hence, the chemical composition of the waters in which the microorganisms are growing. In oxygenated waters, iron hydroxides are a common precipitate and can form passively through the binding of dissolved ferric species to negatively charged polymers or when soluble ferrous iron spontaneously reacts with dissolved oxygen to precipitate as ferric hydroxide on available nucleation sites (e.g. bacteria). Alternatively, the metabolic activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria can induce ferric hydroxide precipitation as a secondary by-product. Ferric hydroxide may then serve as a precursor for more stable iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite via dissolution-reprecipitation or dehydration, respectively, or it may react with dissolved silica, phosphate or sulphate to form other authigenic mineral phases. Under suboxic to anoxic conditions, ferric hydroxide may be converted to magnetite, siderite, and iron sulphides through various reductive processes associated with organic matter mineralization. Under biologically controlled conditions, where mineralization is completely regulated, magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite and greigite as navigational tools to guide themselves into their preferred habitat. In general, the formation of iron biominerals is not difficult to achieve, bacteria simply provide charged surfaces that bind metals and they excrete metabolic waste products into the surrounding environment that induce mineralization. The ubiquitous presence of bacteria in aquatic systems and their inherent ability to biomineralize, therefore, makes them extremely important agents in driving both modern and ancient geochemical cycles.

Konhauser, Kurt O.



Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.  

PubMed Central

Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction. PMID:1954926

Heppleston, A G



Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.



[Therapy of pulmonary arteriovenous aneurysm].  


Connections of branches of the pulmonary artery to branches of the pulmonary vein resulting in aneurysmatic dilatation are defined as pulmonary arterio-venous aneurysm (pava). The spontaneous course shows a morbidity of 26% and a mortality of 11% within a six-year observation period following diagnosis. If there is an arterial branch with small diameter (< 15 mm) we recommend the embolisation with the catheter; this procedure is less stressing for the patient and does not involve the loss of pulmonary tissue. If the arterial branch has a big diameter, if a complex pava or a pulmonary abscess is present a conventional surgical resection should be envisaged. PMID:8226048

Mouton, W; Würsten, H U; Kipfer, B; Im Hof, V; Triller, J; Althaus, U



Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with concurrent pleural mesothelioma in a dog.  


Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare pulmonary disorder characterized by the accumulation of calcium phosphate microliths within the alveoli, with only a few cases described in animals. A 10-year-old female Bulldog was euthanized due to history of dyspnea and recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. At necropsy, numerous multifocal to coalescent protruding nodules of 1-5 mm in diameter were scattered throughout the thoracic serosal surfaces. Moreover, lungs showed a diffuse pale gray color and had a generalized fine grainy consistency. Histological investigations revealed abundant intra-alveolar laminated microliths that stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff and von Kossa stains. The pulmonary interstitium showed multifocal, mild to moderate thickening, due to collagen deposition and mild hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes. The pulmonary lesion was not associated with any inflammatory response, and mineral deposition was not observed in any other organ or tissue. In addition, pulmonary, pericardial, and pleural surfaces were extensively infiltrated by an epithelioid mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical staining revealed neoplastic cells that strongly coexpressed vimentin and cytokeratin, supporting the diagnosis of mesothelioma. An overview of PAM, including pathogenesis and histological characteristics, are discussed in relation to the concurrent pleural mesothelioma. The potential cause and effect relationship between the 2 conditions could neither be established nor ruled out. PMID:24081932

de Brot, Simone; Hilbe, Monika



The degree of mineralization is a determinant of bone strength: a study on human calcanei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength of bones depends on bone matrix volume (BMV), bone microarchitecture, and also on the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). We have recently shown in osteoporotic patients treated with alendronate that fracture risk decreased and bone mineral density increased with a parallel increase of the DMB due to prolonged secondary mineralization but without modifications of BMV or bone microarchitecture.

H Follet; G Boivin; C Rumelhart; P. J Meunier



An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines  

SciTech Connect

A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.



Pulmonary complications after esophagectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Pulmonary complications are common in patients who have undergone esophagectomy. There are no good predictive variables for these complications. In addition, the role that preoperative treatment with chemotherapy and radiation may play in postoperative complications remains unclear.Methods. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent esophagectomy by a single surgeon at our institution over a 6-year period.

Christopher E Avendano; Patrick A Flume; Gerard A Silvestri; Lydia B King; Carolyn E Reed



Cardiac and Pulmonary Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac and pulmonary injuries present major chal- lenges in diagnosis and treatment. Distinct differences between penetrating and blunt trauma of these or- gans exist. Outcomes for severe injuries are still grave. Organized trauma systems can provide optimal care by minimizing prehospital time, allowing easy access to imaging modalities, and offering state-of-the-art treatment strategies. A multidisciplinary approach, including surgeons, intensivists, and

George C. Velmahos; Muhammad U. Butt



Cytokines and Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years, significant progress in many aspects of pulmonary fibrosis research has been made. Among them, the finding that a variety of cytokines play important roles in the complex process appears most intriguing. These cytokines include at least transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, (TGF-?), interleukin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

Kai Zhang; Sem H. Phan



Pulmonary thromboembolism in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions,

Paul S. Babyn; Harpal K. Gahunia; Patricia Massicotte



Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneursym.  


Idopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare lesion. Clinical experience with this condition is limited and current knowledge is mainly derived from autopsy findings. We report a patient who came to us with complaints of chest pain, breathlessness on exertion and pedal oedema and was diagnosed to have PAA. PMID:24930208

Singh, Urvinderpal; Singh, Kulbir; Aditi; Singh, Parminderpal; Aneja, Pooja



Pulmonary function in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.



Traumatic ventricular septal defect resulting in severe pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a widely-recognized complication of both penetrating and blunt trauma. Most cases are repaired operatively without the long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure that are associated with unrepaired congenital VSD in the pediatric population. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with a traumatic VSD who declined surgical repair at the time of injury and subsequently developed long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. With nearly 20 years of follow-up, this case demonstrates that the absence of surgical treatment in asymptomatic adult patients at the time of injury can lead to long-term complications associated with VSD. This case also shows that aggressive surgical treatment in patients with severe pulmonary vascular disease and heart failure secondary to traumatic VSD can be performed safely and should be considered in cases refractory to efficacious medical interventions. PMID:25326917

Crompton, Joseph G.; Nacev, Benjamin A.; Upham, Trevor; Azoury, Said C.; Eil, Robert; Cameron, Duke E.; Haider, Adil H.



Traumatic ventricular septal defect resulting in severe pulmonary hypertension.  


Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a widely-recognized complication of both penetrating and blunt trauma. Most cases are repaired operatively without the long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure that are associated with unrepaired congenital VSD in the pediatric population. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with a traumatic VSD who declined surgical repair at the time of injury and subsequently developed long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. With nearly 20 years of follow-up, this case demonstrates that the absence of surgical treatment in asymptomatic adult patients at the time of injury can lead to long-term complications associated with VSD. This case also shows that aggressive surgical treatment in patients with severe pulmonary vascular disease and heart failure secondary to traumatic VSD can be performed safely and should be considered in cases refractory to efficacious medical interventions. PMID:25326917

Crompton, Joseph G; Nacev, Benjamin A; Upham, Trevor; Azoury, Saïd C; Eil, Robert; Cameron, Duke E; Haider, Adil H



The Human mineral dust-induced gene, mdig, is a cell growth regulating gene associated with lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental or occupational exposure to mineral dusts, mainly silica and asbestos, is associated with an increased incidence of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and\\/or cancer. To better understand the molecular events associated with these pulmonary diseases, we attempted to identify genes that are regulated by mineral dusts. Using a differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique and mRNAs of alveolar macrophages

Yadong Zhang; Yongju Lu; Bao-Zhu Yuan; Vince Castranova; Xianglin Shi; John L Stauffer; Laurence M Demers; Fei Chen



Prevalence of undiagnosed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism.  


Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is associated with adverse prognosis. Early diagnosis is important to better identify patients who would benefit from a well established therapeutic strategy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate long-term incidence of undiagnosed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism and the utility of a long-term follow-up including an echocardiographic-based screening programme to early detect this disease. We evaluated retrospectively 282 patients discharged from the 'Maggiore della Carità' Hospital, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy, with diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism between November 2006 and October 2009. One hundred and eleven patients underwent a clinical late echocardiographic screening programme after the acute event. Patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension based on echocardiographic evidence of systolic pulmonary artery pressure of at least 40?mmHg underwent complete work-up for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension assessment, including ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy and right heart catheterization.One hundred and eleven patients were included in the study. Pulmonary hypertension was suspected in 15 patients; five patients had chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension confirmed by ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy, right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography. Two patients with clinical class functionally advanced underwent surgical pulmonary endarterectomy and two asymptomatic patients underwent medical treatment. The prevalence of undiagnosed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension was 4.5%.Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease with a poor prognosis if not treated early. Surgical treatment is decisive. After surgery, the majority of patients have a substantial improvement in their functional status and in haemodynamic variables. Many patients are asymptomatic. Implementation of screening programmes may be helpful for an early diagnosis and early proper therapy. PMID:24566335

Giuliani, Livio; Piccinino, Cristina; D'Armini, Maria A; Manganiello, Sabrina; Ferrarotti, Lorena; Balbo, Piero E; Lupi, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo N



Mineral Commodity Profiles: Selenium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overview -- Selenium, which is one of the chalcogen elements in group 16 (or 6A) of the periodic table, is a semiconductor that is chemically similar to sulfur for which it substitutes in many minerals and synthetic compounds. It is a byproduct of copper refining and, to a much lesser extent, lead refining. It is used in many applications, the major ones being a decolorizer for glass, a metallurgical additive to free-machining varieties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys, a constituent in cadmium sulfoselenide pigments, a photoreceptor in xerographic copiers, and a semiconductor in electrical rectifiers and photocells. Refined selenium amounting to more than 1,800 metric tons (t) was produced by 14 countries in 2000. Japan, Canada, the United States, and Belgium, which were the four largest producers, accounted for nearly 85 percent of world production. An estimated 250 t of the world total is secondary selenium, which is recovered from scrapped xerographic copier drums and selenium rectifiers; the selenium in nearly all other uses is dissipated (not recoverable as waste or scrap). The present selenium reserve bases for the United States and the world (including the United States), which are associated with copper deposits, are expected to be able to satisfy demand for selenium for several decades without difficulty.

Butterman, W. C.; Brown, R. D., Jr.



Pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ? 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ? 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793



Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.



Outcome after reconstruction of discontinuous pulmonary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine outcomes of and optimal treatment strategies for reconstruction of congenital or acquired discontinuity of branch pulmonary arteries. Methods: Between 1985 and 2000 pulmonary artery continuity was established in 102 patients with discontinuous central pulmonary arteries and normal peripheral arborization. Data were obtained retrospectively. Results: Techniques to connect both pulmonary arteries included direct pulmonary

Christof Stamm; Ingeborg Friehs; David Zurakowski; Albertus M. Scheule; Adrian M. Moran; James E. Lock; John E. Mayer; Pedro J. del Nido; Richard A. Jonas



Vitamins and Minerals  


... or mineral supplements. If your diet includes a wide variety of foods, including whole-grain products, fresh ... and minerals you need is to eat a wide variety of healthy foods and skip the vitamin ...


Bartering for Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

May, Kathie



Mineral spirits poisoning  


... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.


Ohio Mineral Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides information about Mineral Resources in Ohio and management. Mine safety, oil and gas, coal mining, industrial minerals, and abandoned mined lands are related subheadings for the site. Good for finding history, factual reports, programs, regulations and policies.



Minerals in Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of articles describes the uses of mineral products in sports and sporting equipment. The site also explores minerals use in safety applications in the workplace. A series of reading material sheets are included in PDF format.



Bicuspid pulmonary valve with atrial septal defect leading to pulmonary aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare. We describe two adult cases with pulmonary artery aneurysm with normal pulmonary pressure associated with bicuspid pulmonary valve and atrial septal defect (ASD). One case presented with moderate pulmonary valve stenosis and was treated with open surgery; the other patient had a small ASD and mild pulmonary valve insufficiency and is still periodically evaluated. Hemodynamic

Motohiko Goda; Werner Budts; Els Troost; Bart Meyns


Nephrotic syndrome as paraneoplastic manifestation of a primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.  


We present a case of nephrotic syndrome secondary to a membranous glomerulonephritis (MG), in a nonsmoking female with a solitary pulmonary nodule, which did not show growth during 2 years of followup. A biopsy by videothoracoscopy showed a granulomatous non-neoplastic process with giant multinucleated cells. The appearance of a nephrotic syndrome and its interpretation as paraneoplastic revealed the existence of a primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC), a very rare pulmonary tumor. After resection of tumor there was a complete recovery from the nephrotic syndrome. This case highlights how the investigation of paraneoplastic syndromes can help in the early diagnosis of some malignancies. PMID:19761726

Arenas, M D; Gil, M T; Malek, T; Farré, J; Fernández Morejón, F J; Arriero, J M; Aranda, I; Moledous, A; Alvarez-Ude, F



Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics during hemorrhagic shock in baboons.  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic response to four hours of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation has been studied in 17 baboons using both open and closed chest models. No pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension occurred during shock or resuscitation except for an increase in lft ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) secondary to intravascular volumee overload with Dextran. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased during shock but returned to control levels with reinfusion of shed blood and correction of acidosis. PVR was moderately elevated following reinfusion of shed blood if acidosis was not corrected or if volum resuscitation was inadequate. No increase in gradients occurred between PA pressure and left atrial (LA) pressure or LVEDP and there was no gradients between small pulmonary vein and LA pressure. Arterial PO2 uniformly increased during shock and remained at or above control levels of reinfusion. Gross or histologic evidence of "congestive atelectasis" or "shock lung" was not observed. These observations suggest that in the subhuman primate, hemorrhage alone does not produce significant injury to the lung during shock or the immediate postresuscitation interval. Hemorrhage alone did not produce changes in the lung which would result in increased pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure following appropriate resuscitation. PMID:6773481

Bredenberg, C E; Nomoto, S; Webb, W R



Pulmonary ablation: a primer.  


Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation is safe and efficacious in achieving local control and improving outcome in the treatment of both early stage non-small-cell lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic disease, in which surgical treatment is precluded by comorbidity, poor cardiorespiratory reserve, or unfavorable disease distribution. Radiofrequency ablation is the most established technology, but new thermal ablation technologies such as microwave ablation and cryoablation may offer some advantages. The use of advanced techniques, such as induced pneumothorax and the popsicle stick technique, or combining thermal ablation with radiotherapy, widens the treatment options available to the multidisciplinary team. The intent of this article is to provide the reader with a practical knowledge base of pulmonary ablation by concentrating on indications, techniques, and follow-up. PMID:23942193

Roberton, Benjamin J; Liu, David; Power, Mark; Wan, John M C; Stuart, Sam; Klass, Darren; Yee, John




NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand the basic properties of minerals. . DATES: You can begin this activity on December 11. You should complete it by December 15. OBJECTIVE: You will visit Web sites to learn more about minerals. You will record 10 interesting facts about minerals on a blank sheet of paper. After visiting the last Web ...

Hughes, Mr.



American Strategic Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Strategic Minerals brings together seven contributors in the fields of marine studies, mining engineering, earth sciences, and economics to discuss and analyze strategic minerals. The future demands of the United States upon limited sources of supply are examined and there is an analysis of alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed, including copper, nickel, manganese, and cobalt. The




Seaweed minerals as nutraceuticals.  


Seaweed is known as an abundant source of minerals. Mineral composition of seaweed is very changeable because of many exogenous and endogenous factors and differs also within the same species. Principally, seaweed is an excellent source of some essential elements. Mainly, iron and iodine are in high concentration. Seaweeds could be prospective as functional foods and also producers of mineral nutraceuticals. PMID:22054962

Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila; Orsavová, Jana



Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to provide a rational for the use of nanoparticles in pulmonary delivery as well as an overview of strategies\\u000a and physiological implications of nanoparticle delivery to the lungs. Formulation aspects of nanoparticle systems in the form\\u000a of liquid dispersions and inhaled dry powders are also reviewed. The chapter also addresses the expanse of lung toxicology\\u000a research surrounding

Alan B. Watts; Robert O. Williams


Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.



[Pulmonary circulatory disturbance on magnified peripheral pulmonary wedge angiography in chronic pulmonary emphysema].  


Magnified peripheral pulmonary wedge angiography was performed in chronic pulmonary diseases. We classified the wedge angiography into five types based on the changes of capillary background (CBG) findings. Type I (normal), Type II (CBG is scattered and pulmonary arterial branches are tortuous), Type IIIa (CBG is decreased and pulmonary arterial branches are normal), Type IIIb (CBG and pulmonary arterial branches are also decreased or disappeared), Type IV (totally convergent). Using this classification, wedge angiography was performed in 42 patients out of 66 patients with chronic pulmonary emphysema diagnosed by selective alveolo-bronchography (SAB). Each type was compared in terms of hemodynamic data, blood gases and pulmonary function. Pulmonary emphysema was classified into types II, IIIa, and IIIb. There was no relation between SAB findings and wedge angiography classification. Severe hemodynamic data cases were found in types II and IIIb. The PaO2 of type II and IIIb were significantly lower than that of type IIIa. In pulmonary function tests, the mixed impairment type of ventilation was more frequently seen in type IIIb than IIIa. There was no relationship between SAB findings (66 cases) and hemodynamic data. These results suggest that classifying wedge angiography into five types (I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IV) may be useful for evaluating severity and determining prognosis and therapeutic measures in chronic pulmonary emphysema. PMID:2615105

Migita, R



[Bilateral pneumothorax complicating cavitary pulmonary metastases in angiosarcoma].  


Metastatic pulmonary angiosarcomas are a common complication of a rare condition. Generally, they are presented as peripheral solid nodules, infiltrates, and pleural effusions. We report the case of a 65 year-old man with bilateral recurrent pneumothorax secondary to metastatic cavitary lesions from angiosarcoma of the scalp. In this case, videothoracoscopy allowed tumor resection, inspection, and pleurodesis. There weren't complications or tumor recurrence at six months follow up. PMID:24918673

Maldonado, Lorena V; Quadrelli, Silvia; Lyons, Gustavo; Spina, Juan C; Venditti, Julio; Chertcoff, Felipe J



Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection PMID:24624285

Odell, John A.



Diagnosing pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Objective testing for pulmonary embolism is necessary, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. No single test has ideal properties (100% sensitivity and specificity, no risk, low cost). Pulmonary angiography is regarded as the final arbiter but is ill suited for diagnosing a disease present in only a third of patients in whom it is suspected. Some tests are good for confirmation and some for exclusion of embolism; others are able to do both but are often non-diagnostic. For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial test should be guided by clinical assessment of the likelihood of embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. Standardised clinical estimates can be used to give a pre-test probability to assess, after appropriate objective testing, the post-test probability of embolism. Multidetector computed tomography can replace both scintigraphy and angiography for the exclusion and diagnosis of this disease and should now be considered the central imaging investigation in suspected pulmonary embolism. PMID:15192162

Riedel, M



Pulmonary fungal infections.  


This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A



Postoperative pulmonary infections  

PubMed Central

Introduction Postoperative pulmonary infections are associated with cough, phlegm, shortness of breath, chest pain, temperature above 38°C, and pulse rate above 100 a minute. Up to half of people may have asymptomatic chest signs after surgery, and up to a quarter develop symptomatic disease. The main risk factor is the type of surgery, with higher risks associated with surgery to the chest, abdomen, and head and neck compared with other operations. Other risk factors include age over 50 years, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), smoking, hypoalbuminaemia, and being functionally dependent. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent postoperative pulmonary infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to stop smoking preoperatively, anaesthesia, lung expansion techniques, and postoperative nasogastric decompression. PMID:19445796



Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip



Diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


Accurate diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension can be challenging and often requires a high index of clinical suspicion. Use of a variety of noninvasive tests can help define the population of patients in whom invasive cardiac catheterization should be pursued. An understanding of the historical, physical exam, electrocardiographic, radiographic, and echocardiographic clues in the diagnosis is important. A ventilation-perfusion scan and careful assessment for left-to-right shunting are mandatory to avoid missing reasons for pulmonary hypertension that may require nonpharmacologic management. Right heart, and sometimes concomitant left heart, catheterization is required to establish the diagnosis and distinguish pulmonary arterial from pulmonary venous hypertension. PMID:24267297

Forfia, Paul R; Trow, Terence K



Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. A review.  

PubMed Central

Anatomic and clinical observations of 28 cases, including 23 previously unpublished, of pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis are recorded and discussed. This brings the total reported to 57. All patients were women in the reproductive age group with the major complaint of breathlessness. This was usually progressive, and death from pulmonary insufficiency resulted within 10 years. Functional changes were obstructive or restrictive, or both. Pneumothorax, chylous effusions and hemoptysis were frequent complications. Radiographically the lesions initially appear as fine, linear and nodular, predominantly basal densities, and progress to a pattern of bullous change, or honeycombing, involving all portions of the lungs not sparing the region of the costophrenic sinuses as is typical of eosinophilic granuloma. There may be associated pleural effusions. A progressively increasing lung volume is characteristic. The lesions consist of an irregular, nodular or laminar "irrational" proliferation of smooth muscle within all portions of the lung, with loss of parenchyma leading to honeycombing. Proliferated muscle can obstruct bronchioles (with air trapping and formation of bullae often complicated by pneumothorax), venules (with pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis accompanied clinically by hemoptysis) and lymphatics (with chylothorax or chyloperitoneum). Both thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the thoracic duct can also be involved in the myoproliferative process with formation of subsidiary minute channels and obstruction. Renal or perirenal angiomyolipomas can also occur, as exemplified by 2 patients in the present series. Identical pulmonary lesions occasionally occur in tuberous sclerosis. Especially since these patients usually have no neurologic disturbances and are almost women, the possibility of a relationship between tuberous sclerosis and lymphangiomyomatosis must be considered. One feature of note in pulmonary lesions of tuberous sclerosis is the presence of adenomatoid proliferations of epithelium. Such changes were also observed in 2 patients of the present series, and it is remarkable that both of these women had "retarded"children. At present the question of whether by lymphangiomyomatosis is a forme fruste of tuberous sclerosis must be considered as unresolved. It may yield to further investigation, possibility including chromosomal studies. Images Fig 34 Fig 35 Fig 36 Fig 37 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Figs 38-39 Fig 40 Fig 41 Fig 42 Figs 10-14 Fig 43 Fig 44 Fig 45 p[373]-a Fig 46 Fig 47 Fig 48 Fig 49 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 28 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-6 Fig 29 Fig 30 Figs 31-32 Fig 33 PMID:1146965

Corrin, B.; Liebow, A. A.; Friedman, P. J.



Scientists observe fungi-dissolving minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) live in moist dark recesses and never see daylight. They cling to the roots of trees in boreal forests, break down soil minerals and supply essential elements and nutrients to the trees. Along the way, they play a distinct but not yet well-understood role in bioweathering, a process in which water, air, and organisms interact to break down soil minerals within the first few meters of Earth's surface. In a synthetically designed and controlled laboratory environment, Gazzè et al. cultured EMF; the researchers monitored the process as the fungi colonized a soil mineral on a petri dish over a period of 7 months. The authors then extracted individual grains of chlorite, a common soil-forming clay mineral, and cleaned the mineral surfaces to look at how the fungi had affected the mineral surfaces they came in contact with. Using atomic force microscopy, a specialized process that allows observations of three-dimensional features at nanometer (10-9 meter) scales, the authors found numerous primary channels, of the order of a micron (10-6 meters) in width and up to 50 nanometers in depth, from which smaller secondary channels extended outward. The network of channels resembled a herringbone-like pattern—evidence of dissolution by EMF.

Bhattacharya, Atreyee



Angioscopy Is Useful In The Evaluation Of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Obstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously described a fiberoptic angioscope for diagnostic use in the right heart and pulmonary arteries. The instrument has a 4 mm 0.D., a proximal flexion control lever, and a 0.8 mm inner channel used to inflate a polyurethane balloon attached to the distal end of the instrument. A conventional xenon light source provides illumination. The instrument is inserted through a right jugular venotomy and passed into the right heart and pulmonary arteries using direct vision and fluoroscopic guidance. The procedure has been performed in 4 patients with pulmonary hypertension suspected to be caused by chronic pulmonary emboli. Chronic emboli were found in two patients and central (resectable) emboli could be distinguished from peripheral ones. The third patient had normal pulmonary arterial intima and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension was made. The fourth patient had extrinsic compression of pulmonary arteries by enlarged mediastinal nodes secondary to fibrosing mediastinitis. No complications occurred. We conclude that angioscopy appears to be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries.

Shure, Deborah; Gregoratos, Gabriel; Moser, Kenneth M.



Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a progressive, insidious lung disease affecting allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Unfortunately, there is no standardized approach for treatment of BOS in post HSCT patients. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a standard treatment in emphysema, an irreversible obstructive lung disease secondary to tobacco abuse. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) demonstrated improved exercise tolerance, decrease dyspnea, and increase of quality of life in patients with severe emphysema after pulmonary rehabilitation. We hypothesized that pulmonary rehabilitation may benefit patients with BOS. Patients with BOS were identified retrospectively from January 2005 to the present. Patients who enrolled in pulmonary rehabilitation were included in the study. We obtained summaries via chart review of each patient’s progress after pulmonary rehabilitation enrollment from their respective rehabilitation centers. Six minute walk distances, spirometry, and pulmonary symptoms were compared before and after the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation. We identified 11 patients with BOS documented from their pulmonologist’s clinical notes that were enrolled into pulmonary rehabilitation. Ten of the 11 patients completed pulmonary rehabilitation. All patients had improvement in their 6 minute walk distances after the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation with an average improvement in distance of 307 feet (p value = 0.005). Six of the 10 patients completed a Short Form-36 questionnaires prior to and after rehab. There was a significant improvement in the physical functioning score (p value =0.029). Pulmonary rehabilitation appears to improve 6 minute walk distance, subjective symptoms of dyspnea and exercise tolerance in patients with BOS. This may be an important adjunctive therapy for a debilitating disease with limited treatment options. PMID:22300617

Tran, Jerry; Norder, Emily; Diaz, Phil; Phillips, Gary S.; Elder, Pat; Devine, Steven M.; Wood, Karen L.



Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in pulmonary metastasis--a case report.  


Hypertrophic pulmonary Osteoarthropathy is most commonly encountered in association with bronchogenic carcinoma and tumours of the pleura. Its association with pulmonary metastasis from extrathoracic neoplasms is rare. We report a 33 years old male Ethiopian who presented with Cannon ball lesions, clubbing of the digits, periostitis, gynaecomastia, acromegalic features and bilateral knee arthritis. Related literature is briefly reviewed. PMID:9164041

Aderaye, G



Virtual Pulmonary Valve Replacement Interventions with a Personalised Cardiac Electromechanical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulmonary valve replacement Heart <Secondary>pulmonary valve replacementSecondary> (PVR) is a pivotal treatment for patients who suffer from chronic pulmonary valve Heart <Secondary>valve> regurgitation Heart <Secondary>regurgitation> s. Two PVR techniques are becoming prevalent: a minimally invasive approach and an open-heart surgery Heart <Secondary>surgery> with direct right ventricle volume reduction. However, there is no common agreement about the postoperative outcomes of these PVR techniques and choosing the right therapy for a specific patient remains a clinical challenge. We explore in this chapter how image processing algorithms, electromechanical Modelling <Secondary>cardiac> models of the heart and real-time surgical simulation Simulation <Secondary>surgery> platforms can be adapted and combined together to perform patient-specific simulations of these two PVR therapies. We propose a framework where (1) an electromechanical model of the heart is personalised from clinical MR images and used to simulate the effects of PVR upon the cardiac function and (2) volume reduction surgery is simulated in real time by interactively cutting, moving and joining parts of the anatomical model. The framework is tested on a young patient. The results are promising and suggest that such advanced biomedical technologies may help in decision support and surgery planning for PVR.

Mansi, Tommaso; André, Barbara; Lynch, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Delingette, Hervé; Boudjemline, Younes; Ayache, Nicholas


Rocks, minerals, and a dusty world  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s troposphere and hydrosphere contain abundant naturally generated dust. The ultimate source materials from which the terrestrially produced dust is generated are the various rock types exposed at the Earth`s surface. Natural dust is a composite of (1) lithic, primary mineral grains; (2) mineral grains formed by secondary chemical reactions; (3) volcanic ash and dust; (4) salts from sea sprays; (5) extra-terrestrial dust; and (6) biologic materials. In this paper the various pathways to the natural generation of dust (via the hydrologic cycle) will be discussed, and two geologically well-known natural dust sources will be described, paying particular attention to quantitative measurements of the dusts from these areas. General dust studies that provide data on possibly global background levels will be presented as well.. A few general aspects of the mineralogical characterization of dust particles and a discussion of some of the mineralogy of several mineral groups are first presented. 89 refs., 39 figs.

Klein, C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

Vijayan, V K



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

Vijayan, V.K.



Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.



Determinants of pulmonary blood volume  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary blood volume was determined by the radiocardiographic technique in 49 patients coming to cardiac catheterization. Since this method has not been directly compared with the more commonly used double injection of dye. 25 comparisons were carried out in 13 patients of the series. Agreement was good over a range of 4.5-21.1 heart cycles since there was no statistically significant difference between transit time values measured by the two methods. The relation of pulmonary blood volume to other hemodynamic factors in these 49 patients, with and without cardiac or pulmonary disease, was evaluated by means of multiple regression analysis. The analysis carried out for mean transit time indicates that this parameter varies predominately with flow. Pulmonary blood volume, in this series of resting recumbent individuals, varies to a significant degree only with total blood volume and with pulmonary venous pressure. No parameters of vascular distensibility, such as pulmonary vascular resistance, were found to affect the volume of blood in the lungs. The fact that variations in pulmonary blood volume among the subjects could be described by a multiple regression equation linear with respect to total blood volume and pulmonary venous pressure indicates that these variations are the result of passive distention of components of the vascular bed. PMID:4902826

Lewis, Milena L.; Gnoj, Julian; Fisher, Vincent J.; Christianson, Lynn C.



Pulmonary extramedullary haematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

A 72-year-old Caucasian lady with myeloproliferative disorder was admitted for evaluation of progressive dyspnoea, weight loss, fatigue and mild hypoxia. A diffuse ground glass opacity was seen on CT pulmonary angiogram. Differential diagnoses included heart failure, infection, progression of myeloproliferative disorder with extramedullary haematopoiesis, thromboembolism or hydroxyurea-induced lung injury. Bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage were uninformative however lung biopsy with video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed extramedullary haematopoiesis within lung parenchyma. This is a very rare complication of myeloproliferative disorder and the authors discuss the significance of the case, review the literature and report the patient’s progress. PMID:22669524

Mubarak, Veenu; Fanning, Stephen; Windsor, Morgon; Duhig, Edwina; Bowler, Simon



[Infectious pulmonary diseases].  


Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D



[Human pulmonary dirofilariasis].  


The patient was a 60's-year-old man, who was incidentally pointed out a coin lesion in the right lung by chest radiogram. Chest computed tomography showed a round-shaped, well defined nodule of 2.5 cm in size in the right S1. Positron emission tomography did not show the accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose in the nodule. We considered the tumor to be benign, but the patient chose surgical treatment. Partial resection of the lung was performed by thoracoscopic surgery. Histopathological diagnosis was human pulmonary dirofilariasis. PMID:22187872

Terasaka, Yukinori; Inaba, Hirohisa; Furuta, Shinpei; Shimojima, Reiko; Shintani, Tsunehiro; Miyabe, Rika; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Shiraishi, Kou; Nakayama, Takamori; Mori, Shunji; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Kasahara, Masao



Cavitary Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary: A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host. PMID:18400799

Gadkowski, L. Beth; Stout, Jason E.



Effects of Different Pulmonary Vasodilators on Arterial Saturation in a Model of Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Approved therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension can induce oxygen desaturation when administered to patients with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), probably due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Thus, so far these treatments have largely failed in secondary forms of PH. Methods We established an animal model of heterogeneous lung ventilation to evaluate the desaturation potential of mechanistically distinct vasoactive drugs launched or currently in clinical development for the treatment of PH. Single-lung ventilation was induced in five groups (N?=?6) of anesthetized minipigs (7 weeks, 4 to 5 kg BW), and their hemodynamic parameters were monitored before and after intravenous injection of control (vehicle only), endothelin antagonist (bosentan; 0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil; 3, 10, 30, 100 µg/kg), and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators (BAY 41–8543 and riociguat; 1, 3, 10, 30 µg/kg). Cumulative doses were administered before successive unilateral ventilation cycles. The doses were chosen to achieve equal effect on blood pressure by the different pharmacologic principles. Results Single-lung ventilation resulted in transient increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and desaturation. In contrast to control, all drugs dose-dependently decreased hypoxic mPAP (a positive treatment effect) and increased area under the arterial hemoglobin saturation curve (unwanted desaturation effect). Riociguat and bosentan reduced hypoxic mPAP to the greatest extent, while the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators riociguat and BAY 41–8543 lowered arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin the least. Conclusions Future investigations will be required to confirm these findings in clinical settings. PMID:24015306

Becker, Eva Maria; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bechem, Martin; Keldenich, Jorg; Klipp, Alexandra; Schaefer, Katja; Ulbrich, Hannes-Friedrich; Truebel, Hubert



Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.  

PubMed Central

Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

Heppleston, A G



American Strategic Minerals  

SciTech Connect

American Strategic Minerals brings together seven contributors in the fields of marine studies, mining engineering, earth sciences, and economics to discuss and analyze strategic minerals. The future demands of the United States upon limited sources of supply are examined and there is an analysis of alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed, including copper, nickel, manganese, and cobalt. The book contains an examination of the investments that the United States has made in developing countries that could affect both the national security and national economy of America in the years ahead. After a review of minerals policy in the United States, the conflicting interests that influence the President and Congress in making decisions about strategic minerals, and other dimensions of strategic minerals, are exposed to clarify both the facts and myths about supply and demand, security and danger, and high and low prices.

Mangone, G.



Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals and in distinct clinical forms: autoimmune (previously referred to as the idiopathic form, represents the vast majority of PAP cases, and is associated with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) auto-antibodies; GMAbs), secondary (is a consequence of underlying disorders), congenital (caused by mutations in the genes encoding for the GM-CSF receptor), and PAP-like syndromes (disorders associated with surfactant gene mutations). The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the current standard treatment for PAP patients and although it is effective in the majority of cases, disease persistence is not an unusual outcome, even if disease is well controlled by WLL. In this paper we review the therapeutic strategies which have been proposed for the treatment of PAP patients and the progress which has been made in the understanding of the disease pathogenesis. PMID:22958344



Acute Exercise Activates Pulmonary eNOS and Lowers Pulmonary Pressure in Rats with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

E-print Network

Acute Exercise Activates Pulmonary eNOS and Lowers Pulmonary Pressure in Rats with Pulmonary is impaired in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Exercise may be beneficial in PAH, just as it is for systemic vascular disease, via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression

Zhou, Yaoqi


Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Minerals are all around us. They're in our kitchens and bathrooms, our classrooms and school buildings, and our cars and bicycles. This interactive feature lets users discover which minerals are found in items they probably encounter every day. Rolling the cursor over items in an illustrated room accesses pop-ups that describe what mineral products may be found in them. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.



Minerals Under the Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the basics of optical mineralogy. Topics include the polarized light microscope, mineral shape and cleavage, relief, color and pleochroism, interference colors, extinction angles, twinning, opacity, vibration directions and mineral identification. The site features short, clear descriptions accompanied by photographs and drawings. This website would be useful as a concise introduction to the use of a petrographic microscope in identifying minerals.

Browning, Paul; Gladstone, Charlotte



Weathering of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

Van Norden, Wendy


Mineral winning installations  

SciTech Connect

A mineral winning installation employs a plurality of plough bodies spaced apart along the mineral face and interconnected to form a common plough train which is moved in unison back and forth along the face. The plough bodies have high-pressure fluid emission nozzles and a high-pressure pipe line extending between the bodies supplies high pressure fluid to the nozzles, which discharge the fluid for impact with the mineral face.

Lobbe, A.



Minerals by Chemical Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive periodic table displays a listing of minerals by element, sorted by percent of the element. Clicking on a symbol on the table leads users to information on the element (atomic mass and number, name origin, year of discovery, and a brief description), and to a table listing each mineral known to contain the element in decreasing order by percentage. Each mineral name in the table is linked to additional information on the mineral, such as formula and composition, images, crystallography, physical properties, and many others.


Mineral Industry Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Surveys Mineral Industry Survey's Web site provides "periodic on-line statistical and economic publications designed to provide timely statistical data on production, distribution, stocks, and consumption of significant mineral commodities." Visitors to the site will find an alphabetical listing of minerals that includes everything from Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, and Asbestos, to Zeolite, Zinc, and Zirconium. Once clicked, a brief description of the mineral is provided along with links to yearly information publications as well as special publications such as its historical statistics, other agency links, contact information, and more.



E-print Network

Thallium Thorium Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Vermiculite Yttrium Zinc Zirconium #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Appendix C--A Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals

Torgersen, Christian


Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter


USGS: Mineral Resources Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Mineral Resources Program funds science to provide and communicate current, impartial information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources." This website divides the mineral resource information, project descriptions, and products for the United States into four main regional categories: Eastern, Central, Western, and Alaska. Researchers can discover new grant opportunities and can obtain access to the National Geochemical Survey's database. Students and educators can find statistics and information on how the United State's supply-and-demand for minerals and materials affects the economy, security, and environment.


Reagan issues mineral policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.


Canadian Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Natural Resources Canada Minerals and Metals Sector, the Canadian Minerals Yearbook Web site provides mineral industry information from 1994 to 2001. Downloadable files from each year include a Year in Review, Reserves of Selected Major Metals, Recent Production Decisions, and a Mineral and Metal Commodity Review. An example of the information provided comes from the 2001 Review: "In 2000, Canadian reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, molybdenum, silver and gold decreased because there were no decisions to bring new mines into production and the amount of new ore discovered at existing mining operations was insufficient to replace the quantity of ore that was mined during the year."



Cavitary pulmonary metastases  

PubMed Central

Cavitation in pulmonary metastases is more common than might be supposed from the small number of cases (75) previously reported. Twenty-five cases of cavitary pulmonary metastases were seen at the London Chest Hospital from 1964 to 1969. The primary sites were the large intestine (8), opposite lung (4), cervix (3), stomach, oesophagus, pancreas, and larynx (2 each) and anal canal and kidney (1 each). The size of the cavities ranged from 1·0 to 6·0 cm., and their wall thickness from 0·3 to 2·5 cm. Only in three cases was there an identifiable communication with the bronchial tree and only in these three cases were neoplastic cells found in the sputum. The main microscopic feature was vascular invasion, which was found in the vicinity of every metastasis; thrombosis was seen in 14 cases. It seems that the principal cause of necrosis and subsequent cavitation in metastatic tumours of the lung is interference with their blood supply by vascular involvement. Images PMID:5452295

Chaudhuri, M. Ray



Thoracoscopy assisted pulmonary lobectomy.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--This report describes a preliminary experience with six patients undergoing video imaged thoracoscopic pulmonary lobectomy. METHODS--Three left upper lobectomies, and one each of right upper, right lower and left lower lobectomy were undertaken. The resections were performed as orthodox dissectional lobectomy procedures but were carried out under videothoracoscopic imaging with instruments introduced through two stab incisions. The entire resected lobe was delivered through a 7 cm submammary intercostal incision. RESULTS--There were no operative deaths or complications attributable to the technique. In three other patients conversion to an open thoracotomy was required because of bleeding (two cases) or obscure anatomy (one case). Post-operative pain in those undergoing thoracoscopic resection was less than that encountered with standard thoracotomy and early clinic review showed the patients to be pain free with excellent shoulder movement. CONCLUSIONS--Major pulmonary resection according to standard cancer practices is feasible with videothoracoscopic techniques. This approach is likely to offer considerable functional benefit to patients. Specimen delivery through the submammary incision imposes a 5 cm primary lesion size limitation. Detailed mediastinal assessment is necessary to exclude N2 status before undertaking thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:8236075

Walker, W. S.; Carnochan, F. M.; Tin, M.



[Percutaneous pulmonary valvuloplasty].  


Five patients (aged between 11 and 59 years) with valvular pulmonary artery stenosis and pressure gradients between 60 and 143 mm Hg underwent percutaneous transluminal balloon valvuloplasty. Selection of the appropriate balloon size was based on the measurement of the dimension of the value anulus as a determinant from the angiogram. Balloon catheters were used with a diameter of 18 to 20 mm. After placement in the stenotic valve the balloon was filled with diluted contrast material for 10-20 s. The balloon indention by the stenotic valve disappeared suddenly during expansion with one to three atmospheres. The pressure gradient in individual patients decreased from 60 to 25, from 143 to 60, 100 to 55, 143 to 60, and 60 to 37 mm Hg, in the mean from 101 to 52 mm Hg. All patients were discharged two to four days after the procedure. During follow-up with recatheterization after three to nine months (four patients) the gradients decreased as compared to the value immediately after valvuloplasty. The exercise capacity increased in all patients. No complications were observed. Balloon valvuloplasty of pulmonary valvular stenosis seems to be an alternative to the operative procedure. PMID:2937221

Bussmann, W D; Sievert, H; Reifart, N; Kober, G; Satter, P; Kaltenbach, M



O and Pb isotopic analyses of uranium minerals by ion microprobe and UPb ages from the Cigar Lake deposit  

E-print Network

intergrown uranium minerals and oxygen isotopic analyes of uraninite from the unconformity-type Cigar LakeO and Pb isotopic analyses of uranium minerals by ion microprobe and U­Pb ages from the Cigar Lake uranium deposit. Secondary uranium minerals intergrown with uraninite, such as coffinite, USiO4ÁnH2O

Fayek, Mostafa


Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic obstruction of the pulmonary artery in piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The 2 main causes of death after thromboendarterectomy for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism are incomplete repermeabilization responsible for persistent pulmonary hypertension and acute high-permeability pulmonary edema. We wish to establish an experimental model of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism to replicate the conditions encountered during and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Methods: Multiple-curled coils and tissue adhesive were embolized in 6 piglets to induce

Elie Fadel; Jean Yves Riou; Michel Mazmanian; Philippe Brenot; Elisabeth Dulmet; Hélène Detruit; Alain Serraf; Emile A. Bacha; Philippe Herve; Philippe Dartevelle



Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms

M S Wilson; T A Wynn



Potassium channel diversity in the pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins: Implications for regulation of the pulmonary vasculature in health and during pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the ionic heterogeneity manifest in the pulmonary circulation, particularly as it pertains to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Heterogeneity in potassium (K+) channels, key regulators of vascular tone, cell proliferation, and apoptosis rates, contribute to the diverse response of vascular segments to hypoxia and to the localization of pathological changes in PAH. Pulmonary

Sébastien Bonnet; Stephen L. Archer



Tetralogy of Fallot with severe pulmonary valvar stenosis and pulmonary vascular sling (anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with the rare combination of tetralogy of Fallot with severe pulmonary valvar stenosis and pulmonary vascular sling is presented. The limitations imposed by pulmonary artery hypoplasia on the display of pulmonary vascular sling by conventional imaging techniques are discussed.

Kenneth A. Murdison; Paul M. Weinberg



REVIEW Open Access Pulmonary arterial hypertension  

E-print Network

,2,3 and Olivier Sitbon1,2,3* Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning  

SciTech Connect

MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division De Ciencias e Ingenerias, Leon Gto., Mex (Mexico); Zavala, G. [Universidad de Guanajuato, DCEA, Guanajuato Gto., Mex (Mexico)



PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

Graham, Ms.



Atoms and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 23 questions on the topic of atoms and minerals, which covers mineral types and characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy



NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Specify key vitamins and minerals and their functions. . DATES: You can begin this activity on May 21. You should complete it by May 25. OBJECTIVE: A healthy body needs vitamins and minerals. You\\'ve probably heard these words before, but do you really know what they mean? This activity will help you better understand the ...

Hughes, Mr.



Vitamin and mineral requirements  

E-print Network

Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998 : Bangkok, Thailand). Vitamin, 21­30 September 1998. 1.Vitamins -- standards 2.Micronutrients -- standards 3.Trace elements

Laughlin, Robert B.


Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color poster shows how we use minerals in our everyday life. It depicts common household items (furniture, appliances, plumbing fixtures, personal products, etc.) which are keyed by number to short descriptions that provide information on the minerals used in the manufacture of these items.


The Miner's Canary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

Guinier, Lani



Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.



Minerals, Crystals and Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.


Reducing Miner Absenteeism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has prepared the report on strategies for maintaining high job attendance among underground coal miners because high absenteeism is a threat to miners' safety and seriously hampers productivity. A substantial number of research st...

R. H. Peters, M. R. Clingan, R. F. Randolph



Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position




What is a Mineral?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), gives a description of minerals and the growth of crystals. The site offers various links with examples of different compositions and classifications of common minerals. The site provides three different levels of explanation--beginner, intermediate, and advanced.



Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation.  


Numerous barriers exist to the timely introduction of palliative care in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The complex needs of patients with advanced COPD require the integration of curative-restorative care and palliative care. Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation are both important components of integrated care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Pulmonary rehabilitation provides the opportunity to introduce palliative care by implementing education about advance care planning. Education about advance care planning addresses the information needs of patients and can be an effective strategy to promote patient-physician discussion about these issues. PMID:24874135

Janssen, Daisy J A; McCormick, James R



Acute pulmonary embolism after pneumonectomy  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary embolism (PE) by occlusion of the pulmonary arterial bed may lead to acute life-threatening but potentially reversible right ventricular failure, one of the most severe complications of thoracic surgery. Still, the incidence of acute pulmonary embolism after surgery is reduced by comprehensive anticoagulant prevention, improved surgical techniques, appropriate perioperative management and early ambulation. However, there is difficulty in diagnosing PE after thoracic surgery due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations. So that optimal diagnostic strategy and management according to the clinical presentation and estimated risk of an adverse outcome is fundamental. PMID:22295170

Wang, Zongfei; Pei, Chu; Ma, Lunchao; Wang, Daoyuan; Zhou, Jiangfen; Wang, Wei; Shen, Jianfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; He, Jianxing



The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and received TIP or saline (control group) by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration) or day seven (late administration) after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. Results TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. Conclusion In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease. PMID:25047452

van den Berg, Elske; Bem, Reinout A.; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B. M.



Axial flow velocity patterns in a normal human pulmonary artery model: pulsatile in vitro studies.  


It has been clinically observed that the flow velocity patterns in the pulmonary artery are directly modified by disease. The present study addresses the hypothesis that altered velocity patterns relate to the severity of various diseases in the pulmonary artery. This paper lays a foundation for that analysis by providing a detailed description of flow velocity patterns in the normal pulmonary artery, using flow visualization and laser Doppler anemometry techniques. The studies were conducted in an in vitro rigid model in a right heart pulse duplicator system. In the main pulmonary artery, a broad central flow field was observed throughout systole. The maximum axial velocity (150 cm s-1) was measured at peak systole. In the left pulmonary artery, the axial velocities were approximately evenly distributed in the perpendicular plane. However, in the bifurcation plane, they were slightly skewed toward the inner wall at peak systole and during the deceleration phase. In the right pulmonary artery, the axial velocity in the perpendicular plane had a very marked M-shaped profile at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, due to a pair of strong secondary flows. In the bifurcation plane, higher axial velocities were observed along the inner wall, while lower axial velocities were observed along the outer wall and in the center. Overall, relatively low levels of turbulence were observed in all the branches during systole. The maximum turbulence intensity measured was at the boundary of the broad central flow field in the main pulmonary artery at peak systole. PMID:2324117

Sung, H W; Yoganathan, A P



Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.




Postextubation pulmonary edema: an unusual cause of transient pulmonary edema.  


We report a case of sudden onset of respiratory distress caused by pulmonary edema due to laryngospasm. The diagnosis was established by the clinical context and chest X-ray. A CT-scan was performed to narrow down the differential diagnosis and to confirm the diagnosis. Postextubation pulmonary edema due to laryngospasm is a rare entity with a typical clinical and radiographic presentation. PMID:23610874

Carels, K; Herpels, V; Cardoen, L; Lecluyse, C; Traen, S; Verschakelen, J



Broncho pleuro subcutaneous fistula with subcutaneous emphysema: A rare presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a several clinical settings but spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax with broncho pleuro subcutaneous fistula is rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax.

Saxena, Mukul; Shameem, Mohammad; Bhargava, Rakesh; Baneen, Ummul; Alam, Mohd Mazhar; Fatima, Nazish



Mitral Valve Arcade with Concomitant Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of congenital mitral valve arcade with concomitant anomalous coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of a 5-month-old female patient with both ALCAPA and severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve arcade.

Lowell S. Su; Harold M. Burkhart; Patrick W. O’Leary; Joseph A. Dearani


Mitral valve arcade with concomitant anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.  


The presence of congenital mitral valve arcade with concomitant anomalous coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of a 5-month-old female patient with both ALCAPA and severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve arcade. PMID:22115268

Su, Lowell S; Burkhart, Harold M; O'Leary, Patrick W; Dearani, Joseph A



[Pathophysiology of development of pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism].  


Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the life-threatening condition with high incidence and mortality where the death is the result of pulmonary hypertension followed by right side heart failure. There are two important mechanisms concerned in the development of pulmonary embolism--induced pulmonary hypertension--mechanic obstruction of pulmonary vessels by the embolus and vasoconstriction. The effect of mechanic obstruction is quite clear, in contrast to the role of vasoconstriction. Activation of endothelial cells, thrombocytes and leucocytes, which release vasoconstricting substances (ET-1, 5-HT etc.) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the most important factors causing the vasoconstriction after PE. ROS are produced as a result of hypoxia, increased (and decreased) shear stress and are released from activated leukocytes. Vasoconstriction after PE is caused by change of conformation voltage-gated potassium channels, the decrease of vasodilatation effect of NO and activation of matrix metalloproteinases.. Most of the current therapeutic protocols in PE are focused on mechanic obstruction of pulmonary vessels. Thus, the research of the role of vasoconstriction in PE and potentially protective factors in vasocostriction--induced injury represent clinically highly important field. PMID:22737942

Mizera, Roman



Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Bates, Albion M.



Vitamins and Minerals during Pregnancy  


... It's been added to your dashboard . Vitamins and minerals during pregnancy Vitamins and minerals help give your body the nutrients it needs ... for some people to get enough vitamins and minerals in their foods. They may need to take ...


What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?  


... medicines can cause the disease. Environmental pollutants include inorganic dust (silica and hard metal dusts) and organic ... IPF. More research is needed to confirm this theory. Rate This Content: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Trials ...


Cytologic features of pulmonary blastoma  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary blastomas are rare lung neoplasms constituting 0.5% of all lung tumors. This tumor has an aggressive course and needs to be recognized on cytology. A preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary blastoma is difficult to obtain by cytopathologic methods. A diagnosis of biphasic pulmonary blastoma should be considered when there is a dimorphic population of cells on cytology. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressing breathlessness and left-sided chest pain for the past one month. Chest radiograph and computed tomography of thorax revealed an anterior mediastinal mass that was subjected to ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Aspiration cytology showed a highly cellular lesion with a dimorphic population of tumor cells in a necrotic background. The possibility of a non-small cell carcinoma was suggested. Subsequent histopathology revealed the tumor to be a pulmonary blastoma. The importance of recognizing the dimorphic population of cells in cytology is discussed. PMID:21938157

Shalini, CN Sai; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Abraham, Georgi; Prathiba, D; Rajendiran, S



COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)  


... therapy does not prevent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lower mortality from acute respiratory distress ... the cholesterol-lowering drugs on outcomes in the lung diseases. View all COPD Press Releases Related Director's Message ...


Review article Pulmonary intravascular macrophages  

E-print Network

that blood-borne particles localized in the lungs of certain species of animals (Winkler, 1988), pulmonary endothelium were observed in ani- mals treated with various anesthetics, as well as in control animals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Lung surfactant and pulmonary toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary surfactant is essential for a proper functioning of the mammalian lung. It provides mechanical stability to the\\u000a alveoli, prevents alveolar edema, and plays a role in the pulmonary defense system. Because of this vital role, alterations\\u000a in the surfactant system may account for some of the observed toxic effects of environmental agents and drugs on the lung.\\u000a In this

Henk P. Haagsman; Lambert M. G. van Golde



The effects of exercise and airway clearing devices on chronic pulmonary diseased patients in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

E-print Network

??BACKGROUND: Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often complicated by excess airway mucus, providing airway clearance treatments (ACTs) for patients during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR)… (more)

McCarroll, Michele Lynn



Elastic properties of minerals  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.



A rare occurrence of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis after lung transplantation.  


We present a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) initially diagnosed 28 months after left single-lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The diagnosis was based upon the presence of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive and surfactant immunostain-positive acellular lipoproteinaceous material within alveoli seen on transbronchial biopsy as well as in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The patient eventually also displayed a characteristic "crazy paving" pattern on radiographic imaging. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor antibodies were negative, consistent with secondary PAP. PAP is a rare interstitial lung disease with only a few reported cases occurring after lung transplantation. The etiology is thought to be related to a defect in macrophage function caused by immunosuppression. Reduced immunosuppression has been associated with stabilization, but not reversal, of the condition in the case reported here. PAP is an exceptionally rare cause of dyspnea and radiographic infiltrates after lung transplantation and may be related to toxicity of immune-suppressive medications. PMID:23821516

Albores, Jeffrey; Seki, Atsuko; Fishbein, Michael C; Abtin, Fereidoun; Lynch, Joseph P; Wang, Tisha; Weigt, S Samuel



Pulmonary rehabilitation and integrated care.  


Pulmonary rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to stabilize or reverse both the physio- and the psychopathology of pulmonary diseases and attempts to return the patient to the highest possible capacity allowed by the pulmonary handicap and overall life situation. Three important features of pulmonary rehabilitation include: individualization, multidisciplinarity, and attention to the different components of the disease and their impact on daily life. Current health care systems are still organized based on the acute care paradigm, largely neglecting the management over periods of years or decades, required for optimal approach of patients with chronic conditions. These chronic conditions need to be considered as the result of complex, dynamic, and unique interactions between different components of the overall system. Optimally, pulmonary rehabilitation aims to achieve optimal daily functioning and health status for the individual patient and to achieve and maintain the individual's independence and functioning in the community. As part of the integrated care process, pulmonary rehabilitation is the patient-centered demand-driven process in the care delivery value chain by offering a flexible, creative, holistic, and integrated intervention, based on partnering of different skills to achieve shared individualized patient-related objectives, as well as to achieve improvement in clinically relevant outcomes and to offer added value to the patient and the community. PMID:19941229

Wouters, Emiel F M; Vanderhoven, Ingrid M L



Digging into Minnesota Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digging into Minnesota Minerals Web site is part of the larger Minnesota State Department of Natural Resources site. These fun and interesting pages explain how Minnesota came to acquire its most common minerals over geologic time, what the basic types of rocks are, mining history of the state, the geology found in state parks, and much more. Included are basic descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and even educational activities for teachers related to the minerals. This well-designed site would be a great addition to any grade school or high school science curriculum.


Exploitation of Antarctic minerals  

SciTech Connect

Exploitation of minerals either from continental shelves or land areas free of ice has yet to take place in the Antarctic. The paper considers pressures, commercial, strategic, and possible depletion of resources elsewhere that might encourage moves towards exploitation. A brief review is given of technical developments that will be required to allow minerals operators to establish themselves in the hostile Antarctic environment. Finally, the issues that arise in the control of mineral exploitation in a region not subject to conventional national authority are noticed and the necessary conditions for the supervision of such activity, and the protection of the Antarctic environment are outlined.

Crockett, R.N.; Clarkson, P.D.



Mineral resources of Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.



The Density of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to measure the density of various minerals. The activity will reinforce the usefulness of density as a physical test for identification of minerals. Using a selection of mineral specimens of varying densities, they will weigh each one in air, immerse it in a graduated cylinder of water, and measure the amount of water displaced by the specimen. Dividing the weight of the specimen by the volume of displaced water yields the density of the specimen. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.



Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a persistent elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling with unknown etiology. Current therapeutics available for PAH are primarily directed at reducing the pulmonary blood pressure through their effects on the endothelium. It is well accepted that pulmonary arterial remodeling is primarily due to excessive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation that leads to narrowing or occlusion of the pulmonary vessels. Future effective therapeutics will be successful in reversing the vascular remodeling in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on molecular mechanisms involved in pulmonary arterial remodeling with a focus on growth factors, transcription factors, and epigenetic pathways in PASMC proliferation. In addition, this review will highlight novel therapeutic strategies for potentially reversing PASMC proliferation. PMID:24676136

Crosswhite, Patrick; Sun, Zhongjie



Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium disease with a solitary pulmonary nodule requiring differentiation from recurrence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.  


A 56-year-old man with a past history of surgical resection of a primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma in the right upper lobe was admitted to our hospital because of a rapidly increasing solitary nodule (50x30 mm) in the right S5 followed on the chest computed tomography (CT) for three months. Although we suspected recurrence of the pulmonary adenocarcinoma and performed a CT-guided lung biopsy, we could not make a definite diagnosis. Therefore, to rule out recurrence of the primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma completely, a partial surgical resection of the right middle lobe was performed and a caseating epitheloid granuloma with acid-fast bacilli was found. As the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly increasing solitary nodule through this peculiar case of pulmonary MAC disease. PMID:15497525

Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Kouichiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsushima, Toshiharu



Are the iron carbonate minerals, ankerite and ferroan dolomite, like siderite, important in paleomagnetism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic, Mössbauer effect, and thermal properties have been evaluated for specimens of the mineral ankerite and are contrasted with similar measurements reported for the mineral siderite to determine if ankerite (and ferroan dolomite), like siderite, may be important in paleomagnetism as a producer of secondary, spurious remanent moments as the result of oxidation in air. Our data indicate that ankerite

Brooks B. Ellwood; Burke Burkart; Krishnan Rajeshwar; Robert L. Darwin; Richard A. Neeley; Alden B. McCall; Gary J. Long; Margaret L. Buhl; Charles W. Hickcox



Mineral sources and transport pathways for arsenic release in a coastal watershed, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metasedimentary bedrock of coastal Maine contains a diverse suite of As-bearing minerals that act as significant sources of elements found in ground and surface waters in the region. Arsenic sources in the Penobscot Formation include, in order of decreasing As content by weight: lo??llingite and realgar (c. 70%), arsenopyrite, cobaltite, glaucodot, and gersdorffite (in the range of 34-45%), arsenian pyrite ( glaucodot, arsenopyrite-cobaltian > arsenopyrite, cobaltite, gersdorffite, fine-grained pyrite, Ni-pyrite > coarse-grained pyrite. Reactions illustrate that oxidation of Fe-As disulphide group and As-sulphide minerals is the primary release process for As. Liberation of As by carbonation of realgar and orpiment in contact with high-pH groundwaters may contribute locally to elevated contents of As in groundwater, especially where As is decoupled from Fe. Released metals are sequestered in secondary minerals by sorption or by incorporation in crystal structures. Secondary minerals acting as intermediate As reservoirs include claudetite (c. 75%), orpiment (61%), scorodite (c. 450%), secondary arsenopyrite (c. 469/6), goethite (<4490 ppm), natrojarosite (<42 ppm), rosenite, melanterite, ferrihydrite, and Mn-hydroxide coatings. Some soils also contain Fe-Co-Ni-arsenate, Ca-arsenate, and carbonate minerals. Reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide minerals may govern the ultimate release of iron and arsenic - especially As(V) - to groundwater; however, dissolution of claudetite (arsenic trioxide) may directly contribute As(III). Processes thought to explain the release of As from minerals in bedrock include oxidation of arsenian pyrite or arsenopyrite, or carbonation of As-sulphides, and most models based on these generally rely on discrete minerals or on a fairly limited series of minerals. In contrast, in the Penobscot Formation and other metasedimentary rocks of coastal Maine, oxidation of As-bearing Fe-cobalt-nickel-sulphide minerals, dissolution (by reduction) of As-bearing secondary As and Fe hydroxide and sulphate minerals, carbonation and/or oxidation of As-sulphide minerals, and desorption of As from Fe-hydroxide mineral surfaces are all thought to be involved. All of these processes contribute to the occurrence of As in groundwaters in coastal Maine, as a result of variability in composition and in stability of the As source minerals. Arsenic contents of soils and groundwater thus reflect the predominant influence and integration of a spectrum of primary mineral reservoirs (instead of single or unique mineral reservoirs). Cycling of As through metasedimentary bedrock aquifers may therefore depend on consecutive stages of carbonation, oxidation and reductive dissolution of primary and secondary As host minerals. ?? 2008 AAG/ Geological Society of London.

Foley, N.K.; Ayuso, R.A.



Private Mineral Gallery Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students make and display posters of the mineral they researched throughout the semester. The instructor and TA review the posters while students answer questions as they walk around and examine each other's posters.

Perkins, Dexter


Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Ken's Fluorescent Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides photos of fluorescent minerals photographed under long wave (LW) or short wave (SW) ultraviolet light. Links to additional resources, and a list of books and information sources are also included.

Colosky, Kenneth


36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral permits. 293.14 Section 293.14 Parks...AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws...



2011 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-print Network

2011 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey TIN [ADVANCE RELEASE output), followed by Indonesia (17%), Peru (12%), Bolivia (8%), and Brazil (5%). in 2011, the world tin.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since that year. Secondary.--A significant quantity of alloy tin scrap was generated



EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a multimedia (air, liquid and solid wastes) environmental assessment of the domestic mineral mining industry. The primary objective of the study was to identify the major pollution problems associated with the industry. A secondary objective was to define res...


Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.



Ice is a Mineral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the characteristics of ice as a mineral and how it compares to other minerals with respect to hardness. Learners will observe ice crystals, develop a hardness scale and position ice on it. Learners will also practice working collaboratively in a team. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 3 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.


Biomineralization of magnetic minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New developments and discoveries in biomineralization have occurred almost continuously in the intervening decade since the previous IUGG quadrennial report on biomineralization and biomagnetism was published [Kirschvink, 1983]. Biomineralization is widespread in the biosphere and over 60 different inorganic minerals are produced by a variety of organisms from bacteria to humans [Lowenstam and Weiner, 1989]. The literature on biomineralization is interdisplinary, combining research in microbiology, biotechnology, physics, geology, and paleomagnetism. For paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, iron biomineralization of magnetic minerals is of prime importance. From a paleomagnetism perspective, biogenic magnetic minerals can be deposited in sediments and acquire a natural remanent magnetization that preserves a record of the ancient geomagnetic field. From a rock magnetism perspective, biogenic magnetic minerals provide novel sources of magnetic material for experimental studies in fine particle magnetism. Both perspectives are interrelated through a common goal of developing magnetic techniques to detect biogenic magnetic minerals in sediments and soils. For example, the extent to which iron biominerals contribute to the fine-grained magnetic mineral assemblages in freshwater and marine sediments is important for identifying and interpreting the magnetic record of environmental change [Oldfield, 1992; Reynolds and King, this issue].

Moskowitz, Bruce M.



[Pulmonary sarcoidosis imaging].  


Sarcoidosis is a juvenile systemic granulomatosis. Its polymorphic clinical presentation depends on its different localisations, thoracic and extrathoracic. The role of imaging is very important for all localisations; but for mediastinopulmonary involvement, which is the most frequent (>90% of cases), it plays a major role in detecting the disease, diagnosing it, its prognosis, decision-making regarding treatment of it and in the monitoring of its development. Standard radiography, which sometimes detects the disease, forms the basis for its four-stage prognostic classification. CT scanning enables the study of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy and the study of parenchyma, making it possible to identify micronodules of lymphatic distributions, alveolar opacities, septal lines, ground-glass hyperintensities, nodules surrounded by a ring of satellite micronodules, peribronchovascular thickening; all potentially reversible lesions. Elsewhere, it highlights irreversible fibrous lesions: hilar peripheral linear opacities; septal linear opacities; bronchial distortion, honeycomb destruction or even perihilar fibrotic masses. Less frequently we can visualise bronchiolar or cystic involvement. Benign in most cases, the sarcoidosis prognosis becomes bleaker in the event of hemoptysis, Aspergillus colonisation or before the onset of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:21497723

Brillet, P-Y; Nunes, H; Soussan, M; Brauner, M-W



The Innate Pulmonary Granuloma  

PubMed Central

Granulomas are innate sequestration responses that can be modified by superimposed acquired immune mechanisms. The present study examined the innate stage of pulmonary granuloma responses to bead-immobilized Th1- and Th2-inducing pathogen antigens (Ags), Mycobacteria bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg Ags (SEA). Compared to a nonpathogen Ag, PPD and SEA bead elicited larger lesions with the former showing accelerated inflammation. Temporal analyses of cytokine and chemokine transcripts showed all Ag beads induced tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA but indicated biased interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-12 expression with PPD challenge. All beads elicited comparable levels of CXCL9, CXL10, CCL2, CCL17, and CCL22 mRNA, but PPD beads caused biased CXCL2 CXCL5, CCL3, and CCL4 expression whereas both pathogen Ags induced CCL7. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopic, and flow cytometric analyses showed that Ag beads mobilized CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) of comparable maturation. Transfer of DCs from PPD Ag-challenged lungs conferred a Th1 anamnestic cytokine response in recipients. Surprisingly, transfer of DCs from the helminth SEA-challenged lungs did not confer the expected Th2 response, but instead rendered recipients incapable of Ag-elicited IL-4 production. These results provide in vivo evidence that lung DCs recruited under inflammatory conditions favor Th1 responses and alternative mechanisms are required for Th2 commitment. PMID:14982855

Chiu, Bo-Chin; Freeman, Christine M.; Stolberg, Valerie R.; Hu, Jerry S.; Komuniecki, Eric; Chensue, Stephen W.



Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the right ventricular functions, pulmonary arterypressure and pulmonary vascular resistance  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis secondary to infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of themost common causes of viral hepatitis worldwide. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection have been recognized. In this study we aimed to examine right ventricular systolic functions and pulmonary artery pressure in HCV patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 HCV patients (mean age; 34 ± 12 years) and 50 other persons (mean age; 28 ± 11 years) as control group. Transthorasic echocardiography was performed in all the participants. Right ventricle systolic parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared between these two groups. Results: In the group of the patients with HCV, the right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE) and RV myocardial systolic velocity (St) values were lower than control group (31 ± 10 vs 48 ± 12%; 13.5 ± 1.5 vs 19.2 ± 3.4 mm and 8.3 ± 1.1 vs 17.7 ± 3.3 cm/s all P < 0.001, respectively); the right atrium (RA) and RV diameters were higher than controls (4.8 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.6 cm, P < 0.001; 4.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.3 ± 0.5 cm P < 0.001, respectively); additionally systolic pulmonary artery pressure and PVR were higher than control (36.3 ± 9.9 vs 23 ± 7.8 mmHg, 3.5 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 0.8; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The findings showed that HCV infection may be associated with right ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25232427

Demir, Canan; Demir, Mehmet



Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.




Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.




The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.



The Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom" allows one to sort and search for minerals and gemstones by alphabetical, chemical group, color, streak, hardness, crystal group, elemental affiliations, and dana classification. Includes image galleries of rocks, minerals and gemstones: pictures accompanied with physical descriptions of the rock or mineral. Also includes a glossary of terms.




Microsoft Academic Search

Lehto, T. & Gonçalves, R. 2008. Mineral resources potential in Mozambique. Geo- logical Survey of Finland, Special Paper 48, 307-321, 9 figures. The metallic mineral, industrial mineral and construction material resources in Mo- zambique have been mapped as part of the Mineral Resources Management Capacity Building Project, financed by a grant provided by the Nordic Development Fund. A da- tabase

Tapio Lehto; Reinaldo Gonçalves


Mineral Physical Properties and Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Physical Geology 101 lab consists of a chart which defines the physical properties and provides the means for determining the physical property of a mineral sample. Also presented is a table listing some of the aspects of the common lab minerals. Armed with an image of a mineral and a series of physical properties tests, students are asked to identify each mineral.

Harwood, Richard



Managing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: pharmacological treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening condition in which organised thrombi obstruct the pulmonary vessels, causing increased pulmonary vascular resistance, progressive pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart failure. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy, which restores pulmonary haemodynamics with acceptable periprocedural mortality rates in the majority of suitable patients. However, CTEPH may be inoperable owing to surgically

I. M. Lang



Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Associated with Severe Hypocalcemia Secondary to Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

The etiology and pathophysiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy have not yet been fully clarified. We report a case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with severe hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. A 69-year-old woman presented with acute pulmonary edema caused by severe left ventricular dysfunction with apical ballooning compatible with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Laboratory tests revealed severe hypocalcemia secondary to idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary artery function. Her symptoms and signs of heart failure improved dramatically with the correction of hypocalcemia through calcium and calcitriol replacement. PMID:24044019

Rhee, Ho sung; Jung, Young Kyu; Jeon, Ung; Park, Sang-Ho; Lee, Seung-Jin; Sin, Won-Yong; Jin, Dong-Kyu



Anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery.  


A 24-year-old female presented to her general practitioner with shortness of breath. She was referred for an echocardiogram, which demonstrated features suggestive of a right coronary artery fistula, and referred to our institute. We performed a contrast-enhanced, prospectively triggered cardiac CT angiogram, which demonstrated the primary and secondary features of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as the Bland-White-Garland syndrome, a rare congenital abnormality of the origin of the left main coronary artery. PMID:23044529

Durand, M; Nguyen, E T; Crean, A M



[Pulmonary hypertension in liver diseases].  


Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined by the combination of portal hypertension and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mPAP ? 25 mmHg, PCWP < 15 mmHg and PVR > 3 Wood units). PoPH is characterised by pathobiological mechanisms that are similar to other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prevalence of PoPH is estimated at 0.5-5% among patients with portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. Treatment strategies most commonly employed for PoPH patients are based on recommendations for idiopathic PAH management. Indeed, the choice of specific PAH treatment must take account the severity of the underlying liver disease. Prognosis of PoPH patients is dependent on both the severity of PAH and of the underlying liver disease. PoPH may be a contraindication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) if mean pulmonary arterial pressure is > 35 mmHg associated with severe right ventricular dysfunction or high level of pulmonary vascular resistance (> 3-4 Wood units). Bridge therapy with specific PAH therapies should be considered in those patients in an attempt to improve pulmonary hemodynamic and thereby allow OLT with acceptable risk. Recent data suggest that stabilize, improve or cure PoPH seems to be possible by combining specific PAH therapies and liver transplantation in selected patients. Clinical and experimental evidences suggest that IFN therapy may be a possible risk factor for PAH. PMID:25148949

Savale, Laurent; Sattler, Caroline; Sitbon, Olivier



Pulmonary Vascular Angioscopy - Current Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed angioscopy on 31 patients with suspected chronic pulmonary arterial ob-struction using three prototype angioscopes. The instruments varied in length (80, 90, and 120 cm), outside diameter (3.2 and 4 mm), and distal tip deflection (70, 90, and 180 degrees). All had a distal viewing balloon. Conventional diagnostic studies were performed and decisions about diagnosis and operability were made prior to angioscopy. An independent assessment of diagnosis and operability was then made based on the results of angioscopy. Surgical confirmation was obtained in most cases and clinical or autopsy data were obtained in the remainder. Angioscopy led to a change in the diagnosis of 6 patients (19%). Four of 25 patients with chronic pulmonary emboli were felt to be inoperable based on the angioscopic findings. Two of these 4 underwent surgery and were found to be inoperable. 21 of the remaining 25 patients were felt to have operable disease and 19 underwent surgery. In 14 of these 19 (74%), the conventional studies were either negative or equivocal with respect to operability and the decision to operate was based on angioscopic data. We conclude that good visualization of the central pulmonary arteries can be achieved with the optical balloon technique; that the procedure can be performed safely in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension; and that the information obtained by angioscopy can significantly affect clinical decisions in patients with chronic pulmonary artery obstruction.

Shure, Deborah; Buchbinder, Maurice; Peterson, Kirk



Recurrent Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema  

PubMed Central

An African-American man, aged 34 years, underwent an elective uncomplicated right wrist laceration repair while under general anesthesia. Following extubation, the patient developed hypoxemia, tachypnea, shortness of breath, pulmonary rales, frothy sputum, decreased oxygen saturation, and evidence of upper airway obstruction. Chest radiograph showed pulmonary edema. The patient was diagnosed with post-extubation pulmonary edema (aka. negative pressure pulmonary edema [NPPE]) and was treated with intravenous furosemide and oxygen therapy; he improved remarkably within a few hours. Once stabilized, the patient described a similar episode 10 years earlier following surgery for multiple gunshot wounds. Negative pressure pulmonary edema following tracheal extubation is an uncommon (0.1%) and life-threatening complication of patients undergoing endotracheal intubation and general anesthesia for surgical procedures. The common pattern in these cases is the occurrence of an episode of airway obstruction upon emergence from general anesthesia, usually caused by laryngospasm. Patients who are predisposed to airway obstruction may have an increased risk of airway complications upon extubation after general anesthesia. Prevention and early relief of upper airway obstruction should decrease incidence. Recurrent NPPE has not been previously described in the literature. Herein, we describe the first case of recurrent NPPE in the same patient following extubation. PMID:20852091

Pathak, Vikas; Rendon, Iliana S. Hurtado; Ciubotaru, Ronald L.



Pulmonary vascular sling with tracheobronchial stenosis and hypoplasia of the right pulmonary artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of pulmonary sling associated with tracheobronchial stenosis, and with hypoplasia of the right lung and right pulmonary artery. Radiologic studies showed evidence of pulmonary sling and hypoplasia of the right lung; associated hypoplasia of the right pulmonary artery was also present, but not recognized initially. Narrowing of the distal trachea and right main bronchus was present,

B. K. Han; J. S. Dunbar; K. Bove; J. G. Rosenkrantz



The effects of vasoactivity and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension on extralobar pulmonary artery biomechanics  

E-print Network

), the pulmonary circulation is under active control, which can be relevant in several lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Barbera et al., 2003; Weitzenblum and Chaouat, 2004), cysticThe effects of vasoactivity and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension on extralobar pulmonary artery

Chesler, Naomi C.


Unexpected applications of secondary metabolites.  


Secondary metabolites have been found to have interesting applications over and above their well-known medical uses, e.g., as antimicrobials, etc. These alternative applications include antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, immunosuppressant, antiprotozoal, antihelminth, antiviral and anti-ageing activities. Polyene antibiotics, such as amphotericin B, are of use as antiprion agents, antitumor drugs and against leishmaniasis. Other microbial natural products that show antibiotic activity are used against cancer e.g., doxorubicin, neomycin, ?-lactams, bleomycin and rapamycin. Macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, improve pulmonary function in patients suffering from panbioncholitis. Pigments like prodigiosin and shikonin have antitumor activity, while violacein has anti-ulcer and antitumor activity and also acts as an antiprotozoal agent. Statins, in addition to lowering cholesterol and LDL levels, also decrease elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels independent of their cholesterol effects. Immunosuppressants have many alternative effects: (i) Cyclosporin is proving useful in treatment of inflammatory disease such as asthma and muscular dystrophy. (ii) Rapamycin is extremely useful in preventing restenosis of stents grafted in balloon angioplasty. (iii) Tacrolimus and ascomycin help in treating inflammatory skin disease such as allergic contact dermatitis and psoriasis. Artemisinin, an antimalarial agent, is also showing antitumor activity. Other natural products, including those from plants (betulinic acid and shikonin), animals (bryostatins) and microbes (squalestatin and sophorolipids) have a multiplicity of potentially useful actions. Unexpected functions of known secondary metabolites are continuously being unraveled, and are fulfilling some of the needs of present day medicine and show great promise for the future. PMID:21130862

Vaishnav, Preeti; Demain, Arnold L



What to Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation  


... Pulmonary Rehabilitation When you first start pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), your team of health care providers will want ... blood pressure, and heart rate are measured. Your PR team also will review your medical therapy to ...


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge  


... breathing problems that are caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD damages your lungs. This makes it ... Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). ...


Assessment of pulmonary veins after atrio-pericardial anastomosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background The atrio-pericardial anastomosis (APA) uses a pericardial pouch to create a large communication between the left atrium and the pulmonary venous contributaries in order to avoid direct suturing of the pulmonary veins during the repair of congenital cardiac malformations. Post-operative imaging is routinely performed by echocardiography but Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) offers excellent anatomical imaging and quantitative information about pulmonary blood flow. We sought to compare the diagnostic value of echocardiography and CMR for assessing pulmonary vein anatomy after the APA. Methods This retrospective study evaluated all consecutive patients between October 1998 and January 2010 after either a primary or secondary APA followed by post-repair CMR. Results Of 103 patients who had an APA, 31 patients had an analyzable CMR study. The average time to CMR was 24.6 ± 32.5 months post-repair. Echocardiographic findings were confirmed by CMR in 12 patients. There was incomplete imaging by echocardiography in 7 patients and underestimation of pulmonary vein restenosis in 12, when compared to CMR. In total, 19/31 patients (61%) from our cohort had significant stenosis following the APA as assessed by CMR. Our data suggest that at least 18% (19/103) of all patients had significant obstruction post-repair. Conclusions Echocardiography incompletely imaged or underestimated the severity of obstruction in patients compared with CMR. Pulmonary vein stenosis remains a sizable complication after repair, even using the APA. PMID:22104689



[Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: two sibling cases].  


Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, are abnormal connections between pulmonary arteries and veins. However it can be presented as an isolated single anomaly, also may be multiple when accompanying with autosomal dominant hereditary hemorrhagic telengiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Syndrome; ROWS). In this case report, two patients operated with the diagnosis of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformation familial screening done with the possibility of ROWS and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation found in her sister, are presented. PMID:21554236

Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kay? Cang?r, Ayten; Atasoy, Kayhan Cetin



Hemodynamic assessment of pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

There has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathobiology, epidemiology and prognosis of pulmonary vascular disease and, over the past few years, there has been an explosion of clinical therapeutic trials for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The increasing number of different conditions now associated with PAH and the appearance of new diagnostic techniques have led to a need for a systematic diagnostic approaches and a new disease classification, which has resulted in notable improvements in the quality and efficacy of clinical care. We appreciate traditional resting right heart catheterization techniques (which still remain the gold standard for diagnosing PAH and managing patients on therapy) and look forward to novel invasive techniques (e.g. intravascular ultrasound) that add greatly to our understanding of right ventricle and pulmonary circulation, and for the interpretation of data from clinical trials as well. PMID:21286213

Grignola, Juan C



Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

Rytuba, J.J.



Pulmonary mucormycosis presenting with vocal cord paralysis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively uncommon infection. It can present in various forms. Very few cases of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis have been described in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient.

Gayathri Devi, H.J.; Mohan Rao, K.N.; Prathima, K.M.; Moideen, Riyaz



Pulmonary hamartoma treated by thoracoscopic enucleation.  


We recommend thoracoscopic enucleation with the aid of a video-assisted thoracic surgery marker to treat pulmonary hamartoma, even when it stays in the center of pulmonary lobe. We report how we were able to enucleate a pulmonary hamartoma safely and manage the patient during hospitalization. PMID:20058139

Yamashita, Suguru; Mun, Mingyon; Kono, Tadasu



Technical Note Pulmonary Kinematics From Tagged Hyperpolarized  

E-print Network

assessment of disease progression. Key Words: helium-3; registration; pulmonary kinematics; tagging J. MagnTechnical Note Pulmonary Kinematics From Tagged Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI Nicholas J. Tustison the feasibility of a novel method for quantifying 3D regional pulmonary kinematics from hyperpolarized helium-3

Utah, University of


Measurements of Mouse Pulmonary Artery Biomechanics  

E-print Network

. These techniques will be useful for investigations into biomechanical abnormalities in pulmonary vascular disease Primary pulmonary hypertension PPH is a rapidly progressing and deadly disease that induces substantialMeasurements of Mouse Pulmonary Artery Biomechanics Naomi C. Chesler* Department of Biomedical

Chesler, Naomi C.


Response to hypoxia of pulmonary arteries in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an in vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to hypoxia of pulmonary arteries in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an in vitro study. V.I. Peinado, S. Santos, J. Ramirez, J. Roca, R. Rodriguez-Roisin, J.A. Barbera `.#ERS Journals Ltd 2002. ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show impaired hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction that might contribute to abnormal gas exchange and could be related to endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary

V. I. Peinado; S. Santos; J. Ramirez; J. Roca; R. Rodriguez-Roisin; J. A. Barbera



[Surgical treatment of pulmonary embolism].  


The authors describe the pathology and the symptoms of pulmonary embolism with possible therapies, including thrombolysis and suction extraction. We performed two successful operations and after the examination of the data of the literature we think that in most patients the conditions for immediate surgery are not present. After the acute period, when the cardio-respiratory status is stabile, pulmonary embolectomy can result in complete recovery. Extracorporeal circulation and cardiac surgical background are necessary for the intervention. The seven Hungarian adult cardiac surgical centers could save the life of many patients. PMID:15022624

Bodor, Elek; Gyöngy, Tibor; Moravcsik, Endre; Pénzes, István; Szabolcs, Zoltán



Program organization in pulmonary rehabilitation.  


Variable aspects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs include staff composition, setting, structure, and duration. Longer PR programs generally translate into greater improvements in outcomes and (perhaps) prolonged maintenance of benefits. Barriers to PR include transportation issues, inconvenience for the patient, cost and insurance coverage problems, lack of perceived benefit, concurrent illness, and influence of the provider. PR settings include inpatient and outpatient environments. PR has been shown to improve health care utilization during or immediately following chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Challenges to providing PR may be partially addressed by technological developments. PMID:24874136

Garvey, Chris; Carlin, Brian; Raskin, Jonathan



Pulmonary manifestations of mycosis fungoides.  


Three patients with mycosis fungoides who developed pulmonary abnormalities are described. These abnormalities are correlated with the findings at open lung biopsy and at autopsy. The roentgenographic changes consisted of bilateral, nodular pulmonary infiltrates in two patients, and interstitial infiltrate and plate-like atelectasis with hilar adenopathy in a third patient. Examination of lung biopsies and autopsy tissue revealed interstitial and/or intra-alveolar infiltrates composed of atypical lymphoid cells similar to those seem in the skin biopsies. The short survival after detection of an abnormal chest film suggests that dissemination of mycosis fungoides to the lung heralds a poor prognosis. PMID:7448703

Wolfe, J D; Trevor, E D; Kjeldsberg, C R



Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.  


Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A



The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum ( provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Kearns, Cynthia A.


Impact of nano-size weathering products on dissolution rates of primary minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering rates of primary minerals determined in field studies are typically orders of magnitude lower than mineral dissolution rates found in laboratory experiments. We propose that this discrepancy is due to a combination of two factors: (i) secondary minerals that form from the incongruent dissolution of primary phases are often nano-scale in size; (ii) field conditions are often far closer to equilibrium than those encountered in laboratory experiments. Using a non-standard formulation that relates interfacial free energy, crystal size, and degree of supersaturation to precipitation kinetics in a population of crystals growing in a supersaturated fluid, we demonstrate that the net rate of secondary mineral precipitation in systems that are close to equilibrium - and which possess a large number of micron and nanometer scale crystals - can be much lower than rates predicted by standard kinetic formulations. Furthermore, when crystals are small enough, net dissolution can dominate even when the system is supersaturated with respect to the secondary mineral, with standard kinetic models breaking down entirely. As the dissolution rates of primary minerals are thought to be determined by the rate of secondary mineral precipitation, standard kinetic models - which ignore interfacial free energy effects in small crystals - may therefore be unsuitable to describe reaction kinetics in weathering systems.

Emmanuel, S.; Ague, J. J.



Serum Levels of Soluble ICAM-1 in Children with Pulmonary Artery Hypertension  

PubMed Central

This prospective cross-sectional study attempted to determine both the usefulness of the serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a biomarker for pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease and the nature of this marker's association with catheter angiographic findings. Our study included a total of 70 male and female children, comprising 30 patients with both pulmonary artery hypertension and congenital heart disease, 20 patients with congenital heart disease alone, and 20 healthy control subjects. Levels of ICAM-1 in plasma samples from all groups were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Cardiac catheterization was also performed in all patients. The mean serum ICAM-1 levels in pediatric patients who had congenital heart disease with and without pulmonary artery hypertension were 349.6 ± 72.9 ng/mL and 312.3 ± 69.5 ng/mL, respectively (P=0.002). In healthy control subjects, the mean serum ICAM-1 level was 231.4 ± 60.4 ng/mL. According to the results of this study, the ICAM-1 level of the pulmonary artery hypertension group was significantly higher than those of the congenital heart disease group and the healthy control group. Correlation analysis showed that ICAM-1 level was correlated with systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressures (r=0.62, P=0.001; r=0.57, P=0.001)—which are 2 important values used in diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded consistent results for the prediction of pulmonary artery hypertension. Therefore, we conclude that ICAM-1 has potential use as a biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary artery hypertension. PMID:24808775

Oguz, Melahat Melek; Oguz, Ayse Deniz; Sanli, Cihat; Cevik, Ayhan



Incidence and recognition of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in developing countries.  


Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in developing countries is now diagnosed with an increased frequency. Increased awareness and more frequent availability of computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoendoscopy have helped in making the diagnosis more often. The spectrum of diseases causing pulmonary fibrosis is broadly similar to that seen in the West. Connective tissue disorders such as systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis are more common causes. Idiopathic fibrosis is seen in approximately half the patients. Pneumoconiosis such as silicosis are also important. Diagnosis is often established on the basis of clinical features and radiologic findings alone. Transbronchial lung biopsy is used as a frequent method to make histologic diagnosis. Some of the causes described from India are rather rare. One of the interesting examples included a patient in whom pulmonary fibrosis was related to his ascent to very high altitude. Extreme cold, solar radiation, and other factors complicating low atmospheric oxygen pressure were implicated as causative factors. Lung fibrosis, secondary to exposure to toxic gas (methyl isocyanate), is reported in survivors of the Bhopal gas leakage tragedy of 1984. Serial bronchoalveolar studies have show elevated fibronectin levels and the presence of macrophage-neutrophilic exudate in the lavage fluid. PMID:9331541

Jindal, S K; Gupta, D



Right or Left: The Role of Nanoparticles in Pulmonary Diseases  

PubMed Central

Due to the rapid development of the nanotechnology industry in the last decade, nanoparticles (NPs) are omnipresent in our everyday life today. Many nanomaterials have been engineered for medical purposes. These purposes include therapy for pulmonary diseases. On other hand, people are endeavoring to develop nanomaterials for improvement or replacement of traditional therapies. On the other hand, nanoparticles, as foreign material in human bodies, are reported to have potential adverse effects on the lung, including oxidase stress, inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity. Further, these damages could induce pulmonary diseases and even injuries in other tissues. It seems that nanoparticles may exert two-sided effects. Toxic effects of nanomaterials should be considered when their use is developed for therapies. Hence this review will attempt to summarize the two-side roles of nanoparticles in both therapies for pulmonary diseases and initiation of lung diseases and even secondary diseases caused by lung injuries. Determinants of these effects such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticles will also be discussed. PMID:25268624

Lu, Xuefei; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Chunying; Liu, Ying



Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

SciTech Connect

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

Lyday, P.A.



Alcohol abuse and pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

ARDS is a severe form of lung injury characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane, diffuse alveolar damage, the accumulation of proteinaceous interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, and the presence of hyaline membranes. These pathological changes are accompanied by physiological alterations, including severe hypoxemia, an increase in pulmonary dead space, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Approximately 200,000 individuals develop ARDS in the United States each year [1], and nearly 50% of these patients have a history of alcohol abuse. We have identified alcohol abuse as an independent risk factor for the development of ARDS [2345], and more recent studies have validated these findings in patients following lung resection and blood transfusion [2, 3]. In ARDS survivors, alcohol abuse is also associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation and prolonged ICU length of stay [5]. Despite studies aimed at improving outcomes in patients with ARDS, the mortality remains high at >40% [6]. For those who abuse alcohol, the mortality is even higher, at 65% [4]. In this review, we will discuss the relationship between alcohol abuse and ARDS, the effects of alcohol abuse on pulmonary function, and future directions and potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse, which impairs immune function, decreases pulmonary antioxidant capacity, decreases alveolar epithelial cell function, alters activation of the renin angiotensin system, and impairs GM-CSF signaling. These pathways represent potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse. PMID:19602670

Boe, Darren M.; Vandivier, R. William; Burnham, Ellen L.; Moss, Marc



Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive, symptomatic, and ultimately fatal disorder for which substantial advances in treatment have been made during the past decade. Effective management requires timely recognition and accurate diagnosis of the disorder and appropriate selection among therapeutic alternatives. Despite progress in treatment, obstacles remain that impede the achievement of optimal outcomes. The current article provides an overview of the pathobiologic mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including genetic substrates and molecular and cellular mechanisms, and describes the clinical manifestations and classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The article also reviews established approaches to evaluation and treatment, with emphasis on the appropriate application of calcium channel blockers, prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. In addition, the authors discuss unresolved issues that may complicate patient management, such as the clinical importance of mild or exercise-related pulmonary arterial hypertension, and they identify avenues by which treatment may advance in the future through the use of combination treatment, outcomes assessment, and exploration of alternative pharmacologic strategies. PMID:19181654

McGoon, Michael D.; Kane, Garvan C.



Alcohol abuse and pulmonary disease.  


ARDS is a severe form of lung injury characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane, diffuse alveolar damage, the accumulation of proteinaceous interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, and the presence of hyaline membranes. These pathological changes are accompanied by physiological alterations, including severe hypoxemia, an increase in pulmonary dead space, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Approximately 200,000 individuals develop ARDS in the United States each year, and nearly 50% of these patients have a history of alcohol abuse. We have identified alcohol abuse as an independent risk factor for the development of ARDS, and more recent studies have validated these findings in patients following lung resection and blood transfusion. In ARDS survivors, alcohol abuse is also associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation and prolonged ICU length of stay. Despite studies aimed at improving outcomes in patients with ARDS, the mortality remains high at > 40%]. For those who abuse alcohol, the mortality is even higher, at 65%. In this review, we will discuss the relationship between alcohol abuse and ARDS, the effects of alcohol abuse on pulmonary function, and future directions and potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse, which impairs immune function, decreases pulmonary antioxidant capacity, decreases alveolar epithelial cell function, alters activation of the renin angiotensin system, and impairs GM-CSF signaling. These pathways represent potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse. PMID:19602670

Boé, Darren M; Vandivier, R William; Burnham, Ellen L; Moss, Marc



Congenital Pulmonary Malformation in Children  

PubMed Central

Congenital Pulmonary Malformations (CPMs) are a group of rare lung abnormalities affecting the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature. They represent a spectrum of abnormal development rather than discrete pathological entities. They are caused by aberrant embryological lung development which occurs at different stages of intrauterine life. PMID:24278678

Nadeem, Montasser; Elnazir, Basil; Greally, Peter



Echocardiography in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be a rapidly progressive and fatal disease. Although right heart catheterization remains the gold standard in evaluation of PH, echocardiography remains an important tool in screening, diagnosing, evaluating, and following these patients. In this article, we will review the important echocardiographic parameters of the right heart in evaluating its anatomy, hemodynamic assessment, systolic, and diastolic function in children with PH.

Jone, Pei-Ni; Ivy, D. Dunbar



Pneumococcal vaccine and patients with pulmonary diseases.  


Chronic pulmonary diseases are chronic diseases that affect the airways and lung parenchyma. Examples of common chronic pulmonary diseases include asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale. Pulmonary infection is considered a significant cause of mortality in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading isolated bacteria from adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the most common pulmonary infection. Vaccination against S. pneumoniae can reduce the risk of mortality, especially from more serious infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases who take steroids or immunomodulating therapy (eg, methotrexate, anti-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors), or who have concurrent sickle cell disease or other hemoglobinopathies, primary immunodeficiency disorders, human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, and hematologic or solid malignancies should be vaccinated with both 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent. PMID:24852934

Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Golnaz; Allen, Mary Beth; Aliberti, Stefano



Introduction to Mineral Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is short problem set to be used in class. It helps focus discussion, while providing a starting point for discussing mineral reactions and phase diagrams. Students are exposed to ternary composition diagrams and to phase diagrams. They are also introduced to the phase rule, although in quite a superficial way.

Perkins, Dexter


Mineral mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

Monks, H.



Minerals and foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no such thing as a purely domestic or foreign minerals issue. Domestic policies, such as the setting aside of public lands as wilderness regions or enforcement of stringent clean air standards on smelters, may link directly to our world trade and supply position and affect foreign-policy interests. Conversely, economic and political events in far corners of the world




Universal ripper miner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally

Roger J. Morrell; David A. Larson



Bioleaching of Minerals  

SciTech Connect

Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

F. Roberto



Oxidants from Pulverized Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joel Hurowitz (previously at State University of New York at Stony Brook and now at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Nick Tosca, Scott McLennan, and Martin Schoonen (SUNY at Stony Brook) studied the production of hydrogen peroxide from freshly pulverized minerals in solution. Their experiments focused on olivine, augite, and labradorite; silicate minerals of basaltic planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, that are exposed to the intense crushing and grinding of impact cratering processes. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the experiments was enough to adequately explain the oxidizing nature of Martian regolith first determined by the Viking Landers and the results suggest, for the first time, that mechanically activated mineral surfaces may be an important part of the overall explanation for the Viking Lander biology experiment results. Hurowitz and coauthors further showed that when the pulverized minerals are heat-treated to high temperature under vacuum (to cause dehydroxylation) there is almost a 20 times increase in hydrogen peroxide production, a result which may be highly relevant to lunar dust. These careful studies demonstrate the importance of and concern about reactive dusts on planetary surfaces from two standpoints: the health of astronauts on surface maneuvers who may inadvertently breath it and the viability of possible Martian organic species to survive in such a corrosive, antiseptic surface environment.

Martel, L. M. V.



Fossils and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Black Hills Institute features information about different types of fossils, minerals, meteorites, and geology in general. Each topic has a brief description, with links to a more detailed explanation. Various samples and books are abailable for purchase on the site.

Research, Inc. B.


Energy and Mineral Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 16 questions on the topic of energy and mineral resources, which covers energy sources, resource types, and uses of resources. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy



SciTech Connect

We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.




A Case of Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Presented as Cavitary Pulmonary Lesions  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare, poorly differentiated malignancy arising from the intimal layer of the pulmonary artery. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) is a good diagnostic modality that shows a low-attenuation filling defect of the pulmonary artery in PAS patients. An 18-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the evaluation and management of cavitary pulmonary lesions that did not respond to treatment. A contrast-enhanced CT of the chest was performed, which showed a filling defect within the right interlobar pulmonary artery. The patient underwent a curative right pneumonectomy after confirmation of PAS. Although lung parenchymal lesions of PAS are generally nonspecific, it can be presented as cavities indicate pulmonary infarcts. Clinicians must consider the possibility of PAS as well as pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with pulmonary infarcts. So, we report the case with PAS that was diagnosed during the evaluation of cavitary pulmonary lesions and reviewed the literatures. PMID:24734102

Min, Daniel; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hye-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Suk-Pyo; Kim, Hong-Min; Han, Kyu Hyun; Jeong, Hye Yun



Mineralogy and genesis of secondary uranium deposits, Um Ara area, south eastern desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary U mineralisation is found in the oxidised zone pervading fractured albitised and alkali-feldspar granites emplaced at the northern boundary of Um Ara Pluton. It occurs as stains along crevices and fracture surfaces and as acicular crystals filling cavities. X-ray diffraction and SEM were used to identify secondary U minerals and the associated alteration products. Uranophane and ?-uranophane are the

Y. H. Dawood; H. H. Abd El-Naby



Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary  


... hormone aldosterone into the blood. Hyperaldosteronism can be primary or secondary. ... Primary hyperaldosteronism is due to a problem of the adrenal glands themselves, causing them to release too ...


Oxidative Stress and Pulmonary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is implicated as an important molecular mechanism underlying fibrosis in a variety of organs, including the lungs. However, the causal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from environmental exposures and inflammatory / interstitial cells in mediating fibrosis as well as how best to target an imbalance in ROS production in patients with fibrosis are not firmly established. We focus on the role of ROS in pulmonary fibrosis and, where possible, highlight overlapping molecular pathways in other organs. The key origins of oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis (e.g. environmental toxins, mitochondria / NADPH oxidase of inflammatory and lung target cells, and depletion of antioxidant defenses) are reviewed. The role of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways are examined. We emphasize an emerging role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pulmonary fibrosis. After briefly summarizing how ROS trigger a DNA damage response, we concentrate on recent studies implicating a role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and repair mechanisms focusing on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) as well as crosstalk between ROS production, mtDNA damage, p53, Ogg1, and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2). Finally, the association between ROS and TGF-?1-induced fibrosis is discussed. Novel insights into the molecular basis of ROS-induced pulmonary diseases and, in particular, lung epithelial cell death may promote the development of unique therapeutic targets for managing pulmonary fibrosis as well as fibrosis in other organs and tumors, and in aging; diseases for which effective management is lacking. PMID:23219955

Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Kamp, David W.



Oxidative stress and pulmonary fibrosis.  


Oxidative stress is implicated as an important molecular mechanism underlying fibrosis in a variety of organs, including the lungs. However, the causal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from environmental exposures and inflammatory/interstitial cells in mediating fibrosis as well as how best to target an imbalance in ROS production in patients with fibrosis is not firmly established. We focus on the role of ROS in pulmonary fibrosis and, where possible, highlight overlapping molecular pathways in other organs. The key origins of oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis (e.g. environmental toxins, mitochondria/NADPH oxidase of inflammatory and lung target cells, and depletion of antioxidant defenses) are reviewed. The role of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways is examined. We emphasize an emerging role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pulmonary fibrosis. After briefly summarizing how ROS trigger a DNA damage response, we concentrate on recent studies implicating a role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and repair mechanisms focusing on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) as well as crosstalk between ROS production, mtDNA damage, p53, Ogg1, and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2). Finally, the association between ROS and TGF-?1-induced fibrosis is discussed. Novel insights into the molecular basis of ROS-induced pulmonary diseases and, in particular, lung epithelial cell death may promote the development of unique therapeutic targets for managing pulmonary fibrosis as well as fibrosis in other organs and tumors, and in aging; diseases for which effective management is lacking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fibrosis: Translation of basic research to human disease. PMID:23219955

Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Kamp, David W



Minerals bioprocessing: R & D needs in mineral biobeneficiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms have a tremendous influence on their environment through the transfer of energy, charge, and materials across a complex biotic mineral–solution interface. The biomodification of mineral surfaces involves the complex action of microorganism on the mineral surface. The manner, in which bacteria affect the surface reactivity and the mechanism of bacteria adsorption, is still unknown and accumulation of the primary

K. Hanumantha Rao; A. Vilinska; I. V. Chernyshova



Right hemicolectomy in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension anesthesia approach  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old obese female patient was diagnosed to be having severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to mixed connective tissue disease and pulmonary fibrosis. She presented for right hemi-colectomy for a large right-sided colonic polypoid mass and multiple polyps diagnosed by colonoscopy. Her surgery was postponed by 2 months by the anesthesiologist due to dyspnea at rest and high pulmonary artery pressure (70–80 mmHg) for further optimization of medical treatment. After 2 months, she was adequately fit enough to undergo surgery. High lumbar epidural anesthesia was adopted and weaned off. She was discharged after 5 days of surgery from the hospital without any sequel. This report presents the merits and recommendations for such patients.

Nawaaz, M. S. Mohamed; Salem, Yaser



Core Components of Cardiac Rehabilitation\\/Secondary Prevention Programs: 2007 Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Heart Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation recognize that all cardiac rehabilitation\\/secondary prevention programs should contain specific core components that aim to optimize cardiovascular risk reduction, foster healthy behaviors and compliance to these behaviors, reduce disability, and promote an active lifestyle for patients with cardiovascular disease. This update to the previous statement presents current

Gary J. Balady; Mark A. Williams; Philip A. Ades; Vera Bittner; Patricia Comoss; M. Foody; Barry Franklin; Bonnie K. Sanderson; Rn Douglas Southard



Mineral oil soluble borate compositions  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

Dulat, J.



A case of isolated peripheral pulmonary artery branch stenosis associated with multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms.  


Selective right pulmonary arteriography and 3-dimensional computed tomography revealed multiple severe stenoses of the peripheral pulmonary artery associated with poststenotic aneurysms in a 65-year-old woman. She was referred to the hospital for evaluation of dry cough, gradually increasing dyspnea and multiple nodular shadows on a chest radiograph. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization showed severe pulmonary hypertension, though other structural heart diseases or well-characterized congenital syndromes were ruled out. She was diagnosed as isolated peripheral pulmonary artery branch stenosis. Recent advances in CT technology enable a less-invasive assessment of pulmonary artery, and can be useful in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:20823653

Amano, Hiroyuki; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Umekita, Hideo; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Kitazono, Satoru; Kitazono, Miyako; Kuroda, Fuminobu; Kasahara, Yasunori; Tatsumi, Koichiro



Nutrition or detoxification: why bats visit mineral licks of the Amazonian rainforest.  


Many animals in the tropics of Africa, Asia and South America regularly visit so-called salt or mineral licks to consume clay or drink clay-saturated water. Whether this behavior is used to supplement diets with locally limited nutrients or to buffer the effects of toxic secondary plant compounds remains unclear. In the Amazonian rainforest, pregnant and lactating bats are frequently observed and captured at mineral licks. We measured the nitrogen isotope ratio in wing tissue of omnivorous short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata, and in an obligate fruit-eating bat, Artibeus obscurus, captured at mineral licks and at control sites in the rainforest. Carollia perspicillata with a plant-dominated diet were more often captured at mineral licks than individuals with an insect-dominated diet, although insects were more mineral depleted than fruits. In contrast, nitrogen isotope ratios of A. obscurus did not differ between individuals captured at mineral lick versus control sites. We conclude that pregnant and lactating fruit-eating bats do not visit mineral licks principally for minerals, but instead to buffer the effects of secondary plant compounds that they ingest in large quantities during periods of high energy demand. These findings have potential implications for the role of mineral licks for mammals in general, including humans. PMID:18431492

Voigt, Christian C; Capps, Krista A; Dechmann, Dina K N; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H



Proposed Definitions for Epidemiologic and Clinical Studies of Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic and clinical studies of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease typically use strict ATS/IDSA definitions designed for decisions about treatment. Studies based on these criteria may exclude a substantial number of patients with true disease. We reviewed patients treated for MAC pulmonary disease at an academic medical center to propose revised definitions encompass the full spectrum of MAC pulmonary disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients with MAC pulmonary disease treated from 1993–2006 by pulmonary or infectious disease specialists to assess whether treated patients met current ATS/IDSA microbiologic criteria and dichotomous radiologic classification as nodular/bronchiectatic (NB) or fibrocavitary (FC) disease. We propose a revised set of definitions that include categories of both probable and definite disease to include all treated patients. We further classify patients into dichotomous clinical categories as: “primary MAC” (without antecedent lung disease) or “secondary MAC” (smoking history or antecedent lung disease). Results Among 72 treated patients, 74% were female. Median age at diagnosis was 64 years; 41(57%) met ATS/IDSA criteria and 31 (43%) did not, most often for lack of multiple positive cultures. Dichotomous radiologic criteria were met by 48 (67%) patients (36 NB, 12 FC); the remaining 24 (33%) had both NB and FC findings or other abnormalities. Nineteen (26%) were classified as primary and 53 (74%) as secondary MAC (21 COPD, 4 bronchiectasis, 44 smoking history). Conclusions We propose revised definitions for epidemiologic and clinical studies of MAC pulmonary disease that describe the full spectrum of disease. PMID:24265675

Plotinsky, Rachel N.; Talbot, Elizabeth A.; von Reyn, C. Fordham



Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy. PMID:23662181

Howard, Luke S G E; Watson, Geoffrey M J; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A; Kiely, David G; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J Simon R; Wilkins, Martin R



Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy. PMID:23662181

Howard, Luke S.G.E.; Watson, Geoffrey M.J.; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A.; Kiely, David G.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wilkins, Martin R.



Study on comprehensive utilization of secondary resources  

SciTech Connect

In light of the properties on process mineralogy of the old tailings in a certain copper mine in the People`s Republic of China, a new process of combined reagent and stepwise flotation is applied in which the flotation of copper sulfides is followed by the flotation of copper oxides. Recoveries of copper and associated gold and silver have been greatly increased. The tailings obtained were subjected to the gravitational separation-magnetic separation process to recover iron minerals. Tailings from iron separation are taken as fillers and sent to the pit underground. Thus, the secondary resources are comprehensively utilized.

Lihua, G.; Ruilu, L. [Beijing General Research Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy (China)



Common Rock-Forming Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of images of the common rock-forming minerals. Along with the image, the physical and chemical properties of each mineral are listed. These include: metallic or nonmetallic luster, light or dark color, chemical formula, mineral group, cleavage, general color, hardness, and other characteristics.

Weiland, Tom


Mineral Transformations by Mycorrhizal Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses the significance and the mechanisms of mineral weathering by mycorrhizal fungi, and the role of this process in plant nutrition and protection from metal toxicity. The fact that mycorrhizal mycelia may actively release nutrients from mineral particles through weathering is raising an increasing interest and the uptake of mineral-derived nutrients by the host plants has been reported.

Elena Martino; Silvia Perotto



The Indian Mineral Development Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

Houle, Antoinette



Pulmonary epithelium, cigarette smoke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease involving a wide variety of cells and inflammatory mediators. The most important etiological factor in the development of this disease is cigarette smoking. Much of the research into the mechanisms of COPD has been concerned with the induction of inflammation and the role of neutrophils and macrophages in the pathophysiology of the disease. The possible contribution of the epithelium to the development of COPD has only recently become apparent and remains unclear. In this article we review research into the effect of cigarette smoke on the pulmonary epithelium with particular emphasis on oxidative stress, proteolytic load, pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile and epithelial secretions. In addition, we have also reviewed how cigarette smoke may affect epithelial damage and repair processes. PMID:18268916

Thorley, Andrew J; Tetley, Teresa D



Future of Secondary Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the major forces related to economic factors that effect the future of secondary services are growth of primary literature and expansion of secondary products; migration of use from print products to tape products; new technology and impact on production of products and services; and redefinition of user as end user. (EJS)

Neufeld, M. Lynne



Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

Not Available



Prenatal Diagnosis of Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum is a rare and complicated congenital cardiac anomaly. Pulmonary outflow is obstructed, which results in hypertrophy and hypoplasia of the right ventricle. The fetal echocardiographic findings include a small pulmonary artery with an atretic pulmonary valve, right ventricular hypertrophy, dilated right atrium, and absent flow in the pulmonary artery on Doppler interrogation. The left

Carolyn T. Coffin; Julia A. Drose; Elizabeth M. Shaffer



[Dynamics of lung perfusion after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in patients with chronic postembolic pulmonary hypertension].  


Perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs is used as screening in order to confirm thrombormbolic genesis of pulmonary hypertension. Meanwhile, perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive and objective method of assessing haemocirculation in the pulmonary tissue. Using the quantitative method of calculation of the perfusion deficit, one may judge about efficiency of the treatment performed and to assess the dynamics of the state of the micro- circulatory bed of the lung. We examined a total of 53 patients presenting with chronic postembolic pulmonary hypertension, who underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Pulmonary tissue blood flow was assessed by means of perfusion scintigraphy prior to operation, and in the early postoperative (3 weeks after operation) and remote (6 months and more) periods. Analysing the values of perfusion deficit in patients depending on the pulmonary hypertension degree we revealed close correlation dependence between the perfusion deficit and pulmonary hypertension, i. e., increased pressure in the pulmonary artery was accompanied by a decreased defect of lung perfusion according to the findings of perfusion scintigraphy. Analyzing the findings of perfusion scintigraphy in patients presenting with chronic postembolic pulmonary hypertension prior to surgery, in the immediate and remote postoperative periods in all groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the perfusion deficit. It was demonstrated that the method of perfusion pulmonary scintigraphy reliably reflects the alterations in the pulmonary tissue perfusion after lung pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, thereby reflecting efficiency of surgical treatment. With the initially pronounces pulmonary hypertension, improvement of lung perfusion obtained at the hospital stage also continues in the remote period. PMID:23531670

Cherniavski?, A M; Aliapkina, E M; Terekhov, I N; Cherniavski?, M A; Edemski?, A G



Secondary fuel delivery system  


A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)



Taxation of mineral resources  

SciTech Connect

There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the level of taxation imposed on mining firms by state and local governments. This increase can be attributed to three factors: (1) a heightened awareness that resources are limited in quantity; (2) environmental damage resulting from mining operations has brought demands for just compensations; and (3) significant price increases for some minerals have often been viewed by states as an opportunity to collect additional tax revenue. The broad aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive economic analysis of the effects of mining taxation on the extraction of mineral resources and to offer a set of recommendations for tax policy. The primary objective of this design is to minimize the distortionary incentives created by the taxation. From a practical standpoint, however, one must also recognize the degrees of difficulty in the administration of the various taxes. 90 references, 1 figure, 14 tables.

Conrad, R.F.; Hool, R.B.



Silicosis in barium miners.  

PubMed Central

Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R



Mineral mining installation  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining installation comprises a mechanical mining machine (such as a plough or a shearer) and a hydraulic winning machine. The hydraulic winning machine has a plurality of high pressure nozzles and a high-pressure pump for supplying the nozzles with high-pressure water (or other hydraulic fluid). Means are provided for driving each of the two winning machines independently of the other along a mineral face. This permits the mechanical winning machine to operate at its optimum, high speed rate without interference from the slower moving hydraulic winning machine. The pump is preferably a multiple radial-piston pump powered by an electric motor. Both electric power and water may be supplied to the hydraulic winning machine via pick-up arms on the machine and supply channels extending along the face.

Beckmann, K.; Grisebach, H.



Gillespie Museum of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gillespie Museum, located on the campus of Stetson University, houses an extensive rock and mineral collection, and provides visitors and students a place in which curiosity, interest and creativity can be explored. Programs are provided for families, special interest groups, and school groups. The Museum programs focus on using the educational collections to help students learn basic science skills such as observation, classification, communication, investigation and interpretation. The Museum also provides off-site outreach programs by participating in community events such as EarthFest and Earth Day celebrations, local festivals, and scouting programs. Traveling exhibits are developed for loan to other Museums, Chambers of Commerce and Rock and Mineral Clubs. In an effort to present an Earth science museum in a natural setting, a Florida Native Landscape garden has been added to the grounds. The landscape provides an opportunity for individuals to learn alternative ways in which to establish a garden without the use of excess water and pesticides.



Isolated left pulmonary artery stenosis due to extrinsic compression by intra thoracic tumor: recognition of unusual Doppler flow pattern and correlation with computed tomography.  


Pulmonary artery compression in adults resulting from tumors is an uncommon condition often associated with poor prognosis. Among the imaging modalities used for diagnosis, the role of trans thoracic echocardiography in identifying secondary pulmonic stenosis due to extrinsic or intrinsic compression and more importantly the physiologic significance has been increasingly recognized. We describe here a case of isolated left pulmonary artery stenosis which was initially suspected based on classic echocardiographic features of obstruction of pulmonary artery and subsequently confirmed by CT imaging. This case illustrates the versatility of trans thoracic echocardiography in diagnosing incidental abnormalities with potential significant consequences. PMID:17086364

Jaffery, Zehra; Ananthasubramaniam, Karthik



Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with the use of interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection complicated by extrinsic left main coronary artery compression.  


Interferon-alpha treatment is a rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We report a case of a 43-year-old man treated for chronic hepatitis C infection complicated by decompensated right heart failure diagnosed with PAH and external coronary artery compression secondary to a dilated pulmonary trunk. The novel complication of extrinsic coronary artery compression should be considered in PAH patients presenting with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis has clinical value as pulmonary vasodilator therapy may improve symptoms. PMID:25302721

Anderson, R D; Thompson, A; Burns, A T



43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...



43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...



Exploring Bone Mineral Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore two given websites to gather information on Bone Mineral Density and how it is measured. They will also learn about X-rays in general, how they work and their different uses, along with other imaging modalities. They will answer guiding questions as they explore the websites and take a short quiz after to test the knowledge they gained while reading the articles.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program


Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

Cotomacio, J. G. [Centro Universitario Nove de Julho, R: Diamantina, 602-Vila Maria, CEP: 02117-0101, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva, P. S. C. [Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes-Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria-CEP 05508 000 Sao Paulo-Brazil (Brazil); Mazzilli, B. P



The Clay Minerals Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Clay Minerals Society (CMS) is an international community of scientists who promote research in and disseminate information on clay science and technology." The website provides downloads of materials dealing with various aspects of mineralogy, geochemistry, and petrology. Researchers can find out about annual meetings, awards and grants, and publications. Students and educators can find information on teaching materials, clay science workshops, and games. The website offers physical and chemical data for Source and Special Clays.


Green Clay Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 ?m thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence in the silicate (clay mineral in our case) structure, the specific bonding of these ions, and other factors. In fact, the reasons for coloration are not known completely, but it is certain that a combination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions is necessary to give a nice green color to clays. In the green clay minerals discussed here, the colors vary greatly as seen under the optical microscope (not always the same as the one seen in hand specimen). Yellow to blue-green hues can be found. However, for the moment, no clear relation between iron content, iron valence ratio, or other factors such as minor transition element concentrations can be found to explain the greenness of green clay minerals. The fact that a clay is green just indicates a combination of the two oxidation states of iron. The color, however, indicates the key to the formation in nature of green clay minerals.Green clay minerals are in general the product of "mixed valence" conditions of formation, most often in a situation where some iron is reduced from Fe3+ and enters into a silicate mineral structure. In general, iron would rather be an oxide when it is in the trivalent state. The moment iron is reduced to a divalent state under surface or near-surface conditions, it looks for a silicate, sulfide, or carbonate to hide in. The reverse is also true, of course. When a silicate is oxidized, Fe2+ becoming Fe3+, the iron begins to group together in oxide clumps and eventually exits the silicate structure. This is seen in thin section in altered rocks (weathering or hydrothermal action). The production of trivalent, oxidized iron usually results in a brownish or orange mineral.If the geology of the formation of green silicate minerals is relatively well defined, especially at near surface or surface conditions, the question remains how much of the iron is in a reduced oxidation state and how? In the case of reduction of iron in surface environments: if most of the iron goes to Fe2+, one mineral is formed; if only part of it is reduced, another is formed. This is the fundamental geochemical aspect of

Velde, B.



TWIK-2 Channel Deficiency Leads to Pulmonary Hypertension Through a Rho-Kinase-Mediated Process.  


TWIK-2 (KCNK6) is a member of the 2-pore domain (K2P) family of potassium channels, which are highly expressed in the vascular system. We tested the hypothesis that TWIK-2 deficiency leads to pulmonary hypertension. TWIK-2 knockout mice and their wildtype littermates at 8 weeks of age had similar mean right ventricular systolic pressures (24±3 and 21±3 mm Hg, respectively.) Significantly, by 20 weeks of age, the mean right ventricular systolic pressures in TWIK-2 knockout mice increased to 35±3 mm Hg (P?0.036), whereas mean right ventricular systolic pressures in wildtype littermates remained at 22±3 mm Hg. Elevated mean right ventricular systolic pressures in the TWIK-2 knockout mice was accompanied by pulmonary vascular remodeling as determined by a 25% increase in the cross-sectional area of the vessels occupied by the vessel wall. Additionally, secondary branches of the pulmonary artery from 20-week-old TWIK-2 knockout mice showed an enhanced contractile response to U46619 (10(-6) moles/L), a thromboxane A2 mimetic, which was completely abolished with the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632 (10(-6) and 10(-5) moles/L). Treatment of TWIK-2 knockout mice with the Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, in the drinking water for 12 weeks, abolished the development of pulmonary hypertension and attenuated the vessel remodeling. We concluded that mice deficient in the TWIK-2 channel develop pulmonary hypertension between 8 and 20 weeks of age through a mechanism involving Rho-kinase. Our results suggest that downregulation of TWIK-2 in the pulmonary vasculature may be an underlying mechanism in the development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25245387

Pandit, Lavannya M; Lloyd, Eric E; Reynolds, Julia O; Lawrence, William S; Reynolds, Corey; Wehrens, Xander H T; Bryan, Robert M



Pulmonary metastases in gestational trophoblastic disease: a review of 97 cases.  


Metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease poses problems in diagnosis and management and has a poorer prognosis than the non-metastatic variant. The lung is the most common site of metastases. This paper reviews 97 patients with pulmonary metastasis developing after gestational trophoblastic disease who were seen at one centre over 26 years. Most patients had an antecedent molar pregnancy but an associated choriocarcinomatous lesion in the uterus was absent in the majority. In many patients the pulmonary lesion was asymptomatic. Whilst chemotherapy was the treatment of choice, selective thoracotomy in cases with solitary lung nodules reduced the treatment time and need for aggressive multi-drug combination regimens. The overall survival rate at 2 years after diagnosis was 65%. A higher mortality was found when the antecedent pregnancy ended at term, when the time interval between the preceding pregnancy and diagnosis of pulmonary metastases was greater than 1 year, when multiple pulmonary secondaries were present or when cerebral metastases occurred. The main causes of death were cerebral haemorrhage, respiratory failure and pulmonary embolism. PMID:2829961

Kumar, J; Ilancheran, A; Ratnam, S S



Suspected metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma revealing as pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma in adrenal Cushing's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a malignant disease most commonly diagnosed in the setting of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment. Pulmonary KS has never been reported in association with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS). Case presentation A 60-year-old woman presented with symptoms and signs of CS. Adrenal CS was confirmed by standard biochemical evaluation. Imaging revealed a right adrenal lesion (diameter 3.5 cm) and multiple pulmonary nodules, suggesting a cortisol-secreting adrenal carcinoma with pulmonary metastases. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy with a pathohistological diagnosis of an adrenal adenoma. Subsequent thoracoscopic wedge resection of one lung lesion revealed pulmonary KS with positive immunostaining for human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). HIV-serology was negative. Hydrocortisone replacement was initiated for secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgery. Post-operative follow up imaging showed complete remission of all KS-related pulmonary nodules solely after resolution of hypercortisolism. Conclusion KS may occur in the setting of endogenous CS and may go into remission after cure of hypercortisolism without further specific treatment. PMID:25077599



Pulmonary retention of coal dusts  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.



Clinical update on pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality and financial burden that affects the community. The diagnosis of PE can be difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms, which include cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Hereditary and acquired risk factors are associated with PE. Incidence of PE is increasing, associated with the development in the diagnostic methods. Evidence-based algorithms can help clinicians diagnose PE. Serum D-dimer level, computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA), ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy or echocardiography help to establish clinical probability and the severity of PE. Anticoagulation is the standard treatment for PE. However, thrombolytic treatment is a significant alternative in high risk of PE as it provides rapid clot resolution. This article reviews the risk factors, diagnostic algorithms, and methods of treatment in PE in the light of current information. PMID:25097588

Kele?o?lu, Arif; Ard?ç, Sad?k



BALToma masquerading as pulmonary tuberculosis.  


A 53-year-old man with a significant smoking history presented with chronic cough, exertional breathlessness, intermittent fever, weight loss and anorexia. A review of his past medical records revealed he was diagnosed to have sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis 5?years earlier, for which he had received multiple courses of incomplete antitubercular therapy. This time, though he was primarily suspected to have active pulmonary tuberculosis, lack of microbiological evidence and further investigations including histopathological evaluation of lung lesions confirmed a diagnosis of Marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALToma/BALToma). The patient was managed with radical radiation therapy to which he responded well. PMID:25398919

Magazine, Rahul; Shahul, Hameed Aboobackar; Monappa, Vidya; Chogtu, Bharti



Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio; Johnson, Douglas R.; Nodit, Laurentia; Yousem, Sam



Pulmonary endarterectomy for saddling pulmonary embolism by Aspergillus fungus in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a case of Tricuspid valve Aspergillus endocarditis with saddle shaped massive pulmonary embolism occurring in an immunocompetent host. The patient was managed uniquely by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and combination antifungal chemotherapy with Liposomal amphotericin-B + caspofungin.

Minhas, Harpreet Singh; Jain, Gagan; Mangukia, Chirantan; Goyal, Mayank



Systems genetics of mineral metabolism.  


Minerals are essential and toxic elements that have an impact on human health. Although we have learned a tremendous amount about the metabolism, biological roles, and health effects of minerals with the tools of biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular genetics, there are gaps in our knowledge of mineral biology that will benefit from new approaches. Forward genetics, whereby variations in phenotypes are mapped to natural genetic variation in the genome, has been successfully used to increase our understanding of many biologically important traits but has not yet been used extensively for mineral metabolism. In addition, the well-appreciated existence of interactions between minerals justifies a broader, systems approach to the study of mineral metabolism, i.e., ionomics. This short review will explain the value of forward genetics and ionomics as tools for exploring mammalian mineral metabolism. PMID:21270371

Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca; Salt, David E



Alcohol Exacerbates Murine Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption has been described as a risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its contribution to tuberculosis has been difficult to isolate from other adverse socioeconomic factors. Our objec- tive was to evaluate the impact of alcohol consumption on pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis in a murine model. BALB\\/c mice were maintained on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet

Carol M. Mason; Elizabeth Dobard; Ping Zhang; Steve Nelson



Pulmonary Mucormycosis: An Emerging Infection  

PubMed Central

Mucormycosis is a rare, but emerging, life-threatening, rapidly progressive, angioinvasive fungal infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of pulmonary mucormycosis in a diabetic patient who was on chronic steroid therapy for ulcerative colitis. Early recognition of this diagnosis, along with aggressive management, is critical to effective therapy and patient survival. The delay in diagnosis of this rapidly progressive infection can result in mortality. PMID:23304605

Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Rahman, Ambreen; Amer, Syed; Nusrat, Salman; Hassan, Syed; Hashmi, Syed



Chronic Pulmonary Disease and Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gravida state causes a profound number of biochemical, anatomical, and physiological changes throughout the gestational\\u000a period. These changes impact respiratory physiology in only a minor way in females with no underlying lung disease, but in\\u000a an individual with chronic pulmonary disease, any alteration in the balance of their pre-pregnancy respiratory physiology\\u000a can lead to devastating consequences during the pregnancy,

Shirley F. Jones; Marie M. Budev; Alejandro C. Arroliga


Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary arterial hypertension comprises a group of clinical and pathophysiological entities with similar features but a\\u000a variety of underlying causes. Genetic polymorphisms, environmental exposures, and acquired disorders predispose patients to\\u000a PAH, but none of the factors alone is sufficient to cause the disease. PAH is an end-stage phenotype that represents a final\\u000a common manifestation of multiple preclinical, intermediate phenotypes. Thus,

Harrison W. Farber


Pulmonary hypertension following neonatal shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Five neonates, aged between 3 and 14 days, had pulmonary hypertension two or more days following an episode of postnatal hypotensive shock. Unlike most previously described infants with “persistence of fetal circulation,” prenatal and perinatal histories were normal, with Apgar scores of 8 to 10. Significantly, no infant was cyanotic or apparently hypoxic (PaO2<50). After resuscitation and successful medical

James E. Lock; Bradley P. Fuhrman; Michael L. Epstein; Richard D. Rowe; Russell V. Lucas



Bone Mineral Density in Children with Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bronchiectasis presents as a common sequela of several chronic pulmonary diseases. Bone mineral density (BMD) is generally decreased in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although children with non-CF bronchiectasis have similar risk factors for osteopenia\\/osteoporosis, data on BMD in this group of patients are lacking. Objective: To evaluate BMD in children with non-CF bronchiectasis. Methods: In this study, we

Tulay Guran; Serap Turan; Bulent Karadag; Refika Ersu; Fazilet Karakoc; Abdullah Bereket; Elif Dagli



Pulmonary xenotransplantation: rapidly progressing into the unknown.  


As one approach to circumventing the dire shortage of human lungs for transplantation, a handful of investigators have begun to probe the possibility of pulmonary xenotransplantation. The immunologic and perhaps physiologic barriers encountered by these investigators are considerable and progress in pulmonary xenotransplantation has lagged behind