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1

Pulmonary complications in lead miners  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.

1989-07-01

2

Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

2014-12-01

3

Metal, mineral waste processing and secondary recovery  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 40 million tons of precious metals chemical wastes are produced in the United States every year. An estimated five percent of these wastes are being reused/recycled to recover the precious and critical metals they contain. The rest of these chemical wastes are disposed of by the methods incineration, dumping at sea and dumping on land. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the research work published during 1985-1986 on metal, mineral waste processing, secondary recovery and safe disposal.

Reddy, R.G.

1987-04-01

4

Weathering and Secondary Minerals in the Martian Meteorite Shergotty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shergotty martian meteorite contains weathering features and secondary minerals much like those in Nakhla, including secondary silicates, NaCl, and Ca-sulfate. It is likely that the weathering occurred on Mars.

Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; McKay, David S.

2000-01-01

5

Pulmonary response to inhaled fibrogenic minerals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The fibrogenicity of silica, bentonite, kaolin, talc, vermiculite, feldspar, and coal in animals in nose only exposures was investigated, and the cytotoxicity of the minerals was studied in in-vitro tests. Data were evaluated to provide comparative cytotoxic correlations on fibrogenicity and information for interpreting human exposure effects. Enzymes were measured as indicators of adverse activity of minerals on macrophages. Results of physical and chemical analysis of the minerals showed that all minerals tested wre smaller than 7 micrometers and were within the respirable size range. In in-vitro hemolysis studies, bentonite, kaolin, silica, and vermiculite showed the greatest hemolysis, and talc, coal, and feldspar showed the least. Release of cytosolic enzyme lactate-dehydrogenase, indicative of membrane damage, was significant with kaolin, silica, and vermiculite and least with talc, coal, and bentonite. The studies suggested that silica, kaolin, bentonite, vermiculite and feldspar all induced an initial acute pulmonary response, but that there appeared to be no correlation between this acute response in-vivo and their chronic pulmonary response. The studies also indicated that the initial pulmonary response reflected in vitro was not correlated with the chronic response to the dust.

Not Available

1990-01-01

6

Pneumothorax secondary to septic pulmonary emboli in tricuspid endocarditis.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of pneumothorax secondary to pulmonary septic infarctions occurred in the course of tricuspid endocarditis in intravenous drug misusers. This unusual complication must be considered in patients with right sided endocarditis who develop pleuritic chest pain, haemoptysis, or breathlessness. Images PMID:1494775

Corzo, J E; Lozano de León, F; Gómez-Mateos, J; López-Cortes, L; Vázquez, R; García-Bragado, F

1992-01-01

7

[Pulmonary and pleural reaction patterns to artificial mineral fibers --rockwool].  

PubMed

Epidemiological and animal studies about the fibrogenic and carcinogenic properties of natural mineral fibers required the development of man made vitreous fibers as substitutes for asbestos containing material. The question about the possible fibrogenic and carcinogenic properties of man-made vitreous fibers is not yet answered. By means of different experimental animal studies we tried to investigate the man made vitreous fibers-related pulmonary and pleural diseases. The experimental administration of rockwool induce lesions in the lung of the rats. The lung showed an extensive granulomatous inflammation. In the observation time of 10 months we did not find any malignant tumor of the lung and the pleura. PMID:7511301

Respondek, M; Voss, B; Wiethege, T; Kerenyi, T; Müller, K M

1993-01-01

8

Secondary Iron Mineral Formation by Shewanellae Using Different Carbon Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known for some time that microbes play an important role in the redox cycling of iron. A considerable amount of work has been done investigating the various factors that play a role in solid phase iron reduction such as the type of iron oxide available for reduction, medium composition, surface area and ferrous iron concentration. However, the rate at which a single cell reduces iron oxides and the impact of dissimilatory iron reduction kinetics on mineral speciation are not well understood. In order to determine the relationship between iron oxide reduction rates and secondary mineral formation, we have tested 4 different strains of Shewanella with different carbon sources. Strains MR-1, MR-4, CN32 and W3-18-1 were incubated with HFO (hydrous ferric oxide) as electron acceptor and either lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine or uridine as the organic carbon source. Mineral products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Initial results suggest that reduction rates are similar among strains when using the same carbon source. However, qualitative assessment of mineral products suggests that while reduction rates for the tested strains may be similar, the secondary mineral products can be quite different.

Salas, E. C.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Nealson, K. H.

2007-12-01

9

Segmentation and quantification of pulmonary artery for noninvasive CT assessment of sickle cell secondary pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disease that results in high mortality and morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. PAH diagnosis is invasive via right heart catheterization, but manual measurements of the main pulmonary artery (PA) diameters from computed tomography (CT) have shown promise as noninvasive surrogate marker of PAH. The authors propose a semiautomated computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tool to quantify the main PA size from pulmonary CT angiography (CTA). Methods: A follow-up retrospective study investigated the potential of CT and image analysis to quantify the presence of PAH secondary to SCD based on PA size. The authors segmented the main pulmonary arteries using a combination of fast marching level sets and geodesic active contours from smoothed pulmonary CTA images of 20 SCD patients with proven PAH by right heart catheterization and 20 matched negative controls. From the PA segmentation, a Euclidean distance map was calculated and an algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute subvoxel precise centerlines of the PA trunk (PT) and main left?right PA (PM). Maximum distentions of PT and PM were automatically quantified using the centerline and validated with manual measurements from two observers. Results: The pulmonary trunk and main were significantly larger (p<0.001) in PAH?SCD patients (33.73±3.92 mm for PT and 25.17±2.90 for PM) than controls (27.03±2.94 mm for PT and 20.62±3.06 for PM). The discrepancy was qualitatively improved when vessels’ diameters were normalized by body surface area (p<0.001). The validation of the method showed high correlation (mean R=0.9 for PT and R=0.91 for PM) and Bland–Altman agreement (0.4±3.6 mm for PT and 0.5±2.9 mm for PM) between CAD and manual measurements. Quantification errors were comparable to intraobserver and interobserver variability. CAD measurements between two different users were robust and reproducible with correlations of R=0.99 for both PT and PM and Bland–Altman agreements of ?0.13±1.33 mm for PT and ?0.08±0.84 mm for PM. Conclusion: Results suggest that the semiautomated quantification of pulmonary artery has sufficient accuracy and reproducibility for clinical use. CT with image processing and extraction of PA biomarkers show great potential as a surrogate indicator for diagnosis or quantification of PAH, and could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance. PMID:20443473

Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A.; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Mukherjee, Nisha; Summers, Ronald M.; Minniti, Caterina; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kato, Gregory; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

2010-01-01

10

[A case of secondary pulmonary malignant lymphoma with multiple pulmonary nodules and spiculation].  

PubMed

A 72-year-old man presented to our hospital with fatigue and anemia. Chest CT showed multiple nodular shadows. We first suspected lung cancer and multiple metastatic lesions because some nodules had spiculation. However, PET-CT revealed the small intestine, thyroid and rib as well as these nodules to be positive for FDG uptake, suggesting malignant lymphoma and lung involvement. For diagnosis, lung biopsy by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was performed. Pathologic examination of the lung biopsy specimen showed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We diagnosed secondary pulmonary malignant lymphoma. PMID:22171494

Furuhashi, Naohiro; Sugino, Yasuteru; Okumura, Junya; Saito, Yushi; Hiraga, Junji; Kitagawa, Satoshi

2011-11-01

11

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from

J M Meijers; G M Swaen; J J Slangen

1997-01-01

12

Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to siderosis causing symptomatic respiratory disease: a case report  

E-print Network

impairment. Although not the first of its kind, we present an unusual case of pulmonary siderosis with symptomatic respiratory disease, most likely secondary to associated fibrosis. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient...

McCormick, Liam M; Goddard, Martin; Mahadeva, Ravi

2008-08-05

13

Low temperature CO2 mineralization into basalt: solution chemistry and secondary mineral assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 represents one of the most abundant acid supplies in nature and has an important impact on element fluxes and water chemistry on the Earth surface. CO2 emissions due to increased industrialization are causing an important imbalance in this surface system and affect the global climate. Therefore, different methods to trap CO2 are developed and studied in response to the CO2 increase. CO2 sequestration into secondary minerals is considered as one possible way of reducing those CO2 levels. The Carbfix project is a pilot study in SW Iceland aiming to inject CO2-loaded waters from the Hellisheidi geothermal powerplant into basaltic rock formations. The goal is to mineralize CO2 by reacting Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 ions released by the basalt into carbonates. We investigated the geochemical aspects of CO2-water-basalt interaction at pCO2 between 0-20 bar and temperatures of 25-40°C by combining experiments and numerical modelling. The aim of our studies are to gain a better understanding of the key reactions, mass fluxes and porosity changes associated to CO2-water-basalt interaction. Modelling results show that at low reaction progress (pH <7), the main secondary mineral assemblages formed by reacting CO2- water-basalt are amorphous SiO2, Fe-Mg carbonates, Al-silicates and Fe-hydroxides, whereas at high reaction progress (pH >8) the main stable minerals precipitating from solution are (Ca)-Mg-Fe clays, Ca-Mg carbonates and zeolites (Gysi and Stéfansson 2008). Laboratory experiments were performed by reacting basaltic glass with aqueous solutions initially saturated at pCO2 ranging between 0-10 bar at 40°C for 120 days. Results from solution chemistry show that there are three different element mobility behaviors: i) Si+4 and Al+3 dissolve non-stochiometrically and/or precipitate into secondary minerals independent of the intial pCO2 and the water/rock ratios used in the experiments, b) Ca+2 and Mg+2 dissolve stochiometrically independent of the initial pCO2, but precipitate into secondary minerals at high water/rock ratios and low initial pCO2 after about 100 days, c) elements like Fe show a mixed behavior from mobile to immobile depending on the solution pH and their oxidation state. Secondary mineral assemblages were identified using SEM, and WDS elemental maps combined with quantitative analysis on EMPA. In all experiments, secondary minerals precipitating from solution were (Ca)-(Mg)-Fe-rich carbonates, amorphous Fe-hydroxides and (Na)-Ca-Mg-Fe clays. Our model compare qualitatively well with the experiments, the key factors controlling CO2 mineralization into carbonates beeing competing reactions between clays and carbonates for Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 ions.

Gysi, A.; Stefánsson, A.

2009-12-01

14

Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low-temperature environments in which SO2 is scrubbed out by groundwater or where H2S is oxidized. Jarosite-group minerals associated with smectite in only slightly altered volcanic rock are formed largely from aqueous sulfate derived from supergene oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite above the water table. Soluble Al- and Fehydroxysulfates form in low-pH surface environments, especially around fumaroles, and from the oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite. Anhydrite/gypsum, often associated with native sulfur and occasionally with small amounts of barite, also commonly form around fumaroles. Some occurrences of anhydrite/gypsum may be secondary, derived from the dissolution and reprecipitation of soluble sulfate. Edifice collapse may also reveal deep veins of anhydrite/gypsum??barite that formed from the mixing of saline fluids with magmatic sulfate and dilute meteoric water. Alteration along structures associated with both hydrothermal and supergene sulfates, as well as the position of paleo-water tables, may be important factors in edifice collapse and resulting debris flows at some volcanoes. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zimbelman, D.R.; Rye, R.O.; Breit, G.N.

2005-01-01

15

Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content < 300 g/t) occurred from 1972 to 1990 using acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.7-2.8) and diluted sulphuric acid (10 g/l). Secondary mineral phases like birnessite, todorokite and goethite occur within a natural attenuation process associated with enrichment of heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance of iron on this process, as some MOB isolates were able to oxidize manganese independently from the iron content, whereas some are not. The latter isolates are only able to oxidize manganese if iron is present in the media. In the lysimeter, SEM-EDX data showed microorganisms in organic rich phases together with the occurrence of manganese, oxygen, and nickel, indicating manganese oxides enriched in nickel. Although this new mineral phases could not yet be identified microprobe EDX results from polished thin sections showed needle-like mineral structures that are similar to the birnessite and todorokite samples observed from field samples. Hence, the lysimeter experiment revealed that the formation of iron and manganese minerals that are involved in heavy metal natural attenuation is result of both abiotic and biotic processes.

Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

2012-04-01

16

Monoclonal endothelial cell proliferation is present in primary but not secondary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed Central

The etiology and pathogenesis of the vascular lesions characterizing primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), an often fatal pulmonary vascular disease, are largely unknown. Plexiform lesions composed of proliferating endothelial cells occur in between 20 and 80% of the cases of this irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. Recently, technology to assess monoclonality has allowed the distinction between cellular proliferation present in neoplasms from that in reactive nonneoplastic tissue. To determine whether the endothelial cell proliferation in plexiform lesions in PPH is monoclonal or polyclonal, we assessed the methylation pattern of the human androgen receptor gene by PCR (HUMARA) in proliferated endothelial cells in plexiform lesions from female PPH patients (n = 4) compared with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients (n = 4). In PPH, 17 of 22 lesions (77%) were monoclonal. However, in secondary PH, all 19 lesions examined were polyclonal. Smooth muscle cell hyperplasia in pulmonary vessels (n = 11) in PPH and secondary PH was polyclonal in all but one of the examined vessels. The monoclonal expansion of endothelial cells provides the first marker that allows the distinction between primary and secondary PH. Our data of a frequent monoclonal endothelial cell proliferation in PPH suggests that a somatic genetic alteration similar to that present in neoplastic processes may be responsible for the pathogenesis of PPH. PMID:9486960

Lee, S D; Shroyer, K R; Markham, N E; Cool, C D; Voelkel, N F; Tuder, R M

1998-01-01

17

Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite–silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of secondary calcite–silica minerals in primary and secondary porosity of the host Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain has been hotly debated during the last decade. Proponents of a high-level nuclear waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain have interpreted the secondary minerals to have formed from cool, descending meteoric fluids in the vadose zone; critics, citing the presence of two-phase

Nicholas S. F Wilson; Jean S Cline; Yuri V Amelin

2003-01-01

18

Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SR?CT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SR?CT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SR?CT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

2014-03-01

19

CT and Image Processing Non-invasive Indicators of Sickle Cell Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to quantify for the presence and extent of pulmonary hypertension secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). A combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery from smoothed CT-Angiography images from 16 SCD patients and 16 matching controls. An algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute the centerline of the segmented arteries to measure automatically the diameters of the pulmonary trunk and first branches of the pulmonary arteries. Results show that the pulmonary trunk and arterial branches are significantly larger in diameter in SCD patients as compared to controls (p-values of 0.002 for trunk and 0.0003 for branches). For validation, the results were compared with manually measured values and did not demonstrate significant difference (mean p-values 0.71). CT with image processing shows great potential as a surrogate indicator of pulmonary hemodynamics or response to therapy, which could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance. PMID:19162792

Linguraru, Marius George; Orandi, Babak J.; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Mukherjee, Nisha; Summers, Ronald M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

2009-01-01

20

Pulmonary embolism secondary to anomalies of deep venous system of the leg.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of recurrent pulmonary emboli secondary to thrombosis in anomalies of the deep veins of the lower limb are presented. In both cases the source of emboli was not evident clinically, and it was only after venography that the venous anomalies were discovered, both being confined to one limb and amenable to surgical intervention. Such anomalies have not previously been reported as sources of venous thromboembolism in adults. The importance of venography in establishing the source of pulmonary emboli, especially when recurrent, is stressed. Images PMID:861097

Federman, J; Anderson, S T; Rosengarten, D S; Pitt, A

1977-01-01

21

Different distribution of plexiform lesions in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Despite much interest in plexiform lesions, no published work compares their distribution in different types of pulmonary hypertension. Scattered reports of plexiform lesions in bronchial arteries oppose the consensus view that the lesions develop in pulmonary arteries. To compare the localization of plexiform lesions in different types of pulmonary hypertension, and to assess the role of the bronchial arteries in their formation, we examined by light microscopy lung tissue from five patients with primary plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy (PPPA), six with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital cardiac malformations (CCM), and one with pulmonary hypertension complicating hepatic cirrhosis. We classified the 270 plexiform lesions observed as either preacinar or intra-acinar based on the type of pulmonary artery in which they were located, and computed the frequencies of each type of lesion within each etiologic group. We searched for lesions developing in bronchial arteries. Then, postulating that a close anatomic relationship between plexiform lesions and bronchial arteries would necessitate a clustering of the lesions near sites in the lung subserved by the bronchial circulation, we measured, for 211 of the 270 lesions previously classified, the distance from the lesion to the nearest airway and computed the mean lesion-to-airway distance in each etiologic group. The frequencies of preacinar plexiform lesions were 34% in PPPA, 67% in CCM (P < .01), and 21% in the case of cirrhosis. We found no plexiform lesions within bronchial arteries, and the mean plexiform lesion-to-airway distances were 1,680 +/- 180 microns in PPPA, 1,330 +/- 220 microns in CCM, and 2,050 +/- 1,090 microns in cirrhosis (P > .05). Our data suggest that (1) the distribution of plexiform lesions within the pulmonary arterial tree varies depending on the etiology, (2) plexiform lesions rarely if ever arise in bronchial arteries, and (3) plexiform lesions are not preferentially distributed near parts of the lung subserved by the bronchial circulation. PMID:7672799

Jamison, B M; Michel, R P

1995-09-01

22

Recurrent pulmonary edema secondary to elongated soft palate in a cat.  

PubMed

A 9-month-old intact female Persian cat presented with recurrent pulmonary edema secondary to an elongated soft palate. Endoscopic evaluation of the pharynx and larynx showed that the elongated soft palate was overlying the epiglottis. Partial resection of the soft palate was performed and the cat showed no further respiratory signs. This report is the first description of elongated soft palate causing airway obstruction in a brachycephalic cat. PMID:22398461

Corgozinho, Katia Barão; Pereira, Adriana Neves; Cunha, Simone Carvalho dos Santos; Damico, Cristiane Brandão; Ferreira, Ana Maria Reis; de Souza, Heloisa Justen Moreira

2012-06-01

23

Oxygen Isotopes and Geothermometry of Secondary Minerals in CR Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report oxygen isotopes measured from secondary calcite and magnetite in QUE 99177, a weakly altered CR chondrite, and discuss implications for temperature and fluid chemistry during aqueous alteration on the CR parent body.

Jilly, C. E.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Schrader, D. L.

2014-09-01

24

Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ??6mm, R-wave in V6 ??3mm, S-wave in V6 ??3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ?25?mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ??6?mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P?=?0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

2014-01-01

25

Secondary phosphate mineralization in a karstic environment in Central Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Eppawala in central Sri Lanka secondary phosphate mineralization is intimately associated with laminated fabrics within depressions (sinkholes and smaller cavities) formed in the thick weathering profiles of a hilly terrain underlain by a Precambrian apatite-bearing formation. The lowermost levels of the profile show extensive zones of leaching where derived apatite crystals occur within fine-grained, laminated stromatolite sequences. The stromatolitic groundmass, which diagenetically formed by percolating oxygenated phosphate and carbonate-rich groundwaters, is impregnated by the phosphate minerals francolite and collophane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that fine filaments, characteristic of microorganisms, are associated with the secondary phosphate mineralization. Continuous degradation and fragmentation of the stromatolitic mat has produced pellets, peloids, and intraclasts all enriched in secondary apatite. Degrading recrystallization around the edges of the primary apatite crystals has developed coated grains. The widespread occurrence of phosphate-enriched allochems in stromatolitic groundmasses is a unique development of a modern phosphorite in a karstic environment.

Dahanayake, Kapila; Subasinghe, S. M. N. D.

1989-07-01

26

Boundaries of intergrowths between mineral individuals: A zone of secondary mineral formation in aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intergrowth boundaries between mineral individuals in dunite of the Gal’moenan massif in Koryakia was studied in terms of crystal morphology, crystal optics, and ontogenesis. The results obtained allowed us to trace the staged formation of olivine and chromite and four generations of these minerals. Micro-and nanotopography of boundary surfaces between intergrown mineral individuals of different generations was examined with optic, electron, and atomic force microscopes. The boundaries between mineral individuals of different generations are distinguished by their microsculpture for both olivine and chromite grains. Both minerals demonstrate a compositional trend toward refinement from older to younger generations. The decrease in the iron mole fraction in olivine and chromite is accompanied by the crystallization of magnetite along weakened zones in olivine of the first generation and as outer rims around the chromite grains of the second generation observable under optic and electronic microscopes. The subsequent refinement of chromite results in the release of PGE from its lattice, as established by atomic power microscopy. The newly formed PGM are localized at the boundaries between mineral individuals and, thus, mark a special stage in the ontogenetic evolution of mineral aggregates. Further recrystallization is expressed in the spatial redistribution of grain boundaries and the formation of monomineralic intergrowth boundaries, i.e., the glomerogranular structure of rock and substructures of PGM, chromite, and olivine grains as intermediate types of organization of the granular assemblies in the form of reticulate, chain, and cellular structures and substructures of aggregates.

Brodskaya, R. L.; Bil'Skaya, I. V.; Lyakhnitskaya, V. D.; Markovsky, B. A.; Sidorov, E. G.

2007-12-01

27

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from the death certificates were ascertained and converted to the codes from the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-9). Mortality comparisons were made with the male population in The Netherlands, resulting in standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). 3367 miners had radiological manifestation of CWP at medical examinations. RESULTS: 80% of the miners died during the follow up period. Excess mortalities from CWP (SMR 4523) and COPD (SMR 179) were found. Coal miners without CWP also showed an increased mortality from COPD (SMR 2913). A diminished lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), or FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio) at medical examination resulted in a significantly increased SMR for COPD (322 and 212 respectively) whereas normal lung function yielded expected mortalities from COPD. A positive correlation also emerged between diminished lung function and the SMR due to CWP. The body mass index (BMI) at the moment of medical examination was correlated with the risk of dying of COPD and CWP: a decreasing BMI resulting in an increased SMR. CONCLUSIONS: Not only infectious diseases and CWP but also COPD is an important cause of occupational mortality in miners with extensive exposure to coal mine dust. No obvious connection between pre-existing CWP and the COPD mortality exists. Impaired FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios are predictors of an increased risk of COPD death. The BMI seems to indicate the severity of the COPD, resulting in premature death. PMID:9404317

Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J

1997-01-01

28

Secondary Fe–Mn-oxides in minerals heavily damaged by ?-recoil: possible implications for palaeomagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-micron Fe,Mn-oxides in columbite–tantalite minerals are bound to metamict domains in the host. These nano-oxides are secondary\\u000a minerals as the metamict zones formed through accumulation of damages from ?-recoil, each of which in a small volume destroys\\u000a the crystal lattice of the U and Th bearing columbite–tantalite host. Transmission electron microscope investigations demonstrate\\u000a that the oxides fall in the compositional

Rolf L. Romer; Norbert Nowaczyk; Richard Wirth

2007-01-01

29

Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the incubation. Other possible mechanisms include the presence of soluble Fe as an alternative energy source in the goethite treatment, the presence of toxic soluble Al in the gibbsite treatment, the loss of available phosphorus in the secondary mineral treatments due to sorption by secondary mineral surfaces, and variations in mineral surfaces as microhabitats. These findings suggest that Al and Fe oxides, such as goethite or gibbsite, are a factor in determining microbial community structure.

Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

2011-12-01

30

Weathering features and secondary minerals in Antarctic Shergottites ALHA77005 and LEW88516  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work has shown that all three sub-groups of the shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) clan of meteorites contain aqueous precipitates of probable pre-terrestrial origin. In the context of secondary minerals, the most thoroughly studied shergottite has been Elephant Moraine, Antarctica A79001 (EETA79001). The recognition of LEW88516 as the latest SNC specimen, and its close similarity with ALHA77005, invite a comparative study of the latter two meteorites, and with EETA79001, from the perspective of aqueous alteration. The fusion crusts of the two meteorites are quite similar except that ALHA77005 is more vesicular (possibly indicating a higher indigenous volatile content). Secondary aluminosilicates (and salts on LEW88516) of definite Antarctic origin partially fill vesicles and fractures on both fusion crusts. Interior samples of the two meteorites are grossly similar in that traces of secondary minerals are present in both.

Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

1993-01-01

31

Associated bone mineral density and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis is an important issue for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Worse systemic inflammation and reduced exercise capacity have been reported in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), implying that OSA may be an independent factor for osteoporosis in COPD patients. Methods A total of 66 patients with bone mineral density (BMD) and polysomnography results from a previous COPD cohort (January 2008 to January 2013) were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics such as medication, pulmonary function, BMD, and results of polysomnography were analyzed. Results The BMD in those with OSA was significantly lower than in those without OSA (?1.99±1.63 versus ?1.27±1.14, P=0.045). In univariate analysis, body mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, percentage of predicted value, incremental shuttle walk test, apnea–hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly associated with BMD. After multivariate linear regression analysis, the ODI was still an independent factor for BMD. In addition, smaller total lung capacity is significantly associated with higher ODI and lower BMD, which implies that lower BMD might cause severer OSA via decreased total lung capacity. Conclusion OSA may be an independent factor for BMD in patients with COPD, which implies a possible vicious cycle takes place in these patients. PMID:25673983

Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Pai-Chien; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Lin, Ting-Yu; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Yu, Chih-Teng; Kuo, Han-Pin

2015-01-01

32

Pulmonary invasive mucormycosis in a patient with secondary iron overload following deferoxamine therapy  

PubMed Central

Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an acute and often fatal opportunistic fungal infection. Predisposing factors in the development of mucormycosis are nonspecific and include hyperglycemia, hematologic malignancies, neutropenia, pharmacologic immunosuppression, solid organ or bone marrow/stem cell transplantation, burns, trauma, malnutrition, and intravenous drug use. Mucormycosis has also been described in patients with iron and aluminum overload, patients on dialysis, and patients receiving iron chelating therapy. We describe a 75-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome and iron overload secondary to multiple red blood cell transfusions who had been treated with deferoxamine chelation therapy. He was admitted to the hospital for atrial fibrillation, developed multiple organ failure, and died. Pulmonary invasive mucormycosis was demonstrated at autopsy. This case further documents an association between invasive mucormycosis, iron overload, and deferoxamine therapy. PMID:18982078

Reyes, Hector M.; Tingle, Eric J.; Fenves, Andrew Z.; Spiegel, Jennifer

2008-01-01

33

Investigation of the relative contributions of cigarette smoking and mineral dust exposure to activation of circulating phagocytes, alterations in plasma concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, and pulmonary dysfunction in South African gold miners.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To determine the relative effects of cigarette smoking and mineral dust exposure on numbers and activity of circulating phagocytes, plasma nutritional antioxidant state, and pulmonary function in South African gold miners. METHODS--Pulmonary function was assessed spirometrically, whereas reactive oxidant generation by circulating phagocytes, and plasma concentrations of the nutritional antioxidative nutrients vitamin C and vitamin E and beta carotene were measured with chemiluminescence, spectrophotometry, or high performance liquid chromatography respectively. RESULTS--Cigarette smoking, but not mineral dust exposure, was associated with increased numbers and pro-oxidative activity of circulating neutrophils and monocytes, decreased plasma concentrations of vitamin C, and pulmonary dysfunction. DISCUSSION--In this study group occupational exposure to mineral dust has not been found to promote increases in the numbers or reactivity of circulating phagocytes or to be a significant cause of pulmonary dysfunction, the changes found being due primarily to cigarette smoking. PMID:7951783

Theron, A J; Richards, G A; Myer, M S; van Antwerpen, V L; Sluis-Cremer, G K; Wolmarans, L; van der Merwe, C A; Anderson, R

1994-01-01

34

Mineral dissolution and secondary precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions affecting subsurface porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89 °C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2012-11-01

35

Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity  

SciTech Connect

Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2012-11-23

36

Pulmonary edema secondary to chronic upper airway obstruction. Hemodynamic study in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 22-month-old girl with the syndrome of hypoventilation, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and pulmonary edema due to adenoidal hypertrophy is described. Adenoidectomy resulted in relief of all symptoms and signs within 24 h. Hemodynamic study using pulmonary artery catheter showed that the pulmonary artery pressure returned to normal 48 h after relief of the obstruction. The normal left ventricular end-diastolic

S. Sofer; R. Baer; Y. Gussarsky; A. Lieberman; J. Bar-Ziv

1984-01-01

37

Pulmonary hernia secondary to limited access for mitral valve surgery and repaired by video thoracoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic pulmonary hernia is a rare condition. Repair is performed due to persistent symptoms and it is usually carried out by open surgery. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who developed a lung hernia after small anterior thoracotomy that was performed for mitral valve surgery. The herniated lung is reduced with success by video thoracoscopic surgery and the chest wall defect is repaired by a polypropylene mesh fitted to the thoracic wall. At six-month follow-up, she was asymptomatic and without recurrence of hernia. Our experience suggests that video thoracoscopic surgery is a feasible surgical technique even for lung hernia secondary to mini-thoracotomy. However, before performing video thoracoscopic surgery, several factors preclusive to using this strategy must be considered, including the extensiveness of pleural adhesions due to the time interval between the previous operation and lung hernia, the site and the size of the hernia, and the insufficient experience in video thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:18948304

Santini, Mario; Fiorello, Alfonso; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Busiello, Luigi

2009-01-01

38

The effect of erythropoietin to pulmonary injury and mast cells secondary to acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening necroinflammatory disease that is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute lung injury even in its very first days. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone considered as an antiapoptotic and cytoprotective with observed receptors of anti-inflammatory effect on organs apart from the liver and the kidneys. In this study, the effects of EPO on pulmonary mast cells and on secondary injury caused by acute pancreatitis are investigated. Methods Twenty one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups—sham, control, and EPO groups—with 7 rats per group. Pancreatitis was induced by administering 4.5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. A 1000 U/kg/day dosage (three times) of EPO was administered to the EPO group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, amylase, and troponin I in the serum were studied; and lung, kidney, brain, and heart tissues were examined histopathologically. Results There were no histopathological changes in the other organ tissues except for the lung tissue. Compared to the control group, the EPO group showed significantly reduced alveolar hemorrhage, septal neutrophil infiltration, lung wall thickness score, and mast cell count in the lung tissue. Conclusions Administration of EPO reduces the mast cell count and lung wall thickness, and it reduces the alveolar hemorrhage and septal infiltration induced by acute pancreatitis. PMID:24761770

2014-01-01

39

Clinical features of three cases with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome developed during the course of Behçet's disease.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is the most common underlying disease in cases of secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Here, we present 3 MDS cases in which PAP developed during the course of Behçet's disease (BD). All patients carried trisomy 8 in the bone marrow. Chest HRCT scans showed variable distribution of ground glass opacities, but none of the scans showed so called "crazy paving appearance". Two patients with intestinal BD who underwent potent immunosuppressive therapy died of sepsis. These findings demonstrate that PAP secondary to MDS may be occasionally associated with BD. PMID:24388375

Handa, Tomohiro; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Baba, Motoo; Takada, Toshinori; Nakata, Koh; Ishii, Haruyuki

2014-01-01

40

Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.  

PubMed

Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. PMID:21879833

Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

2011-09-01

41

Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

2011-01-01

42

Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog  

SciTech Connect

Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

2012-05-01

43

Evidence for an unsaturated-zone origin of secondary minerals in Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated zone (UZ) in Miocene-age welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Secondary calcite and silica minerals deposited on fractures and in cavities in the UZ tuffs are texturally, isotopically, and geochemically consistent with UZ deposition from meteoric water infiltrating at the surface and percolating through the UZ along fractures. Nonetheless, two-phase fluid inclusions with small and consistent vapor to liquid (V:L) ratios that yield consistent temperatures within samples and which range from about 35 to about 80 C between samples have led some to attribute these deposits to formation from upwelling hydrothermal waters. Geochronologic studies have shown that calcite and silica minerals began forming at least 10 Ma and continued to form into the Holocene. If their deposition were really from upwelling water flooding the UZ, it would draw into question the suitability of the site as a waste repository.

Whelan, Joseph F.; Roedder, Edwin; Paces, James B.

2001-04-29

44

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

2015-01-01

45

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

2015-01-01

46

Radioelements and their occurrence with secondary minerals in heated and unheated tuff at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of devitrified welded tuff near and away from the site of a heater test in Rainier Mesa were examined with regard to whole-rock radioelement abundances, microscopic distribution of U, and oxygen isotope ratios. Wholerock U averages between 4 and 5 ppM, and U is concentrated at higher levels secondary opaque minerals as well as in accessory grains. U in

S. Flexser; H. A. Wollenberg

1992-01-01

47

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 31, 189-200 (1983) Nonasbestos Pulmonary Mineral Fibers in the  

E-print Network

of nonas- bestos minerals were found: apatite accounted for 18% of the total and talc for 16%. All other forms accounted for less than 8% each. Silica was found in every lung, and talc in 19of 20lungs

Ahmad, Sajjad

48

9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

1998-12-01

49

Giant pulmonary artery aneurysm secondary to patent ductus arteriosus: a case report.  

PubMed

Aneurysms involving the main pulmonary artery and its branches are rare. Clinical experience is limited, and their management is not well established. We present the case of a 35-year-old male patient with dyspnea and hemoptysis in whom subsequent imaging studies revealed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with an uncorrected patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger's syndrome. We chose to treat the patient conservatively with medical management due to the development of Eisenmenger's physiology while waiting for heart-lung transplantation. PMID:25545802

Bezgin, Tahir; Demircan, Hacer C; Kaymaz, Cihangir

2015-01-01

50

Volcanic stratigraphy and secondary mineralization of U. S. G. S. Pucci geothermal test well, Mount Hood, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-one sample splits of drill cuttings from approximately 6.1 m intervals in the 610 m hole that was completed in 1979 were provided for this study. An additional 225 sample splits (3.05 m intervals) from 536 m to the bottom of the drill hole at 1220 m were added to the study following the deepening of the drill hole. Stratigraphic and petrologic observations of the cuttings were made. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer examinations were made of alteration minerals. The lithology and secondary mineralization are discussed.

Gannett, M.W.; Bargar, K.E.

1981-01-01

51

A case of pulmonary hemorrhage due to drug-induced pneumonitis secondary to ticagrelor therapy.  

PubMed

We report a case of significant pulmonary hemorrhage developing shortly after commencing ticagrelor and aspirin therapy and requiring coronary artery bypass grafting to safely cease the antiplatelet therapy. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with drug-induced lung injury. Clinicians should be aware of this significant adverse event with this drug class. PMID:24590025

Whitmore, Timothy J; O'Shea, John P; Starac, Diana; Edwards, Mark G; Waterer, Grant W

2014-03-01

52

Malondialdehyde and 3-Nitrotyrosine in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Retired Elderly Coal Miners with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important cause of occupational mortality in miners exposed to coal mine dust. Although the inflammatory mediators involved in COPD have not been defined, many studies have shown that inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved in orchestrating the complex inflammatory process in COPD. Methods To investigate the relevance of exhaled biomarkers of oxidative and nitrosative stress in participants with COPD, we determined the levels of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in 90 retired elderly coal miners (53 non-COPD and 37 COPD participants). Results Mean levels of MDA (4.64 nM vs. 6.46 nM, p = 0.005) and 3-NT (3.51 nM vs. 5.50 nM, p = 0.039) in EBC were significantly higher in participants with COPD. The median level of MDA did show statistical difference among the COPD severities (p = 0.017), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MDA (0.67) for the diagnostic discrimination of COPD indicated the biomarker. The optimal cutoff values were 5.34 nM (64.9% sensitivity and 64.2% specificity) and 5.58 nM (62.2% sensitivity and 62.3% specificity) for MDA and 3-NT, respectively. The results suggest that high levels of MDA and 3-NT in EBC are associated with COPD in retired elderly miners. Conclusion These results showed that the elevated levels of EBC MDA and EBC 3-NT in individuals with COPD are biomarkers of oxidative or nitrosative stress. PMID:25180140

Lee, Jong Seong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Ju-Hwan; Baek, Jin Ee; Choi, Byung-Soon

2014-01-01

53

Hypoxia and Altered Platelet Behavior Influence von Willebrand Factor Multimeric Composition in Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pulmonary hypertension (PH), defective plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) lacking the larger multimers with increased concentration of low-molecular-weight fractions (LMW) has been reported, although the mechanisms involved are not completely known. Altered platelet behavior may be involved in this alteration; this hypothesis was investigated in 10 patients with PH associated with chronic hypoxemia and erythrocytosis (age 13 to 51

Lúcia Helena Caramurú; Rosangela De P. S. Soares; Nair Yukie Maeda; Antonio Augusto Lopes

2003-01-01

54

Successful treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunts (Abernethy type 2) by living donor liver transplantation after surgical shunt ligation.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in a patient (7-year-old boy) with Abernethy type 2 congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunts (CEPS). This patient underwent a surgical shunt ligation as the first treatment for pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary hypertension was improved and controlled successfully 4 years after the first operation. However, pulmonary hypertension recurred gradually because of multiple intrahepatic portosystemic shunts; therefore, LDLT was performed as a radical treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. His pulmonary arterial pressure was also controlled 22 months after LDLT, the postoperative continuous intravenous prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) treatment could be withdrawn successfully. We suggest that clinicians carefully follow up the recurrent portosystemic shunt and cardiopulmonary disorders secondary to Abernethy type 2 CEPS. PMID:19761556

Iida, Taku; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Doi, Hiraku; Yagi, Shintaro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Imai, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Okamoto, Shinya; Uemoto, Shinji

2010-01-01

55

Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) and its mineral structure: implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral.  

PubMed

Austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm(-1) are assigned to the ?2, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3-) unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm(-1) correspond to the ?1, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3(-) unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm(-1) for IR and 3270 cm(-(1) both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals. PMID:25087167

Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L

2015-01-25

56

Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) and its mineral structure: Implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm-1 are assigned to the ?2, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO43- unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm-1 correspond to the ?1, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO43- unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm-1 for IR and 3270 cm-1 both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals.

Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L.

2015-01-01

57

Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}–water–rock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldspars–CO{sub 2}–brine interactions at 150–200 °C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolution–precipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate–?G{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral information at CO{sub 2} storage conditions.

Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W. [U.S. DOE; Soong, Yee [U.S. DOE; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen

2013-01-01

58

A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

Goodfellow, Bradley W.

2012-12-01

59

Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.  

PubMed Central

The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

1976-01-01

60

Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun

2014-08-01

61

Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun

2015-02-01

62

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2015 start) Project Title: Authigenic mineral corrosion and the origins of secondary porosity in lacustrine  

E-print Network

mineral corrosion and the origins of secondary porosity in lacustrine carbonate reservoirs generated significant carbonate-hosted porosity (Wright & Barnett, 2014). What processes could have corroded. This project will therefore test hypotheses for the origin of secondary carbonate-hosted porosity in lacustrine

Henderson, Gideon

63

Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

2003-09-29

64

Secondary alteration of the impactite and mineralization in the basal Tertiary sequence, Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 65 Ma Chicxulub impact crater formed in the shallow coastal marine shelf of the Yucatán Platform in Mexico. Impacts into water-rich environments provide heat and geological structures that generate and focus sub-seafloor convective hydrothermal systems. Core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) hole, drilled by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), allowed testing for the presence of an impact-induced hydrothermal system by: a) characterizing the secondary alteration of the 100 m-thick impactite sequence; and b) testing for a chemical input into the lower Tertiary sediments that would reflect aquagene hydrothermal plume deposition. Interaction of the Yax-1 impactites with seawater is evident through redeposition of the suevites (unit 1), secondary alteration mineral assemblages, and the subaqueous depositional environment for the lower Tertiary carbonates immediately overlying the impactites. The least-altered silicate melt composition intersected in Yax-1 is that of a calc-alkaline basaltic andesite with 53.4-56 wt% SiO2 (volatile-free). The primary mineralogy consists of fine microlites of diopside, plagioclase (mainly Ab 47), ternary feldspar (Ab 37 to 77), and trace apatite, titanite, and zircon. The overprinting alteration mineral assemblage is characterized by Mg-saponite, Kmontmorillonite, celadonite, K-feldspar, albite, Fe-oxides, and late Ca and Mg carbonates. Mg and K metasomatism resulted from seawater interaction with the suevitic rocks producing smectite-Kfeldspar assemblages in the absence of any mixed layer clay minerals, illite, or chlorite. Rare pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite occur near the base of the impactites. These secondary alteration minerals formed by low temperature (0-150 °C) oxidation and fixation of alkalis due to the interaction of glass-rich suevite with down-welling seawater in the outer annular trough intersected at Yax-1. The alteration represents a cold, Mg-K-rich seawater recharge zone, possibly recharging higher temperature hydrothermal activity proposed in the central impact basin. Hydrothermal metal input into the Tertiary ocean is shown by elevated Ni, Ag, Au, Bi, and Te concentrations in marcasite and Cd and Ga in sphalerite in the basal 25 m of the Tertiary carbonates in Yax-1. The lower Tertiary trace element signature reflects hydrothermal metal remobilization from a mafic source rock and is indicative of hydrothermal venting of evolved seawater into the Tertiary ocean from an impact generated hydrothermal convective system.

Ames, Doreen E.; Kjarsgaard, Ingrid M.; Pope, Kevin O.; Dressler, Burkhard; Pilkington, Mark

2004-07-01

65

Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

Rochelle, C.A. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK). Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

1989-01-01

66

The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

2013-06-03

67

Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important geochemical reactions occur at the mineral-water interface, including sorption and desorption reactions of contaminants. Fundamental knowledge of the kinetics of these processes is based primarily on experimental observations of reactions at faces of single crystals or macroscopic data from pure mineral powder suspensions. Sorption reactions at crystal faces are generally very fast, on the order of microseconds or less, with reaction times often limited only by film diffusion at the mineral-water interface. In well-stirred suspensions of aquifer sediments, however, sorptive equilibrium can take many hours or days to achieve steady-state concentrations. We have examined the potential reasons for sorption rate limitation using uranium(VI) sorption by sediments from a sandy aquifer in Savannah River, South Carolina (USA). U(VI) sorption by sand-sized grains from the aquifer is dominated by reaction with secondary mineral coatings on quartz and feldspar grains. The coatings studied were on the order of 15 microns in thickness (i.e., from quartz grain to aqueous solution) and composed primarily of clay minerals and hematite of varying particle size. Microfocused-XRF imaging of elemental concentrations (e.g., U, Fe) of polished cross-sections of the grain/coating contact showed strong spatial correlations of U and Fe within the coatings, regardless of the length of reaction time (30 minutes to 4 weeks). The spatial resolution of the ?-XRF technique is of the order of 2 microns in horizontal directions, but the uncertainty of the observed spatial gradients is high due to grain curvature away from the polished surface and fluorescence contributed from the entire 30 micron thickness of a typical grain/epoxy thin section. TEM characterization of focused-ion-beam (FIB), vertically-extracted samples of the grain-coating contact shows that complex pore networks exist within the coatings of variable dimensions and unknown connectivity. Using scanning TEM (STEM) tomography, it can be seen that there are large numbers of pore throat sizes less than 10 nm within the coatings. We hypothesize that diffusion through these pores, which likely have electrically charged surfaces, controls the observed macroscopic rates of U(VI) sorption in batch experiments with sand grains. Evidence to support this hypothesis was observed by studying U and Fe fluorescence spatial variation within FIB samples (1 micron thick) at 200 nm spatial resolution. With this greater spatial resolution, it is possible to see U concentration variations within the coatings that are dependent on the time of sorption reaction, and illustrates how the coating environment constitutes a diffusion constraint to achieve adsorptive equilibrium between an aqueous phase and the mineral surfaces. Including this diffusion constraint within conceptual models for reactive contaminant transport may be significant at the field scale, because secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site. This is important in resolving long-term transport predictions at DOE sites, such as Hanford and Savannah River, where equilibrium versus kinetic reactive transport models are being evaluated.

Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.

2012-12-01

68

Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.  

PubMed

The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ?5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

2014-07-01

69

Al(Fe,Ti,Si)-mobility and secondary mineralization implications: A case study of the karst unconformity diasporite-type bauxite horizons in Milas (Mu?la), Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleogene aged metabauxite deposit in the Upper Cretaceous-Early Paleogene aged marble sequence within the southwestern Menderes Massif in the ?lbir Mountains of the Milas (Mu?la) region of SW Turkey comprises many initially karst unconformity-type bauxite horizons with unusual Al-mobility. Thus, it displays singular geochemical and mineralogical implications. The settling down of these horizons was syngenetic with limestone sedimentation, as evidenced by their lithologic associations. In the region, they are mainly found as karst unconformity diasporite-type upper bauxite horizons due to lower-graded burial metamorphism in the Küçükçaml?k and Büyükçaml?k hills, and also found as emery type lower bauxite horizons due to higher-graded burial metamorphism in the Menevi? and Kure streams. The main focus of this study was the upper bauxite horizons because they contain significant secondary Al- and Fe(Ti)-rich mineralization in the structurally-controlled open spaces (fracture zones) crosscutting the brittle bauxite horizons. This secondary mineralization is unique worldwide because the fracture zones contain coarse crystals of secondary minerals, such as gem-quality diaspore, muscovite, specular hematite, ilmenite, goethite, and chloritoid. These secondary metamorphic minerals were formed by high-temperature hydrothermal activity involving metamorphic remobilized reactions of extraction, mobilization, migration and re-crystallization, from the primary metamorphic mineral constituents in the metabauxite ore bodies. Thus, within the well known Mediterranean Bauxite Belt (MBB) in southern Europe trending from Portugal through Turkey, the metabauxite deposit in the ?lbir Mountains is noteworthy for the coexistence of two serial phases of metamorphic mineralization which occurred when the metabauxite deposit was modified by late-stage Alpine tectono-metamorphism in the Menderes Massif. This study is mainly focused on the original primary metamorphic submicroscopic mineralization, including polycrystalline (overlapped) occurrences, and uses the comparative matching technique on X-ray diffraction patterns to confirm that the main constituents of the karst unconformity-type diasporic metabauxite (diasporite) ore were the main source for secondary metamorphic mineralization in the fracture zones. It was found that the submicroscopic mineral constituents in the original primary diasporite ore are diaspore, gibbsite, corundum, specular hematite, ilmenite, donbassite and chloritoid as major constituents, with goethite, ferroalluaudite and Fe-Mg-rich muscovite as minor constituents. It was concluded that the composition of the primary fine-grained mineralization in the unaltered (original) bauxite ore was adequate to serve as a source for the much coarser later mineralization in the fracture zones.

Hatipo?lu, Murat

2011-05-01

70

Radioelements and their occurrence with secondary minerals in heated and unheated tuff at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Samples of devitrified welded tuff near and away from the site of a heater test in Rainier Mesa were examined with regard to whole-rock radioelement abundances, microscopic distribution of U, and oxygen isotope ratios. Wholerock U averages between 4 and 5 ppM, and U is concentrated at higher levels secondary opaque minerals as well as in accessory grains. U in primary and secondary sites is most commonly associated with Mn phases, which average {approximately}30 ppM U in more uraniferous occurrences. This average is consistent and apparently unaffected by proximity to the heater. The Mn phases differ compositionally from Mn minerals in other NTS tuffs, usually containing abundant Fe, Ti, and sometimes Ce, and are often poorly crystalline. Oxygen isotope ratios show some depletion in {delta}{sup 18}O in tuff samples very close to the heater; this depletion is consistent with isotopic exchange between the tuff and interstitial water, but it may also reflect original heterogeneity in isotopic ratios of the tuff unrelated to the heater test. Seismic properties of several tuff samples were measured. Significant differences correlating with distance from the heater occur in P- and S-wave amplitudes; these may be due to loss of bound water. Seismic velocities are nearly constant and indicate a lack of significant microcracking. The absence of clearer signs of heater-induced U mobilization or isotopic variations may be due to the short duration of the heater test, and to insufficient definition of pre-heater-test heterogeneities in the tuff.

Flexser, S.; Wollenberg, H.A.

1992-06-01

71

Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis complicating myelodysplastic syndrome results in worsening of prognosis: a retrospective cohort study in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (sPAP) is a very rare lung disorder comprising approximately 10% of cases of acquired PAP. Hematological disorders are the most common underlying conditions of sPAP, of which 74% of cases demonstrate myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, the impact of sPAP on the prognosis of underlying MDS remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether development of sPAP worsens the prognosis of MDS. Methods Thirty-one cases of sPAP and underlying MDS were retrospectively classified into mild and severe cases consisting of very low-/low-risk groups and intermediate-/high-/very high-risk groups at the time of diagnosis of MDS, according to the prognostic scoring system based on the World Health Organization classification. Next, we compared the characteristics, disease duration, cumulative survival, and prognostic factors of the groups. Results In contrast to previous reports on the prognosis of MDS, we found that the cumulative survival probability for mild MDS patients was similar to that in severe MDS patients. This is likely due to the poor prognosis of patients with mild MDS, whose 2-year survival rate was 46.2%. Notably, 75% and 62.5% of patients who died developed fatal infectious diseases and exacerbation of PAP, respectively, suggesting that the progression of PAP per se and/or PAP-associated infection contributed to poor prognosis. The use of corticosteroid therapy and a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide of less than 44% were predictive of poor prognosis. Conclusion Development of sPAP during the course of MDS may be an important adverse risk factor in prognosis of patients with mild MDS. PMID:24597668

2014-01-01

72

Fractionation of Stable Si Isotopes During in-situ Dissolution of Feldspars and Formation of Secondary Clay Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that weathering of igneous silicate minerals may fractionate Si isotopes (Douthitt 1982, de la Rocha et al. 2000). This is supported by the observation that clays yield ?30Si compositions between +0.5‰ and -2.5‰ compared to the igneous range for ?30Si between +0.1‰ and -1‰ respectively (Douthitt 1982). The difference may relate to a discrimination against heavier Si isotopes during clay mineral formation. However, no study has yet shown a direct Si isotope fractionation between coexisting primary igneous and secondary clay mineral phases. We have measured the stable Si isotope fractionation during in-situ feldspar dissolution and formation of secondary clay minerals in the Navajo Sandstone, Black Mesa, Arizona. The Jurassic Navajo Sandstone is composed of about 94% quartz and 2-4% K-feldspar. The K-feldspar grains are covered with kaolinite, and both quartz and feldspars are covered with a mantle of smectite coating. Petrographic studies demonstrate that the clay minerals formed in situ as alteration products of feldspar, and the smectite is of a low-temperature variety (Zhu, 2005). Therefore, the Si isotope fractionation at low temperature (15-35°C) can be evaluated - something that is difficult to replicate in the laboratory. For the Si isotope analyses we used 20-30 mg of 5 separated clay samples, and 0.36 mg of hand picked feldspars. The silicates were fused with an alkaline flux and dissolved in a weak HCl acid. The dissolved Si was then separated by ion-exchange chromatography. The relative Si isotope compositions were measured using a high-resolution MC-ICP-MS (The Nu1700 at ETH Zurich) and are reported in ? notation relative to the international Si standard NBS 28. The bulk rock and separated feldspar fraction have Si isotope compositions are -0.09 ± 0.03‰ and -0.15 ±0.03 ‰ (±2?SEM) ?30Si, respectively. The clay samples have ?30Si values of -0.24 ±0.05‰, -0.16 ±0.03‰, -0.30 ±0.03‰, -0.42 ±0.03‰ and -0.52 ±0.04‰ (±2?SEM). These Si isotope analyses reveal that the majority of the clay separates are isotopically lighter by up to 0.4% compared to precursor feldspars. The results demonstrate for the first time that Si isotopes are indeed fractionated during the breakdown of feldspar minerals and the subsequent formation of isotopically lighter Si in clays. From mass-balance considerations, circulating fluids should have higher ?30Si values, however the analysis of groundwater samples show variations of ?30Si values between +0.43‰ and -1.43‰ representing the most negative dissolved Si isotope composition so far found. As groundwater constitutes 98% of the global fresh water (excluding ice), the global Si biogeochemical cycle must include groundwater as an important component that is often overlooked. References: De La Rocha, Brzezinski, and DeNiro (2000), A first look at the distribution of the stable isotopes of silicon in natural waters, GCA 64, 2467-2477; Douthitt (1982), The geochemistry of the stable isotopes of silicon, GCA 46, 1449 - 1458; Zhu (2005), In situ feldspar dissolution rates in an aquifer, GCA 69, 1435-1453.

Georg, R. B.; Reynolds, B. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Zhu, C.

2005-12-01

73

Syntrophic Effects in a Subsurface Clostridial Consortium on Fe(III)-(Oxyhydr)oxide Reduction and Secondary Mineralization  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we cultivated from subsurface sediments an anaerobic Clostridia 25 consortium that was composed of a fermentative Fe-reducer Clostridium species (designated as 26 strain FGH) and a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium belonging to the Clostridia family 27 Vellionellaceae (designated as strain RU4). In pure culture, Clostridium sp. strain FGH mediated 28 the reductive dissolution/transformation of iron oxides during growth on peptone. When 29 Clostridium sp. FGH was grown with strain RU4 on peptone, the rates of iron oxide reduction 30 were significantly higher. Iron reduction by the consortium was mediated by multiple 31 mechanisms, including biotic reduction by Clostridium sp. FGH and biotic/abiotic reactions 32 involving biogenic sulfide by strain RU4. The Clostridium sp. FGH produced hydrogen during 33 fermentation, and the presence of hydrogen inhibited growth and iron reduction activity. The 34 sulfate-reducing partner strain RU4 was stimulated by the presence of H2 gas and generated 35 reactive sulfide which promoted the chemical reduction of the iron oxides. Characterization of 36 Fe(II) mineral products showed the formation of magnetite during ferrihydrite reduction, and 37 the precipitation of iron sulfides during goethite and hematite reduction. The results suggest an 38 important pathway for iron reduction and secondary mineralization by fermentative sulfate-39 reducing microbial consortia is through syntrophy-driven biotic/abiotic reactions with biogenic 40 sulfide.

Shah, Madhavi; Lin, Chu-Ching; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Xiuhong; Wang, Yangping; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

2013-12-02

74

Effect of mineral dust on secondary organic aerosol yield and aerosol size in ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is a significant contributor to atmospheric particles, the role of mineral dust in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been fully recognized. In this study, alumina was chosen as the surrogate to investigate the effect of mineral dust on ?-pinene/NOx photo-oxidation in a 2 m3 smog chamber at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH). Results showed that alumina seeds could influence both the SOA yield and the aerosol size in the photo-oxidation process. Compared to the seed-free system, the presence of alumina seeds resulted in a slight reduction of SOA yield, and also influenced the final concentration of O3 in the chamber. As an important oxidant of ?-pinene, the decrease in O3 concentration could reduce the formation of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) and consequently inhibited SOA formation. In addition, the size of aerosol was closely related with the mass loading of alumina seeds. At low alumina concentration, SVOCs condensed onto the pre-existing seed surface and led to aerosol size growth. When alumina concentration exceeded about 5 ?g m-3, SVOC species that condensed to each seed particle were dispersed by alumina seeds, resulting in the decrease in aerosol size.

Liu, Chang; Chu, Biwu; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; He, Hong; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming

2013-10-01

75

Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

2013-10-01

76

Water chemistry impacts on arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation: implications for managed aquifer recharge.  

PubMed

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic mobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is imperative to identify the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization during MAR. In this bench-scale study, arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite (FeAsS) was characterized for conditions relevant to MAR operations. Experimentally determined activation energies for arsenic mobilization from FeAsS under aerobic conditions were 36.9 ± 2.3 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium chloride, 40.8 ± 3.5 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium nitrate, and 43.6 ± 5.0 kJ/mol for secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. Interestingly, the sodium chloride system showed higher arsenic mobilization under aerobic conditions. In addition, secondary mineral precipitation varied among systems and further affected arsenic mobilization. For example, the wastewater system inhibited precipitation, while in the sodium chloride system, faster phase transformation of iron(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates was observed, resulting in hematite formation after 7 days. The phase transformation to hematite will result in less available surface area for arsenic attenuation. These new observations and activation energies can be useful to develop improved reactive transport models for the fate of arsenic during MAR, and develop strategies to minimize arsenic release. PMID:24621369

Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Schupp, Don; Jun, Young-Shin

2014-04-15

77

Secondary hyperparathyroidism but stable bone-mineral density in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib.  

PubMed

Imatinib is currently the standard treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia(CML). Previous studies have shown that imatinib affects bone metabolism in CML patients. However, these effects are not well-studied prospectively. The authors studied bone-mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in 17 CML patients and matched controls in 2007 and now repeated the analyses prospectively in 2011. All CML patients were in complete cytogenetic remission during this 4-year period and treated with 400 mg imatinib q.d. (n 5 15) or 600 mg imatinib q.d. (n 5 2). Mean treatment duration was 102 months (range 69–129) in 2011. The authors found that serum levels of parathyroid hormone increased significantly in the patients between 2007 and 2011, and seven out of 17 patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism in 2011. However, the mean areal and volumetric BMDs were stable in the CML patients over the 4-year-observation period. Moreover, the CML patients had significantly higher volumetric BMD in the cortical compartment when compared with controls in 2011 and 2007. Thus, despite a high incidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism,there were no signs of osteoporosis or osteomalacia in imatinib-treated CML patients as suggested earlier. PMID:22407760

Jönsson, Sofia; Standal, Therese; Olsson, Bob; Mellström, Dan; Wadenvik, Hans

2012-05-01

78

Secondary arsenic minerals and arsenic mobility in a historical waste rock pile at Ka?k near Kutná Hora, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arsenic mineralization in historical waste rock pile at Ka?k site near Kutná Hora developed over a period of about 500 years. The objective of this study was to determine principal secondary arsenic mineral phases and their environmental stability. The only common primary As-bearing mineral - arsenopyrite - occurs in the mineral assemblage of Kutná Hora base-metal deposit together with quartz, pyrite, sphalerite, and pyrrhotite. Most of arsenic is bound in supergene minerals (scorodite, jarosite-beudantite, bukovskýite, pitticite), which are relatively stable under oxidizing conditions prevailing in the pile. The Ka?k site is a type locality for bukovskýite, ka?kite, zýkaite, and parascorodite. In long-term perspective, the most stable minerals from viewpoint of As-binding appear to be scorodite and beudantite. A higher mobility was observed for As incorporated into jarosite and poorly crystalline to amorphous phases (FeIII -oxyhydroxides, pitticite). This study has not confirmed significant mobility of arsenic within the pile and water infiltrating in recharge periods of the year (late winter-early spring) should not mobilize arsenic at a significant rate. However, monitoring of the stability of secondary As-phases and dissolved arsenic in the environment around the pile is required to avoid future migration of arsenic out of the pile.

Kocourková-Víšková, E.; Loun, J.; Sracek, O.; Houzar, S.; Filip, J.

2015-02-01

79

Comment on: “Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite-silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada” by N. S. F. Wilson, J. S. Cline, and Y. V. Amelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for the geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. A reliable assessment of the future performance of the repository will require detailed paleohydrogeological information. Hydrogenic secondary minerals from the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain are being studied as paleohydrogeological indicators. A phenomenological model envisaging the deposition of secondary minerals

Yuri V. Dublyansky; Sergey Z. Smirnov; Sergey E. Pashenko

2005-01-01

80

Comment on: ``Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite-silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' by N. S. F. Wilson, J. S. Cline, and Y. V. Amelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for the geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. A reliable assessment of the future performance of the repository will require detailed paleohydrogeological information. Hydrogenic secondary minerals from the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain are being studied as paleohydrogeological indicators. A phenomenological model envisaging the deposition of secondary minerals

Yuri V. Dublyansky; Sergey Z. Smirnov; Sergey E. Pashenko

2005-01-01

81

Acute respiratory failure secondary to eosinophilic pneumonia following influenza vaccination in an elderly man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory failure with diffuse pulmonary opacities is an unusual manifestation following influenza vaccination. We report herein a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed fever with worsening of respiratory symptoms and severe hypoxemia requiring ventilatory support shortly after influenza vaccination. Bronchoalveolar lavage was compatible with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Rapid clinical improvement was observed 2 weeks after systemic corticosteroid treatment, followed by radiographic improvement at 4 weeks. No disease recurrence was observed at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:24981428

Pornsuriyasak, Prapaporn; Suwatanapongched, Thitiporn; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Rotjanapan, Porpon

2014-09-01

82

A Case of Antiphospholipid Syndrome Refractory to Secondary Anticoagulating Prophylaxis after Deep Vein Thrombosis-Pulmonary Embolism  

PubMed Central

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by a combination of clinical criteria, including vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity and elevated antiphospholipid antibody titers. It is one of the causes of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that can be critical due to the mortality risk. Overall recurrence of thromboembolism is very low with adequate anticoagulation prophylaxis. The most effective treatment to prevent recurrent thrombosis is long-term anticoagulation. We report on a 17-year-old male with APS, who manifested blue toe syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and cerebral infarction despite adequate long-term anticoagulation therapy. PMID:25580146

Gu, Kang Mo; Shin, Jong Wook

2014-01-01

83

Is Loss of Body Weight in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Emphysema Secondary to Low Tissue Oxygenation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available clinical information to date does not support the hypothesis that tissue oxygen debt is the primary cause of the wasting process in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient population. However, this should not deter the ‘believers’ of the hypothesis from further investigation. The information outlined above supports the need for reconsideration of this clinical problem. Tissue oxygen

M. Donahoe; R. M. Rogers; J. J. Cottrell

1992-01-01

84

IFN-?, but not IL-17A, is required for survival during secondary pulmonary Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Stain infection.  

PubMed

IL-17 and IFN-? production by Th17 and Th1 cells, respectively, is critical for survival during primary respiratory infection with the pathogenic bacterium, Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS). The importance, however, of these T cell subsets and their soluble mediators is not well understood during a secondary or memory response. We measured the number of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-? or IL-17 in the spleen and lungs of vaccinated mice on day four of the secondary response using intracellular cytokine staining in order to identify protective T cell subsets participating in the memory response. Few bacteria were present in spleens of vaccinated mice on day four and a T cell response was not observed. In the lung, where more bacteria were present, there was a robust Th1 response in vaccinated mice but Th17 cells were not present at higher numbers in vaccinated mice compared to unvaccinated mice. These data show that the lung is the dominant site of the secondary immune response and suggest that Th17 cells are not required for survival during secondary challenge. To further investigate the importance of IFN-? and IL-17 during the secondary response to F. tularensis, we neutralized either IFN-? or IL-17 in vivo using monoclonal antibody treatment. Vaccinated mice treated with anti-IFN-? lost more weight and had higher bacterial burdens compared to vaccinated mice treated with isotype control antibody. In contrast, treatment with anti-IL-17A antibody did not alter weight loss profiles or bacterial burdens compared to mice treated with isotype control antibody. Together, these results suggested that IFN-? is required during both primary and secondary respiratory F. tularensis infection. IL-17, on the other hand, is only critical during the primary response to respiratory F. tularensis but dispensable during the secondary response. PMID:24837506

Roberts, Lydia M; Davies, John S; Sempowski, Gregory D; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

2014-06-17

85

Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components  

PubMed Central

Background: The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. Aims: To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Methods: Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Results: Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Conclusion: Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation. PMID:12107295

Housley, D; Berube, K; Jones, T; Anderson, S; Pooley, F; Richards, R

2002-01-01

86

Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)?1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)?0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)?4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22?2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ?1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ?4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ?2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

2013-11-01

87

Assessment of toxic potential of primary and secondary particulates/aerosols from biodiesel vis-à-vis mineral diesel fuelled engine.  

PubMed

Toxicity of engine out emissions from primary and secondary aerosols has been a major cause of concern for human health and environmental impact. This study aims to evaluate comparative toxicity of nanoparticles emitted from a modern common rail direct injection engine (CRDI) fuelled with biodiesel blend (B20) vis-à-vis mineral diesel. The toxicity and potential health hazards of exhaust particles were assessed using various parameters such as nanoparticle size and number distribution, surface area distribution, elemental and organic carbon content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the particle surfaces, followed by toxic equivalent factor assessment. It was found that biodiesel particulate toxicity was considerably lower in comparison to mineral diesel. PMID:23631768

Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Dixit, Neelabh; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra

2013-05-01

88

EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion of the number of sites where reactions can occur. Results were also finalized on a component of a previous project related to the Hanford waste tanks that had the goal of measuring the incorporation of rhenium, an analogue of radioactive technetium, in iron and aluminum-oxides minerals as they aged in tank sludges at higher temperatures. Small amounts of rhenium were occluded in the iron-rich solids and the amount increased with aging time. Results from the quartz and biotite experiments are in a form that can be used in models of fluid flow in the Hanford subsurface. Results from the rhenium experiments can be used to understand aspects of closing certain of the Hanford tanks.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2004-04-22

89

Enhancing Subsoil Root Activity and Uptake of Mineral N by Gypsum Applications to Secondary Forests Regenerating from Degraded Pastures in Central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of primary tropical forest to pasture radically alters belowground nutrient capture potential. In the absence of deep rooting, these changes can lead to the loss of mobile anions to the subsoil. Abandonment of pastures to invading secondary vegetation may result in the regeneration of some of the original belowground processes and retrieval of previously inaccessible N anions. We hypothesized that gypsum applications increases SF rooting depth and results in a greater portion of total N uptake from subsoil. We applied the following treatments to two replicates of three post-pasture SF age classes: phosphorus (50 kg P/ha as TSP), P + lime (2 t CaCO3/ha), P + lime + gypsum (1 t CaSO4/ha) and an unfertilized control. We sampled soil mineral N concentrations at 10, 150, and 300 cm depth. The youngest SF had less surface mineral N compared to the older forests. Greater surface NO3 and NH4 values in the older SF are reflective of reported increasing total soil N stocks with forest regrowth. Gypsum additions increase subsoil (150 - 180 cm depth) root activity and water uptake. However, our results demonstrated that rather than increasing subsoil N uptake by roots, gypsum applications resulted in 50 % or greater NO3 and NH4 concentrations at 150 cm depth than the other fertilizer treatments. Higher concentrations could be the result of enhanced root production and root turnover, more N mineralization at the topsoil, and/or loss of mobile N anions from surface layers. Secondary forests regrowing from pastures have the potential to increase total soil N rapidly (Feldpausch et al. in review) and prevent mobile N anions from leaching beyond the rooting zone. The more mature SF maintained higher NO3 and NH4 concentrations than the youngest forests, predominately in the first 10 cm. Gypsum can increase subsoil NO3 and NH4 concentrations, which may have important implications to nutrient manage in N-deficient systems.

Feldpausch, T. R.; Fernandes, E. C.; Lehmann, J.

2002-12-01

90

Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Kornfeld, J.M.

2005-01-01

91

Osteological and Biomolecular Evidence of a 7000-Year-Old Case of Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy Secondary to Tuberculosis from Neolithic Hungary  

PubMed Central

Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hódmez?vásárhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults. Several cases showed potential signs of tuberculosis, particularly the remains of the individual HGO-53. This is an important finding that has significant implications for our understanding of this community. The aim of the present study was to seek biomolecular evidence to confirm this diagnosis. HGO-53 was a young male with a striking case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), revealing rib changes and cavitations in the vertebral bodies. The initial macroscopic diagnosis of HPO secondary to tuberculosis was confirmed by analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific cell wall lipid biomarkers and corroborated by ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. This case is the earliest known classical case of HPO on an adult human skeleton and is one of the oldest palaeopathological and palaeomicrobiological tuberculosis cases to date. PMID:24205173

Masson, Muriel; Molnár, Erika; Donoghue, Helen D.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Minnikin, David E.; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Lee, Oona Y-C.; Bull, Ian D.; Pálfi, György

2013-01-01

92

Mineral catalyzed organic synthesis in hydrothermal systems: An experimental study using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal fluids enriched in hydrocarbons of apparent abiotic origin vent from Fe-Ni sulfide bearing chimney structures on the seafloor at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges. Here we show results from a hydrothermal experiment using carbon isotope labeling techniques and mineral analytical data that indicate that pentlandite ((Fe2Ni7)S8) enhances formation of C2 and C3 alkanes, while also contributing to the formation of other more complex hydrocarbons, such as alcohols and carboxylic acids. ToF-SIMS data reveal the existence of isotopically anomalous carbon on the pentlandite surface, and thus, for the first time, provide unambiguous evidence that mineral catalyzed surface reactions play a role in carbon reduction schemes under hydrothermal conditions. We hypothesize that hydroxymethylene (-CHOH) serves as intermediary facilitating formation of more complex organic compounds. The experimental results provide an explanation for organic synthesis in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems on earth, and on other water-enriched planetary bodies as well.

Fu, Qi; Foustoukos, Dionysios I.; Seyfried, William E.

2008-04-01

93

Pulmonary artery pressure variation in patients with connective tissue disease: 24 hour ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDThe specific contribution of secondary pulmonary hypertension to the morbidity and mortality of patients with underlying lung disease can be difficult to assess from single measurements of pulmonary artery pressure. We have studied patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension using an ambulatory system for measuring continuous pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). We chose to study patients with connective tissue disease because they

D A Raeside; G Chalmers; J Clelland; R Madhok; A J Peacock

1998-01-01

94

Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have chronic breathing problems, including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Sarcoidosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Cystic fibrosis During pulmonary rehab you may do ...

95

2D imaging in a 3D world: Observing sub-grain scale variations and secondary mineral precipitates in reacted pore networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in 3D imaging techniques and analysis methods, and easier access to benchtop 3D X-ray microscopes, have led to a proliferation of 3D imaging studies of chemical alterations within porous media. However, 2D imaging methods continue to offer complementary insights into processes controlling sub-grain scale variations in mineralogy and intragranular porosity that are often difficult to observe with 3D methods. For example, 2D imaging studies of mineral precipitation-induced changes in the pore network structure including detailed observations of distributions of secondary mineral precipitates can be coupled with 3D image analysis of a pore network to determine the pore properties required to infer permeability. In this work, the combined advantages of 2D and 3D imaging methods are highlighted through 3D X-ray Computed Microtomography (X-ray CT) and 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of a reacted column experiment in the context of the Hanford, WA site and a sedimentary rock sample from the Alberta basin. Both samples were imaged using 3D X-ray CT imaging at a voxel resolution of 4 ?m and analyzed using 3DMA Rock to determine pore and throat size distributions as well as pore coordination numbers. Polished sections were then created from each sample and imaged using 2D SEM imaging with resolutions of 0.4 ?m for the reacted column and an order of magnitude larger for the sedimentary rock. 2D images were analyzed using an erosion dilation method to determine pore and throat size distributions that were then corrected using sample-specific bias correction factors. The permeability of each sample was predicted from pore network models informed with the 2D or 3D pore and throat size distributions and the coordination numbers determined from the 3D analysis. Differences in 2D and 3D image resolutions resulted in over- or under- estimating small pore throats and led to predicted permeabilities that differed by orders of magnitude. For both samples, higher resolution images resulted in over-estimating small pore throats and under-estimating expected permeability. While higher resolution images are generally favored, they may not improve predictions of permeability as they require additional processing to distinguish small flow-conducting pore throats from surface roughness features. While 3D imaging is required to determine the network coordination, 2D imaging is necessary to understand where secondary minerals precipitate within the pore network and to quantify sub-grain scale variations. These advantages are demonstrated through SEM imaging of polished sections from the reacted column experiment. 2D images revealed that secondary mineral precipitates occurred as a relatively uniform coating on grain surfaces, unrelated to mineralogy, pore size, or other factors. SEM images also revealed new observations of sub-grain scale variations that showed that Hanford sand grains have a high amount of intragranular porosity and mineral precipitates formed in intragranular regions. These observations, which are important to understanding the reactive system, could not have been made if 3D imaging was used exclusively.

Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

2012-12-01

96

Tumors of the Pulmonary Vascular Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary or secondary tumors of the lung can affect all levels of the pulmonary vascular bed, including the pulmonary arteries,\\u000a veins, and capillaries. Most primary tumors of the pulmonary vasculature are poorly differentiated, highly fatal sarcomas\\u000a of the large main pulmonary arteries and veins. Pulmonary arterial sarcoma (PAS) is far more prevalent than its venous counterpart,\\u000a although both arterial and

Eunhee S. Yi

97

Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

2006-01-01

98

Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 ??m) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-M.; Mars, J.C.

2003-01-01

99

Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306  

SciTech Connect

Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2012-07-01

100

Fluid-Dacite Interaction in the PACMANUS Subseafloor Hydrothermal System - Preliminary Results From Secondary Mineral Chemistry and Geochemical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193, several holes (as deep as 386 meters below sea floor) intersected variably altered and veined dacites on Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus back-arc basin. The hydothermal alteration is complex and multi-stage, and includes pervasive alteration and alteration halos along anhydrite±pyrite±quartz veins. Our preliminary interpretation is that an early pervasive "chloritic" alteration (chlorite, chlorite/smectite, quartz, +/-albite, +/-magnetite) is overprinted locally by illite-pyrophyllite-anhydrite+/-diaspore alteration followed by silica (quartz and cristobalite) flooding. Two drill holes at Snowcap, a site of diffuse venting, reveal alteration profiles of strongly illite-pyrophyllite-anhydrite altered rocks in the shallow parts grading downwards into rocks that show dominant chloritic alteration. At Roman Ruins, a site of discrete venting, K-feldspar and illite-smectite mixed layer phases are abundant and magnetite is rare. K-feldspar appears to be part of the "chloritic" alteration assemblage. Anhydrite is locally abundant but generally less common than at Snowcap. There is a strong lateral heterogeneity in basement alteration as revealed by the differences between sites in the depths of cristobalite-quartz transition and the zones of prevailing alteration styles. Geochemical modeling suggests that the rocks have been altered at temperatures of about 250 to 300° C under variable fluid-to-rock ratios. While all the mineral assemblages are consistent with quartz/cristobalite saturation of the fluids, the formation of diaspore must be related to episodic interaction of the rocks with fluids highly undersaturated in quartz. The early stage of chloritic alteration represents interaction of the dacites with fluids of a fairly high pH ({>}4). In contrast, the occurrence of pyrophyllite and local diaspore suggests lower pH fluid ({<}3) during later hydrothermal stages. A zone of abundant alunite at 350 m deep in the basement at Snowcap may represent local ingress of very acidic fluids (pH{<}2). Our working hypothesis is that these low-pH fluids indicate significant contributions of a magmatic fluid component that is rich in H2SO4 and HF. Furthermore, the late-stage acidic alteration seems to be more common at Snowcap. Rare-earth element (REE) data from anhydrite veins are consistent with this interpretation. The majority of the anhydrite veins from the Snowcap site display REE patterns that suggest formation of aqueous fluoride and sulfate complexes was important. High F- activities can also be inferred from the presence of minor F-apatite in some anhydrite veins from Snowcap. In contrast, anhydrite from the Roman Ruins site, where evidence for acidic rock alteration style is scarse, shows uniformly light REE enriched patterns.

Yeats, C. J.; Bach, W.; Vanko, D. A.; Roberts, S.; Lackschewitz, K.; Paulick, H.

2001-12-01

101

Comorbidity and health-related quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending Swedish secondary care units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our understanding of how comorbid diseases influence health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited and in need of improvement. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between comorbidities and HRQL as measured by the instruments EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Methods Information on patient characteristics, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, depression, and EQ-5D and CAT questionnaire results was collected from 373 patients with Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) <50% of predicted value from 27 secondary care respiratory units in Sweden. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were performed using EQ-5D index, EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), and CAT scores as response variables. Results Having more comorbid conditions was associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by all instruments. Chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by EQ-5D index (adjusted regression coefficient [95% confidence interval] ?0.07 [?0.13 to ?0.02]), EQ-5D VAS (?5.17 [?9.42 to ?0.92]), and CAT (3.78 [2.35 to 5.20]). Musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly associated with worse EQ-5D index (?0.08 [?0.14 to ?0.02]), osteoporosis with worse EQ-5D VAS (?4.65 [?9.27 to ?0.03]), and depression with worse EQ-5D index (?0.10 [?0.17 to ?0.04]). In stratification analyses, the associations of musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression with HRQL were limited to female patients. Conclusion The instruments EQ-5D and CAT complement each other and emerge as useful for assessing HRQL in patients with COPD. Chronic bronchitis, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression were associated with worse HRQL. We conclude that comorbid conditions, in particular chronic bronchitis, depression, osteoporosis, and musculoskeletal symptoms, should be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with severe COPD. PMID:25653516

Sundh, Josefin; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Kjell; Lindén, Anders; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Janson, Christer; Sandström, Thomas

2015-01-01

102

Hydatid pulmonary emboli.  

PubMed

A case of secondary hydatosis, initially misdiagnosed as pulmonary metastases, is presented. The dissemination of hydatid cysts within the lungs in this case was the consequence of direct rupture of a hepatic hydatid into the inferior vena cava. A brief overview of the pathophysiology of hydatid disease, including a discussion of the types of hydatid rupture (contained, communicating and direct), is presented. PMID:11903187

Smith, G J; Irons, S; Schelleman, A

2001-11-01

103

Australian Mineral Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

Crowe, D. S.

1980-01-01

104

Pulmonary angiography  

MedlinePLUS

... including CTA and MRA) and complications. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A ... P. Pulmonary Circulation and Pulmonary Thromboembolism. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: ...

105

Pulmonary edema  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

106

Pulmonary Embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

107

Pulmonary hypertension: Tortuous route to diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 47 year-old woman, on hemodialysis via an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, was assessed for severe dyspnea and presyncope secondary to pulmonary hypertension. Right heart catheterization confirmed a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 85 mm Hg. She had a normal wedge pressure. Investigations revealed that the total high cardiac output AV fistula, 8.3 L/min, resulted in pulmonary arteropathy and increased pulmonary vascular resistance at 674 dyne.sec.cm(-5). The AV fistula was banded and Sildenafil was prescribed, which resulted in improvement of pulmonary hypertension within one week. PMID:25473527

Riolo, Giovanna; Al Ghamdi, Bader; D'Arsigny, Christine L

2013-09-01

108

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

2012-01-01

109

Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

Newman, John H.

2005-01-01

110

[Primary pulmonary sarcomas].  

PubMed

Primary pulmonary sarcomas are rare diseases unlike lung carcinomas. The occurence of these sarcomas is between 0.013-0.40% of all malignant lung tumours. There are malignant mesenchymal tumours. They are flowing from the soft tissue of lung. The pulmonary sarcomas are heterogenic group with various biological behaviour. Their morfologic structure does not digger from the sarcomas of soft tissue. The primary pulmonary sarcomas occur more often in childhood and in young people unlike lung carcinomas. Radiation and some toxic substances are noted risk factors. Some gene mutations, infectious pathoghens and contraception have a possible impact on the origin of some types of the sarcomas. The current hypothesis is, that most of the sarcomas, if not all sarcomas, stem from primitive multipotent mesenchymal cell by malignant transformation in one or more lines. The diagnostic standard is biopsy from tumour with histologic and immunohistochemistry examination of a sample. The basic diagnostic problem is exclusion of a secondary origin of sarcomatic cells in the lung, because pulmonary metastasis of extrapulmonary sarcomas are more often than the primary pulmonary involvement.The optimal treatment is a resection of the tumour.The other therapeutic modalities are radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but results of these modalities are unsatisfactory. There are various chemotherapeutic regimes, monotherapy or combination regimes. The basic cytostatics are doxorubicine, iphosphamide, dacarbazine. Problems of the chemotherapy are high toxicity and relatively low curative effect about 20%.The first studies with biological treatment of the sarcomas of soft tissue have been published recently.This types of drugs could be a part of the complex management of these primary pulmonary tumours in the future. The primary pulmonary sarcomas have mostly aggresive course and often recur. Their prognosis is usually not very good. The survival median is 48 months and 5-years survival ranges between 38 and 48%. Prognostic factors are the size of tumour, histological type, grading, clinical stage and measure of a surgery major. PMID:19731876

Jakubcová, T; Jakubec, P

2009-01-01

111

Spontaneous intramural esophageal hematoma (IEH) secondary to anticoagulation and/or thrombolysis therapy in the setting of a pulmonary embolism: a case report  

PubMed Central

Intramural esophageal hematoma is part of a spectrum of esophageal injuries. Vomiting and straining, endoscopic procedures and bleeding disorders are the most common predisposing factors. However, it can also be an unusual complication of anticoagulation and/or thrombolysis therapy. The most common symptoms are retrosternal chest pain, dysphagia and hematemesis. Computed tomography is the modality of choice and treatment is medically conservative with the cessation of Warfarin and thrombolysis use. When anticoagulation and/or thrombolysis therapy is necessary, periodic reassessment for symptoms of intramural esophageal hematoma may be helpful for early identification and management. We described one case of intramural esophageal hematoma possibly resulting from anticoagulation and/or thrombolysis therapy in the setting of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23705034

Hong, Melina; Warum, Daniel; Karamanian, Ara

2013-01-01

112

Pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

2014-03-01

113

Pulmonary valve stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... stenosis; Heart valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no other ...

114

Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... ENews Home > Lung Disease > Pulmonary Vascular Disease Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease Pulmonary vascular disease is a category of disorders. ... in a person's pulmonary arteries gets dangerously high. Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease This is an extremely rare form of high ...

115

Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.  

PubMed

This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

2013-05-22

116

Critical ostial left main and right coronary artery stenosis secondary to takayasu arteritis in a young female simulating pulmonary embolism at presentation.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with sudden-onset chest pain. Thirty-six hours earlier, she was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism, for which anticoagulation was started. Evaluation was significant for atrial fibrillation, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and echocardiography demonstrating a new wall motion abnormality. Symptoms resolved with spontaneous conversion to normal sinus rhythm and the patient was initiated on intravenous heparin and eptifibatide, followed by admission. Shortly after admission, the patient experienced recurrent chest pain with dynamic electrocardiographic (ECG) changes that prompted emergent cardiac catheterization. Prior to angiography, the patient developed pulseless cardiac arrest for which advanced cardiac lifesaving (ACLS) techniques were initiated. Coronary angiography showed critical ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. Despite transient periods of hemodynamic stability after successful stenting, the patient decompensated and was pronounced dead. Postmortem findings were consistent with Takayasu arteritis (TA). TA involving the coronary arteries is rare, presenting in fewer than 5% of cases. Diagnosis relies heavily on clinical suspicion. For our patient, dynamic ECG changes with wall motion abnormalities visible on echocardiography prompted diagnostic/therapeutic cardiac catheterization and stenting. Management involves high-dose systemic steroid therapy. However, due to recurrence of disease and adverse effects of prolonged steroid use, additional disease-modifying agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine, or cyclophosphamide may be used. With appropriate therapy, short-term prognosis is favorable. This case underlines the importance of having a high clinical suspicion for TA in the young female population with ischemic symptoms in order to allow early diagnosis in hopes of preventing further complications. PMID:23388240

Lee, Joshua S; Mount, George R; Schachter, David T

2013-02-01

117

Aspergillus endocarditis in a paediatric patient after a cardiac surgery, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of pulmonary prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and secondary pulmonary hypertension, in a 4-year-old boy with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot. The diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus endocarditis remains highly challenging. The best therapeutic option for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to an infectious thromboembolic event is highly debatable and the results are poor. PMID:24702799

Miranda, Joana O; de Sousa, António Rodrigues; Monterroso, José

2015-03-01

118

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis.  

PubMed

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis (CPL) is a rare vascular malformation causing dilated lymph vessels and disturbed drainage of lymph fluid. Based on the pathogenesis and clinical phenotype it can be classified as primary or secondary CPL. Associated genetic syndromes with or without lymphedema, familial occurrence and gene mutations have been described. In utero, it may present as non-immune hydrops with pleural effusions. At birth neonates may have respiratory failure due to chylothorax and pulmonary hypoplasia, causing very high short term mortality rates. Other cases may become symptomatic any time later in childhood or even during adult life. CPL is usually diagnosed based on the combination of clinical signs, imaging and histological findings. Open-lung biopsy is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of CPL. Treatment is primarily supportive featuring aggressive mechanical ventilation and the management of problems associated with congenital chylothorax including chest-drainage, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet, and octreotide. PMID:24997116

Reiterer, Friedrich; Grossauer, Karin; Morris, Nicholas; Uhrig, Sabine; Resch, Bernhard

2014-09-01

119

Pulmonary atresia  

MedlinePLUS

... another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Pulmonary atresia may occur with ... artery and aorta. The vessel is called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Multiple treatments are possible, but ...

120

Pulmonary embolus  

MedlinePLUS

Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs. Less common causes include air bubbles, fat droplets, ...

121

Mineral Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help you to learn minerals! This module has two modes: an overview that takes you through some of the fundamentals of minerals and an interactive model that allows you to build your own virtual minerals.

2010-01-01

122

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... for ENews Home > Lung Disease > Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease that comes ... may improve a person's chances of recovery. Understanding Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Preventing Hantavirus ...

123

Secondary amenorrhea  

MedlinePLUS

Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... In addition to having no menstrual periods, other symptoms can ... gain or weight loss Discharge from the breast ( galactorrhea ) or ...

124

Pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

1988-11-01

125

Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.

126

Ore Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Dexter Perkins

127

Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has potent properties for the treatment of a variety of vascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke and pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, there are few data about the role of TMP in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage. This study examined the effect of TMP on hypoxia-induced pulmonary

Le Zhang; Mengyang Deng; Shiwen Zhou

2011-01-01

128

Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... in the blood vessels of the lung (pulmonary arteries). The clot is called an embolus, and it most often begins as a clot in the veins of the legs. This is called Deep Venous Thrombosis. This may occur after surgery, particularly after hip ...

129

Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

2011-11-15

130

Pulmonary toxicity in stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with high dose (74 Gy) 3-dimensional conformal thoracic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy following induction chemotherapy: A secondary analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 30105  

PubMed Central

Purpose CALGB 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high dose (74 Gy) 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) following two cycles of induction chemotherapy for stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of > 18 month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3DCRT was not feasible due to treatment related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3DCRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials Patient, tumor, and treatment related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment related pulmonary toxicity. Results Older age, higher N stage, larger PTV1, smaller TLV/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment related toxicity. A high risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20>38% was associated with 80% of grade 3–5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high dose 3DCRT with concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments. PMID:21477940

Salama, Joseph K.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Gu, Lin; Wang, Xiaofei; Morano, Karen; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Crawford, Jeffrey C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Blackstock, A. William; Vokes, Everett E.

2011-01-01

131

[Pulmonary thromboembolism with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Out of 77 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of pulmonary tuberculosis from January 2007 to October 2009, 3 patients (3.9%) suffered from pulmonary thrombotic embolism (PTE) and/or deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Case 1: An 80-year-old male with elevated D-dimer was diagnosed with PTE on the basis of an enhanced chest CT showing filling defects in the bilateral pulmonary arteries. Case 2: A 39-year-old male presented with prolonged high-grade fever even after administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs and complained of weakness. His D-dimer was high on admission and became still higher; then, edema was found on his left lower limb, and he was diagnosed with DVT on the basis of lower limb ultrasonography showing isoechoic thrombosis from the IVC to the left popliteal vein. An IVC filter was needed to treat his lesion. Case 3: A 69-year-old female with elevated D-dimer and edema on the right lower limb was diagnosed with PTE and DVT on the basis of chest CT findings. Since anti-coagulation therapy could not be continued due to intestinal bleeding, an IVC filter was placed. All 3 cases presented with no dyspnea and two of the three cases showed no hypoxemia. Even in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis without dyspnea, D-dimer seems to be useful for the early diagnosis of thromboembolism. PMID:21922781

Komazaki, Yoshitoshi; Sakakibara, Yumi; Sakashita, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Inase, Naohiko

2011-07-01

132

Mandible Bone Metastases Secondary to Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective: Metastatic tumors of the mandible are rare and usually present clinically as growths. The prognosis of lung cancer patients with bone metastases is poor. Case Report: This article shows a metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the lung affecting the mandible of a 75-year-old female patient where the metastatic lesion was detected before primary tumor. The patient were treated with radiation therapy with palliative and antalgic intent. But the patient died 8 weeks after the diagnosis. Conclusion: Radiation therapy was effective and well tolerated in the case. Bone metastases particularly mandible metastasis of lung cancer has poor prognosis. Palliative and supportive therapy may be firstly chose because of poor prognosis. PMID:25568572

Dirican¹, Nigar; Gunes, Sedat; Karakaya, Yeliz; Kaya, Vildan; Cerci, Sureyya; Dirican, Ahmet

2014-01-01

133

Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction.  

PubMed

The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. PMID:25241050

Bray, T J P; Mortensen, K H; Gopalan, D

2014-12-01

134

Pulmonary manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

Ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder, can present with articular and extra-articular features. It can affect the tracheobronchial tree and the lung parenchyma, and respiratory complications include chest wall restriction, apical fibrobullous disease with or without secondary pulmonary superinfection, spontaneous pneumothorax, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ankylosing spondylitis is a common cause of pulmonary apical fibrocystic disease; early involvement may be unilateral or asymmetrical, but most cases eventually consist of bilateral apical fibrobullous lesions, many of which are progressive with coalescence of the nodules, formation of cysts and cavities, fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. Mycobacterial or fungal superinfection of the upper lobe cysts and cavities occurs commonly. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common pathogen isolated, followed by various species of mycobacteria. Prognosis of patients with fibrobullous apical lesions is mainly determined by the presence, extent, and severity of superinfection. Pulmonary function test results are nonspecific and generally parallel the severity of parenchymal involvement. A restrictive ventilatory impairment can develop in patients with ankylosing spondylitis because of either fusion of the costovertebral joints and ankylosis of the thoracic spine or anterior chest wall involvement. Chest radiographic findings may mirror the severity of clinical involvement. Pulmonary parenchymal disease is typically progressive, and cyst formation, cavitation, and fibrosis are seen in advanced cases. No treatment has been shown to alter the clinical course of apical fibrobullous disease. Although several antiinflammatory agents, such as infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab, are being used to treat ankylosing spondylitis, their effects on pulmonary manifestations are unclear. PMID:20692546

Kanathur, Naveen; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

2010-09-01

135

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-11-14

136

[Pulmonary paragonimiasis].  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by a trematode of the genus Paragonimus(1,2). Infestation is rare in Spain, but the influx of people from endemic areas should make us keep this condition in the differential diagnosis of our patients(2,5). We report the case a patient from Ecuador and resident in Spain for 7 years with active pulmonary tuberculosis on arrival in Spain and later diagnosed with of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to persistent haemoptysis. The diagnosis was established by surgical lung specimen showing granulomas containing parasite eggs and the macroscopic view of the fluke within a lung cavity. Initial tuberculosis treatment and current treatment with praziquantel controlled both conditions. PMID:21420222

Gómez-Seco, Julio; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Marcel José; Rodríguez-Nieto, María Jesús; Gómez-Escolar, Pablo Fernández; Presa-Abos, Teresa; Fortes-Alen, José

2011-12-01

137

Reply to 'Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?', by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov  

SciTech Connect

Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon.

Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur

2005-03-14

138

Pulmonary Gaucher's disease: High-resolution computed tomographic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT findings in pulmonary Gaucher's disease have not been previously reported. Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary involvement in type I Gaucher's disease proven by biopsy showed linear and reticulo-nodular opacities. High-resolution CT demonstrated thickening of the interlobular septa and between four and six small nodules within secondary lobules, probably each corresponding to an acinus.

A. Tunaci; Y. M. Berkmen; E. Gökmen

1995-01-01

139

Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism: chest radiograph and CT evaluation before and after surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the value of morphometric data on conventional radiography and CT predicting the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension and to assess the reversibility after surgery. On preoperative X-ray films and CT scans of 50 patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic thromboembolism, we measured the cardiothoracic ratio, basal diameter, length of cardiac

H. C. Schmidt; H.-U. Kauczor; H. H. Schild; C. Renner; E. Kirchhoff; P. Lang; S. Iversen; M. Thelen

1996-01-01

140

Relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension and whether pulmonary hypertension is an additional risk factor for the presence and extent of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension, and undergone diagnostic coronary angiography for evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease constituted the study group. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease and compared for age, gender, accompanying chronic disease, and pulmonary function tests. A total of 95 patients were recruited in the study. Comparison of the groups revealed that two groups were significantly different on gender (p=0.029), presence of hypertension (p=0.027), and biomass (p=0.040). Correlation analysis of variables revealed that male gender (rs=0.224, p=0.029), hypertension (rs=0.227, p=0.07) were positively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=-0.253, p=0.013) and sPAP (rs=-0.215, p=0.037) were negatively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. High prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found. However, no correlation between the presence and severity of coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension was detected. PMID:25664116

Asker, Muntecep; Asker, Selvi; Kucuk, Ugur; Kucuk, Hilal Olgun; Ozbay, Bulent

2014-01-01

141

Unusual ventilation perfusion scintigram in a case of immunologic pulmonary edema clinically simulating pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

A case of immunologic pulmonary edema secondary to hydrochlorothiazide allergy developed in a 55-year-old woman that clinically simulated pulmonary embolism. The patient had abnormal washin images with normal washout images on an Xe-133 ventilation study. On the perfusion study, large bilateral central and posterior perfusion defects were present that showed an unusual mirror image pattern on the lateral and posterior oblique views. Resolution of radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred over a 3-day period in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy.

Campeau, R.J.; Faust, J.M.; Ahmad, S.

1987-11-01

142

Haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema: post-pulmonary embolectomy.  

PubMed Central

A case of haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema after successful pulmonary embolectomy is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed. Thirteen cases are analysed as well as the four survivors. The aetiology appears to be ischaemic damage of the capillary bed. This had previously been called incomplete infarction by Castleman. The incidence is low after acute pulmonary embolectomies but appears to be much higher after chronic endarterectomies, especially with severe pulmonary hypertension. Therapy is outlined. Images PMID:996824

Garvey, J W; Wisoff, G; Voletti, C; Hartstein, M

1976-01-01

143

Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery dissection  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary artery dissection is a fatal complication of long-standing pulmonary hypertension, manifesting as acute, stabbing chest pain, progressive dyspnea, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death. Its incidence has been underestimated, and therapeutic options are still scarce. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, new chest pain, acute chest pain, or cardiogenic shock should raise the suspicion of pulmonary artery dissection, which can result in sudden death. PMID:23670510

Corrêa, Ricardo de Amorim; Silva, Luciana Cristina dos Santos; Rezende, Cláudia Juliana; Bernardes, Rodrigo Castro; Prata, Tarciane Aline; Silva, Henrique Lima

2013-01-01

144

Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

2012-07-01

145

Mechanical characterization of the posthilar pulmonary arteries in pulmonary hypertension.  

E-print Network

??Reusser, Mark (M.S., Bioengineering) Mechanical Characterization Of The Posthilar Pulmonary Arteries In Pulmonary Hypertension Thesis directed by Dr. Kendall Hunter ABSTRACT The pulmonary circulation is… (more)

Reusser, Mark A.

2012-01-01

146

Flourescent Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, hosted by Microscopy-UK, provides illustrations of flourescent minerals, each with accompanying text that shows how the color identifies the mineral. The site offers a brief explanation of flourescence and uses examples of calcite, willemite, and flourite to demonstrate this phenomenon. Numerous images, diagrams, and links are provided.

2009-01-28

147

Mineral Densities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given cubic cell edge dimensions and asked to calculate mineral densities and vice versa. The final question of this homework assignment provides students with a mineral density and unit cell edge length in order to determine the number of formula units per cell.

148

Mineral Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners search for various kinds of items made from minerals around their home or school, including toothpaste, wall paint, kitty litter, and bricks. The PDF contains a check off list as well as recommended sites for more information on minerals.

Science, Lawrence H.

2010-01-01

149

Industrial Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

Brady, Lawrence L.

1983-01-01

150

Pulmonary Strongyloidiasis  

PubMed Central

Strongyloides stercoralis is a unique parasite. It can complete its life cycle entirely within the human host. As a result, an autoinfection cycle is set up. As long as there is an intact immune system, the host can control the parasitic burden, and the organism may persist for years after the initial inoculum. Most infected individuals experience mild gastrointestinal or pulmonary symptoms that may fluctuate for years. When cell-mediated immunity becomes impaired (ie, corticosteroid use, malignancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the parasite burden will grow, disseminate, and cause hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis is endemic in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world; additionally, it is also endemic in the southeastern United States. Strongyloidiasis is associated with asthma, preexisting lung disease, and immunosuppression, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Eosinophilia is not a prerequisite; therefore, the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis requires a high index of suspicion. PMID:20111672

Mokhlesi, Babak; Shulzhenko, Oksana; Garimella, Prasad S.; Kuma, Leslie; Monti, Catherine

2009-01-01

151

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2014-08-21

152

Cardiovascular consequences of pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension occurs when pulmonary vascular pressures are elevated. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with occlusion of the pulmonary arterial tree, while pulmonary venous hypertension is seen when pulmonary vein outflow is impeded. Cardiovascular consequences are common with pulmonary hypertension, regardless of the underlying pathogenesis and whether management is complex. However, there are a number of interventions that may improve quality of life and survival of pulmonary hypertension. This article discusses current recommendations for diagnosis and management. PMID:18249223

Bauldoff, Gerene S; Housten-Harris, Traci; Nunley, David R

2008-03-01

153

Clay Minerals  

SciTech Connect

Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

2014-03-14

154

Prone positioning to treat acute severe pulmonary edema in the post-cardiac surgical patient: a case report.  

PubMed

Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema can be fatal without adequate resuscitation. We report, for the first time, the use of prone positioning in the immediate post-cardiac surgical period to treat a patient with profound hypoxemia secondary to massive (noncardiogenic) pulmonary edema. Prone positioning corrects ventilation-perfusion mismatch and allows gravity-dependent drainage of capillary leak-mediated endobronchial pulmonary fluid. PMID:16844634

Atluri, Pavan; Neligan, Patrick J; Acker, Michael A; Bensall, Dean L; Horak, Jiri

2006-01-01

155

Primary pulmonary meningioma.  

PubMed

Primary pulmonary meningiomas are extremely rare. In this article we report one case with benign primary pulmonary meningioma. The literature is reviewed and the clinical manifestations, radiographic findings, and pathologic features are presented. PMID:3363477

Strimlan, C V; Golembiewski, R S; Celko, D A; Fino, G J

1988-05-01

156

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

157

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a rare but severe, ... respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantavirus. What are the symptoms of HPS? Early Symptoms: • ...

158

Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

159

Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... February 23, 2015. This special evening unites Broadway’s stars, patrons, and key members of the pulmonary fibrosis ... Patients The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has a four-star rating from Charity Navigator and is a Better ...

160

Facts about Pulmonary Atresia  

MedlinePLUS

... ventricle of the heart out to the pulmonary artery, blood must use other routes to bypass the unformed ... the lungs and the body.  The artery which usually carries blood out of the right ventricle, the main pulmonary ...

161

Radiographic and histopathologic characteristics of pulmonary fibrosis in nine cats.  

PubMed

Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal interstitial lung disease that is often idiopathic, occurs in multiple species, and may be caused by a number of inciting factors. The purpose of this retrospective, multicenter study was to describe the radiographic and histopathologic characteristics of idiopathic and induced pulmonary fibrosis in a group of cats. Cats with thoracic radiographs and histopathologically confirmed pulmonary fibrosis were recruited using the American College of Veterinary Radiology list serve. A board-certified veterinary radiologist and diagnostic imaging intern reviewed radiographs and recorded characteristics by consensus. Findings from additional imaging modalities were also recorded when available. All histopathology samples were re-reviewed by a veterinary pathology resident. A total of nine cats met inclusion criteria. All patients had a broad range of radiographic characteristics that included broncho-interstitial pattern, alveolar pattern, pulmonary masses, pulmonary bullae, pleural effusion, and cardiomegaly. Cats with available echocardiographic studies had characteristics that included right ventricular dilation and hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial hypertension interpreted to be secondary to primary lung disease. Cats with available CT studies had characteristics that included focally increased soft tissue attenuation, masses, and ventral consolidation that exhibited no improvement with dorsal versus ventral recumbency. Histopathology showed pulmonary fibrosis, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy in all patients. Epithelial metaplasia was present only in one patient. Findings from the current study indicated that cats with pulmonary fibrosis have highly variable radiographic characteristics and that these characteristics may mimic other diseases such as asthma, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, or neoplasia. PMID:24103063

Evola, Maria G; Edmondson, Elijah F; Reichle, Jean K; Biller, David S; Mitchell, Colleen W; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro

2014-01-01

162

Industrial Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

Bradbury, James C.

1978-01-01

163

Secondary parkinsonism  

MedlinePLUS

Secondary parkinsonism may be caused by health problems, including: Brain injury Diffuse Lewy body disease (a type of dementia ) Encephalitis HIV/AIDS Meningitis Multiple system atrophy Progressive ...

164

Pulmonary hypoplasia presenting with recurrent wheezing in an infant.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypoplasia is characterized by decrease in the number and size of pulmonary airways, alveoli and vessels. In autopsy, pulmonary hypoplasia is a major cause of death in neonates and infants. The disease is usually diagnosed in childhood period. Although it mimics lung parenchymal disease and other vascular abnormalities radiologically, it is easily recognized with computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography examinations. In 50% of patients, concomitant cardiovascular, neuromuscular, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital anomalies are also available. There are two types of pulmonary hypoplasia: primary and secondary. Primary unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia may be asymptomatic and the tendency for bronchopulmonary infections is often increased in children. In this case report, a 22-month-old male patient characterized by recurrent infections and recurrent wheezes in infantile period, whose episodes of wheezing regressed after the pulmonectomy, was presented. PMID:24798948

Celiksoy, Mehmet Halil; Tander, Burak; A??l?o?lu, Nazik; Bar??, Yakup Sancar; Y?ld?ran, Ali?an

2014-05-01

165

75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med 159:1267-1271. Henneberger PK, Attfield, MD (1997) Respiratory symptoms and spirometry in experienced coal miners: Effects of both distant and...

2010-10-19

166

Mineral bioprocessing  

SciTech Connect

In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

Torma, A.E.

1993-05-01

167

Mineral Commodities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise introduces mineral commodities (elements). Students consider the elements aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, uranium, lead, gold, mercury and tin and match them with their definintions in a table. Then they use minable grade (minable weight percent) and normal crustal abundance (crustal weight percent) to calculate the concentration factor for several commodities to determine their economic minability. Students then graph their calculations and explain their trend.

Dexter Perkins

168

Pulmonary hypertension caused by pulmonary venous hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract The effect of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) on the pulmonary circulation is extraordinarily variable, ranging from no impact on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to a marked increase. The reasons for this are unknown. Both acutely reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction and pathological remodeling (especially medial hypertrophy and intimal hyperplasia) account for increased PVR when present. The mechanisms involved in vasoconstriction and remodeling are not clearly defined, but increased wall stress, especially in small pulmonary arteries, presumably plays an important role. Myogenic contraction may account for increased vascular tone and also indirectly stimulate remodeling of the vessel wall. Increased wall stress may also directly cause smooth muscle growth, migration, and intimal hyperplasia. Even long-standing and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) usually abates with elimination of PVH, but PVH-PH is an important clinical problem, especially because PVH due to left ventricular noncompliance lacks definitive therapy. The role of targeted PH therapy in patients with PVH-PH is unclear at this time. Most prospective studies indicate that these medications are not helpful or worse, but there is ample reason to think that a subset of patients with PVH-PH may benefit from phosphodiesterase inhibitors or other agents. A different approach to evaluating possible pharmacologic therapy for PVH-PH may be required to better define its possible utility. PMID:25610595

2014-01-01

169

Pulmonary Schistosomiasis – Imaging Features  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is a helminthic infection that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Pulmonary involvement can be divided into two categories: acute or chronic compromise. Chronic and recurrent infection develops in persons living or travelling in endemic areas. In the lungs, granuloma formation and fibrosis around the schistosome eggs retained in the pulmonary vasculature may result in obliterative arteriolitis and pulmonary hypertension leading to cor pulmonale. Acute schistosomiasis is associated with primary exposure and is commonly seen in nonimmune travelers. The common CT findings in acute pulmonary schistosomiasis are small pulmonary nodules ranging from 2 to 15 mm and larger nodules with ground glass-opacity halo. Katayama fever is a severe clinical manifestation of acute involvement. We present a case of pulmonary involvement in schistosomiasis and provide a discussion about typical imaging findings in the acute and chronic form. PMID:22470757

T, Niemann; Marti, HP; Duhnsen, SH; G, Bongartz

2010-01-01

170

Pulmonary vasculitis: CT features.  

PubMed

The pulmonary vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of inflammatory disorders that may be primarily localized to the pulmonary vasculature or be systemic in nature. The primary pulmonary vasculitides usually affect small vessels, whereas the systemic vasculitides can involve any size pulmonary vessels. For all types of vasculitis, there is a high degree of overlap within groups in regard to their appearance at computed tomography (CT). The most common CT findings are the result of either diffuse or focal pulmonary hemorrhage, are nonspecific, and include ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and small centrilobular nodules. Therefore, the CT findings must be considered in concert with the history, physical examination, and laboratory examination when a specific diagnosis is sought. This review will discuss the typical CT features of both the systemic and the primary pulmonary vasculitides, drawing a distinction where CT is helpful in differentiating among the various causes. PMID:16088562

Ravenel, James G; McAdams, H Page

2003-08-01

171

Pulmonary hypertension in ? thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with haemolytic disorders and is a frequent finding in echocardiographic screening of patients with ? thalassaemia. Substantial progress has been made in understanding of the multifactorial pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension in ? thalassaemia. Haemolysis, reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, iron overload, and hypercoagulopathy are among the main pathogenetic mechanisms. Various disease-directed therapeutic methods, such as transfusion, chelation, and splenectomy, have important roles in the development of pulmonary hypertension in ? thalassaemia. Studies investigating the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in ? thalassaemia are mostly based on echocardiographic findings, and are thus limited by the scarcity of information derived from right heart catheterisation. Invasive pulmonary haemodynamic data are needed to clarify the true prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in ? thalassaemia, to better understand the underlying pathophysiology and risk factors, and to define the optimum therapy for this devastating complication. PMID:24429247

Anthi, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Armaganidis, Apostolos

2013-08-01

172

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

Richrigby

2010-02-23

173

Handbook of pulmonary emergencies  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A

1986-01-01

174

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease ... In most cases, the cause of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is unknown. The high blood pressure occurs in the pulmonary arteries, which are the lung arteries directly connected to the right side ...

175

Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan  

MedlinePLUS

... lung areas) lung function in people with advanced pulmonary disease , such as COPD ... any of the following: Airway obstruction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Pneumonia Narrowing of the pulmonary artery Pneumonitis ...

176

[Secondary rhinoplasty].  

PubMed

Secondary rhinoplasty is very usual. Some patients are not satisfied by the previous surgery because the result is poor with obvious defaults but, sometimes, the result is good but the patient expects perfection. These two different situations will not lead to the same answer from the surgeon. Techniques of secondary rhinoplasty are the same than primary, but are often more difficult to perform because of scar tissue, retraction and loss of lining. The authors analyse the more frequent deformities in secondary rhinoplasty and the way they fix them. PMID:25213488

Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

2014-12-01

177

Pulmonary Vasodilator Responses to Nitroprusside and Nitroglycerin in the Dog  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the direct actions of nitroprusside and nitroglycerin on the pulmonary vascular bed in the intactchest dog. These widely used nitrogen oxide-containing vasodilator agents decreased pulmonary arterial pressure and increased cardiac output without altering left atrial pressure. Reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were small under resting conditions, but were enhanced when pulmonary vascular tone was elevated by infusion of a stable prostaglandin analog that increases pulmonary vascular resistance by constricting intrapulmonary veins and upstream segments. In studies in which pulmonary blood flow to the left lower lobe was maintained constant, nitroprusside and nitroglycerin caused small but significant reductions in lobar arterial and small-vein pressures without significantly affecting left atrial pressure. With constant blood flow, lobar vascular pressures that were reduced in response to the vasodilators were more greatly reduced when lobar vascular resistance was increased by infusion of the prostaglandin analog or serotonin. However, when lobar vascular pressures were elevated by passive obstruction of lobar venous outflow, vasodilator responses to nitroprusside and nitroglycerin were not enhanced. These data suggest that nitroprusside and nitroglycerin decrease pulmonary vascular resistance by dilating intrapulmonary veins and upstream segments. These responses were minimal under control conditions but were enhanced when vascular tone was increased. This vasodilator action is independent of passive factors such as changes in pulmonary blood flow or left atrial pressure and is not secondary to an effect of these agents on the systemic circulation. Pulmonary vasodilator responses to nitroprusside and nitroglycerin were, however, found to be dependent on the existing level of vasomotor tone in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:6782123

Kadowitz, Philip J.; Nandiwada, Premanand; Gruetter, Carl A.; Ignarro, Louis J.; Hyman, Albert L.

1981-01-01

178

High-frequency ultrasound characterization of pulmonary arterial wall under normoxic and hypoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of secondary pediatric pulmonary hypertension is often difficult because no single test permits complete evaluation. Improved understanding of the effects of hypertension on ultrasonic (US) properties of the wall of the pulmonary artery (PA) could lead to earlier detection. High-frequency US in vitro measurements were performed on fresh, excised PA walls from normoxic and hypoxic Long-Evans rat models to

K. R. Waters

2004-01-01

179

Platelets in Pulmonary Hypertension: a Causative Role or a Simple Association?  

PubMed Central

Pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on three basic mechanisms: thrombotic pulmonary vascular lesions, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Platelets are related to all of these mechanisms by their aggregation, production, storage and release of several mediators. The role of platelets is more prominent in some types of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including those which are secondary to inflammatory and infectious diseases, hemoglobinopathies, essential thrombocythemia, drugs, thromboembolism, and cardiac surgery. Most pulmonary antihypertensive drugs have a negative effect on platelets. In this review, the mechanisms of platelets association with pulmonary arterial hypertension, those types of pulmonary arterial hypertension with greatest platelet contribution to their pathophysiology, and the effects of pulmonary antihypertensive drugs on platelets are summarized. PMID:23056879

Zanjani, Keyhan Sayadpour

2012-01-01

180

Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...

181

Secondary Headaches  

MedlinePLUS

... Migraine and Other Headaches Headache Journal - Public Site Art Gallery Art Gallery Support the AMF American Migraine Foundation The ... but there are usually clues in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can ...

182

Peritonitis - secondary  

MedlinePLUS

... hole may be caused by a ruptured appendix, stomach ulcer, or perforated colon. It may also come from an injury, such as a gunshot or knife wound. Secondary peritonitis ... affect premature babies who have necrotizing enterocolitis .

183

A loud right-apical systolic murmur is associated with the diagnosis of secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension: retrospective analysis of data from 201 consecutive client-owned dogs (2006-2007).  

PubMed

Canine pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains under-recognized and under-treated despite being prevalent. This retrospective study investigated whether selected historical and physical examination findings were associated with the diagnosis of canine PAH, defined as tricuspid regurgitation (TR) with a confirmed systolic pressure gradient ? 35 mm Hg. Two hundred and one client-owned dogs (PAH group, n=96; control group, n=105) were studied. Dogs in the control group had TR with a confirmed systolic gradient <35 mm Hg. All dogs underwent a complete physical examination and a complete echocardiographic assessment. A loud systolic right-apical murmur (RAM) was significantly associated with TR ? 35 mm Hg. The proportion of dogs with PAH significantly increased as the RAM grade increased, with odds ratios of 4.4-37.6 for Grades 3/6-5/6 (P=0.004 to <0.001), respectively. A stronger right-than-left apical-murmur had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83% and was 96% specific for TR ? 35 mm Hg, and when combined with syncope, it had a PPV of 92% and was 92% specific. A Grade ? 4/6 RAM had a PPV of 85% and was 93% specific. Syncope with a Grade ? 4/6 RAM had a PPV of 94% and was 92% specific. Ascites combined with a Grade ? 4 or ? 5/6 RAM had a PPV of 100% and was 100% specific for TR ? 35 mm Hg. For each of these three murmur categories (Grades ? 4/6, ? 5/6, and a louder-right-than-left murmur), when detected with no concurrent ascites or syncope, the positive likelihood ratio varied from 4.6 to 6.4. A loud systolic RAM in dogs with degenerative valve disease is highly suggestive of concurrent PAH. PMID:24215779

Ohad, D G; Lenchner, I; Bdolah-Abram, T; Segev, G

2013-12-01

184

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis.  

PubMed

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the lung, pleura and mediastinum with thin-walled lymphangiomas. DPL can result in mass effect from infiltrative disease, restrictive and obstructive pulmonary physiology, chylous effusions and respiratory failure. The present article discusses clinical, radiographic and pathological features, and treatment options for DPL. PMID:23457676

Kadakia, Kunal C; Patel, Sandeep M; Yi, Eunhee S; Limper, Andrew H

2013-01-01

185

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis  

PubMed Central

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the lung, pleura and mediastinum with thin-walled lymphangiomas. DPL can result in mass effect from infiltrative disease, restrictive and obstructive pulmonary physiology, chylous effusions and respiratory failure. The present article discusses clinical, radiographic and pathological features, and treatment options for DPL. PMID:23457676

Kadakia, Kunal C; Patel, Sandeep M; Yi, Eunhee S; Limper, Andrew H

2013-01-01

186

Dendriform Pulmonary Ossification.  

PubMed

Dendriform pulmonary ossification is a rare condition often diagnosed by either surgery or postmortem examination. We report a 43-y-old man with a history of nonproductive cough for 1 y. His physical examination was unremarkable. Chest computed tomography showed multiple bilateral micronodules in both lower lobes; however, the patient's pulmonary function was normal. Flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies revealed branching ossification. Pulmonary ossification is a chronic process characterized by progressive metaplastic ossification. We reviewed a total of 42 cases of dendriform pulmonary ossification reported in the medical literature: most of these cases were diagnosed by autopsy. Despite its rarity, dendriform pulmonary ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies must be considered as a potential diagnostic procedure. PMID:25316886

Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Pires, Yumay; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Caviedes, Iván

2014-10-14

187

[Secondary dyslipidemias].  

PubMed

Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice. PMID:22486289

Vargová, V; Pytliak, M; Mechírová, V

2012-03-01

188

Surgical considerations for pulmonary actinomycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary actinomycosis is difficult without surgical intervention.Methods. Thirteen patients (10 men, 3 women; mean age, 62 years) underwent pulmonary resection and were given a pathologic diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycosis at our institution between 1976 and 2001. To clarify when pulmonary actinomycosis should be suspected in patients and the role of surgical intervention, we reviewed preoperative

Shunsuke Endo; Fumio Murayama; Tsutomu Yamaguchi; Shin-ichi Yamamoto; Shin-ichi Otani; Noriko Saito; Yasunori Sohara

2002-01-01

189

Pulmonary vascular imaging  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

1987-03-01

190

Low bone mineral density in COPD patients related to worse lung function, low weight and decreased fat-free mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Low bone mineral density is frequently seen in COPD patients. Advanced COPD, low BMI and muscle depletion are risk factors\\u000a for developing low bone mineral density (BMD). Low bone mineral density is seen in 75% of the GOLD stage IV patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  We set out to investigate the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A. Vrieze; M. H. G. de Greef; P. J. Wýkstra; J. B. Wempe

2007-01-01

191

Vitamins and Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), ... humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that your body needs ...

192

Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine a number of key mineral properties and how they are displayed by different minerals. Mineral properties examined include crystal habit, cleavage, parting, fracture, hardness, tenacity, specific gravity, luster, color, and streak.

Dexter Perkins

193

Mineral Sands Down Under  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

194

Pulmonary embolus in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism remains in the top three leading causes of maternal death in the US, representing 10.2% of pregnancy-related deaths. Risk of developing a pulmonary embolus appears to increase throughout pregnancy, with a peak in incidence in the early postpartum period. Overall the incidence of VTE is 0.6-1.8 VTEs per 1000 deliveries. Diagnosis and management of pulmonary embolus can prove challenging, but the aim should be to optimize maternal outcome while minimizing hemorrhagic complications. Low-molecular-weight heparin is a safe and effective treatment for the majority of cases of pregnancy-related pulmonary embolus. PMID:23916021

Donnelly, Jennifer C; D'Alton, Mary E

2013-08-01

195

Pulmonary hypertension. Clinical and pathophysiological studies.  

E-print Network

??Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common abnormality, most often associated with various cardiopulmonary diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating pulmonary vascular disease characterised… (more)

Selimovic, Nedim

2008-01-01

196

An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and\\/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and

John Gamble; William Jones; James Hudak

1983-01-01

197

Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

Lee, Hyoung-Doo

2012-01-01

198

Perioperative pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertensive crisis during congenital heart surgery.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertensive crisis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) who require cardiac surgery. At present, prevention and management of perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis is aimed at optimizing cardiopulmonary interactions by targeting prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide signaling pathways within the pulmonary circulation with various pharmacological agents. This review is aimed at familiarizing the practitioner with the current pharmacological treatment for dealing with perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis in PAH-CHD patients. Given the life-threatening complications associated with pulmonary hypertensive crisis, proper perioperative planning can help anticipate cardiopulmonary complications and optimize surgical outcomes in this patient population. PMID:25006417

Brunner, Nathan; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio A; Richter, Alice; Haddad, François; Denault, André; Rojas, Vanessa; Yuan, Ke; Orcholski, Mark; Liao, Xiaobo

2014-03-01

199

Absent pulmonary artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cardiac catheterization was performed in nine patients with unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery. Aortography revealed\\u000a a diverticulum of the innominate artery in five of six patients in whom the aortic arch and absent pulmonary artery were on\\u000a opposite sides. It is suggested that the diverticulum indicates fetal systemic blood supply to the affected lung through the\\u000a distal part of

Joachim R. Pfefferkorn; Hermann Löser; Gabriele Pech; Robert Toussaint; Fritz Hilgenberg

1982-01-01

200

Arginase and pulmonary diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that arginase, which converts l-arginine into l-ornithine and urea, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. In asthma, chronic obstructive\\u000a pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis, increased arginase activity in the airways may contribute to obstruction and\\u000a hyperresponsiveness of the airways by inducing a reduction in the production of bronchodilatory nitric

Harm Maarsingh; Tonio Pera; Herman Meurs

2008-01-01

201

Secondary hypoadrenalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a clinical disorder that results from hypothalamic or hypophyseal damage or from\\u000a prolonged administration of supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids. Since glucocorticoids are widely used for a variety\\u000a of diseases, the prevalence of SAI is by far exceeding that of primary adrenal insufficiency. Although the presentation of\\u000a adrenal insufficiency may be insidious and difficult to recognize,

Giuseppe Reimondo; Silvia Bovio; Barbara Allasino; Massimo Terzolo; Alberto Angeli

2008-01-01

202

REACTIVE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN SPECIES IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary vascular disease can be defined as either a disease affecting the pulmonary capillaries and pulmonary arterioles, termed pulmonary arterial hypertension, or as a disease affecting the left ventricle, called pulmonary venous hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary circulation characterized by endothelial dysfunction, as well as intimal and smooth muscle proliferation. Progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure impair the performance of the right ventricle, resulting in declining cardiac output, reduced exercise capacity, right heart failure, and ultimately death. While the primary and heritable forms of the disease are thought to affect over 5,000 patients in the U.S., the disease can occur secondary to congenital heart disease, most advanced lung diseases, and many systemic diseases. Multiple studies implicate oxidative stress in the development of PAH. Further, this oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways, whereby bioavailable NO is decreased and ROS and RNS production are increased. Many canonical ROS and NO signaling pathways are simultaneously disrupted in PAH, with increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and xanthine oxidoreductase, uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and reduction in mitochondrial number, as well as impaired mitochondrial function. Upstream dysregulation of ROS/NO redox homeostasis impairs vascular tone and contributes to the pathological activation of anti-apoptotic and mitogenic pathways, leading to cell proliferation and obliteration of the vasculature. This manuscript will review the available data regarding the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, and provide a description of targeted therapies for this disease. PMID:22401856

Tabima, Diana M.; Frizzell, Sheila; Gladwin, Mark T.

2013-01-01

203

Earth's Mineral Evolution  

E-print Network

Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

Downs, Robert T.

204

Calculating a Mineral's Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use the Density=Mass/Volume formula to calculate the density of an unknown mineral. By using water displacement and a triple beam balance students will collect measurements of volume and mass for an unknown mineral. With this data, they will calculate the mineral's density then identify the mineral based on calculated density.

Andrea Distelhurst

2011-10-05

205

Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

Staitieh, Bashar

2014-01-01

206

Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.  

PubMed Central

Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction. PMID:1954926

Heppleston, A G

1991-01-01

207

Drug-induced pulmonary disease  

MedlinePLUS

Drug-induced pulmonary disease is lung disease brought on by a bad reaction to a medicine. ... Maldonado F, Limper AH. Drug-induced pulmonary disease. In: Mason RJ, ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

208

Hypoxamirs in pulmonary hypertension: breathing new life into pulmonary vascular research  

PubMed Central

In mammalian cells, hypoxia, or inadequate oxygen availability, regulates the expression of a specific set of microRNA, which we have previously termed “hypoxamirs”. Over the past five years, the appreciation of the importance of hypoxamirs in regulating the cellular adaptation to hypoxia has grown dramatically. At a cellular level, each hypoxamir can simultaneously regulate expression of multiple (>100) target genes in order to control fundamental biological processes, including survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and metabolism, among others. A maladaptive imbalance of these hypoxic phenotypes often drives many ischemic cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension—an enigmatic vascular disorder characterized by pronounced and severe panvasculopathy secondary to diverse upstream etiologies, notably including hypoxia. Yet, despite this pathogenic relationship between hypoxic cell phenotypes and disease, the mechanistic roles of hypoxamirs in modulating pulmonary hypertension remain largely unrecognized. Some advances have been made regarding the contributions of specific hypoxamirs in the development and progression of pulmonary hypertension. New methods are also being developed to more comprehensively study their roles in this complex disease. As a result, a more sophisticated understanding of their pervasive roles in pathogenesis could set the stage for unique diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23745175

Hale, Andrew E.; White, Kevin

2012-01-01

209

Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

2005-06-01

210

Retrograde pulmonary perfusion as an adjunct to standard pulmonary embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Mortality rates for pulmonary embolectomy in patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism have decreased in recent years. However, it still ranges from 30 to 45% when surgery is performed on critically ill patients, and the mortality rates reach 60% in patients who have experienced a cardiac arrest before the procedure. The causes of death in these patients are generally attributed to right heart failure due to persistent pulmonary hypertension, intractable pulmonary oedema, and massive parenchymal and intrabronchial haemorrhage. Clinical and experimental findings indicate that venous air embolism causes severe or even lethal damage to the pulmonary microvasculature and the lung parenchyma consequent to the release of endothelium-derived cytokines. These findings are similar to those observed when severely compromised patients undergo pulmonary embolectomy for air entrapped in the pulmonary artery during embolectomy, which may lead to fatal outcomes. Retrograde pulmonary perfusion (RPP), besides enabling the removal of residual thrombotic material from the peripheral branches of the pulmonary artery, fills the pulmonary artery with blood and prevents pulmonary air embolism. We believe that the use of RPP as an adjunct to conventional pulmonary embolectomy decreases the morbidity and mortality rates associated with pulmonary embolectomy in critically ill patients. PMID:25298365

Spagnolo, Salvatore; Barbato, Luciano; Grasso, Maria Antonia; Tesler, Ugo Filippo

2014-01-01

211

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease  

PubMed Central

Two distinct pathological entities may be associated with the clinical picture of `primary pulmonary hypertension'. In the classical form the brunt of the pathology falls upon the pulmonary arteries with the characteristic development of dilatation lesions and necrotizing arteritis. In the second rarer type the pulmonary veins appear to be primarily involved. This paper describes the clinical and pathological features of such a case of `pulmonary veno-occlusive disease' occurring in a young girl. Images PMID:4111463

Heath, Donald; Scott, Olive; Lynch, James

1971-01-01

212

Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

Martin, Bruce

1994-01-01

213

Modelling pulmonary blood flow  

PubMed Central

Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

2008-01-01

214

[Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].  

PubMed

Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles. PMID:24461445

Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A

2014-01-01

215

Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement.  

PubMed

Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation helps in prolonging the lifespan of surgically placed right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduits, and represents a less invasive alternative to repeat open-heart surgery. The clinical indications for treatment match those of surgery. As far as the suitability is concerned, the current ideal substrate is a degenerated RV-PA conduit, because of the presence of a certain degree of calcification that offers a safe anchoring point. So far, patients have been treated with low morbidity and mortality that were further improved with increasing experience. After percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, patients experience a subjective improvement, mirrored by an objective increase of measured exercise capacity parameters and by reduced RV-PA gradient, regurgitant fraction, and RV volumes. New developments in the experimental field should result in an extension of indications in the future. PMID:19322077

Frigiola, Alessandra; Nordmeyer, Johannes; Bonhoeffer, Philipp

2009-05-01

216

Computed tomography correlates with cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Our objective was to determine whether computed tomography angiography (CTA) measurements of pulmonary artery size can noninvasively assess hemodynamics and diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). Twenty SCD patients with confirmed PH were compared with 20 matched controls. Diameters of the pulmonary artery trunk and branches were measured with CTA and a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm. Measurements were normalized by body size and correlated (Spearman rank) with hemodynamic markers from right-heart catheterization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to investigate the role of pulmonary artery sizes in diagnosing PH. Analysis of pulmonary artery sizes adjusted for body surface area (BSA) resulted in the most significant discrimination between subjects with PH secondary to SCD and controls (P < 0.001); PH was diagnosed accurately with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. There was significant correlation between pulmonary artery sizes and body mass index (BMI) and BSA only in controls (r = 0.46–0.68, P < 0.04 for all). The most significant correlations with hemodynamic markers were found between BMI-adjusted pulmonary artery sizes and high systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, high pulmonary vascular resistance, high systemic vascular resistance, and low cardiac output (r = 0.47, 0.62, 0.61, and 0.66, respectively; P < 0.04 for all). BMI-adjusted CTA measures of the pulmonary artery relate to high pulmonary vascular resistance and reduced cardiac output in patients with SCD and PH. CTA with quantitative image analysis is a powerful noninvasive diagnostic tool for PH in SCD and shows promise as estimator of hemodynamic markers. PMID:25006451

2014-01-01

217

Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

www.PHAssociation.org &Liver Disease Pulmonary Hypertension PH Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary hypertension? ... that About Pulmonary Hypertension lupus for example), chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, or HIV infection. Finally ...

218

Physical inactivity and idiopathic pulmonary embolism in women: prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the association between physical inactivity (that is, a sedentary lifestyle) and incident idiopathic pulmonary embolism. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study. Participants 69 950 female nurses who completed biennial questionnaires from 1990 to 2008. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was idiopathic pulmonary embolism confirmed in medical records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models controlled for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, smoking, pack years, race, spouse’s educational attainment, parity, menopause, non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, multivitamin supplements, hypertension, coronary heart disease, rheumatological disease, and dietary patterns. The primary exposure was physical inactivity, measured in hours of sitting each day. The secondary exposure was physical activity, measured in metabolic equivalents a day. Results Over the 18 year study period, there were 268 cases of incident idiopathic pulmonary embolism. There was an association between time of sitting and risk of idiopathic pulmonary embolism (41/104 720 v 16/14 565 cases in most inactive v least inactive in combined data; P<0.001 for trend). The risk of pulmonary embolism was more than twofold in women who spent the most time sitting compared with those who spent the least time sitting (multivariable hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 4.20). There was no association between physical activity and pulmonary embolism (P=0.53 for trend). Conclusions Physical inactivity is associated with incident pulmonary embolism in women. Interventions that decrease time sitting could lower the risk of pulmonary embolism. PMID:21727169

2011-01-01

219

[Pulmonary edemas due to acute heroin poisoning].  

PubMed

Their frequency is estimated with difficulty, although on autopsy pulmonary edema is found almost routinely. It is a major complication of overdoses (48 p. 100 of severe intoxications). Their formation can be suspected, when after the first phase of respiratory depressions, with coma, myosis, and a variable latent period, a second attack of respiratory insufficiency occurs with tachypnea, and cyanosis. The chest X-ray shows diffuse alveolar infiltration, sparing the apices. The heart being generally of normal size. Rapid disappearance of this infiltrate (24 to 48 hours) enables the elimination of two diagnoses: pneumonia due to inhalation of gastric fluid, an infectious pneumonia. Their pathogenesis remains very debatable: - in the majority of cases abrupt L.V.F. can be eliminated: -on the other hand it could be an allergic accident of the anaphylactic type, or local liberation of histamine, or a local toxic action on the pulmonary capillaries; - hypoxia, secondary to respiratory depression, could lead to pulmonary edema, by the same mechanism as at altitude; - finally, owing to the central neurological disorders a neurogenic theory can be put forward. Their treatment is essentially a combination of Nalorphine with oxygen therapy (by mask, or if necessary by assisted, controlled ventilation) with prevention of inhalation of gastric fluid (gastric emptying) or curative treatment of possible aspiration by antibiotics, and cortico-steroids. Diuretics can be useful, as well as cardiotonics. PMID:9875

Francois, G; Faizende, J; Reboul, J

1975-01-01

220

Mineral Spectroscopy Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This server is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on mineral absorption in the visible, infrared, Raman and Mossbauer spectra. Both data coordinates and images of the spectra are available for selected minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs, but individuals throughout the world also contribute to this ever growing community resource. In addition to data files, the site provides an extensive list of references to papers on mineral optical spectroscopy. Citations are available sorted both by mineral name and by first authors of papers.

Rossman, George

221

Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension characterized by extensive proliferation of pulmonary capillaries within alveolar septae. Clinical presentation is nonspecific and includes dyspnea, cough, chest pain, and fatigue. Radiology shows diffuse centrilobular ground-glass opacities. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis is clinically and radiographically indistinguishable from peripheral venoocclusive disease, making microscopic diagnosis essential. Histologically, pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis shows an abnormal proliferation of small, thin-walled capillaries that expand the alveolar septae. The endothelial cells that comprise these lesions are cytologically bland and show no mitotic activity. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis is important to recognize because prostacyclin therapy, a mainstay in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, has been reported to cause sudden respiratory distress and death in these patients. Prognosis of this disease remains poor, and the only definitive treatment is lung transplantation. PMID:25611112

O'Keefe, Mary C; Post, Miriam D

2015-02-01

222

Traumatic ventricular septal defect resulting in severe pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a widely-recognized complication of both penetrating and blunt trauma. Most cases are repaired operatively without the long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure that are associated with unrepaired congenital VSD in the pediatric population. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with a traumatic VSD who declined surgical repair at the time of injury and subsequently developed long-term complications of pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. With nearly 20 years of follow-up, this case demonstrates that the absence of surgical treatment in asymptomatic adult patients at the time of injury can lead to long-term complications associated with VSD. This case also shows that aggressive surgical treatment in patients with severe pulmonary vascular disease and heart failure secondary to traumatic VSD can be performed safely and should be considered in cases refractory to efficacious medical interventions. PMID:25326917

Crompton, Joseph G.; Nacev, Benjamin A.; Upham, Trevor; Azoury, Saïd C.; Eil, Robert; Cameron, Duke E.; Haider, Adil H.

2014-01-01

223

Ohio Mineral Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides information about Mineral Resources in Ohio and management. Mine safety, oil and gas, coal mining, industrial minerals, and abandoned mined lands are related subheadings for the site. Good for finding history, factual reports, programs, regulations and policies.

2008-10-06

224

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What minerals are in your toothpaste? A pencil? A telephone? This interactive resource adapted from the U.S. Geological Survey illustrates the variety of minerals used in everyday items found in kitchens, bathrooms, offices, and yards.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

225

Minerals in Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of articles describes the uses of mineral products in sports and sporting equipment. The site also explores minerals use in safety applications in the workplace. A series of reading material sheets are included in PDF format.

2011-07-06

226

Pulmonary artery catheter.  

PubMed

Since its inception, the pulmonary artery catheter has enjoyed widespread use in both medical and surgical critically ill patients. It has also endured criticism and skepticism about its benefit in these patient populations. By providing information such as cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and intracardiac pressures, the pulmonary artery catheter may improve care of the most complex critically ill patients in the intensive care unit and the operating room. With its ability to transduce pressures through multiple ports, one of the primary clinical uses for pulmonary artery catheters is real-time intracardiac pressure monitoring. Correct interpretation of the waveforms is essential to confirming correct placement of the catheter to ensure accurate data are recorded. Major complications related to catheter placement are infrequent, but misinterpretation of monitored data is not uncommon and has led many to question the utility of the pulmonary artery catheter. The evidence to date suggests that the use of the catheter does not change mortality in many critically ill patients and may expose these patients to a higher rate of complications. However, additional clinical trials are needed, particularly in the most complex critically ill patients, who have generally been excluded from many of the research trials performed to date. PMID:25480764

Whitener, Stephanie; Konoske, Ryan; Mark, Jonathan B

2014-12-01

227

Immunoreactivity in pulmonary echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

A comparison was made of the diagnostic value of five immunological tests—complement fixation (CF), latex agglutination (LA), bentonite flocculation (BF), passive haemagglutination (PHA), and intradermal (ID)—in patients operated on for pulmonary echinococcosis. The sensitivity of all five tests was significantly lower in the patients with pulmonary echinococcosis than in a comparable group with liver echinococcosis. Some 252 patients with miscellaneous nonhydatid diseases and parasitic infections were also tested; nonspecific reactions were highest in the ID and CF tests and lowest in the LA and BF tests. None of the serological tests was significantly more sensitive than the others, although the CF test was somewhat less sensitive and therefore probably has the least diagnostic value in pulmonary echinococcosis. The ID test showed a significantly higher sensitivity than any of the serological tests. The difficulties encountered in the immunodiagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease are discussed and it is recommended that at least two serological methods (PHA and either LA or BF) and the ID test should be used in each case. PMID:317251

Todorov, T.; Dakov, I.; Kosturkova, M.; Tenev, S.; Dimitrov, A.

1979-01-01

228

Sedimentary and Related Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of sedimentary minerals and rocks. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine a tray of Halides, Carbonates, Borates, and Clays and record their physical properties, composition, habit, and occurence. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences of the minerals. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe sedimentary minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Perkins, Dexter

229

IREB2 and GALC are Associated with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) though pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography (CT) correlates with PH and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of PAE in COPD subjects have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE). The ratio of the diameter of the pulmonary artery to the diameter of the aorta (PA/A) was measured using CT. PAE was defined as PA/A >1. A GWAS for COPD with PAE was performed using COPD subjects without PAE (PA/A ?1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 [COPD with PAE vs. without PAE, rs7181486, odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, P = 2.10×10(-8); vs. smoking controls, rs2009746, OR = 1.42, P = 1.32×10(-9)]. PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285, OR = 1.55, P = 3.75×10(-8)). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

2014-08-01

230

Treatment of a well differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a cat by pneumonectomy and adjuvant mitoxantrone chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary lung neoplasia is a rare condition of older cats. This report describes a case of left-sided pulmonary collapse, secondary to pulmonary adenocarcinoma in an 11-year-old cat. Left sided pneumonectomy was performed, and adjuvant chemotherapy with mitoxantrone (Novantrone; Lederle) was administered every 3 to 5 weeks, for 10 doses after surgery. Thirty-four months after surgery, the cat remains well and

D. N. Clements; A. M. Hogan; T. A. Cave

2004-01-01

231

Underground mineral extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for extracting an underground mineral such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface

R. A. Frosch; C. G. Miller; J. B. Stephens

1980-01-01

232

Underground mineral extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the

C. G. Miller; J. B. Stephens

1980-01-01

233

Minerals leasing for landowners  

SciTech Connect

This report delineates the provisions of the legal codes of the 13 Southeastern states relating to minerals leasing. The introduction explains land ownership and land leasing in terms of mineral rights, and describes the basic elements which a lease conveyance must contain to be valid. A checklist gives the terms which must be included in all mineral leases.

Not Available

1983-01-01

234

Pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ? 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ? 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

2013-01-01

235

Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Dexter Perkins

236

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-08

237

Editorial Pulmonary hypertension in chronic respiratory disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstruc- tive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sleep apnea. It is estimated that the preva- lence of pulmonary hypertension in patients hospitalized for respiratory disorders is 28%. (1) In patients with COPD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who are referred for lung transplantation or lung volume

Roberto F. P. Machado

2008-01-01

238

Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

2013-01-01

239

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease   

E-print Network

Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

McAllister, David Anthony

2011-07-05

240

Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

1985-08-01

241

Pulmonary trichomoniasis and Trichomonas tenax.  

PubMed

Pulmonary trichomoniasis is usually caused by aspirated Trichomonas tenax. Adult men with chronic purulent or necrotic pulmonary disease are usually affected. Sixty-eight patients were previously described. A Russian study demonstrated pulmonary trichomoniasis in 19 of 112 patients (17%), mostly in patients with lung cancer, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis. Rarely, pulmonary trichomoniasis may be caused by an intra-abdominal (T. hominis) or genitourinary (T. vaginalis) infection. T. tenax is usually regarded as a harmless commensal of the human mouth. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 53% and may exceed that of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis in adult females. It is frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene. Cultural identification is superior to microscopic examination of wet-smear, gram-stained and Papanicolaou-stained preparations. Aspirated pulmonary trichomoniasis is an opportunistic infection. Until the question of possible pathogenicity is resolved, metronidazole should be given. The underlying pulmonary disease should be vigorously treated. PMID:3894667

Hersh, S M

1985-08-01

242

Inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is an “umbrella term” used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24739042

2014-01-01

243

Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to provide a rational for the use of nanoparticles in pulmonary delivery as well as an overview of strategies\\u000a and physiological implications of nanoparticle delivery to the lungs. Formulation aspects of nanoparticle systems in the form\\u000a of liquid dispersions and inhaled dry powders are also reviewed. The chapter also addresses the expanse of lung toxicology\\u000a research surrounding

Alan B. Watts; Robert O. Williams

244

Pulmonary-renal syndromes.  

PubMed

Pulmonary-renal syndromes or lung-kidney syndromes are clinical syndromes defined by a combination of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary-renal syndromes are not a single entity, but are caused by a wide variety of diseases, including various forms of primary systemic vasculitis (especially Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis), Goodpasture's syndrome (associated with autoantibodies to the alveolar and glomerular basement membrane) and systemic lupus erythematosus. The diagnosis rests on the identification of particular patterns of clinical, radiologic, pathologic and laboratory features. Serologic testing is important in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with a pulmonary-renal syndrome. The majority of cases of pulmonary-renal syndrome are associated with ANCAs, either c-ANCA or p-ANCA, due to autoantibodies against the target antigens proteinase-3 and myeloperoxidase respectively. The antigen target in Goodpasture's syndrome is type IV collagen, the major component of basement membranes. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage is characterized by the presence of a haemorrhagic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in serial BAL samples. In the clinical setting of an acute nephritis syndrome, percutaneous renal biopsy is commonly performed for histopathology and immunofluorescence studies. Treatment of generalized ANCA-associated vasculitis consists of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents such as cyclophosphamide (as induction therapy) or azathioprine (as maintenance therapy once remission has been achieved). The combination of plasmapheresis with these cytotoxic agents and steroids is effective in patients with Goodpasture's syndrome, especially if instituted early in the course of the disease. Recent evidence suggests that patients with severe ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined by the presence of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and/or severe renal involvement (creatinine concentration > 5.7 mg/dl), might benefit from plasma exchange in combination with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids. PMID:17547289

Brusselle, G G

2007-01-01

245

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

246

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM: OMIM265100) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the intra-alveolar\\u000a formation of microliths that are mainly composed of calcium phosphate. Microliths are found in about 80% of the alveoli. They\\u000a grow very slowly and finally occupy most of the alveolar space. Mild-to-moderate chronic inflammation and fibrosis are observed\\u000a mainly in the interstitium asymptomatic diagnosed of their

Koichi Hagiwara; Takeshi Johkoh; Teruo Tachibana

247

Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

1986-01-01

248

Pulmonary Hypertension in Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is an important prognostic factor in cardiac surgery associated with increased morbidity and mortality. With the aging population and the associated increase severity of illness, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in cardiac surgical patients will increase. In this review, the definition of pulmonary hypertension, the mechanisms and its relationship to right ventricular dysfunction will be presented. Finally, pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic and preventive approaches will be presented. PMID:21286273

Denault, André; Deschamps, Alain; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lambert, Jean; Perrault, Louis

2010-01-01

249

Angioscopy Is Useful In The Evaluation Of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Obstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously described a fiberoptic angioscope for diagnostic use in the right heart and pulmonary arteries. The instrument has a 4 mm 0.D., a proximal flexion control lever, and a 0.8 mm inner channel used to inflate a polyurethane balloon attached to the distal end of the instrument. A conventional xenon light source provides illumination. The instrument is inserted through a right jugular venotomy and passed into the right heart and pulmonary arteries using direct vision and fluoroscopic guidance. The procedure has been performed in 4 patients with pulmonary hypertension suspected to be caused by chronic pulmonary emboli. Chronic emboli were found in two patients and central (resectable) emboli could be distinguished from peripheral ones. The third patient had normal pulmonary arterial intima and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension was made. The fourth patient had extrinsic compression of pulmonary arteries by enlarged mediastinal nodes secondary to fibrosing mediastinitis. No complications occurred. We conclude that angioscopy appears to be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries.

Shure, Deborah; Gregoratos, Gabriel; Moser, Kenneth M.

1984-10-01

250

Biological impact on mineral dissolution: application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Microorganisms modify rates and mechanisms of chemical and physical weathering and clay growth, thus playing fundamental roles in soil and sediment formation. Because processes in soils are inherently complex and difficult to study, we employ a model based on the lichen-mineral system to identify the fundamental interactions. Fixed carbon released by the photosynthetic symbiont stimulates growth of fungi and other microorganisms. These microorganisms directly or indirectly induce mineral disaggregation, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral formation. Model polysaccharides were used to investigate direct mediation of mineral surface reactions by extracellular polymers. Polysaccharides can suppress or enhance rates of chemical weathering by up to three orders of magnitude, depending on the pH, mineral surface structure and composition, and organic functional groups. Mg, Mn, Fe, Al, and Si are redistributed into clays that strongly adsorb ions. Microbes contribute to dissolution of insoluble secondary phosphates, possibly via release of organic acids. These reactions significantly impact soil fertility. Below fungi-mineral interfaces, mineral surfaces are exposed to dissolved metabolic byproducts. Through this indirect process, microorganisms can accelerate mineral dissolution, leading to enhanced porosity and permeability and colonization by microbial communities. PMID:10097050

Banfield, J F; Barker, W W; Welch, S A; Taunton, A

1999-03-30

251

Sphingolipids in pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, accumulation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a naturally occurring bioactive lipid, are elevated in bronchoalveolar fluids and lung tissues from IPF patients and animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. However, the in vivo contribution of S1P, regulated by its synthesis catalyzed by Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) 1 & 2 and catabolism by S1P phosphatases and S1P lyase (S1PL), in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not well defined. Microarray analysis of blood mononuclear cells from patients with IPF and SphK1-, SphK2- or S1PL-knockout mice and SphK inhibitor were used to assess the role of S1P in fibrogenesis. The expression of SphK1 negatively correlated with lung function and survival of patients with IPF. Further, the expressions of SphK1 and S1PL were increased in lung tissues from patients with IPF and bleomycin-challenged mice. Genetic knockdown of SphK1, but not SphK2, ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice while deletion of S1PL (SGPL1(+/-)) in mice potentiated fibrosis post-bleomycin challenge. TGF-? increased the expression of SphK1 and S1PL in human lung fibroblasts and knockdown of SphK1 or treatment with SphK inhibitor attenuated S1P generation and TGF-? mediated signal transduction. Over-expression of S1PL attenuated bleomycin-induced TGF-? secretion and S1P mediated differentiation of human lung fibroblasts through regulation of autophagy. Administration of SphK1 inhibitor 8 days post-bleomycin challenge reduced bleomycin-induced mortality and pulmonary fibrosis. Our results suggest that SphK1 and S1PL play critical roles in the pathology of lung fibrosis and may be novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25446881

Huang, Long Shuang; Natarajan, Viswanathan

2015-01-01

252

Constraining kinetic rates of mineral reactions using reactive transport models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a reactive transport model to better understand results of experiments to obtain kinetic rates of mineral reactions in closed systems. Closed system experiments pose special challenges in that secondary minerals may form that modify the fluid composition evolution and may grow on the dissolving minerals thus armoring the surface. Even so, such closed system experiments provide critical data for what minerals would actually form in field applications and how coupled dissolution and precipitation mineral reactions are strongly linked. Comparing to experimental observations can test the reactive transport model, and the experimental observations can be better understood by comparing the results to the modeling. We apply a 0D end member of the model to understand the dissolution of single crystals of forsterite in a variety of settings (low pH, high pH, or NaHCO3 initial fluids, at 100 C and 1 bar, or 200 C and 150 bar). Depending on the initial conditions, we observe the precipitation of talc, brucite, amorphous silica, chrysotile, or magnesite, in various combinations. We compare simulation results to fluid compositions and the presence of secondary minerals experimentally sampled at various times. Insight from the simulations helped create an inverse model to extract the rates of forsterite dissolution and to create a simple forward model useful for exploring the influence of system size, secondary mineral surface areas, etc. Our reactive transport model allows secondary minerals to armor the forsterite surface, which can strongly decrease the dissolution rate as the system evolves. Tuning our model with experimentally derived rates and assuring relevant processes are included so as to reproduce experimental observations is necessary before upscaling to heterogeneous field conditions. The reactive transport model will be used for field-scale sequestration simulations and coupled with a geomechanical model that includes the influence of deformation.

Bolton, E. W.; Wang, Z.; Ague, J.; Bercovici, D.; Cai, Z.; Karato, S.; Oristaglio, M. L.; Qiu, L.

2012-12-01

253

Pulmonary Hemodynamics in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Other Interstitial Pulmonary Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

65 patients with interstitial lung diseases were subdivided into two groups: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other interstitial pulmonary diseases (OIP) according to histopathological, immunological and follow-up findings. Arterial blood gases and pulmonary hemodynamics at rest and during steady-state exercise were compared in these two groups (IPF= 31 patients, OIP= 34 patients). The resting PaO2 was significantly lower in the

Emmanuel Weitzenblum; May Ehrhart; Julia Rasaholinjanahary; Christine Hirth

1983-01-01

254

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Minerals are all around us. They're in our kitchens and bathrooms, our classrooms and school buildings, and our cars and bicycles. This interactive feature lets users discover which minerals are found in items they probably encounter every day. Rolling the cursor over items in an illustrated room accesses pop-ups that describe what mineral products may be found in them. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2008-01-01

255

Mineral Industry Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Surveys Mineral Industry Survey's Web site provides "periodic on-line statistical and economic publications designed to provide timely statistical data on production, distribution, stocks, and consumption of significant mineral commodities." Visitors to the site will find an alphabetical listing of minerals that includes everything from Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, and Asbestos, to Zeolite, Zinc, and Zirconium. Once clicked, a brief description of the mineral is provided along with links to yearly information publications as well as special publications such as its historical statistics, other agency links, contact information, and more.

256

Reagan issues mineral policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

257

USGS: Mineral Resources Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Mineral Resources Program funds science to provide and communicate current, impartial information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources." This website divides the mineral resource information, project descriptions, and products for the United States into four main regional categories: Eastern, Central, Western, and Alaska. Researchers can discover new grant opportunities and can obtain access to the National Geochemical Survey's database. Students and educators can find statistics and information on how the United State's supply-and-demand for minerals and materials affects the economy, security, and environment.

258

Minerals by Chemical Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive periodic table displays a listing of minerals by element, sorted by percent of the element. Clicking on a symbol on the table leads users to information on the element (atomic mass and number, name origin, year of discovery, and a brief description), and to a table listing each mineral known to contain the element in decreasing order by percentage. Each mineral name in the table is linked to additional information on the mineral, such as formula and composition, images, crystallography, physical properties, and many others.

259

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter

260

Canadian Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Natural Resources Canada Minerals and Metals Sector, the Canadian Minerals Yearbook Web site provides mineral industry information from 1994 to 2001. Downloadable files from each year include a Year in Review, Reserves of Selected Major Metals, Recent Production Decisions, and a Mineral and Metal Commodity Review. An example of the information provided comes from the 2001 Review: "In 2000, Canadian reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, molybdenum, silver and gold decreased because there were no decisions to bring new mines into production and the amount of new ore discovered at existing mining operations was insufficient to replace the quantity of ore that was mined during the year."

2001-01-01

261

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

2003-11-01

262

Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.  

PubMed Central

Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

Heppleston, A G

1984-01-01

263

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ?1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

Shovlin, Claire L

2014-12-01

264

Pulmonary Idiopathic Alveolar Ossification in a Raccoon (Procyon lotor)  

PubMed Central

Here we describe gross and histopathologic findings in a laboratory-confined adult male raccoon (Procyon lotor) with microscopic ossified areas in pulmonary alveoli. At the time of necropsy, gross lesions were present in the kidneys and in one thyroid gland. Noteworthy microscopic findings included multifocal foci of osseous tissue within the alveoli of the lungs, bilateral thyroid adenomas, pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis, cortical kidney infarcts, cystic adenomatous hyperplasia of urinary bladder, and mineralizations (psommama bodies) of small blood vessels of meninges and choroid plexus. Pulmonary ossification in raccoons has not been reported previously. The other histopathologic lesions have been documented to occur as incidental findings in raccoons and do not appear to have any apparent association with the formation of osseous foci in the lungs of the animal described. PMID:20858368

Hamir, Amir N; Rupprecht, Charles E

2010-01-01

265

Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2010-01-23

266

[Pulmonary complications in chemotherapy].  

PubMed

Many chemotherapeutic agents have a direct or indirect toxic effect on the lungs and airways which can lead to potentially fatal complications. It is a diagnostic challenge to identify such changes by imaging early as they are often unspecific and can be misinterpreted as pulmonary edema, infections, radiation pneumonitis or progression of an underlying disease. In this review the morphological changes of the lungs and airways are summarized according to anatomical location and some of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents and their adverse effects are listed. PMID:25316105

Becker, A; Frauenfelder, T

2014-10-01

267

Cavitary Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary: A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host. PMID:18400799

Gadkowski, L. Beth; Stout, Jason E.

2008-01-01

268

Pulmonary extramedullary haematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

A 72-year-old Caucasian lady with myeloproliferative disorder was admitted for evaluation of progressive dyspnoea, weight loss, fatigue and mild hypoxia. A diffuse ground glass opacity was seen on CT pulmonary angiogram. Differential diagnoses included heart failure, infection, progression of myeloproliferative disorder with extramedullary haematopoiesis, thromboembolism or hydroxyurea-induced lung injury. Bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage were uninformative however lung biopsy with video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed extramedullary haematopoiesis within lung parenchyma. This is a very rare complication of myeloproliferative disorder and the authors discuss the significance of the case, review the literature and report the patient’s progress. PMID:22669524

Mubarak, Veenu; Fanning, Stephen; Windsor, Morgon; Duhig, Edwina; Bowler, Simon

2011-01-01

269

Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of a number of lung and heart diseases that is characterized by peripheral vascular structural remodeling and loss of vascular tone. Nitric oxide can modulate vascular injury and interrupt elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance selectively; however, it can also produce cytotoxic oxygen radicals and exert cytotoxic and antiplatelet effects. The balance between the protective and adverse effects of nitric oxide is determined by the relative amount of nitric oxide and reactive radicals. Nitric oxide has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of congenital heart disease, mitrial valvular disease combined with pulmonary hypertension and in orthotropic cardiac transplantation patients. Additionally, new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, natriuretic peptides and aqueous nitric oxide are also effective for treatment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. PMID:20498805

2010-01-01

270

Diseases of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.  

PubMed

Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Wert, Susan E; Weaver, Timothy E

2015-01-24

271

Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

2015-01-01

272

Rocks & Mineral Solitaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a solitaire game designed to help students identify rocks and minerals. The card game would be used by the students after class discussions about rock/mineral categories and classifications. Several sets of the card game, managed by the teacher, would be available for the students. The cards could be used both during and after class.

Catania, Andrea J.; Education, San D.

273

Vitamin and mineral requirements  

E-print Network

Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998 : Bangkok, Thailand). Vitamin, 21­30 September 1998. 1.Vitamins -- standards 2.Micronutrients -- standards 3.Trace elements

Laughlin, Robert B.

274

Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

2007-01-01

275

VITAMINS AND MINERALS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Specify key vitamins and minerals and their functions. . DATES: You can begin this activity on May 21. You should complete it by May 25. OBJECTIVE: A healthy body needs vitamins and minerals. You\\'ve probably heard these words before, but do you really know what they mean? This activity will help you better understand the ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-05

276

Digging into Minnesota Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

277

The Miner's Canary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

Guinier, Lani

2005-01-01

278

Mineral Image Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery provides pictures of thousands of mineral specimens, arranged alphabetically. For each specimen, a thumbnail and a larger image are provided. Other information includes a brief description of the specimen being shown, scale bar (when available), locality data, and a link to additional information on the mineral.

279

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

280

Minerals, Crystals and Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.

281

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides introductory information about rocks and minerals. Topics include some of the common rock-forming minerals, what rocks are made of, and where they come from (the three basic rock types). There are descriptions and photos of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, a glossary, and a simple identification chart that has links to websites with additional information.

2010-11-08

282

Atoms and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 23 questions on the topic of atoms and minerals, which covers mineral types and characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy

283

Acute Exercise Activates Pulmonary eNOS and Lowers Pulmonary Pressure in Rats with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

E-print Network

Acute Exercise Activates Pulmonary eNOS and Lowers Pulmonary Pressure in Rats with Pulmonary , Irina Petrache2 , Mary Beth Brown1 1 Department of Physical Therapy, IU School of Health is impaired in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Exercise may be beneficial in PAH, just

Zhou, Yaoqi

284

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have

VICTOR L. ROGGLI; WILLIAM E. LONGO

1991-01-01

285

Underground mineral extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

1980-01-01

286

USGS: Energy & Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Energy and Minerals Mission Area of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) "conducts research and assessments on the location, quantity, and quality of material and energy resources, including the economic and environmental effects of resource extraction and use." Visitors to the site can click on thematic sections such as Energy Resources and Mineral Resources. Each of these areas contains information about each program, along with fact sheets, databases, and detailed geospatial maps. The Program News area contains links to documents such as "Understanding the Global Distribution of Nonfuel Mineral Resources" and a host of summary documents on mineral commodities. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Mineral Resources Products area. Here, visitors can look into hundreds of statistical reports, bulletins, and data sets intended for scientists, journalists, and members of the general public.

2013-06-20

287

Kiwifruit and mineral nutrition.  

PubMed

Dietary minerals are essential nutrients that drive key cellular and physiological functions. Each mineral is absorbed in the gut via unique, complex pathways that can involve a cascade of receptors and binding proteins. Foods can both provide dietary minerals and contain components that impact the bioavailability of minerals in the digestive system. Kiwifruit exceeds most other fruits in its content of key micronutrients including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, and folate. It also contains exceedingly high levels of ascorbic acid, which increases the bioavailability of nonheme iron and can impact on calcium absorption. Recent research in cells, animals, and humans has demonstrated that kiwifruit, particularly the gold variety, can increase the uptake and retention of the essential dietary minerals iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. PMID:23394991

Wolber, Frances M; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Marlena C

2013-01-01

288

[Pulmonary arterial input impedance in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases].  

PubMed

To evaluate pulmonary vascular lesions, input impedance of pulmonary arterial system was determined in 52 patients with chronic pulmonary diseases (CPD) by using a multisensor catheter. Mean values of impedance parameters in 14 subjects with normal mean arterial pressure (less than 15 mmHg) were 31 +/- 3 dyne.sec.cm-5 in characteristic impedence (Zo), 3.5 +/- 0.3 Hz in the frequency at which the first minimum of the impedance modulus occurs (fmin) and 0.85 +/- 0.3 in Zx oscillation (Zxos). In patients with CPD, Zo increased with an elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (p less than 0.01) and fmin shifted to the right with that (p less than 0.05). These results show that stiffness of the proximal arteries in CPD is increased. In patients of interstitial fibrosis with pulmonary arterial hypertension, Zo was not significantly increased, but fmin shifted to the right. Pulse wave velocity correlated with fmin, but did not correlate with Zo. In conclusion, these results suggest that analysis of pulmonary arterial input impedance with a multisensor catheter provides useful information for patients with pulmonary hypertension. PMID:2585900

Tagawa, H

1989-09-01

289

[Pulmonary paragonimiasis. Case report].  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is a zoonosis affecting wild and domestic animals and human beings, caused by species of trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. Humans become infected after ingestion of raw or poorly cooked fresh water crustaceans. The aim of the present work is the description of a case of a 3-years old child, coming from Guárico State in Venezuela with a year of residence in the seashore of the Provincia Manabí in Ecuador, where he ate crabs in "ceviche". During hospitalization, he presented respiratory distress, hepatomegaly and nodules in the back. The thorax cat scan showed heavy infiltrate in both pulmonary bases and pleural compromise. Based on clinic, radiological images, an eosinophilia of 47% (Eosinophils absolute count (EAC) 6.682/mm3) and the antecedent of raw crabs ingestion, pulmonary paragonimiasis was diagnosed. Paragonimus eggs were not found in sputum and feces. ELISA with crude Paragonimus antigen was positive and Western blot revealed recognition of specific molecules. After treatment for three days with Praziquantel at a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight divided into three intakes, the sintomatology disappeared and radiological images and number of eosinophils diminished considerably. PMID:18717271

Abdul-Hadi, Salha; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Rangel-Lujano, Marieli; Gómez, Erika; Figueira, Ivonne; Alarcón-Noya, Belkisyolé

2008-06-01

290

Pulmonary Lymphangiectasis in an Asymptomatic Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary lymphangiectasis is a rare anomaly in infancy that is characterized by dilatation of pulmonary lymphatic vessels resulting in fetal respiratory distress. Pulmonary lymphangiectasis is considered to occur exclusively in young children and neonates, and very few survive beyond an early age. We herein present an asymptomatic adult case of localized pulmonary lymphangiectasis with multiple nodules. A 27-year-old asymptomatic female

Yoshitomo Okumura; Shin-ichi Takeda; Noriyoshi Sawabata; Hajime Maeda; Hiroshi Hirano

2006-01-01

291

Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms

M S Wilson; T A Wynn

2009-01-01

292

Chronic and adjustable pulmonary artery banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Banding of the pulmonary artery might be required to prevent pulmonary vascular damage in patients with increased pulmonary artery flow and to retrain the left ventricle in preparation for an arterial switch operation in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. Readjustment of the pulmonary artery band might be required in the postoperative period. In this study

Boudewijn P. J. Leeuwenburgh; Paul H. Schoof; Paul Steendijk; Jan Baan; Wolter J. Mooi; Willem A. Helbing

2003-01-01

293

Cigarette smoking: CT and pathologic findings of associated pulmonary diseases.  

PubMed

The health risks associated with cigarette smoking are well known. Cigarette smoking is the most important causative factor in the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Pulmonary diseases such as chronic bronchitis, centrilobular and panacinar emphysema, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are also related to cigarette smoking. In adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common manifestation at computed tomography (CT) is a solitary pulmonary nodule; in small cell carcinoma, hilar and mediastinal adenopathy secondary to metastases; and in large cell carcinoma, a mass with central necrosis or cavitation in the lung periphery. For chronic bronchitis, the most common CT finding is bronchial wall thickening, but this finding is nonspecific. Emphysema, both centrilobular and panacinar associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, usually manifests as areas of decreased attenuation and may involve bullous changes. However, centrilobular emphysema more commonly involves the upper lungs, whereas panacinar emphysema more commonly involves the lower lungs. Most patients with RB-ILD have normal high-resolution CT scans; however, abnormalities may be present, the most common of which are areas of ground-glass attenuation. CT appearance of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis varies depending on the disease stage: In the early stage, typical CT findings include multiple nodules, usually accompanied by cystic spaces with thin, well-defined walls. As the disease progresses, the cystic spaces become more numerous and the number of nodules decreases. PMID:9084079

Hartman, T E; Tazelaar, H D; Swensen, S J; Müller, N L

1997-01-01

294

The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and received TIP or saline (control group) by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration) or day seven (late administration) after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. Results TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. Conclusion In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease. PMID:25047452

van den Berg, Elske; Bem, Reinout A.; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B. M.

2014-01-01

295

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an epithelial\\/fibroblastic cross-talk disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and usually progressive lung disorder of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence suggests that, in contrast to other interstitial lung diseases, IPF is a distinct entity in which inflammation is a secondary and non-relevant pathogenic partner. Evidence includes the presence of similar mild\\/moderate inflammation either in early or late disease, and the lack

Moisés Selman; Annie Pardo

2002-01-01

296

Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in a Patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common variable immunodeficiency syndrome (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency typically presenting with recurrent sinopulmonary infections. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and other secondary cancers are typical late complications of CVID. We report on a patient suffering from CVID with a history of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, interstitial pulmonary changes and hepatic granulomas. Despite treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin followed by a reduction in the number

F. Reichenberger; C. Wyser; M. Gonon; G. Cathomas; M. Tamm

2001-01-01

297

Iron homeostasis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), we tested the hypothesis that idiopathic PAP is associated with an altered iron homeostasis in the human lung. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n =

Andrew J Ghio; Jacqueline G Stonehuerner; Judy H Richards; Kay M Crissman; Victor L Roggli; Claude A Piantadosi; Martha Sue Carraway

2008-01-01

298

Mineral facilities of Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

2010-01-01

299

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2010-10-01

300

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2012-10-01

301

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2011-10-01

302

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2014-10-01

303

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2013-10-01

304

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000) than in women (13.2/100,000). The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock). IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis), forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational) exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant disability. The median survival is 2 to 5 years from the time of diagnosis. Medical therapy is ineffective in the treatment of IPF. New molecular therapeutic targets have been identified and several clinical trials are investigating the efficacy of novel medication. Meanwhile, pulmonary transplantation remains a viable option for patients with IPF. It is expected that, during the next decade, considerable progress will be made toward the understanding and treatment of this devastating illness. PMID:18366757

Meltzer, Eric B; Noble, Paul W

2008-01-01

305

Elevated Pulmonary Artery Pressure Is a Risk Factor for Primary Graft Dysfunction Following Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often associated with elevations in pulmonary artery pressures. Although primary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been associated with primary graft dysfunction (PGD), the role of secondary PAH in mediating PGD risk in patients with IPF is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and PGD among patients with IPF. Methods: We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study of 126 lung transplant procedures performed for IPF between March 2002 and August 2007. The primary outcome was grade 3 PGD at 72 h after lung transplant. The mPAP was measured as the initial reading following insertion of the right-sided heart catheter during lung transplant. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding variables. Results: The mPAP for patients with PGD was 38.5 ± 16.3 mm Hg vs 29.6 ± 11.5 mm Hg for patients without PGD (mean difference, 8.9 mm Hg [95% CI, 3.6-14.2]; P = .001). The increase in odds of PGD associated with each 10-mm Hg increase in mPAP was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.18-2.26; P = .003). In multivariable models, this relationship was independent of confounding by other clinical variables, although the use of cardiopulmonary bypass partially attenuated the relationship. Conclusions: Higher mPAP in patients with IPF is associated with the development of PGD. PMID:20864607

Fang, Adam; Studer, Sean; Kawut, Steven M.; Ahya, Vivek N.; Lee, James; Wille, Keith; Lama, Vibha; Ware, Lorraine; Orens, Jonathan; Weinacker, Ann; Palmer, Scott M.; Crespo, Maria; Lederer, David J.; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Demissie, Ejigayehu

2011-01-01

306

Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Numerous barriers exist to the timely introduction of palliative care in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The complex needs of patients with advanced COPD require the integration of curative-restorative care and palliative care. Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation are both important components of integrated care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Pulmonary rehabilitation provides the opportunity to introduce palliative care by implementing education about advance care planning. Education about advance care planning addresses the information needs of patients and can be an effective strategy to promote patient-physician discussion about these issues. PMID:24874135

Janssen, Daisy J A; McCormick, James R

2014-06-01

307

Pulmonary vascular dysfunction in ARDS  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterised by diffuse alveolar damage and is frequently complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH). Multiple factors may contribute to the development of PH in this setting. In this review, we report the results of a systematic search of the available peer-reviewed literature for papers that measured indices of pulmonary haemodynamics in patients with ARDS and reported on mortality in the period 1977 to 2010. There were marked differences between studies, with some reporting strong associations between elevated pulmonary arterial pressure or elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and mortality, whereas others found no such association. In order to discuss the potential reasons for these discrepancies, we review the physiological concepts underlying the measurement of pulmonary haemodynamics and highlight key differences between the concepts of resistance in the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We consider the factors that influence pulmonary arterial pressure, both in normal lungs and in the presence of ARDS, including the important effects of mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and transpulmonary gradient (TPG) depend not alone on the intrinsic properties of the pulmonary vascular bed but are also strongly influenced by cardiac output, airway pressures and lung volumes. The great variability in management strategies within and between studies means that no unified analysis of these papers was possible. Uniquely, Bull et al. (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1123–1128, 2010) have recently reported that elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and TPG were independently associated with increased mortality in ARDS, in a large trial with protocol-defined management strategies and using lung-protective ventilation. We then considered the existing literature to determine whether the relationship between PVR/TPG and outcome might be causal. Although we could identify potential mechanisms for such a link, the existing evidence does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. Nonetheless, abnormally elevated PVR/TPG may provide a useful index of disease severity and progression. Further studies are required to understand the role and importance of pulmonary vascular dysfunction in ARDS in the era of lung-protective ventilation.

2014-01-01

308

[Postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism].  

PubMed

Since 1986, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) has been regularly releasing guidelines for antithrombotic therapy for prevention and treatment of thrombosis. The sixth ACCP consensus 2001 conference has recommended successful prevention strategies in surgical patients. A few Japanese prospective studies disclosed that the incidence of deep vein thrombosis(DVT) after general surgery in Japan is about half in western countries. On the other hand, it is reported that the incidence of DVT after total hip replacement and total knee replacement in Japan is almost as same as in western countries. Since there is still little data available for the incidence of postoperative DVT and pulmonary thromboembolism in Japan, it is necessary to organize some prospective multicenter surveys for them. PMID:14577293

Seo, Norimasa

2003-10-01

309

[Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease, which affects more frequently subjects older than 60 years, males, and smokers or ex-smokers. The diagnosis is based on a pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia at high resolution computed tomography of the chest and/or at the video- assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy, and by multidisciplinary discussion in a specialized center, after ruling out possible causes and specific contexts (as connective tissue disease). The disease progresses inexorably to chronic respiratory insufficiency, occasionally with episodes of acute exacerbation, and death after a median of 3 years. Treatment with pirfenidone in patients with mild to moderate disease slows the progression of disease, and reduces the risk of death at one year, with skin and gastro-intestinal adverse events. Drug therapy should be part of a global care management. Several approaches are considered for an earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25362769

Cottin, Vincent

2014-09-01

310

Postoperative pulmonary complications updating.  

PubMed

Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are a major contributor to the overall risk of surgery. PPCs affect the length of hospital stay and are associated with a higher in-hospital mortality. PPCs are even the leading cause of death either in cardiothoracic surgery but also in non-cardiothoracic surgery. Thus, reliable PPCs risk stratification tools are the key issue of clinical decision making in the perioperative period. When the risk is clearly identified related to the patient according the ARISCAT score and/or the type of surgery (mainly thoracic and abdominal), low-cost preemptive interventions improve outcomes and new strategies can be developed to prevent this risk. The EuSOS, PERISCOPE and IMPROVE studies demonstrated this care optimization by risk identification first, then risk stratification and new care (multifaceted) strategies implementation allowing a decrease in PPCs mortality by optimizing the clinical path of the patient and the care resources. PMID:25168300

Langeron, O; Carreira, S; le Saché, F; Raux, M

2014-01-01

311

A striking deposition of mineral particles in the lungs of a farmer: a case report.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to analyze mineral particles in lung tissue from a farmer who underwent lobectomy due to a lung tumor and relate these analytical findings to occupational exposure and histopathological and clinical diagnoses. Despite no clear evidence of previous occupational dust exposure, heavy deposits of birefringent particles and slight pulmonary fibrosis were found during histopathological examination. Extracts from the lung tissue were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis for mineral particles. The major components of the dust were identified as mica, talc, and silica. Minor components included asbestos fibers and rutile fibers. Some of these fibers were coated by ferroproteins. Mica, quartz, feldspars (plagioclase), and rutile fibers were found in the soil from the farmer's potato storehouse. Based on these findings it is assumed that the slight pulmonary fibrosis is probably caused by the different mineral particles deposited. PMID:6475967

Gylseth, B; Stettler, L; Mowè, G; Skaug, V; Lexow, P

1984-01-01

312

Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but predisposing features have been elusive. Objectives: To prospectively determine the morphotype, immunophenotype, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator genotype in a large cohort with PNTM. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 63 patients with PNTM infection, each of whom had computerized tomography, echocardiogram, pulmonary function, and flow cytometry of peripheral blood. In vitro cytokine production in response to mitogen, LPS, and cytokines was performed. Anthropometric measurements were compared with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) age- and ethnicity-matched female control subjects extracted from the NHANES 2001–2002 dataset. Measurements and Main Results: Patients were 59.9 (±9.8 yr [SD]) old, and 5.4 (±7.9 yr) from diagnosis to enrollment. Patients were 95% female, 91% white, and 68% lifetime nonsmokers. A total of 46 were infected with Mycobacterium avium complex, M. xenopi, or M. kansasii; 17 were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria. Female patients were significantly taller (164.7 vs. 161.0 cm; P < 0.001) and thinner (body mass index, 21.1 vs. 28.2; P < 0.001) than matched NHANES control subjects, and thinner (body mass index, 21.1 vs. 26.8; P = 0.002) than patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. A total of 51% of patients had scoliosis, 11% pectus excavatum, and 9% mitral valve prolapse, all significantly more than reference populations. Stimulated cytokine production was similar to that of healthy control subjects, including the IFN-?/IL-12 pathway. CD4+, CD8+, B, and natural killer cell numbers were normal. A total of 36% of patients had mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Conclusions: Patients with PNTM infection are taller and leaner than control subjects, with high rates of scoliosis, pectus excavatum, mitral valve prolapse, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations, but without recognized immune defects. PMID:18703788

Kim, Richard D.; Greenberg, David E.; Ehrmantraut, Mary E.; Guide, Shireen V.; Ding, Li; Shea, Yvonne; Brown, Margaret R.; Chernick, Milica; Steagall, Wendy K.; Glasgow, Connie G.; Lin, JingPing; Jolley, Clara; Sorbara, Lynn; Raffeld, Mark; Hill, Suvimol; Avila, Nilo; Sachdev, Vandana; Barnhart, Lisa A.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Claypool, Reginald; Hilligoss, Dianne M.; Garofalo, Mary; Fitzgerald, Alan; Anaya-O'Brien, Sandra; Darnell, Dirk; DeCastro, Rosamma; Menning, Heather M.; Ricklefs, Stacy M.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Moss, Joel; Holland, Steven M.

2008-01-01

313

Pulmonary Hypertension Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an uncommon but progressive condition, and much of what we know about it comes from specialized disease registries. With expanding research into the diagnosis and treatment of PH, it is important to provide updated surveillance on the impact of this disease on hospitalizations and mortality. This study, which builds on previous PH surveillance of mortality and hospitalization, analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey between 2001 and 2010. PH deaths were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes I27.0, I27.2, I27.8, or I27.9 as any contributing cause of death on the death certificate. Hospital discharges associated with PH were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 416.0, 416.8, or 416.9 as one of up to seven listed medical diagnoses. The decline in death rates associated with PH among men from 1980 to 2005 has reversed and now shows a significant increasing trend. Similarly, the death rates for women with PH have continued to increase significantly during the past decade. PH-associated mortality rates for those aged 85 years and older have accelerated compared with rates for younger age groups. There have been significant declines in PH-associated mortality rates for those with pulmonary embolism and emphysema. Rates of hospitalization for PH have increased significantly for both men and women during the past decade; for those aged 85 years and older, hospitalization rates have nearly doubled. Continued surveillance helps us understand and address the evolving trends in hospitalization and mortality associated with PH and PH-associated conditions, especially regarding sex, age, and race/ethnicity disparities. PMID:24700091

Schieb, Linda J.; Ayala, Carma; Talwalkar, Anjali; Levant, Shaleah

2014-01-01

314

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

315

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

316

Ken's Fluorescent Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides photos of fluorescent minerals photographed under long wave (LW) or short wave (SW) ultraviolet light. Links to additional resources, and a list of books and information sources are also included.

Kenneth Colosky

317

Defining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals  

E-print Network

on the structural properties of the hydrated (10.4) cleav- age calcite surface, this mineral was chosenDefining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals Adria properties of mineral surfaces, their construct is sometimes incompatible with fundamental chemical and

Long, Bernard

318

36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral permits. 293.14 Section 293.14 Parks...AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws...

2010-07-01

319

Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

1986-01-01

320

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

MedlinePLUS

... How is COPD treated? Learn More What is COPD? Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or COPD, refers to ... bronchitis, and in some cases asthma. What causes COPD? In the United States, tobacco smoke is a ...

321

Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract Schistosomiasis, a parasite-borne disease, is highly prevalent in Africa and Asia; it is estimated that close to 20 million people worldwide have a severe form of the disease. The chronic form can affect the gastrointestinal system and lead to hepatosplenic disease, and it may cause cardiopulmonary complications, including pulmonary hypertension. The exact pathogenesis of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension (Sch-PH) remains unclear, although several mechanisms, including parasitic arterial embolization, pulmonary arteriopathy, and portopulmonary hypertension–like pathophysiology, have been suggested. The immunopathology of the disease is also unclear, although there are similarities with the immunology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Finally, the treatment of Sch-PH has not been well studied. There is some evidence on treating the underlying infection, with unclear effect on Sch-PH, and advanced PAH therapies are now being suggested, but more studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. PMID:25610596

Mocumbi, Ana Olga H.; Kim, Nick H.; Mandel, Jess

2014-01-01

322

Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

323

Telomerase and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common manifestation of telomere-mediated disorders. Germline mutations in the essential telomerase genes, hTERT and hTR, are the causal genetic defect in up to one-sixth of pulmonary fibrosis families. The presence of telomerase mutations in this subset is significant for clinical decisions as affected individuals can develop extra-pulmonary complications related to telomere shortening such as bone marrow failure and cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. There is also evidence that IPF is an ancestral manifestation of autosomal dominant telomere syndromes where, with successive generations, the disease evolves from pulmonary fibrosis into a bone marrow failure-predominant disorder, defining a unique form of genetic anticipation. Here I review the significance of telomere defects for understanding the genetics, disease patterns and pathophysiology of IPF. The importance of this diagnosis for patient care decisions will also be discussed. PMID:22079513

Armanios, Mary

2012-02-01

324

Congestive hepatopathy secondary to large renal arteriovenous malformation  

PubMed Central

A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset dyspnoea, and was found to have signs of pulmonary congestion on clinical examination. Imaging revealed cardiomegaly and coincident congestive hepatopathy, secondary to a left renal arteriovenous malformation. The presence of a high flow vascular shunt in the left kidney was possibly the causative factor behind both the high-output cardiac failure and congestive hepatopathy. PMID:23349173

Khalife, Mohammad; Faraj, Walid; Salah, Fatima; Haydar, Ali A

2013-01-01

325

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Associated with Severe Hypocalcemia Secondary to Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

The etiology and pathophysiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy have not yet been fully clarified. We report a case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with severe hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. A 69-year-old woman presented with acute pulmonary edema caused by severe left ventricular dysfunction with apical ballooning compatible with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Laboratory tests revealed severe hypocalcemia secondary to idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary artery function. Her symptoms and signs of heart failure improved dramatically with the correction of hypocalcemia through calcium and calcitriol replacement. PMID:24044019

Rhee, Ho sung; Jung, Young Kyu; Jeon, Ung; Park, Sang-Ho; Lee, Seung-Jin; Sin, Won-Yong; Jin, Dong-Kyu

2013-01-01

326

Pulmonary Edema in Myasthenic Crisis  

PubMed Central

We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration. PMID:24829832

Anand, Uttara Swati; Arulneyam, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

327

Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the relationships between clinical characteristics, lung involvement, and frequency of pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT), we prospectively evaluated 52 patients with RA (eight males and 44 females, mean age 53.6 years). The HRCT was abnormal in 35 patients (67.3%), the most

Ayhan Bilgici; H. Ulusoy; O. Kuru; Ç. Çelenk; M. Ünsal; M. Danac?

2005-01-01

328

The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

1999-01-01

329

Unexpected applications of secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites have been found to have interesting applications over and above their well-known medical uses, e.g., as antimicrobials, etc. These alternative applications include antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, immunosuppressant, antiprotozoal, antihelminth, antiviral and anti-ageing activities. Polyene antibiotics, such as amphotericin B, are of use as antiprion agents, antitumor drugs and against leishmaniasis. Other microbial natural products that show antibiotic activity are used against cancer e.g., doxorubicin, neomycin, ?-lactams, bleomycin and rapamycin. Macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, improve pulmonary function in patients suffering from panbioncholitis. Pigments like prodigiosin and shikonin have antitumor activity, while violacein has anti-ulcer and antitumor activity and also acts as an antiprotozoal agent. Statins, in addition to lowering cholesterol and LDL levels, also decrease elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels independent of their cholesterol effects. Immunosuppressants have many alternative effects: (i) Cyclosporin is proving useful in treatment of inflammatory disease such as asthma and muscular dystrophy. (ii) Rapamycin is extremely useful in preventing restenosis of stents grafted in balloon angioplasty. (iii) Tacrolimus and ascomycin help in treating inflammatory skin disease such as allergic contact dermatitis and psoriasis. Artemisinin, an antimalarial agent, is also showing antitumor activity. Other natural products, including those from plants (betulinic acid and shikonin), animals (bryostatins) and microbes (squalestatin and sophorolipids) have a multiplicity of potentially useful actions. Unexpected functions of known secondary metabolites are continuously being unraveled, and are fulfilling some of the needs of present day medicine and show great promise for the future. PMID:21130862

Vaishnav, Preeti; Demain, Arnold L

2011-01-01

330

N-acetylcysteine improves established monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The outcome of patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are predominantly determined by the response of the right ventricle to the increase afterload secondary to high vascular pulmonary resistance. However, little is known about the effects of the current available or experimental PAH treatments on the heart. Recently, inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PAH. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known safe anti-oxidant drug, has immuno-modulatory and cardioprotective properties. We therefore hypothesized that NAC could reduce the severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats exposed to monocrotaline (MCT), lowering inflammation and preserving pulmonary vascular system and right heart function. Methods Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and NAC treated rats (day 14–28) were evaluated at day 28 following MCT for hemodynamic parameters (right ventricular systolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output), right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular morphometry, lung inflammatory cells immunohistochemistry (monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells), IL-6 expression, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. Results The treatment with NAC significantly decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling, lung inflammation, and improved total pulmonary resistance (from 0.71?±?0.05 for MCT group to 0.50?±?0.06 for MCT?+?NAC group, p?pulmonary vascular and right heart function in experimental PH. PMID:24929652

2014-01-01

331

Pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a syndrome of dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain and syncope defined by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of unknown cause. The pathobiology of PAH remains incompletely understood. The gene of the idiopathic form of PAH (IPAH) has been located on chromosome 2, and shown to present mutations of a sequence that encodes for a transforming growth factor receptor, bone morphogenenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2). Severe pulmonary hypertension is associated with an increased expression of the angiogenic factor, angiopoietin-1, which shuts off the expression of BMPR1A, a transmembrane protein necessary for BMPR2 signalling, and thereby causes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. Additional biological abnormalities have been identified at all pulmonary arterial wall compartments of PAH patients. The endothelium produces an excess of endo-thelin, a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogenic mediator, while synthesis and release of antagonistic prostacyclin and nitric oxide is decreased. Pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells present with an increased expression of a serotonin transporter, allowing for vasoconstrictive and mitogenic effects of increased circulating serotonin, and also show an increased expression of voltage-dependent potassium channels, which also promotes vasoreactivity and proliferation. The adventitial matrix bound metalloprotases appear to be activated in relation to increased serine elastase, leading to increased production of tenascin, a potent mitogen. While none of these abnormalities isolately explains PAH, their identification has already led to efficient therapeutic interventions, including the administration of prostacyclin derivatives and anti-endothelin compounds. PMID:15615096

Naeije, R; Rondelet, Benoît

2004-01-01

332

Measuring the Hardness of Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

Bushby, Jessica

2005-01-01

333

Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a persistent elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling with unknown etiology. Current therapeutics available for PAH are primarily directed at reducing the pulmonary blood pressure through their effects on the endothelium. It is well accepted that pulmonary arterial remodeling is primarily due to excessive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation that leads to narrowing or occlusion of the pulmonary vessels. Future effective therapeutics will be successful in reversing the vascular remodeling in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on molecular mechanisms involved in pulmonary arterial remodeling with a focus on growth factors, transcription factors, and epigenetic pathways in PASMC proliferation. In addition, this review will highlight novel therapeutic strategies for potentially reversing PASMC proliferation. PMID:24676136

Crosswhite, Patrick; Sun, Zhongjie

2014-01-01

334

Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. Methods Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE) was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of microspheres into the left pulmonary artery for 1 day (1d PPE; 115d gestational age; GA) or 5 days (5d PPE; 110-115d GA). Control fetuses received vehicle injections. Lung morphology, secondary septal crests, elastin, collagen, myofibroblast, PECAM1 and HIF1? abundance and localization were determined histologically. VEGF-A, Flk-1, PDGF-A and PDGF-R? mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. Results At 130d GA (term ~147d), in embolized regions of the lung the percentage of lung occupied by tissue was increased from 29 ± 1% in controls to 35 ± 1% in 1d PPE and 44 ± 1% in 5d PPE fetuses (p < 0.001). Secondary septal crest density was reduced from 8 ± 0% in controls to 5 ± 0% in 1d PPE and 4 ± 0% in 5d PPE fetuses (p < 0.05), indicating impaired alveolar formation. The deposition of differentiated myofibroblasts (23 ± 1% vs 28 ± 1%; p < 0.001) and elastin fibres (3 ± 0% vs 4 ± 0%; p < 0.05) were also impaired in embolized lung regions of PPE fetuses compared to controls. PPE did not alter the deposition of collagen or PECAM1. At 116d GA in 5d PPE fetuses, markers of hypoxia indicated that a small and transient hypoxic event had occurred (hypoxia in 6.7 ± 1.4% of the tissue within embolized regions of 5d PPE fetuses at 116d compared to 0.8 ± 0.2% of tissue in control regions). There was no change in the proportion of tissue labelled with HIF1?. There was no change in mRNA levels of the angiogenic factors VEGF and Flk-1, although a small increase in PDGF-R? expression at 116d GA, from 1.00 ± 0.12 in control fetuses to 1.61 ± 0.18 in 5d PPE fetuses may account for impaired differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts and alveolar development. Conclusions PPE impairs alveolarization without adverse systemic effects and is a novel model for investigating the role of pulmonary capillaries and alveolar myofibroblasts in alveolar formation. PMID:20416033

2010-01-01

335

Use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in children is a serious disorder, for which the major goal of treatment is to prevent progressive vascular remodeling, and improve clinical status and survival. Iloprost is approved for the treatment of PH in adults; however, few studies have evaluated its effects in children. The objective of this study is to analyze the long-term effects of inhaled iloprost treatment in children with PH. A retrospective study was conducted in patients treated with iloprost between 2000 and 2012. Patients with left-right cardiac shunt and persistent PH of the newborn were excluded. The cohort comprised 22 patients (15 females) with a median age of 2.6 years. Twelve patients had pulmonary arterial hypertension including idiopathic (n?=?6), hereditary (n?=?2) and associated (congenital heart disease [n?=?3], and schistosomiasis [n?=?1]). One patient had pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, six patients had PH secondary to lung disease and three had multifactorial PH. Median mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 55?mmHg and median pulmonary vascular resistance was 15.5?Wood units. Good tolerability was observed, with the exception of one case of recurring abdominal pain. PH resolved in two patients, with functional capacity improvement in 10 patients and stabilization in three patients. The clinical condition of six patients deteriorated; two died, and two received lung transplants. In conclusion, the results of this uncontrolled study showed that iloprost was effective and well tolerated in children. However, further research is needed to support this study, as PH is a serious condition that can require organ transplantation or result in death. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24729548

Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Torrent-Vernetta, Alba; de Mir Messa, Inés; Amigo, Sandra Rovira; Piña, Ferran Gran; Gartner, Silvia; Brotons, Dimpna Albert

2014-04-11

336

Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients  

SciTech Connect

The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

1983-09-01

337

Problem of secondary porosity: Frio Formation (Oligocene), Texas Gulf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary porosity, formed by the dissolution of both carbonate and silicate minerals, especially K-feldspars, is widely developed in sandstones of the Frio Formation (Oligocene) in the Texas Gulf Coast. CO2 produced by decarboxylation of organic matter is commonly suggested as the acid required for dissolution. Material balance calculations indicate that CO2 produced by decarboxylation of organic matter in Frio Formation

Paul D. Lundegard; Lynton S. Land; William E. Galloway

1984-01-01

338

Degeneration of the costovertebral articulation: a cause of pulmonary pseudolesion.  

PubMed

The objective was to report examples of degeneration of the costovertebral articulation producing a pulmonary pseudolesion. Three cases in which a nodular opacity seen on plain radiograph was determined to be secondary to degeneration of the costovertebral articulation were compiled, one of which was confirmed by CT. Pseudolesions produced by degenerative osteophytes of the vertebral spine and anomalous articulations between transverse processes are more commonly identified, but less well described is the pseudolesion produced by degeneration of the costovertebral articulation. Recognition of this etiology may prevent misconstruing the lesion as a significant finding. PMID:15290470

Leibowitz, Rebecca T; Keats, Theodore E

2004-04-01

339

The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Kearns, Cynthia A.

340

Minerals Management Board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The five-member Minerals Management Board, headed by Undersecretary of the Interior Donald Paul Hodel, supervises and oversees the operations of the Minerals Management Service, according to the January 19 order by Secretary of the Interior Watt. The board is charged with developing the ‘appropriate policy and guidelines to implement the approved recommendations and findings of the Commission on Fiscal Accountability of the Nation's Energy Resources and monitor program activities directed toward the improvement of the royalty management program.’ Also on the board are Daniel Miller, Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Energy and Minerals; Kenneth L. Smith, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs; Garrey E. Carruthers, Assistant Secretary for Land and Water Resources; and J. Robinson West, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Budget, and Administration.

341

Angiotensin II prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and vascular changes in rat  

SciTech Connect

Angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor, has been previously demonstrated to produce a secondary vasodilatation due to release of prostaglandins. Because of this effect, the authors investigated whether infusion of exogenous angiotensin II via miniosmopumps in rats during a 1-wk exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia might prevent pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes. They instrumented the rats with indwelling cardiovascular catheters and compared the hemodynamic and structural response in animals given angiotensin II, indomethacin in addition to angiotensin II (to block prostaglandin production), or saline with or without indomethacin. They then determine whether angiotensin II infusion also prevents acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. They observed that exogenous angiotensin II infusion abolished the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the right ventricular hypertrophy, and the vascular changes induced during chronic hypoxia in control saline-infused rats with or without indomethacin. The protective effects of angiotensin II was lost when indomethacin was given to block prostaglandin synthesis. During acute hypoxia, both antiotensin II and prostacyclin infusion similarly prevented the rise in pulmonary artery pressure observed in saline-infused rats and in rats given indomethacin or saralasin in addition to angiotensin II. Thus exogenous angiotensin II infusion prevents chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, associated right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes and blocks acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and this is likely related to its ability to release vasodilator prostaglandins.

Rabinovitch, M.; Mullen, M.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Maruyama, K.; O'Brodovich, H.; Olley, P.M. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1988-03-01

342

[The role of pulmonary rehabilitation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by exertional dyspnea, hypoxemia and exercise intolerance. The pathophysiology of IPF usually presents restrictive physiology of lung volume and impaired gas exchange. Most of the research which supports the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) comes from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' studies. However, in the past few years growing evidence has emerged to support the effectiveness and safety of PR programs in IPF patients. Exercise training in PR programs was shown to increase exercise and functional capacity, decreasing shortness of breath and improving quality of life in IPF patients. Nevertheless, PR guidelines for IPF patients have not yet been established. This review presents the current existing data on the effectiveness of PR programs in IPF patients. Large and well controlled trials are needed for the establishment of clinical guidelines of PR in IPF patients. PMID:22616150

Vainshelboim, Baruch; Kramer, Mordechai R

2012-04-01

343

Successful pregnancy and delivery after pulmonary autograft operation (Ross procedure) for rheumatic aortic valve insufficiency.  

PubMed

A young woman with aortic valve insufficiency secondary to rheumatic heart disease underwent replacement of her diseased aortic valve with her own pulmonary valve and replacement of her pulmonary valve with an aortic cadaver homograft, the Ross procedure. She went on to conceive and deliver a normal infant. The Ross procedure is the operation of choice in a young woman with aortic valve disease, since it avoids anti-coagulation fetal loss, valve deterioration and other maternal risk from pregnancy associated with other valve replacement options. PMID:12806762

Martin, T C; Idahosa, V; Ogunbiyi, A; Fevrier-Roberts, G; Winter, A

2003-03-01

344

Microbially mediated mineral carbonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O ? (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily implemented and economically efficient alternative to other technologies currently under development for mineral sequestration. Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC (2008) Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19, 235-240. Ferris FG, Wiese RG, Fyfe WS (1994) Precipitation of carbonate minerals by microorganisms: Implications of silicate weathering and the global carbon dioxide budget. Geomicrobiology Journal, 12, 1-13. Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL, Jr., Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy, 20, 1153-1170. Power IM, Wilson SA, Thom JM, Dipple GM, Gabites JE, Southam G (2009) The hydromagnesite playas of Atlin, British Columbia, Canada: A biogeochemical model for CO2 sequestration. Chemical Geology, 206, 302-316. Thompson JB, Ferris FG (1990) Cyanobacterial precipitation of gypsum, calcite, and magnesite from natural alkaline lake water. Geology, 18, 995-998.

Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

2010-12-01

345

Efficacy of Pulmonary Artery Banding in the Prevention of Pulmonary Vascular Obstructive Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 57 nonconsecutive pediatric patients (mean age: 2.6 months) with shunt-related pulmonary hypertension, the efficacy of pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was analysed retrospectively with special reference to the development of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease (PVOD). The patients were grouped in accordance to morphology, hemodynamics and incidence of PVOD. Efficacy of PAB was assessed by pulmonary to systemic pressure, flow and

Andreas Borowski; Mathias Zeuchner; Sabine Schickendantz; Harald Korb

1994-01-01

346

Pulmonary agenesis and pulmonary sling anomaly in an infant with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly presenting with normal karyotype in most of the cases. Rarely pulmonary agenesis is associated with chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic disorders such as Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, VACTERL association and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. This report presents a patient with pulmonary agenesis, pulmonary sling anomaly and Down syndrome. PMID:24341150

Takci, S; Yigit, S; Haliloglu, M; Boduroglu, K; Kiper, N

2013-01-01

347

The effects of vasoactivity and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension on extralobar pulmonary artery biomechanics  

E-print Network

), the pulmonary circulation is under active control, which can be relevant in several lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Barbera et al., 2003; Weitzenblum and Chaouat, 2004), cysticThe effects of vasoactivity and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension on extralobar pulmonary artery

Chesler, Naomi C.

348

DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

2005-10-09

349

Pulmonary Vascular Angioscopy - Current Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed angioscopy on 31 patients with suspected chronic pulmonary arterial ob-struction using three prototype angioscopes. The instruments varied in length (80, 90, and 120 cm), outside diameter (3.2 and 4 mm), and distal tip deflection (70, 90, and 180 degrees). All had a distal viewing balloon. Conventional diagnostic studies were performed and decisions about diagnosis and operability were made prior to angioscopy. An independent assessment of diagnosis and operability was then made based on the results of angioscopy. Surgical confirmation was obtained in most cases and clinical or autopsy data were obtained in the remainder. Angioscopy led to a change in the diagnosis of 6 patients (19%). Four of 25 patients with chronic pulmonary emboli were felt to be inoperable based on the angioscopic findings. Two of these 4 underwent surgery and were found to be inoperable. 21 of the remaining 25 patients were felt to have operable disease and 19 underwent surgery. In 14 of these 19 (74%), the conventional studies were either negative or equivocal with respect to operability and the decision to operate was based on angioscopic data. We conclude that good visualization of the central pulmonary arteries can be achieved with the optical balloon technique; that the procedure can be performed safely in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension; and that the information obtained by angioscopy can significantly affect clinical decisions in patients with chronic pulmonary artery obstruction.

Shure, Deborah; Buchbinder, Maurice; Peterson, Kirk

1988-06-01

350

[Pulmonary hypertension in liver diseases].  

PubMed

Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined by the combination of portal hypertension and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mPAP ? 25 mmHg, PCWP < 15 mmHg and PVR > 3 Wood units). PoPH is characterised by pathobiological mechanisms that are similar to other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prevalence of PoPH is estimated at 0.5-5% among patients with portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. Treatment strategies most commonly employed for PoPH patients are based on recommendations for idiopathic PAH management. Indeed, the choice of specific PAH treatment must take account the severity of the underlying liver disease. Prognosis of PoPH patients is dependent on both the severity of PAH and of the underlying liver disease. PoPH may be a contraindication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) if mean pulmonary arterial pressure is > 35 mmHg associated with severe right ventricular dysfunction or high level of pulmonary vascular resistance (> 3-4 Wood units). Bridge therapy with specific PAH therapies should be considered in those patients in an attempt to improve pulmonary hemodynamic and thereby allow OLT with acceptable risk. Recent data suggest that stabilize, improve or cure PoPH seems to be possible by combining specific PAH therapies and liver transplantation in selected patients. Clinical and experimental evidences suggest that IFN therapy may be a possible risk factor for PAH. PMID:25148949

Savale, Laurent; Sattler, Caroline; Sitbon, Olivier

2014-09-01

351

Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis   

E-print Network

In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with ...

Gibbons, Michael A.

2010-01-01

352

Who Is at Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension?  

MedlinePLUS

... and lung diseases, liver disease, HIV infection, or blood clots in the pulmonary arteries. (For more information about the diseases, conditions, and factors that cause PH, go to "Types of Pulmonary Hypertension." ) Those who ...

353

Pulmonary gas transfer 20 years after pneumonectomy for pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

The changes in pulmonary function after pneumonectomy in 13 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have been studied. The data at the time of two follow-up studies are compared with those obtained before the pneumonectomy. The first follow-up was carried out between 5 and 30 months postoperatively and the second between 20 and 24 years later. The results of this second follow-up show a relatively normal arterial oxygen saturation and gas transfer factor but an increased residual volume which cannot be explained by increasing age alone. PMID:841538

Gimeno, F; Kraan, J K; Orie, N G; Peset, R

1977-01-01

354

Skeletal remineralization after surgery for primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

Bone mineral was measured by photon absorptiometry before and after parathyroid surgery in patients with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). The mean bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae was 0.82 +/- 0.04 (SEM) gm/cm2 in primary HPT (n = 7) and 0.86 +/- 0.05 gm/cm2 in secondary HPT (n = 11). These values are significantly lower than for age-matched normal subjects. After successful parathyroid surgery, the bone mass of the distal radius and lumbar vertebrae increased by approximately 10% within 3 months after operation and then remained stable during the first postoperative year. In conclusion, parathyroid surgery is followed by a significant increase of bone mass in primary and secondary HPT. The substantial increase in bone mass in parts of the skeleton consisting predominantly of trabecular bone, as well as in sites with predominantly cortical bone, indicates that remineralization after operation involves a generalized increase in bone mass. PMID:2300893

Abugassa, S; Nordenström, J; Eriksson, S; Möllerström, G; Alveryd, A

1990-02-01

355

Rocks and Minerals Of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kentucky rocks highlighted on this website are chiefly sedimentary, such as limestone and dolostone, since sedimentary rocks cover approximately 99 percent of the state. You will find an extensive list of minerals and mineral groups, such as oxides or halides, and mineral property descriptions that cover hardness, cleavage, color, crystal system, streak, and more. These properties are also discussed in relation to their use in identifying unknown minerals. Igneous and metamorphic rocks are covered in relation to gold and silver deposits, and the legend of the Jonathon Swift Silver mines. Information on Kentucky's state rock and mineral, museums, rock clubs, and mineral deposits are included.

356

The Physical Characteristics of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (an online minerals store), the Physical Characteristics of Minerals Web site offers a detailed description of how minerals are identified. Each page gives good information and examples of a particular characteristic (e.g, color, hardness, cleavage, feel, and taste). Also, on the first page are links to dozens of minerals that are categorized by name, class, interesting groupings, and great localities. These give the class, subclass, group, uses, physical characteristics, and sample photographs of that particular mineral. Anyone interested in geology, minerals, or gemstones will find this site very informative and fun to explore.

1998-01-01

357

The changes of pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy adults who had no cardiopulmonary-related diseases. Pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests were performed on the same subjects at 9:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 5:00 pm. The pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25–75%). Pulmonary strength tests assessed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). [Results] FEV1 showed statistically significant differences according to time of day. Other pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests revealed no statistical differences in diurnal variations. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests should be assessed considering the time of day and the morning dip phenomenon. PMID:25642028

Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

2015-01-01

358

Sleep in Patients With Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep complaints are very prevalent in the patients with pulmonary disease. This review will examine sleep effects on respiration,\\u000a explore ventilatory responses during sleep in normal individuals, and examine mechanisms of hypoxemia in patients with pulmonary\\u000a disease. Sleep disorders in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease\\u000a (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma, and restrictive parenchymal disease will

Susan M. Harding

359

Statins for Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

By virtue of their multiple actions, including anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and pro-apoptotic traits and the ability\\u000a to restore endothelial vasoactive mediator production, statins have been proposed as potential therapies for pulmonary hypertension.\\u000a In experimental studies in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced either by either monocrotaline or hypoxia, statins have\\u000a blunted the severity of pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular

John L. Faul; Peter N. Kao; Toshihiko Nishimura; Arthur Sung; Hong Hu; Ronald G. Pearl

360

Dendriform pulmonary ossification: Report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Dendriform pulmonary ossification is a rare form of diffuse pulmonary ossification that is usually detected incidentally on chest radiographs or chest computed tomography (CT) imaging. In this article, we present two patients who were incidentally found to have dendriform pulmonary ossification on chest imaging. The article will present the history and imaging findings of these two cases and then review the clinical, histological, and radiographic manifestations of dendriform pulmonary ossification. PMID:23986613

Jamjoom, Lamia; Meziane, Moulay; Renapurkar, Rahul D

2013-01-01

361

[Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patient].  

PubMed

Pulmonary toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunosuppressed patients and its diagnosis mainly relies upon biological confirmation of the parasite. We present the case of a 47 years patient in medullar aplasia after induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that developed pulmonary infiltrates of parasitic origin. The diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis was established after identification of the parasite in brochioloalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and peripheral blood. Serological tests are of limited utility in immunosuppressed patients. We used classical methods for the diagnosis of parasitosis but they are being replaced by molecular methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows a highly specific and sensitive diagnosis on any sample but it cannot be performed in any center. PMID:23077869

Rîp?, Carmen; Cojocaru, Ingrid; Luca, Mariana; Luca, C?t?lina Mihaela; Leon, Maria; Bahnea, Roxana-Gabriela

2012-01-01

362

Pulmonary arterial hypertension and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

This is the case report of a pregnant woman who refused pregnancy termination when diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) functional class 2–3 at the 24th week of gestation and of her newborn. A pregnant woman with PAH functional class 2–3 was treated with inhaled prostacyclin analog (iloprost), oral sildenafil, oxygen, and low molecular weight heparin. She delivered at 32nd week by Cesarean section. The infant required oxygen up to 36th week postconceptional age and had a short steroid treatment. The mother needed close cardiovascular monitorization, intensive oxygen and pulmonary vasodilator therapy for 2 months and was discharged with oxygen and oral iloprost treatment. A multidisciplinary approach together with pulmonary vasodilator therapy may be succesful in such a high-risk pregnant woman. PMID:23900530

Terek, Demet; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Kultursay, Hakan; Ergenoglu, Mete; Yalaz, Mehmet; Musayev, Oktay; Mogulkoc, Nesrin; Gunusen, Ilkben; Akisu, Mete; Kultursay, Nilgun

2013-01-01

363

Treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension was once thought to be a rare condition and only managed in specialized centers. Now however, with the advent of echocardiography, it is found in many clinical scenarios, in the neonate with chronic lung disease, in the acute setting in the intensive care unit, in connective tissue disease and in cardiology pre- and postoperatively. We have a better understanding of the pathological process and have a range of medication which is starting to be able to palliate this previously fatal condition. This review describes the areas that are known in this condition and those that are less familiar. The basic physiology behind pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular disease is explained. The histopathologic process and the various diagnostic tools are described and are followed by the current and future therapy at our disposal. PMID:19554091

Hawkins, Amy; Tulloh, Robert

2009-01-01

364

Thiamine-responsive pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

The aim of this report is to call attention to a poorly recognised cause of pulmonary hypertension, thiamine deficiency. A 78-year-old woman without alcoholism or malabsorption presented with progressive dyspnoea and generalised oedema. Echocardiography showed signs of right ventricular overload with an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure of 50?mm?Hg. Increased lactate concentrations prompted us to investigate thiamine deficiency. A 3-month history of picky eating, relying exclusively on white rice as the staple food, and low blood concentrations of thiamine confirmed the diagnosis. She recovered fully after 12?days of intravenous thiamine administration. Thiamine deficiency should be considered in all patients with pulmonary hypertension of unknown origin. PMID:23302552

Asakura, Takanori; Kodera, Satoshi; Kanda, Junji; Ikeda, Masayuki

2013-01-01

365

Granuloma Formation in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown cause, affecting multiple organs, but mainly the lungs. The exact order of immunological events remains obscure. Reviewing current literature, combined with careful clinical observations, we propose a model for granuloma formation in pulmonary sarcoidosis. A tight collaboration between macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocyte subsets, initiates the first steps toward granuloma formation, orchestrated by cytokines and chemokines. In a substantial part of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients, granuloma formation becomes an on-going process, leading to debilitating disease, and sometimes death. The immunological response, determining granuloma sustainment is not well understood. An impaired immunosuppressive function of regulatory T cells has been suggested to contribute to the exaggerated response. Interestingly, therapeutical agents commonly used in sarcoidosis, such as glucocorticosteroids and anti-TNF agents, interfere with granuloma integrity and restore the immune homeostasis in autoimmune disorders. Increasing insight into their mechanisms of action may contribute to the search for new therapeutical targets in pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:24339826

Broos, Caroline E.; van Nimwegen, Menno; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Hendriks, Rudi W.; Kool, Mirjam; van den Blink, Bernt

2013-01-01

366

Pulmonary Artery Angiosarcoma on 18F-FDG PET/CT Masquerading as Pulmonary Embolism.  

PubMed

A 53-year old woman suspicious for having pulmonary embolism on enhanced chest CT was proven to have metabolically active tumor in her pulmonary arteries on F-FDG PET/CT. Through biopsy and surgery, this turned out to be a pulmonary artery angiosarcoma. This case demonstrates that PET/CT is very useful in differentiating an aggressive malignant tumor from a bland pulmonary embolus in the pulmonary vasculature. PMID:25423348

Kessler, Alexander; Son, Hongju

2015-01-01

367

What to Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Rehabilitation » What To Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation Explore Pulmonary Rehabilitation What Is... Who Needs What To Expect Before What to Expect During What to Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ...

368

Echocardiographic determination of mean pulmonary artery pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a simultaneous Doppler and invasive study to validate the role of Doppler-derived peak pulmonary regurgitant velocity as a reliable noninvasive measure of pulmonary artery mean pressure. Assessment of right atrial pressure, as shown in this study, enhances the use of this Doppler parameter as a correlate of pulmonary artery mean pressure.

Amr E. Abbas; F. David Fortuin; Nelson B. Schiller; Christopher P. Appleton; Carlos A. Moreno; Steven J. Lester

2003-01-01

369

Pulmonary Vascular Response to Nitroprusside in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Although the effects of nitroprusside (NP) on myocardial function have been studied extensively, the effects of this vasodilator on the pulmonary vasculature have received less attention. In closed-chest anesthetized dogs, we used indicator dilution measurements of pulmonary blood volume (PBV), along -with measurements of pulmonary artery (Ppa) and left atrial (Pla) pressures, to address this problem in three experimental

EDWARD D. SIVAK; BARRY A. GRAY; H. TIM MCCURDY; ARDIS K. PHILLIPS

370

Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

2008-08-01

371

Introduction to Mineral Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is short problem set to be used in class. It helps focus discussion, while providing a starting point for discussing mineral reactions and phase diagrams. Students are exposed to ternary composition diagrams and to phase diagrams. They are also introduced to the phase rule, although in quite a superficial way.

Perkins, Dexter

372

Engineering and Mineral Resources  

E-print Network

News ????????????????? ® College of Engineering and Mineral Resources Winter 2008 table of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 wvCROSSROADS DepartmentofCivilandEnvironmentalEngineering Civil engineering exchange program and environmental engineering with a focus in transportation will have the opportunity to study abroad as part

Mohaghegh, Shahab

373

Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... least likely to take them. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention For people with certain health problems, specific MVMs might be helpful. For example, a study showed that a particular high-dose formula of several vitamins and minerals slowed vision loss in some people with age- ...

374

Fossils and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Black Hills Institute features information about different types of fossils, minerals, meteorites, and geology in general. Each topic has a brief description, with links to a more detailed explanation. Various samples and books are abailable for purchase on the site.

Research, Inc. B.

375

Energy and Mineral Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 16 questions on the topic of energy and mineral resources, which covers energy sources, resource types, and uses of resources. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Timothy Heaton

376

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: The Key Role of Echocardiography.  

PubMed

Echocardiography is a key screening tool in the diagnostic algorithm of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It provides an estimate of right ventricular function and pulmonary artery pressure, either at rest or during exercise, and is useful in ruling out secondary causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) such as left heart disease or congenital heart disease. Several studies have showed that echocardiography is insufficiently precise as single tool for the ultimate diagnosis of PH respect to the right heart catheterization, considered the gold standard technique. Echocardiography is valuable in assessing prognosis and treatment options, monitoring the efficacy of specific therapeutic interventions, and detecting the preclinical stages of disease. The ideal imaging modality for accurate noninvasive assessment of the right heart should be accurate and precise, not influenced by loading conditions, routinely practicable and easily repeatable. For all such reasons and considering that PAH is a rare and severe condition, a complete noninvasive assessment of right heart function requires a deep knowledge of the disease and a multimodality approach. PMID:25244441

D'Alto, Michele; Romeo, Emanuele; Argiento, Paola; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Badagliacca, Roberto; Cirillo, Anna P; Kaemmerer, Harald; Bossone, Eduardo; Naeije, Robert

2014-09-19

377

Right or Left: The Role of Nanoparticles in Pulmonary Diseases  

PubMed Central

Due to the rapid development of the nanotechnology industry in the last decade, nanoparticles (NPs) are omnipresent in our everyday life today. Many nanomaterials have been engineered for medical purposes. These purposes include therapy for pulmonary diseases. On other hand, people are endeavoring to develop nanomaterials for improvement or replacement of traditional therapies. On the other hand, nanoparticles, as foreign material in human bodies, are reported to have potential adverse effects on the lung, including oxidase stress, inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity. Further, these damages could induce pulmonary diseases and even injuries in other tissues. It seems that nanoparticles may exert two-sided effects. Toxic effects of nanomaterials should be considered when their use is developed for therapies. Hence this review will attempt to summarize the two-side roles of nanoparticles in both therapies for pulmonary diseases and initiation of lung diseases and even secondary diseases caused by lung injuries. Determinants of these effects such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticles will also be discussed. PMID:25268624

Lu, Xuefei; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Chunying; Liu, Ying

2014-01-01

378

Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A

2014-06-01

379

Massive pulmonary embolism and thrombophilia  

PubMed Central

A 32-year-old man presented overnight to the accident and emergency unit with mild breathlessness on exertion. He was found to be hypoxic on room air and his chest x-ray revealed areas of patchy lung consolidation. He was given intravenous antibiotics for presumed community-acquired pneumonia. Unfortunately his condition deteriorated and he remained significantly hypoxic despite high-flow oxygen with ECG evidence of right heart strain. Further questioning revealed a history of protein S deficiency and a strong family history of venous thromboembolic disease. An urgent CT pulmonary angiogram showed an evidence of massive pulmonary embolism and the patient was successfully thrombolysed. PMID:23345503

Qureshi, Iman; Meshaka, Riwa; Donohue, Claire; Ali, Asad

2013-01-01

380

Program organization in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Variable aspects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs include staff composition, setting, structure, and duration. Longer PR programs generally translate into greater improvements in outcomes and (perhaps) prolonged maintenance of benefits. Barriers to PR include transportation issues, inconvenience for the patient, cost and insurance coverage problems, lack of perceived benefit, concurrent illness, and influence of the provider. PR settings include inpatient and outpatient environments. PR has been shown to improve health care utilization during or immediately following chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Challenges to providing PR may be partially addressed by technological developments. PMID:24874136

Garvey, Chris; Carlin, Brian; Raskin, Jonathan

2014-06-01

381

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-print Network

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

382

Alphabetical Listing of Mineral Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This directory provides an alphabetical listing of more than 4,000 mineral species. Clicking on each mineral name provides access to information including chemical formula and composition, locality and name origin, physical properties, optical properties, images, and many others.

383

Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Skeletal muscle wasting and dysfunction are strong independent predictors of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Creatine nutritional supplementation produces increased muscle mass and exercise performance in health. A controlled study was performed to look for similar effects in 38 patients with COPD.Methods: Thirty eight patients with COPD (mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second

J P Fuld; L P Kilduff; J A Neder; Y Pitsiladis; M E J Lean; S A Ward; M M Cotton

2005-01-01

384

Systemic and pulmonary oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxidant\\/antioxidant imbalance has been proposed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We tested this hypothesis by measuring various parameters of the oxidant\\/antioxidant balance in the plasma of 12 patients with IPF (7 nonsmokers and 5 smokers); in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 24 patients with IPF (17 nonsmokers and 7 smokers) and 31 healthy subjects (23 nonsmokers

Irfan Rahman; Elzbieta Skwarska; Michael Henry; Margaret Davis; Clare M O’Connor; Muiris X FitzGerald; Andrew Greening; William MacNee

1999-01-01

385

Secondary fuel delivery system  

DOEpatents

A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

2010-02-23

386

Private Mineral Project - Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this semester-long private mineral project, students become experts on one mineral. They write a paper about their mineral and use key information about it to publish a web page. Information should include provenance, physical properties, composition, recent related literature, photos of samples, optical properties, x-ray pattern, crystallography, economic value, atomic structure, other closely related minerals, associated myths, and a complete list of references based on GSA format.

Dexter Perkins

387

Pulmonary preinvasive neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Advances in molecular biology have increased our knowledge of the biology of preneoplastic lesions in the human lung. The recently published WHO lung tumour classification defines three separate lesions that are regarded as preinvasive neoplasia. These are (1) squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (SD/CIS), (2) atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), and (3) diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH). SD/CIS is graded in four stages (mild, moderate, severe, and CIS), based upon the distribution of atypical cells and mitotic figures. Most airways showing SD/CIS demonstrate a range of grades; many epithelia are hard to assess and the reproducibility of this complex system remains to be established. Detailed criteria are, however, welcome and provide an objective framework on which to compare various molecular changes. Alterations in gene expression and chromosome structure known to be associated with malignant transformation can be demonstrated in CIS, less so in dysplasias, but also in morphologically normal epithelium. The changes might be sequential, and their frequency and number increase with atypia. Less is known of the "risk of progression" of SD/CIS to invasive "central" bronchial carcinoma. It may take between one and 10 years for invasion to occur, yet the lesion(s) may be reversible if carcinogen exposure ceases. AAH may be an important precursor lesion for peripheral "parenchymal" adenocarcinoma of the lung: the "adenoma" in an adenoma–carcinoma sequence. There is good morphological evidence that AAH may progress from low to high grade to bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC; a non-invasive lesion by definition). Invasion then develops within BAC and peripheral lung adenocarcinoma evolves. The molecular events associated with this progression are not well understood and studies are hampered by a lack of clear criteria to distinguish high grade AAH from BAC. Nonetheless, as with SD/CIS, the patterns of expression of tumour associated genes are consistent with neoplastic progression. We have little idea of the incidence of AAH in the normal or "smoking" populations. It is found more frequently in cancer bearing lungs, especially in those with adenocarcinoma, and is more common in women. No data are available on the risk of progression of AAH. DIPNECH is an exceptionally rare lesion associated with the development of multiple carcinoid tumours. Almost nothing is known of its biology. Knowledge of these lesions will be crucial in the design and understanding of lung cancer screening programmes, where it is likely that the morphological and, more importantly perhaps, the molecular characteristics of these lesions will provide useful targets for detection and possibly even treatment. Key Words: lung cancer • preneoplasia • carcinogenesis PMID:11304841

Kerr, K

2001-01-01

388

Management of pulmonary embolism during acrylic vertebroplasty.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta had multiple pulmonary embolism from acrylic cement during vertebroplasty. The patient immediately developed respiratory distress, renal failure, and right cardiac failure. A computed tomographic scan showed the presence of cement in the right and left pulmonary arteries, and in both lungs. Cardiac and respiratory functions did not improve with medical treatment, therefore the patient underwent pulmonary artery embolectomy. Cement was easily removed from both pulmonary arteries. The patient quickly recovered from respiratory and cardiac failure. We believe pulmonary embolectomy is a reliable and effective procedure to treat this rare and dreadful complication of acrylic vertebroplasty. PMID:12440642

Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Abdelmoumene, Yasmine; Corno, Antonio F; Gersbach, Philip A; Hoogewoud, Henri-Marcel; von Segesser, Ludwig K

2002-11-01

389

Mars' Magnetic Lithosphere: Candidate Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars' large southern-hemisphere magnetic anomalies require some combination of (1) a large Martian magnetic field at the time the lithosphere acquired thermoremanent magnetization (TRM), (2) large magnetic mineral concentrations compared to Earth's lithosphere, (3) a mineral or minerals whose grain size and resulting domain structure generate intense TRM, and (4) a high Curie temperature and deep Curie-point isotherm. Induced magnetization

D. J. Dunlop

2003-01-01

390

Mineral Properties -- Learning through Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are each given a mineral and asked to locate all other students in the room with the same mineral (knowing there are a total of 5 different minerals). Once groups form, they need to decide what characteristics are similar for all their samples and ultimately report out to the whole class on their observations.

Wiese, Katryn

391

Right hemicolectomy in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension anesthesia approach  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old obese female patient was diagnosed to be having severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to mixed connective tissue disease and pulmonary fibrosis. She presented for right hemi-colectomy for a large right-sided colonic polypoid mass and multiple polyps diagnosed by colonoscopy. Her surgery was postponed by 2 months by the anesthesiologist due to dyspnea at rest and high pulmonary artery pressure (70–80 mmHg) for further optimization of medical treatment. After 2 months, she was adequately fit enough to undergo surgery. High lumbar epidural anesthesia was adopted and weaned off. She was discharged after 5 days of surgery from the hospital without any sequel. This report presents the merits and recommendations for such patients.

Nawaaz, M. S. Mohamed; Salem, Yaser

2010-01-01

392

Mineral industries of the Middle East. Mineral prospective. [16 countries  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the mineral industries of the 16 countries in the Middle East. Countries in the region differ widely, from those heavily endowed with hydrocarbon resources but with limited nonfuel resources, such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Qatar, to those heavily mineralized countries with limited petroleum reserves, such as Turkey, and to those with little mineral activity of any kind, such as Lebanon. Base maps and tables show the location and salient features of each country's mineral and petroleum industries. The text highlights the important aspects of mineral supply and trade, mineral policy, industry structure, labor, energy, and the outlook for future developments in the industry. Infrastructure of importance to the mineral industry of each country, including railways, roads, and pipelines, is included on each map.

Not Available

1986-04-01

393

Pulmonary dysfunction in cocaine smokers.  

PubMed

The authors report another complication of freebase cocaine smoking. They found a significant reduction in the carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the lungs of two patients. This suggests that inhalation of the freebase of cocaine may damage the pulmonary gas exchange surface. PMID:6789686

Weiss, R D; Goldenheim, P D; Mirin, S M; Hales, C A; Mendelson, J H

1981-08-01

394

Pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have attempted to elucidate the natural history of pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC) based on more than 350 cases of the disease observed in the last 11 years and on data collected from the literature. The data indicate that PAIC is a dynamic process consequent to the continual growth and death of fungal elements and also with their relationships

L. C. Severo; G. R. Geyer; N. S. Porto

1990-01-01

395

Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547

Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

2013-09-01

396

Phthalate exposure and pulmonary function.  

PubMed Central

Exposure to phthalates is widespread because of their use in plastics, cosmetics, and other consumer products. Phthalate exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes in children. With urinary phthalate measures, we assessed the association between phthalate exposure and four pulmonary function parameters [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum mid-expiratory flow] among the 240 adult Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) participants with urinary phthalate data. Linear regression models controlled for race, age, age squared, standing height, body mass index, cumulative smoking, and current smoking. Monobutyl phthalate (MBP) was significantly associated with decrements in three measures of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, PEF) in males but not in females. For a change from the 25th to the 75th percentile in MBP level among men, FEV1 decreased 112 mL (SE = 51, p = 0.03). Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with lower FVC and FEV1 values in men. Monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), the metabolite of the plasticizer commonly used in medical tubing, was not adversely associated with any of the pulmonary function parameters evaluated. Our results suggest that MBP and MEP, but not MEHP, may influence pulmonary function among adult males. PMID:15064163

Hoppin, Jane A; Ulmer, Ross; London, Stephanie J

2004-01-01

397

Congenital Pulmonary Malformation in Children  

PubMed Central

Congenital Pulmonary Malformations (CPMs) are a group of rare lung abnormalities affecting the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature. They represent a spectrum of abnormal development rather than discrete pathological entities. They are caused by aberrant embryological lung development which occurs at different stages of intrauterine life. PMID:24278678

Nadeem, Montasser; Elnazir, Basil; Greally, Peter

2012-01-01

398

Anomalies of pulmonary venous return  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare but life-threatening congenital heart lesion. We present our experience with 48 consecutive infants operated on from 1977 to 1983. Improved results are due to earlier diagnosis, improved surgical technique, and meticulous postoperative care. Since 1980 some patients with this lesion were submitted to surgery on the basis of two-dimensional echocardiography, thus avoiding

Jaroslav Stark

1985-01-01

399

A case of pulmonary artery sarcoma presented as cavitary pulmonary lesions.  

PubMed

Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare, poorly differentiated malignancy arising from the intimal layer of the pulmonary artery. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) is a good diagnostic modality that shows a low-attenuation filling defect of the pulmonary artery in PAS patients. An 18-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the evaluation and management of cavitary pulmonary lesions that did not respond to treatment. A contrast-enhanced CT of the chest was performed, which showed a filling defect within the right interlobar pulmonary artery. The patient underwent a curative right pneumonectomy after confirmation of PAS. Although lung parenchymal lesions of PAS are generally nonspecific, it can be presented as cavities indicate pulmonary infarcts. Clinicians must consider the possibility of PAS as well as pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with pulmonary infarcts. So, we report the case with PAS that was diagnosed during the evaluation of cavitary pulmonary lesions and reviewed the literatures. PMID:24734102

Min, Daniel; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hye-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Suk-Pyo; Kim, Hong-Min; Han, Kyu Hyun; Jeong, Hye Yun; Kim, Eun-Kyung

2014-03-01

400

Pulmonary artery stent for bronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma causing pulmonary artery stenosis  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of dyspnea and weight loss on a background of previous pneumonectomy for bronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma 14 years beforehand. Several years prior to this presentation, she had developed left vocal cord palsy and a metastatic lesion to the right buttock confirmed at resection. Investigations included CT pulmonary angiography and right heart catheterisation and demonstrated pulmonary artery stenosis suggestive of vascular encasement, severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary nodules. Subsequent pulmonary artery stenting markedly improved both pulmonary artery pressures and the patient's symptoms. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery stenosis due to mediastinal infiltration by metastatic bronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma was based on these findings as well as the presence of the pulmonary nodules and the previous mediastinal (recurrent laryngeal nerve) and metastatic complications. This case is the first report of successful pulmonary artery stenting for this rare complication. PMID:25473560

Smith, Corey Allister; Kotlyar, Eugene; Mellemkjaer, Soren; Muller, David; Stone, Emily

2014-01-01

401

Nitric oxide-associated pulmonary edema in children with pulmonary venous hypertension.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO)-associated pulmonary edema is rarely reported in children; in adults, it is often associated with left-sided heart failure. We report a case series of children with NO-associated pulmonary edema, which was defined as new multilobar alveolar infiltrates and worsening hypoxemia within 24 h of initiation or escalation of NO and radiologic or clinical improvement after NO discontinuation. We identified six patients (0.4-4 years old) with ten episodes of NO-associated pulmonary edema. Diagnoses included atrioventricular canal defect with mitral valve disease (n = 2), pulmonary atresia and major aorta-pulmonary collateral arteries (n = 2), total anomalous pulmonary venous return (n = 1), and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (n = 1). All patients had evidence of pulmonary venous hypertension, and two had mitral valve disease resulting in clinical evidence of left-sided heart failure. Pulmonary edema improved or resolved within 24 h of discontinuing NO. At cardiac catheterization, mean left atrial pressure was <15 mmHg in three of three patients (none with mitral valve disease), whereas pulmonary artery occlusion pressure was >15 mmHg in two of five patients. In conclusion, we describe six young children with NO-associated pulmonary edema and pulmonary venous hypertension. Only two of these children had left-sided heart failure: Left atrial pressure as well as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure may not be helpful in identifying children at risk for NO-associated pulmonary edema. PMID:23064842

Baird, J Scott; Havalad, Vinod; Aponte-Patel, Linda; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; October, Tessie W; Starc, Thomas J; Smerling, Arthur J

2013-04-01

402

30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22608 Section 57.22608 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

403

30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).  

...Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22608 Section 57.22608 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2014-07-01

404

30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22608 Section 57.22608 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

405

43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

2011-10-01

406

43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

2011-10-01

407

Neuromotor control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Neuromotor control of skeletal muscles, including respiratory muscles, is ultimately dependent on the structure and function of the motor units (motoneurons and the muscle fibers they innervate) comprising the muscle. In most muscles, considerable diversity of contractile and fatigue properties exists across motor units, allowing a range of motor behaviors. In diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there may be disproportional primary (disease related) or secondary effects (related to treatment or other concomitant factors) on the size and contractility of specific muscle fiber types that would influence the relative contribution of different motor units. For example, with COPD there is a disproportionate atrophy of type IIx and/or IIb fibers that comprise more fatigable motor units. Thus fatigue resistance may appear to improve, while overall motor performance (e.g., 6-min walk test) and endurance (e.g., reduced aerobic exercise capacity) are diminished. There are many coexisting factors that might also influence motor performance. For example, in COPD patients, there may be concomitant hypoxia and/or hypercapnia, physical inactivity and unloading of muscles, and corticosteroid treatment, all of which may disproportionately affect specific muscle fiber types, thereby influencing neuromotor control. Future studies should address how plasticity in motor units can be harnessed to mitigate the functional impact of COPD-induced changes. PMID:23329816

Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

2013-05-01

408

Gillespie Museum of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gillespie Museum, located on the campus of Stetson University, houses an extensive rock and mineral collection, and provides visitors and students a place in which curiosity, interest and creativity can be explored. Programs are provided for families, special interest groups, and school groups. The Museum programs focus on using the educational collections to help students learn basic science skills such as observation, classification, communication, investigation and interpretation. The Museum also provides off-site outreach programs by participating in community events such as EarthFest and Earth Day celebrations, local festivals, and scouting programs. Traveling exhibits are developed for loan to other Museums, Chambers of Commerce and Rock and Mineral Clubs. In an effort to present an Earth science museum in a natural setting, a Florida Native Landscape garden has been added to the grounds. The landscape provides an opportunity for individuals to learn alternative ways in which to establish a garden without the use of excess water and pesticides.

2010-11-16

409

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M. [Tetra Technical Inc, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-09-15

410

Calcite: The multiuse mineral  

Microsoft Academic Search

If people were told that a newly discovered mineral polarizes light, provides a raw material for sculptors, diminishes the danger of hip breakage, makes long-lasting foundations for buildings, reduces pollution at power plants, serves as a soil conditioner and water purifier, and saves life on earth from suffocation, they might be inclined to say either {open_quotes}Ain`t science wonderful!{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Come

Paschall

1994-01-01

411

Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

Cotomacio, J. G. [Centro Universitario Nove de Julho, R: Diamantina, 602-Vila Maria, CEP: 02117-0101, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva, P. S. C. [Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes-Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria-CEP 05508 000 Sao Paulo-Brazil (Brazil); Mazzilli, B. P

2008-08-07

412

Exploring Bone Mineral Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore two given websites to gather information on Bone Mineral Density and how it is measured. They will also learn about X-rays in general, how they work and their different uses, along with other imaging modalities. They will answer guiding questions as they explore the websites and take a short quiz after to test the knowledge they gained while reading the articles.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

413

The Clay Minerals Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Clay Minerals Society (CMS) is an international community of scientists who promote research in and disseminate information on clay science and technology." The website provides downloads of materials dealing with various aspects of mineralogy, geochemistry, and petrology. Researchers can find out about annual meetings, awards and grants, and publications. Students and educators can find information on teaching materials, clay science workshops, and games. The website offers physical and chemical data for Source and Special Clays.

414

Exercise-induced Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Exercise stresses the pulmonary circulation through increases in cardiac output (Q.) and left atrial pressure. Invasive as well as noninvasive studies in healthy volunteers show that the slope of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP)–flow relationships ranges from 0.5 to 3 mm Hg?min?L?1. The upper limit of normal mPAP at exercise thus approximates 30 mm Hg at a Q. of less than 10 L?min?1 or a total pulmonary vascular resistance at exercise of less than 3 Wood units. Left atrial pressure increases at exercise with an average upstream transmission to PAP in a close to one-for-one mm Hg fashion. Multipoint PAP–flow relationships are usually described by a linear approximation, but present with a slight curvilinearity, which is explained by resistive vessel distensibility. When mPAP is expressed as a function of oxygen uptake or workload, plateau patterns may be observed in patients with systolic heart failure who cannot further increase Q. at the highest levels of exercise. Exercise has to be dynamic to avoid the increase in systemic vascular resistance and abrupt changes in intrathoracic pressure that occur with resistive exercise and can lead to unpredictable effects on the pulmonary circulation. Postexercise measurements are unreliable because of the rapid return of pulmonary vascular pressures and flows to the baseline resting state. Recent studies suggest that exercise-induced increase in PAP to a mean higher than 30 mm Hg may be associated with dyspnea-fatigue symptomatology. PMID:23348976

Vanderpool, Rebecca; Dhakal, Bishnu P.; Saggar, Rajeev; Saggar, Rajan; Vachiery, Jean-Luc; Lewis, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

415

[Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis].  

PubMed

Alveolar proteinosis (AP) is a rare disease characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant components, which impairs gas exchange. AP is classified into three groups: auto-immune AP defined by the presence of plasma autoantibodies anti-GM-CSF, the most frequent form (90% of all AP); secondary AP, mainly occurring as a consequence of haematological diseases, or following on from toxic inhalation or infections, and genetic AP, which affects almost exclusively children. AP diagnosis is suspected where chest CT-scan demonstrates interstitial lung disease with a crazy paving aspect; and confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage, which has a milky appearance and contains periodic acid Schiff positive proteinaceous alveolar deposits. The use of surgical lung biopsy to confirm AP is less frequent nowadays. In this context, positive antibodies against GM-CSF indicates an auto-immune etiology of the AP. Concerning management, whole lung lavage is the gold standard therapy. In refractory AP, new treatments are available such as subcutaneous or inhaled GM-CSF supplementation, or rituximab infusions. The clinical course is unpredictable. Spontaneous improvement or even cure can occur, and the 5-year actuarial survival is 95%. The most frequent complications are infectious etiology. PMID:25496792

Jouneau, S; Kerjouan, M; Briens, E; Lenormand, J-P; Meunier, C; Letheulle, J; Chiforeanu, D; Lainé-Caroff, C; Desrues, B; Delaval, P

2014-12-01

416

Green Clay Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 ?m thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence in the silicate (clay mineral in our case) structure, the specific bonding of these ions, and other factors. In fact, the reasons for coloration are not known completely, but it is certain that a combination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions is necessary to give a nice green color to clays. In the green clay minerals discussed here, the colors vary greatly as seen under the optical microscope (not always the same as the one seen in hand specimen). Yellow to blue-green hues can be found. However, for the moment, no clear relation between iron content, iron valence ratio, or other factors such as minor transition element concentrations can be found to explain the greenness of green clay minerals. The fact that a clay is green just indicates a combination of the two oxidation states of iron. The color, however, indicates the key to the formation in nature of green clay minerals.Green clay minerals are in general the product of "mixed valence" conditions of formation, most often in a situation where some iron is reduced from Fe3+ and enters into a silicate mineral structure. In general, iron would rather be an oxide when it is in the trivalent state. The moment iron is reduced to a divalent state under surface or near-surface conditions, it looks for a silicate, sulfide, or carbonate to hide in. The reverse is also true, of course. When a silicate is oxidized, Fe2+ becoming Fe3+, the iron begins to group together in oxide clumps and eventually exits the silicate structure. This is seen in thin section in altered rocks (weathering or hydrothermal action). The production of trivalent, oxidized iron usually results in a brownish or orange mineral.If the geology of the formation of green silicate minerals is relatively well defined, especially at near surface or surface conditions, the question remains how much of the iron is in a reduced oxidation state and how? In the case of reduction of iron in surface environments: if most of the iron goes to Fe2+, one mineral is formed; if only part of it is reduced, another is formed. This is the fundamental geochemical aspect of

Velde, B.

2003-12-01

417

Salton sea minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-held notion that precious metals, minerals, and other useful substances can be extracted from natural waters is starting to become realized at several locations of geothermal brines. In a recent study by A. Maimoni of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory it was determined that there is a high potential for minerals recovery from the hot brines of a 1000-MWe geothermal power station at the Salton Sea geothermal field in southern California. The study estimated that the revenue from the minerals could substantially exceed that from the power station (Geothermics, 11, 239-258, 1982).According to the study, ‘A 1000-MWe power plant could recover 14-31% of the U.S. demand for manganese.’ In the example of lithium production, such a geothermal plant could produce 5-10 times the annual world output of lithium. Large quantities of lead and zinc could be extracted, as well as significant amounts of gold, platinum, and silver. The chemical composition of the brines is incredibly complex, however, for reasons not currently understood.

Bell, Peter M.

418

Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy. PMID:23662181

Howard, Luke S.G.E.; Watson, Geoffrey M.J.; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A.; Kiely, David G.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wilkins, Martin R.

2013-01-01

419

Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy. PMID:23662181

Howard, Luke S G E; Watson, Geoffrey M J; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A; Kiely, David G; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J Simon R; Wilkins, Martin R

2013-01-01

420

Serum Pentraxin 3 and hs-CRP Levels in Children with Severe Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to untreated left-to-right shunt defects leads to increased pulmonary blood flow, endothelial dysfunction, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, vascular remodelling, neointimal and plexiform lesions. Some recent studies have shown that inflammation has an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate serum pentraxin 3 and high sensitive (hs)-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in children with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) secondary to untreated congenital heart defects and evaluate the role of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: After ethics committee approval and receiving consent from parents, there were 31 children were selected for the study with severe PAH, mostly with a left-to-right shunt, who had been assessed by cardiac catheterisation and were taking specific pulmonary vasodilators. The control group consisted of 39 age and gender matched healthy children. After recording data about all the patients including age, gender, weight, haemodynamic studies and vasodilator testing, a physical examination was done for all subjects. Blood was taken from patients and the control group using peripheral veins to analyse serum Pentraxin 3, N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP) and hs-CRP levels. Serum Pentraxin-3 levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and expressed as ng/mL. Serum hs-CRP levels were measured with an immunonephelometric method and expressed as mg/dL. The serum concentration of NT-proBNP was determined by a chemiluminescent immunumetric assay and expressed as pg/mL. Results: Serum Pentraxin- 3 levels were determined to be 1.28±2.12 (0.12–11.43) in the PAH group (group 1) and 0.40±0.72 (0.07–3.45) in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). Serum hs-CRP levels were measured as 2.92±2.12 (0.32–14.7) mg/dL in group 1 and 0.35±0.16 (0.07–3.45) mg/dL in group 2. The hs-CRP level was increased in the PAH group to a significant degree (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our study showed that pentraxin 3 and hs-CRP levels were increased significantly in the PAH group. We consider that inflammation plays an important role in severe pulmonary hypertension and progressive pulmonary arterial hypertension in children with PAH.

Karakurt, Cem?it; Ba?p?nar, Osman; Çelik, Fazl? Serkan; Ta?kapan, Ça?atay; ?ahin, Ayd?n Derya; Yolo?lu, Saim

2014-01-01

421

Pulmonary wedge pressures confirm pulmonary hypertension in broilers is initiated by an excessive pulmonary arterial (precapillary) resistance.  

PubMed

High retrograde pressure through the pulmonary venous system caused by failure of the left ventricle or left atrio-ventricular valve may result in the elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy associated with pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS; ascites) in broiler chickens. In the present study, unanaesthetized male broilers from an ascites-resistant line, the base population from which the resistant line was derived, and a separate unselected line were used to determine whether changes in wedge pressure (thought to be similar to left atrial pressure) are predictive of differences in the pulmonary arterial pressure of clinically healthy and pre-ascitic broilers. Venous, right atrial, right ventricular, pulmonary arterial, and wedge pressures were obtained by inserting a catheter into a wing vein and progressively advancing the catheter into a pulmonary branch artery until the catheter tip became wedged in and occluded the flow through a terminal artery. Mean right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures were lower in the resistant line than in the base population, but wedge pressures did not differ between the resistant, base, and unselected lines. Right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) and the percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood ranged in value from 0.18 to 0.44 and 65 to 96%, respectively. Wedge pressure, however, remained similar when pre-ascitic broilers with high RV:TV values and low oximetry values were compared with clinically healthy broilers. In all birds, whether healthy or showing pre-ascitic characteristics, the wedge pressure was slightly higher than the right atrial pressure but substantially lower than pulmonary arterial pressure. These observations provide definitive proof that pulmonary hypertension is initiated as a consequence of excessive pulmonary arterial or arteriole resistance. Pulmonary venous pressure is estimated by measuring the pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, and high wedge pressures would be evident if pulmonary hypertension was caused by the elevated downstream resistances associated with left-sided heart failure. PMID:11297286

Chapman, M E; Wideman, R F

2001-04-01

422

Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

Brown, R. W.

1980-01-01

423

[Pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after pulmonary stent implants in a patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome].  

PubMed

Vascular tortuosity syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes tortuosity and stenosis of the pulmonary, systemic and / or coronary circulations. As a result of treatment of pulmonary stenosis, symptoms of pulmonary edema, known as lung reperfusion syndrome, may occur. The case is presented of an adolescent patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome who presented with a pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after multiple stent implants in the left pulmonary artery. After the procedure, the patient immediately developed an acute pulmonary edema with severe clinical deterioration, which required assistance with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for recovery. PMID:25082128

Berenguer Potenciano, M; Piris Borregas, S; Mendoza Soto, A; Velasco Bayon, J M; Caro Barri, A

2015-01-01

424

The clinical application of bone mineral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photon absorptiometry provides an accurate measurement of bone mineral content. In acromegaly, the bone mineral content is normal, whereas the bone mineral content is reduced by acidosis. Decreased bone mineral content occurs in alcoholics due to osteomalacia and also in anticonvulsant therapy for the same reason. In hyperparathyroidism, there is decreased bone mineral content. Corticosteroids reduce bone mineral content especially

Harry J. Griffiths; Robert E. Zimmerman

1978-01-01

425

Secondary containment system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pumping system for fluid products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and chemicals, and including a pump for pumping such products from a storage tank through a primary pipeline to a product dispenser. The improvement consists of a secondary containment system for the pipeline between the storage tank and the product dispenser and including a secondary pipe system surrounding the primary pipeline. The secondary pipe system includes telescoping pipe sections of different diameters, which are installed around the primary pipeline and which are, prior to final installation, movable between intermediate and final positions, for enabling completion, testing and inspection of the primary pipeline prior to final completion of the secondary containment system.

Webb, M.C.

1989-02-21

426

Secondary Procedures in Replantation  

PubMed Central

The success of replantation surgery is not judged by survival of the replanted part, but by the functional outcome attained. Hence, primary repair of all injured structures is the preferred aim. At times, constraints induced by the ischemia time and nature of injury preclude primary repair. In such situations, secondary procedures are inevitable. Secondary procedures are also frequently required to improve the function and appearance of the replanted extremity. The incidence of secondary procedures will vary with the level of replantation and the type of patient population. Secondary procedures are difficult because they carry risk of injury to the vital neurovascular structures that now lay at nonanatomical locations. Nevertheless, when indicated and performed with caution they could significantly raise the functional status of the individuals. PMID:24872769

Sabapathy, S. Raja; Bhardwaj, Praveen

2013-01-01

427

Personalizing Secondary Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To facilitate "personalizing" and individualizing secondary school curriculum, the author presents eight conceptual aspects of individualization and discusses the relationship of these concepts to program design and implementation of an individual learning program. (HMD)

Bailey, William J.

1974-01-01

428

[Secondary myelodysplastic syndrome].  

PubMed

Secondary or therapy related myelodysplastic syndrome may develop following treatment with alkylating agents and radiotherapy. The condition may also follow high dose therapy for malignant lymphomas. We describe two patients who developed secondary myelodysplasia. The first is a 76-year old female with a low grade lymphoma who developed pancytopenia with monosomy 7. Secondary myelodysplasia was diagnosed 24 months after treatment with chlorambucil (total dose of 900 mg) and 12 months after treatment with trophosphamide (total dose of 24 g). The second patient was a 48-year old male who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation for a relapsed low grade lymphoma. Following autografting he had persistent anemia and trombocytopenia. Secondary myelodysplastic syndrome with complex karyotype was diagnosed 54 months after high dose therapy. He died nine months later of bone marrow failure. PMID:9441464

Shammas, F V; Heikkilä, R

1997-11-30

429

Secondary chondrosarcoma: radiopathological correlation.  

PubMed

Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors originating in cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is the third most common malignant bone tumor after multiple myeloma and osteosarcoma. About 75% of chondrosarcomas are primary lesions. The remaining 25% belong to special categories such as histologic variants and secondary forms. A secondary chondrosarcoma is one that appears in a pre-existing benign chondral lesion; the different types of secondary chondrosarcomas include solitary osteochondroma, multiple osteochondromatosis, enchondroma, the different types of enchondromatosis, and primary synovial chondromatosis. The incidence of this malignant transformation varies widely in function of the type of lesion. In this article, we discuss and illustrate the different types of secondary chondrosarcomas, placing special emphasis on the imaging findings that should alert to these lesions and give radiologists a key role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of these patients. PMID:25002353

Lozano Martínez, G A; Llauger Rosselló, J

2014-07-01

430

Secondary Endolymphatic Hydrops (SEH)  

MedlinePLUS

... as Ménière’s disease) occurs for no known reason. Secondary endolymphatic hydrops appears to occur in response to an event or underlying condition. For example, it can follow head trauma or ear surgery, and it can occur with ...

431

Secondary extinctions of biodiversity.  

PubMed

Extinctions beget further extinctions when species lose obligate mutualists, predators, prey, or hosts. Here, we develop a conceptual model of species and community attributes affecting secondary extinction likelihood, incorporating mechanisms that buffer organisms against partner loss. Specialized interactors, including 'cryptic specialists' with diverse but nonredundant partner assemblages, incur elevated risk. Risk is also higher for species that cannot either evolve new traits following partner loss or obtain novel partners in communities reorganizing under changing environmental conditions. Partner loss occurs alongside other anthropogenic impacts; multiple stressors can circumvent ecological buffers, enhancing secondary extinction risk. Stressors can also offset each other, reducing secondary extinction risk, a hitherto unappreciated phenomenon. This synthesis suggests improved conservation planning tactics and critical directions for research on secondary extinctions. PMID:25445878

Brodie, Jedediah F; Aslan, Clare E; Rogers, Haldre S; Redford, Kent H; Maron, John L; Bronstein, Judith L; Groves, Craig R

2014-12-01

432

Liver hydatid cyst leading to bilateral pulmonary artery embolism and bilateral multiple pulmonar echinococcosis via inferior vena cava: report of a case.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease (HD) is a worldwide parasitic disease. Echinococcosis may involve many organs but affect most commonly liver and lungs. The location of echinococcal cysts inside pulmonary artery is extremely rare. Radiologic findings range from purely cystic lesions to a completely solid appearance. Hydatid cysts (HC) can be solitary or multiple and varies size. Pulmonary artery embolism of HC can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. When symptomatic, we see the chest pain, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis and sometimes acute cor pulmonale or sudden death secondary to massive giant pulmonary artery embolism of HC. PMID:23465996

Bayaro?ullari, Hanifi; Davran, Ramazan; Cavu?, Yeliz; Yetim, Tülin Durgun; Evirgen, Ömer

2013-01-01

433

Bone mineral density and body composition in adult patients with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease characterised by chronic pulmonary sepsis and malnutrition. To ascertain whether osteoporosis is a feature of cystic fibrosis in adult patients, total body and regional bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in a group of eight men and eight women aged 17-42 years. METHODS--Total body and regional BMD (lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck, trochanteric, and

A B Grey; R W Ames; R D Matthews; I R Reid

1993-01-01

434

Bacteriophage secondary infection.  

PubMed

Phages are credited with having been first described in what we now, officially, are commemorating as the 100(th) anniversary of their discovery. Those one-hundred years of phage history have not been lacking in excitement, controversy, and occasional convolution. One such complication is the concept of secondary infection, which can take on multiple forms with myriad consequences. The terms secondary infection and secondary adsorption, for example, can be used almost synonymously to describe virion interaction with already phage-infected bacteria, and which can result in what are described as superinfection exclusion or superinfection immunity. The phrase secondary infection also may be used equivalently to superinfection or coinfection, with each of these terms borrowed from medical microbiology, and can result in genetic exchange between phages, phage-on-phage parasitism, and various partial reductions in phage productivity that have been termed mutual exclusion, partial exclusion, or the depressor effect. Alternatively, and drawing from epidemiology, secondary infection has been used to describe phage population growth as that can occur during active phage therapy as well as upon phage contamination of industrial ferments. Here primary infections represent initial bacterial population exposure to phages while consequent phage replication can lead to additional, that is, secondary infections of what otherwise are not yet phage-infected bacteria. Here I explore the varying meanings and resultant ambiguity that has been associated with the term secondary infection. I suggest in particular that secondary infection, as distinctly different phenomena, can in multiple ways influence the success of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria, also known as, phage therapy. PMID:25595214

Abedon, Stephen T

2015-02-01

435

Mechanisms of primary mineral weathering inferred from B isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicate weathered minerals result from a combination of dissolution/precipitation or transformation reactions. Despite their chemical and isotopic compositions as well as their mineralogy record the physico-chemical conditions of their formation and history, the determination of the current state of weathering in soils still remains very challenging. The main difficulties come from a difficult access to the mineral sites actually active during primary mineral transformation and from non-stoichiometric release of site-forming cations. To better characterize how minerals record the conditions of their formation, we coupled analyses of mineralogy with major elements and boron isotopes in a series of primary minerals (biotite, muscovite, K-feldspar and plagioclase) associated in varying amount with their replacement phases (vermiculite, kaolinite, illite…). The minerals are sampled along an acid Alocrisoil profile developed on granitic bedrock from the Breuil-Chenue forest (France). Previous studies have demonstrated that boron occupies different minerals sites (tetrahedron in substitution of Si, or interfoliar sites possibly in direct contact with the surrounding fluid, Williams et al. 2001, Muttik et al. 2011, Voinot et al., in prep.). Voinot et al. (in prep.) have also demonstrated that boron isotopes are very sensitive to silicate transformation or dissolution reactions. In deeper soil layers (100 to 130 cm), kaolinite is found in biotite mineral habitus. Examination of the boron isotopes distribution in those weathered agglomerates points to a boron depletion and a rapid isotopic equilibration with the surrounding soil solution as kaolinite fraction increases. The same - but magnified - trend is observed during shallow weathering mechanisms (20 to 30 cm) of fine particles of biotite (< 200 µm). By contrast, coarse biotite minerals (> 200 µm) evolve to a vermiculite-like product that tends to be enriched in boron (up to three times the initial biotite concentration) but share a common isotopic composition with kaolinite revealing an equilibrium with the solution. Plagioclases dissolve very early in the deepest horizon with a high degree of in-situ kaolinite reprecipitation in their mineral habitus. Here again, the isotopic composition reflect exchange with the soil solution. Muscovite shows no particular weathering mechanism other than dissolution, but isotope shift toward the soil solution value tends to indicate that the reacting boron is mainly located in easy accessible mineral interlayer sites. K-feldspar samples remained unchanged either mineralogically or isotopically. These results suggest an apparent duality between phyllosilicates which are mainly involved in transformation reactions with rapid isotopic equilibration with the surrounding soil solution, whilst tectosilicates show mainly dissolution reactions without evidence of isotopic exchange with the fluid. Depending on their nature, the secondary phases that replace the weathered primary minerals will also play a major role in the boron cycle in soils.

Voinot, A.; Turpault, M.-P.; Chabaux, F.; Lemarchand, D.

2012-04-01

436

Secondary psychoses: an update  

PubMed Central

Psychotic disorders due to a known medical illness or substance use are collectively termed secondary psychoses. In this paper, we first review the historic evolution of the concept of secondary versus primary psychosis and how this distinction supplanted the earlier misleading classification of psychoses into organic and functional. We then outline the clinical features and approach to the diagnosis of secondary psychotic disorders. Features such as atypical presentation, temporal relation to detectable medical cause, evidence of direct physiological causal relationship to the etiological agent, and the absence of evidence of a primary psychotic illness that may better explain the presentation suggest consideration of a secondary psychosis. Finally, we discuss how careful studies of secondary psychotic disorders can help elucidate the pathophysiology of primary, or idiopathic, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. We illustrate this issue through a discussion of three secondary psychotic disorders — psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, velocardiofacial syndrome, and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis — that can, respectively, provide neuroanatomical, genetic, and neurochemical models of schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:23471787

Keshavan, Matcheri S; Kaneko, Yoshio

2013-01-01

437

Cellular and molecular pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has a multifactorial pathobiology. Vasoconstriction, remodeling of the pulmonary vessel wall, and thrombosis contribute to increased pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH. The process of pulmonary vascular remodeling involves all layers of the vessel wall and is complicated by cellular heterogeneity within each compartment of the pulmonary arterial wall. Indeed, each cell type (endothelial, smooth muscle, and

Marc Humbert; Nicholas W Morrell; Stephen L Archer; Kurt R Stenmark; Margaret R MacLean; Irene M Lang; Brian W Christman; E. Kenneth Weir; Oliver Eickelberg; Norbert F Voelkel; Marlene Rabinovitch

2004-01-01

438

Cellular and molecular pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has a multifactorial pathobiology. Vasoconstriction, remodeling of the pulmonary vessel wall, and thrombosis contribute to increased pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH. The process of pulmonary vascular remodeling involves all layers of the vessel wall and is complicated by cellular heterogeneity within each compartment of the pulmonary arterial wall. Indeed, each cell type (endothelial, smooth muscle, and

Norbert F. Voelkel; Marlene Rabinovitch Oliver; Margaret R. MacLean; Irene M. Lang; Brian W. Christman; E. Kenneth Weir; Marc Humbert; Nicholas W. Morrell; Stephen L. Archer; Kurt R. Stenmark; Marlene Rabinovitch

2009-01-01

439

Suspected metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma revealing as pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma in adrenal Cushing’s syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a malignant disease most commonly diagnosed in the setting of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment. Pulmonary KS has never been reported in association with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS). Case presentation A 60-year-old woman presented with symptoms and signs of CS. Adrenal CS was confirmed by standard biochemical evaluation. Imaging revealed a right adrenal lesion (diameter 3.5 cm) and multiple pulmonary nodules, suggesting a cortisol-secreting adrenal carcinoma with pulmonary metastases. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy with a pathohistological diagnosis of an adrenal adenoma. Subsequent thoracoscopic wedge resection of one lung lesion revealed pulmonary KS with positive immunostaining for human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). HIV-serology was negative. Hydrocortisone replacement was initiated for secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgery. Post-operative follow up imaging showed complete remission of all KS-related pulmonary nodules solely after resolution of hypercortisolism. Conclusion KS may occur in the setting of endogenous CS and may go into remission after cure of hypercortisolism without further specific treatment. PMID:25077599

2014-01-01

440

TWIK-2 channel deficiency leads to pulmonary hypertension through a rho-kinase-mediated process.  

PubMed

TWIK-2 (KCNK6) is a member of the 2-pore domain (K2P) family of potassium channels, which are highly expressed in the vascular system. We tested the hypothesis that TWIK-2 deficiency leads to pulmonary hypertension. TWIK-2 knockout mice and their wildtype littermates at 8 weeks of age had similar mean right ventricular systolic pressures (24±3 and 21±3 mm Hg, respectively.) Significantly, by 20 weeks of age, the mean right ventricular systolic pressures in TWIK-2 knockout mice increased to 35±3 mm Hg (P?0.036), whereas mean right ventricular systolic pressures in wildtype littermates remained at 22±3 mm Hg. Elevated mean right ventricular systolic pressures in the TWIK-2 knockout mice was accompanied by pulmonary vascular remodeling as determined by a 25% increase in the cross-sectional area of the vessels occupied by the vessel wall. Additionally, secondary branches of the pulmonary artery from 20-week-old TWIK-2 knockout mice showed an enhanced contractile response to U46619 (10(-6) moles/L), a thromboxane A2 mimetic, which was completely abolished with the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632 (10(-6) and 10(-5) moles/L). Treatment of TWIK-2 knockout mice with the Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, in the drinking water for 12 weeks, abolished the development of pulmonary hypertension and attenuated the vessel remodeling. We concluded that mice deficient in the TWIK-2 channel develop pulmonary hypertension between 8 and 20 weeks of age through a mechanism involving Rho-kinase. Our results suggest that downregulation of TWIK-2 in the pulmonary vasculature may be an underlying mechanism in the development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25245387

Pandit, Lavannya M; Lloyd, Eric E; Reynolds, Julia O; Lawrence, William S; Reynolds, Corey; Wehrens, Xander H T; Bryan, Robert M

2014-12-01

441

Reversal of pulmonary hypertension after ligation of a brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the access method of choice for long-term hemodialysis according to DOQI guidelines. Among the recognized complications of upper extremity AV fistulae fashioned for hemodialysis are infection, aneurysm formation, and high-output left ventricular failure. We describe a novel cardiopulmonary complication—secondary pulmonary hypertension resulting from an aneurysmal brachiocephalic AV fistula. The clinical presentation, investigation, management, and pathophysiology

Michael Robert Clarkson; Louise Giblin; Angie Brown; Dillie Little; John Donohoe

2002-01-01

442

Azithromycin Improves Macrophage Phagocytic Function and Expression of Mannose Receptor in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale:Defectiveefferocytosis(phagocyticclearanceofapoptotic cells) in the airway may perpetuate inflammation via secondary necrosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have previously reported that low-dose azithromycin improved alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytic function in vitro. Objectives: We investigated collectins (mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and surfactant protein (SP)-D) and mannose receptor (MR) in COPD and their possible role in the azithromycin-mediated improvement in phagocytosis. Methods:

Sandra Hodge; Greg Hodge; Hubertus Jersmann; Geoffrey Matthews; Jessica Ahern; Mark Holmes; Paul N. Reynolds

2008-01-01

443

Geophysical signatures of disseminated iron minerals: A proxy for understanding subsurface biophysicochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies have linked biogeophysical signatures to the presence of iron minerals resulting from distinct biophysicochemical processes. Utilizing geophysical methods as a proxy of such biophysicochemical processes requires an understanding of the geophysical signature of the different iron minerals. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility signatures of five iron minerals disseminated in saturated porous media under variable iron mineral content and grain size. Both pyrite and magnetite show high quadrature and inphase conductivities compared to hematite, goethite, and siderite, whereas magnetite was the highly magnetic mineral dominating the magnetic susceptibility measurements. The quadrature conductivity spectra of both pyrite and magnetite exhibit a well-defined characteristic relaxation peak below 10 kHz, not observed with the other iron minerals. The quadrature conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of individual and a mixture of iron minerals are dominated and linearly proportional to the mass fraction of the highly conductive (pyrite and magnetite) and magnetic (magnetite) iron minerals, respectively. The quadrature conductivity magnitude increased with decreasing grain size diameter of magnetite and pyrite with a progressive shift of the characteristic relaxation peak toward higher frequencies. The quadrature conductivity response of a mixture of different grain sizes of iron minerals is shown to be additive, whereas magnetic susceptibility measurements were insensitive to the variation in grain size diameters (1-0.075 mm). The integration of complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements can therefore provide a complimentary tool for the successful investigation of in situ biophysicochemical processes resulting in biotransformation or secondary iron mineral precipitation.

Abdel Aal, Gamal Z.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Revil, A.

2014-09-01

444

Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Patients with Primary Aldosteronism  

PubMed Central

Primary aldosteronism represents major cause of secondary hypertension, strongly associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aldosterone excess may influence mineral homeostasis, through higher urinary calcium excretion inducing secondary increase of parathyroid hormone. Recently, in a cohort of PA patients a significant increase of primary hyperparathyroidism was found, suggesting a bidirectional functional link between the adrenal and parathyroid glands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aldosterone excess on mineral metabolism and bone mass density. In 73 PA patients we evaluated anthropometric and biochemical parameters, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and bone mineral density; control groups were 73 essential hypertension (EH) subjects and 40 healthy subjects. Compared to HS and EH, PA subjects had significantly lower serum calcium levels and higher urinary calcium excretion. Moreover, PA patients showed higher plasma PTH, lower serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (65% versus 25% and 25%; P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis (38.5 and 10.5%) than EH (28% and 4%) and NS (25% and 5%), respectively. This study supports the hypothesis that bone loss and fracture risk in PA patients are potentially the result of aldosterone mediated hypercalciuria and the consecutive secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:24864141

Petramala, Luigi; Zinnamosca, Laura; Settevendemmie, Amina; Marinelli, Cristiano; Nardi, Matteo; Concistrè, Antonio; Corpaci, Francesco; Tonnarini, Gianfranco; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

2014-01-01

445

How is pulmonary arterial blood flow affected by pulmonary venous obstruction in children? A phase-contrast magnetic resonance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hemodynamic changes within a stenosed pulmonary vein might not reflect the severity of the obstruction if redistribution of pulmonary artery flow occurs. Objective: The purpose was to investigate flow changes in branch pulmonary arteries in the presence of pulmonary vein stenosis. Materials and methods: Twelve children (age range 3–180 months) who had undergone MRI for pulmonary vein stenosis were identified.

Kevin S. Roman; Christian J. Kellenberger; Christopher K. Macgowan; John Coles; Andrew N. Redington; Lee N. Benson; Shi-Joon Yoo

2005-01-01

446

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page offers a simple illustrated guide to the three rock types- igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic; and the most common rock-forming mineral groups: quartz, plagioclase feldspars, potassium feldspars, micas, amphiboles, olivine, and calcite. The rock types include extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks, clastic, biologic, and chemical sedimentary rocks, and both foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks. A section is included on naming igneous rocks. The igneous rocks tuff and basalt are also discussed, as is sediment. Users are directed to related resources and may print out a simplified rock classification chart.

447

Carbonate-mineral/water interactions in sulfide-rich mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition and mineralogy of coatings on carbonate minerals from mine tailings have been studied using aqueous geochemical methods, Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The goal is to study major and trace element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, and to infer mechanisms that control the concentrations of elements in the pore water of sulfide-rich mine tailings. Pore-water samples and carbonate-mineral grains were collected from four geochemically distinct zones within the tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals near the surface results in a large range in pore-water pH (3.85 to 6.98) and aqueous concentrations of metals and sulfate. With increasing depth in the tailings, mineral-water interactions lead to increasing pH, and decreasing concentrations of metals and sulfate. Calculated mineral saturation indices, trends in the abundance of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in TOF-LIMS profiles through the secondary coatings, and electron diffraction patterns obtained from the coatings, suggest that precipitation/dissolution of jarosite-group minerals, gypsum, goethite, akaganéite, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and siderite con