Sample records for secondary pulmonary mineralization

  1. [Secondary bronchogenic pulmonary hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Kilani, T; Horchani, H; Daoues, A

    1992-01-01

    Secondary bronchogenic hydatid disease is a rare and little known complication of primary hydatid cyst of the lung, which is even refuted by some authors. We report 7 cases of secondary bronchogenic hydatid after surgical cure of a hydatid cyst which had ruptured into the bronchi, while the last case concerned a young girl who was treated by corticosteroids for rheumatoid arthritis and who developed secondary bronchogenic hydatid from a cyst rupturing into the bronchi in the absence of surgery. Hydatid dissemination was ipsilateral to the primary cyst in 5 cases, contralateral in one case and bilateral in one case. Five patients underwent radical surgery. The patient with bilateral dissemination was operated on one side and a large number of residual cysts were eliminated by vomica, as for the last patient; these two patients are still under surveillance. The operation and general anaesthesia played a predisposing role in the pathogenesis of this complication and inhibition of immune mechanisms could also play a role. Prevention is necessary when treating a hydatid cyst of the lung which has ruptured into the bronchi. Treatment is surgical, bearing in mind that a large number of secondary cysts can be eliminated by vomica or may involute spontaneously. PMID:1303609

  2. [Secondary bronchogenic pulmonary hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Kilani, T; Horchani, H; Daoues, A

    1992-01-01

    Secondary bronchogenic hydatid disease is a rare and little known complication of primary hydatid cyst of the lung, which is even refuted by some authors. We report 7 cases of secondary bronchogenic hydatid after surgical cure of a hydatid cyst which had ruptured into the bronchi, while the last case concerned a young girl who was treated by corticosteroids for rheumatoid arthritis and who developed secondary bronchogenic hydatid from a cyst rupturing into the bronchi in the absence of surgery. Hydatid dissemination was ipsilateral to the primary cyst in 5 cases, controlateral in one case and bilateral in one case. Five patients underwent radical surgery. The patient with bilateral dissemination was operated on one side and a large number of residual cysts were eliminated by vomica, as for the last patient; these two patients are still under surveillance. The operation and general anaesthesia played a predisposing role in the pathogenesis of this complication and inhibition of immune mechanisms could also play a role. Prevention is necessary when treating a hydatid cyst of the lung which has ruptured into the bronchi. Treatment is surgical, bearing in mind that a large number of secondary cysts can be eliminated by vomica or may involute spontaneously. PMID:1605539

  3. Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39 mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9 mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis.

  4. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

  5. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary hypertension

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 31, 189-200 (1983) Nonasbestos Pulmonary Mineral Fibers in the

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    for inducing pulmonary fibrosis and malig- nancies are well documented (Becklake, 1976). AsbestosENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 31, 189-200 (1983) Nonasbestos Pulmonary Mineral Fibers in the General pulmonary nonasbestos mineral content was determined for a series of 20 patients who had no occupational

  7. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  8. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkley, J. L.

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  9. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauf

    1997-01-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite,

  10. Pulmonary Fibrosis Secondary to FOLFOX Chemotherapy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Wai Cheong; West, Kate; Gibeon, David; Bowen, Elizabeth Frances

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old female presented with a 2-week history of increasing shortness of breath and fever. She had a history of a poorly differentiated sigmoid adenocarcinoma for which she underwent an anterior resection 6 months prior to admission, followed by 12 cycles of adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy. The patient was treated for a severe community-acquired pneumonia; however, she remained hypoxic. A chest CT revealed extensive right-sided fibrotic changes, tractional dilatation of the airways and ground glass density, which had developed since a staging CT scan performed 2 months previously. Although her symptoms improved with steroid therapy, repeat imaging revealed that right hydropneumothorax had developed, and this required the insertion of a chest drain. Following its successful removal, the patient continues to improve clinically and radiographically. The rapid onset and nature of these changes is consistent with a drug-induced fibrotic lung disease secondary to FOLFOX chemotherapy. The phenomenon is underreported and yet, it is relatively common: it occurs in approximately 10% of patients who are treated with antineoplastic agents, although information specifically relating to FOLFOX-induced pulmonary toxicity is limited. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but is often hard to differentiate from other lung conditions, making the diagnosis a challenge. Pulmonary toxicity is an important complication associated with antineoplastic agents. It should be considered in any patient on a chemotherapeutic regimen who presents with dyspnoea and hypoxia in order to try to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:25408660

  11. Bisphosphonates do not Alter the Rate of Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    R Fuchs; M Faillace; M Allen; R Phipps; L Miller; D Burr

    2011-12-31

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), ALN (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n=12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  12. Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.

    2011-05-18

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  13. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  14. Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to siderosis causing symptomatic respiratory disease: a case report

    E-print Network

    McCormick, Liam M; Goddard, Martin; Mahadeva, Ravi

    2008-08-05

    impairment. Although not the first of its kind, we present an unusual case of pulmonary siderosis with symptomatic respiratory disease, most likely secondary to associated fibrosis. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient...

  15. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content < 300 g/t) occurred from 1972 to 1990 using acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.7-2.8) and diluted sulphuric acid (10 g/l). Secondary mineral phases like birnessite, todorokite and goethite occur within a natural attenuation process associated with enrichment of heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance of iron on this process, as some MOB isolates were able to oxidize manganese independently from the iron content, whereas some are not. The latter isolates are only able to oxidize manganese if iron is present in the media. In the lysimeter, SEM-EDX data showed microorganisms in organic rich phases together with the occurrence of manganese, oxygen, and nickel, indicating manganese oxides enriched in nickel. Although this new mineral phases could not yet be identified microprobe EDX results from polished thin sections showed needle-like mineral structures that are similar to the birnessite and todorokite samples observed from field samples. Hence, the lysimeter experiment revealed that the formation of iron and manganese minerals that are involved in heavy metal natural attenuation is result of both abiotic and biotic processes.

  16. Time sequence of secondary mineralization and microhardness in cortical and cancellous bone from ewes.

    PubMed

    Bala, Yohann; Farlay, Delphine; Delmas, Pierre D; Meunier, Pierre J; Boivin, Georges

    2010-04-01

    Bone mineral is a major determinant of the mechanical resistance of bones. In bone structural units (BSUs), mineralization of osteoid tissue begins with a rapid primary mineralization followed by a secondary mineralization phase, i.e., a slow and gradual maturation of the mineral component leading to complete mineralization during an unknown period. The aim of this study was to determine the chronology of secondary bone mineralization in ewes, an animal model with a remodeling activity close to humans. Eighteen ewes received different fluorescent labels every 6 months to date the "age" of each labeled BSU. The degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) and Vickers microhardness were measured in labeled BSUs, while mineralization at the crystal level was assessed by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). During the first 6 months of mineralization, degree of mineralization and microhardness significantly increased. They then increased more slowly until at 30 months they reach their maximal values. This progression during secondary mineralization was associated with an improvement of both the maturation and the crystal perfection of the mineral part of bone matrix. Finally, secondary mineralization in BSUs is completed after a period of 30 months. This observation should be taken into account for understanding the effects of long-term treatments of bone diseases. PMID:19969115

  17. Miliary nodules due to secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis in rheumatic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Gyanendra; Agarwal, Ritesh; Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Mahesh, Venkat; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hemosiderosis is defined as the clinical and functional consequence of iron overload of the lungs, which usually occurs due to recurrent intra-alveolar bleeding. It can manifest as miliary mottling and should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with miliary nodules on chest radiography, especially those with mitral stenosis. The management of secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis secondary to valvular heart disease includes valvuloplasty and/or valve replacement. The radiological opacities may disappear with successful treatment of the underlying valvular disease in many patients. However, they may persist with no physiological impairment to the patient. Here, we present a 32-year-old man with mitral stenosis who presented with fever and miliary shadows on chest radiography, which was ultimately diagnosed as secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21390194

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Congenital Systemic-to-Pulmonary (Left-to-Right) Shunts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio A. Lopes

    \\u000a Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital left-to-right shunts remains a matter of concern not only in underserved\\u000a areas, but also in developed countries, in both un-operated on and operated on patients. The risk of developing advanced pulmonary\\u000a vascular disease generally but not invariably depends on the size and location of the defect. Patients with restrictive ventricular\\u000a septal defects (VSDs) are

  19. Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite–silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. F Wilson; Jean S Cline; Yuri V Amelin

    2003-01-01

    The origin of secondary calcite–silica minerals in primary and secondary porosity of the host Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain has been hotly debated during the last decade. Proponents of a high-level nuclear waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain have interpreted the secondary minerals to have formed from cool, descending meteoric fluids in the vadose zone; critics, citing the presence of two-phase

  20. Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SR?CT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SR?CT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SR?CT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

  1. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Secondary to Ethanol Sclerotherapy for Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Raya; Davis, James; Balavenkataraman, Arvind; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Barbaryan, Aram; Chalise, Shyam; Iroegbu, Nkemakolam

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been reported as a major complication to consider and promptly manage in the use of ethanol sclerotherapy. Most of the available data on the development of PAH is derived from the use of ethanol for embolization of arteriovenous malformation, but it has been rarely reported in its other fields of application. We describe a case of outpatient renal artery embolization using ethanol, in which respiratory failure develops secondary to PAH despite adhering to safe practice protocols. We highlight the importance of pulmonary arterial pressure monitoring and the treatment steps to follow in order to avoid irreversible fatal outcomes. PMID:25024851

  2. Transient Rotation of a Non-ptotic Kidney Secondary to Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Iman; Goldman, Alice R

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of an acquired, transient, rotated right kidney in a 43-year-old woman with an enterocutaneous fistula who presented with acute pulmonary embolism. This non-ptotic rotated kidney returned to its normal orientation within 10 days. We postulate that this transient kidney rotation is due to transient hepatomegaly and passive renal congestion secondary to pulmonary embolism. While in this patient there were no untoward sequelae, it has been reported that ureteral obstruction or vascular occlusion can occur in patients with ptotic and malrotated kidneys, and radiologists, therefore, should be aware of this unusual occurrence and the potential complications.

  3. Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Zimbelman; R. O. Rye; G. N. Breit

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlaltépetl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified

  4. Secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIA-HONG; CHEN, KUAN-YU; HUENG, DUENG-YUAN; JIN, JONG-SHIAW

    2014-01-01

    Chordomas are low- to intermediate-grade malignant tumors that recapitulate the notochord. Chordomas belong to the dysontogenetic bone tumors and appear primarily in the region of the axial skeleton. Chordomas are divided into conventional, chondroid, sarcomatoid and dedifferentiated subtypes. The different subtypes of chordoma have varied survival periods. According to the literature to date, secondary pulmonary and lymph-node metastases occur most frequently, followed by liver, bone and skin metastases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of one subtype of chordoma metastasizing or transforming into another subtype with a different histopathology. This study presents a 24-year-old man with secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from a primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum. The patient was alive at the end of November, 2009 and the survival time exceeded eight years. This is the first case of a patient with primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum with complete remission in whom a secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arose from the primary cancer. PMID:24959247

  5. The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub CAI, I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub CAI) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub CAI) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub CAI) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for CAI. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for CAI in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted CAIs by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "CAI age" thus determined, T(sub CAI,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub CAI) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub CAI, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub CAI)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5) and a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4558.6 Ma for the LEW86010 angrite. However. the (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of "intermediate" age D'Orbigny-clan angrites and Asuka 881394 are inconsistent with radioactive decay from CAI values with a Mn-55 half-life of 3.7+/-0.4 Ma. in spite of consistency between (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I). Nevertheless, it appears that the Mn-Cr method with I(Mn)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) can be used to date primary igneous events and also secondary mineralization on asteroid parent bodies. We summarize ages thus determined for igneous events on differentiated asteroids and for carbonate and fayalite formation on carbonaceous asteroids.

  6. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ??6mm, R-wave in V6 ??3mm, S-wave in V6 ??3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ?25?mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ??6?mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P?=?0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  7. Oxygen Isotopes and Geothermometry of Secondary Minerals in CR Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilly, C. E.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Schrader, D. L.

    2014-09-01

    We report oxygen isotopes measured from secondary calcite and magnetite in QUE 99177, a weakly altered CR chondrite, and discuss implications for temperature and fluid chemistry during aqueous alteration on the CR parent body.

  8. [Secondary osteoporosis UPDATE. How to diagnose secondary osteoporosis and disorders presenting low bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2010-05-01

    Involutional osteoporosis is one of common diseases related to ageing. However, it is essential for physicians to exclude possibilities that it is caused by certain background diseases or disorders, such as hypercortisolism, hyperthyroidism and type 1 diabetes mellitus. In addition, there are several diseases other than osteoporosis, that are known to be associated with low bone mineral density, although osteoporosis is usually diagnosed according to bone mineral density measurements. Thus, physicians should be prepared to appropriately evaluate how bone metabolism is impaired in the face of patients with low bone mineral density. PMID:20445277

  9. Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

    2011-12-01

    A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the incubation. Other possible mechanisms include the presence of soluble Fe as an alternative energy source in the goethite treatment, the presence of toxic soluble Al in the gibbsite treatment, the loss of available phosphorus in the secondary mineral treatments due to sorption by secondary mineral surfaces, and variations in mineral surfaces as microhabitats. These findings suggest that Al and Fe oxides, such as goethite or gibbsite, are a factor in determining microbial community structure.

  10. The value of hepatic diffusion-weighted MR imaging in demonstrating hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuksel Dogan; Aliye Soylu; Ozgur Kilickesmez; Tuna Demirtas; Kadriye Orta Kilickesmez; Sebahat Nacar Dogan; Gulay Eren; Isa Sevindir; Nurgul Yasar; Sule Poturoglu; Kenan Sonmez

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congestive hepatomegaly might be the first sign for pulmonary hypertension. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained with quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is affected by liver fibrosis and perfusion. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of DW-MRI in cooperation with biochemical markers, ultrasonography (US) and echocardiography (TTE) in determining the degree of hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary

  11. Associated bone mineral density and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Pai-Chien; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Lin, Ting-Yu; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Yu, Chih-Teng; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is an important issue for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Worse systemic inflammation and reduced exercise capacity have been reported in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), implying that OSA may be an independent factor for osteoporosis in COPD patients. Methods A total of 66 patients with bone mineral density (BMD) and polysomnography results from a previous COPD cohort (January 2008 to January 2013) were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics such as medication, pulmonary function, BMD, and results of polysomnography were analyzed. Results The BMD in those with OSA was significantly lower than in those without OSA (?1.99±1.63 versus ?1.27±1.14, P=0.045). In univariate analysis, body mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, percentage of predicted value, incremental shuttle walk test, apnea–hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly associated with BMD. After multivariate linear regression analysis, the ODI was still an independent factor for BMD. In addition, smaller total lung capacity is significantly associated with higher ODI and lower BMD, which implies that lower BMD might cause severer OSA via decreased total lung capacity. Conclusion OSA may be an independent factor for BMD in patients with COPD, which implies a possible vicious cycle takes place in these patients. PMID:25673983

  12. Sorption of trace constituents from aqueous solutions onto secondary minerals. II. Radium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Ames; J. E. McGarrah; B. A. Walker

    1983-01-01

    Radium sorption efficiencies as a function of temperature, Ra concentration, and secondary mineral sorbate were determined in a 0.01 M NaCl solution. Radium sorption on a characterized clinoptilolite, montmorillonite, nontronite, opal, silica gel, illite, kaolinite, and glauconite under comparable experimental conditions allowed determination of Ra sorption efficiency curves for each, through use of Freundlich constants, over the same temperature and

  13. Weathering features and secondary minerals in Antarctic Shergottites ALHA77005 and LEW88516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that all three sub-groups of the shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) clan of meteorites contain aqueous precipitates of probable pre-terrestrial origin. In the context of secondary minerals, the most thoroughly studied shergottite has been Elephant Moraine, Antarctica A79001 (EETA79001). The recognition of LEW88516 as the latest SNC specimen, and its close similarity with ALHA77005, invite a comparative study of the latter two meteorites, and with EETA79001, from the perspective of aqueous alteration. The fusion crusts of the two meteorites are quite similar except that ALHA77005 is more vesicular (possibly indicating a higher indigenous volatile content). Secondary aluminosilicates (and salts on LEW88516) of definite Antarctic origin partially fill vesicles and fractures on both fusion crusts. Interior samples of the two meteorites are grossly similar in that traces of secondary minerals are present in both.

  14. The Paris CM chondrite: Secondary minerals and asteroidal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchi, Yves; Gounelle, Matthieu; Blanchard, Ingrid; Caste, Florent; Kearsley, Anton T.

    2014-07-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least-altered CM identified so far (Hewins et al.). Compared to other CMs, Paris exhibits (1) a higher concentration of Fe-Ni metal beads, with nickel contents in the range 4.1-8.1 wt%; (2) the systematic presence of thin lamellae and tiny blebs of pentlandite in pyrrhotite grains; and (3) ubiquitous tochilinite/cronstedtite associations with higher FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 ratios. In addition, Paris shows the highest concentration of trapped 36Ar reported so far for a CM chondrite (Hewins et al.). In combination with the findings of previous studies, our data confirm the reliability of (1) the alteration sequence based on the chemical composition of tochilinite/cronstedtite associations to quantify the fluid alteration processes and (2) the use of Cr content variability in type II ferroan chondrule olivine as a proxy of thermal metamorphism. In contrast, the scales based on (1) the Fe3+ content of serpentine in the matrix to estimate the degree of aqueous alteration and (2) the chemical composition of Fe-Ni metal beads for quantifying the intensity of the thermal metamorphism are not supported by the characteristics of Paris. It also appears that the amount of trapped 36Ar is a sensitive indicator of the secondary alteration modifications experienced by chondrites, for both aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Considering Paris, our data suggest that this chondrite should be classified as type 2.7 as it suffered limited but significant fluid alteration and only mild thermal metamorphism. These results point out that two separated scales should be used to quantify the degree of the respective role of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in establishing the characteristics of CM chondrites.

  15. Alteration Products and Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The martian meteorites contain alteration products and secondary minerals that are a critical part of understanding their near-surface histories on both Mars and Earth. In some martian meteorites, suspected martian preterrestrial alteration products can be distinguished from terrestrial weathering effects Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), we are studying natural fracture surfaces of ALH 84001 chips, including samples from both the interior and the exterior of the meteorite. Exterior samples include fusion crust surfaces, which are important in determining the extent of terrestrial weathering of meteorites. The focus of this study is weathering features and secondary minerals other than the distinctive carbonate globules that continue to be studied by many researchers.

  16. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  17. Utility of computed tomography in assessment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to biomass smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Bora, Aydin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ekin, Selami; Gunbatar, Hulya; Arisoy, Ahmet; Avcu, Serhat; Ozbay, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of main pulmonary artery diameter quantification by thoracic computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension seconder to biomass smoke exposure. Material/Methods One hundred and four women subjects with biomass smoke exposure and 20 healthy women subjects were enrolled in the prospective study. The correlation between echocardiographic estimation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure and the main pulmonary artery diameter of the cases were studied. Results The main pulmonary artery diameter was 26.9±5.1 in the control subjects and 37.1±6.4 in subjects with biomass smoke exposure. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 22.7±12.4 in the control subjects and 57.3±22 in subjects with biomass smoke exposure. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Systolic pulmonary artery pressure was significantly correlated with the main pulmonary artery diameter (r=0.614, p<0.01). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that a value of 29 mm of the main pulmonary artery diameter differentiated between pulmonary hypertension and non-pulmonary hypertension patients. The sensitivity of the measurement to diagnose pulmonary hypertension was 91% and specificity was 80%. Conclusions Our results indicate that main pulmonary artery diameter measurements by SCT may suggest presence of pulmonary hypertension in biomass smoke exposed women. PMID:24618994

  18. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  19. Reduction of jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and secondary mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingjie, Ouyang; Xiancai, Lu; Huan, Liu; Juan, Li; Tingting, Zhu; Xiangyu, Zhu; Jianjun, Lu; Rucheng, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Jarosite is a common mineral in a variety of environments formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide normally accompanying with the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) in mining areas or acid rock drainages (ARD) in many localities. Decomposition of jarosite by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) influences the mobility of many heavy metals generally accommodated in natural jarosite. This study examined the anaerobic reduction of synthesized jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a typical facultative bacteria. The release of ferrous and ferric ion, as well as sulfate and potassium, in the inoculated experimental group lasting 80 days is much higher than that in abiotic control groups. The detection of bicarbonate and acetate in experimental solution further confirms the mechanism of microbial reduction of jarosite, in which lactate acts as the electron donor. The produced ferrous iron stimulates the subsequent secondary mineralization, leading to precipitation and transformation of various iron-containing minerals. Green rust and goethite are the intermediate minerals of the microbial reduction process under anoxic conditions, and the end products include magnetite and siderite. In aerobic environments, goethite, magnetite and siderite were also detected, but the contents were relatively lower. While in abiotic experiments, only goethite has been detected as a product. Thus, the microbial reduction and subsequent mineral transformation can remarkably influence the geochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in supergene environments, as well as the mobility of heavy metals commonly accommodated in jarosite.

  20. Mineral dissolution and secondary precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions affecting subsurface porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-01

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89 °C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  1. Pulmonary edema secondary to chronic upper airway obstruction. Hemodynamic study in a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sofer; R. Baer; Y. Gussarsky; A. Lieberman; J. Bar-Ziv

    1984-01-01

    A 22-month-old girl with the syndrome of hypoventilation, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and pulmonary edema due to adenoidal hypertrophy is described. Adenoidectomy resulted in relief of all symptoms and signs within 24 h. Hemodynamic study using pulmonary artery catheter showed that the pulmonary artery pressure returned to normal 48 h after relief of the obstruction. The normal left ventricular end-diastolic

  2. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  3. Pulmonary laceration secondary to a traumatic soccer injury: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Idriz, Sanjin; Abbas, Ausami; Sadigh, Sufi; Padley, Simon

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary lacerations are an uncommon injury typically associated with high-impact trauma. Most cases occur as a result of high-speed road traffic collisions. Although chest wall and pleural injuries are commonly associated with sports-related thoracic trauma, pulmonary injuries are far less common. There are only a few reported cases of significant pulmonary trauma associated with sports injuries, the majority of which have described pulmonary contusions occurring as a result of thoracic injury sustained while playing high-impact contact sports such as American football. Pulmonary laceration occurring as result of soccer-related thoracic trauma has never previously been reported. PMID:24060323

  4. Inhibition effect of secondary phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release from contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on diffusion-limited uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its millimeter-sized granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate and calcium in the stoichiometric ratio of the mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater solution with chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over 1 and 2 orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid-phase U(VI) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by (1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and (2) the transformation of original U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms. PMID:19924967

  5. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  6. The effect of erythropoietin to pulmonary injury and mast cells secondary to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening necroinflammatory disease that is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute lung injury even in its very first days. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone considered as an antiapoptotic and cytoprotective with observed receptors of anti-inflammatory effect on organs apart from the liver and the kidneys. In this study, the effects of EPO on pulmonary mast cells and on secondary injury caused by acute pancreatitis are investigated. Methods Twenty one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups—sham, control, and EPO groups—with 7 rats per group. Pancreatitis was induced by administering 4.5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. A 1000 U/kg/day dosage (three times) of EPO was administered to the EPO group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, amylase, and troponin I in the serum were studied; and lung, kidney, brain, and heart tissues were examined histopathologically. Results There were no histopathological changes in the other organ tissues except for the lung tissue. Compared to the control group, the EPO group showed significantly reduced alveolar hemorrhage, septal neutrophil infiltration, lung wall thickness score, and mast cell count in the lung tissue. Conclusions Administration of EPO reduces the mast cell count and lung wall thickness, and it reduces the alveolar hemorrhage and septal infiltration induced by acute pancreatitis. PMID:24761770

  7. Variation of lithium isotope geochemistry during basalt weathering and secondary mineral transformations in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jong-Sik; Vigier, Nathalie; Lee, Sin-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2014-11-01

    Lithium isotopes are a potential tracer of silicate weathering but the relationship between lithium isotope compositions and weathering state still need to be established with precision. Here, we report Li concentrations and Li isotope compositions of soils developed along a 4 million year humid-environment chronosequence in the Hawaiian Islands. Li concentrations are variable with depth and age, ranging from 0.24 to 21.3 ppm, and significant Li depletions (up to 92%) relative to parent basalts are systematically enhanced towards the surface. Our calculations show that the relative contribution from atmospheric deposits to the Li soil budget remains small, with a maximum contribution from dust Li of 20% at the oldest site. This is explained by the capacity of the weathering products to retain, within the profiles, the Li coming from basalt alteration, and allows us to explore more specifically the role of alteration processes on soil Li isotope signatures. The ?7Li values display a large range between -2.5‰ and +13.9‰. The youngest soils (0.3 ka) display the same ?7Li value as fresh basalt, regardless of depth, despite ?30% Li loss by leaching, indicating that there is little Li isotope fractionation during the incipient stage of weathering. ?7Li values for the older soils (?20 ka) vary non-linearly as a function of time and can be explained by progressive mineral transformations starting with the synthesis of metastable short-range order (nano-crystalline) minerals and followed by their transformation into relatively inert secondary minerals. Results highlight significant Li isotope fractionation during secondary mineral formation and in particular during Li uptake by kaolinite. Finally, we suggest that the non-monotonous evolution of the regolith ?7Li value over the last 4 Ma is consistent with climatic variations, where congruent release of Li isotopes occurs during warmer periods.

  8. Treatment of secondary pulmonary hypertension with bosentan and its pharmacokinetic monitoring in ESRD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz Liefeldt; Paul L. M van Giersbergen; Jasper Dingemanse; Birgit Rudolph; Torsten Walde; Klemens Budde; Hans-H Neumayer; Berthold Hocher

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Certain pharmacologic approaches, which reduce pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and thereby prevent end-stage cardiopulmonary failure, have been used during recent years. Endothelin-1 has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of PH. The dual endothelin-receptor antagonist, bosentan, was recently approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  9. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Secondary to Anorexigens and Other Drugs and Toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Bouillon; Yola Moride; Lamiae Bensouda-Grimaldi; Lucien Abenhaim

    \\u000a Several drugs and toxins have been shown to be associated with the development of pulmonary vascular hypertension. Pulmonary\\u000a hypertension (PH) related to these factors has been classified as primary PH (PPH), currently referred to as idiopathic pulmonary\\u000a arterial hypertension, because its morphological findings, clinical manifestations, hemodynamic measures, and pathological\\u000a changes were reported to be similar to those of PPH. In

  10. Massive pulmonary embolism secondary to longstanding traumatic femoropopliteal pseudoaneurysm associated with arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition associated with high mortality. The majority of pulmonary emboli originate from deep venous thrombosis in the popliteal and femoral veins. We present a rare case of a 21-year-old caucasian male patient with massive pulmonary embolism. The source of emboli originated from thrombosed femoropopliteal pseudoaneurysm associated with arteriovenous fistula which was caused by a bullet injury 7 years before. The patient underwent successful surgical pulmonary embolectomy followed by aneurysmectomy with reconstruction of femoral and popliteal vessels. PMID:24559260

  11. Alteration of bentonite by hyperalkaline fluids: A review of the role of secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, David; Walker, Colin; Arthur, Randy; Rochelle, Chris; Oda, Chie; Takase, Hiro

    Data concerning potential solid products of the interaction of cement pore fluids with bentonite have been reviewed with respect to accurate prediction of bentonite alteration in the long-term. Calcium (aluminium) silicate hydrates (C(A)SH), zeolites, feldspars, hydroxides, carbonates, polymorphs of silica, and some sheet silicates (all of varying degrees of crystallinity) are potential products of cement-bentonite interaction. Evidence from natural systems and laboratory studies suggests that most, or all of these phases, may precipitate on timescales of interest to safety assessment of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. These data indicate that growth kinetics of secondary minerals is equally as important as thermodynamic stability in controlling occurrence. C(A)SH show variable Ca/Si ratio and Al contents. At high pH (>11), the growth of C(A)SH minerals provides a means by which OH - ions from cement pore fluids may be titrated. Although thermodynamic data exist for a number of naturally-occurring crystalline C(A)SH minerals, they are of doubtful quality and should be applied with caution in predictive modelling. Zeolites are likely to form at lower pH than for C(A)SH, with the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite decreasing with increasing pH of the fluid. Zeolite stability is also strongly dependent upon silica activity in the fluid phase. Although silica activity in bentonite pore fluids will be spatially (and temporally) variable as hyperalkaline alteration proceeds, it is likely that minerals which could form would be those stable in quartz-saturated or supersaturated fluids. Currently available thermodynamic data for zeolites tend to overestimate their stability, leading to inaccurate predictions of their occurrence. Notwithstanding this uncertainty, it is considered that the following secondary minerals are the most likely to form in low temperature cement-bentonite systems: calcite, dolomite, chalcedony, C(A)SH of variable Ca/Si ratio, K-feldspar, illite, phillipsite, analcime, clinoptilolite, and heulandite. The relatively more siliceous zeolites (clinoptilolite, phillipsite) are likely to form at lower pH (distal regions of migrating cement pore fluids), whereas C(A)SH, illite, feldspars, and the more aluminous zeolites (analcime, heulandite) are more likely to form at higher pH and hence, the more proximal regions of migrating cement pore fluids. Predominantly Na-, K-bearing solids will be transformed to those dominated by Ca as the composition of cement pore fluids evolves with time.

  12. Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets

    PubMed Central

    Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

  13. Effectiveness and Safety of Treatment With Sildenafil for Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension in Heart Transplant Candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zakliczynski; M. Maruszewski; L. Pyka; D. Trybunia; P. Nadziakiewicz; R. Przybylski; M. Zembala

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundPulmonary hypertension (PH) is a predictor of early death risk owing to right heart insufficiency after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of sildenafil therapy to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients with heart failure requiring transplantation, who may otherwise have been excluded because of PH.

  14. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  15. Iloprost improves hemodynamics in patients with severe chronic cardiac failure and secondary pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Sablotzki; Elke Czeslick; Susann Schubert; Ivar Friedrich; Jörg Mühling; Marius G. Dehne; Stefan Grond; Thomas Hentschel

    2002-01-01

    Purpose  Significant pulmonary hypertension is a predictor of postoperative right heart insufficiency and increased mortality in patients\\u000a undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation. Since the use of iv vasodilators is limited by their systemic effects, we evaluated\\u000a the pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic effects of inhaled aerosolized iloprost (IP) in heart transplant candidates with elevated\\u000a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-nine male heart transplant candidates

  16. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... how much of these minerals you need each day. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, ...

  17. Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This site provides an in-depth look at mineral properties and identification. An alphabetical listing of common minerals allows the user to see a picture and view physical properties of the particular mineral. Properties of minerals are explained, including cleavage, hardness, crystal form, and luster. There are also downloadable labs for crystal models and mineral data sheets. Dichotomous and hardness keys are given for easier mineral identification.

  18. Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2003-06-01

    This project, renewal of a previous EMSP project of the same title, is in its first year of funding at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The purpose is to continue investigating rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals found in the Hanford subsurface and leaked waste tank solutions. The goals are to understand processes that result in (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. A post-doctoral scientist, Dr. Sherry Samson, has been hired and two masters of science students are beginning to conduct experimental research. One research project that is underway is focused on measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms. The first set of experiments is being conduced at room temperature. Subsequent experiments will examine the role of temperature because tank solutions in many cases were near boiling when leakage is thought to have occurred and temperature gradients have been observed beneath the SX and BX tank farms. The dissolution experiments are being conducted in stirred-flow kinetic reactors using powdered labradorite feldspar from Pueblo Park, New Mexico.

  19. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  20. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.

    PubMed

    Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  1. An unusual case of abdominal distension: pneumoperitoneum secondary to pneumomediastinum in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Jonathan P; Collard, Benjamin R B; Patel, Arjun K K; Devoto, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A 68-year-old lady with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. On examination her abdomen was grossly distended, diffusely tender and hyper-resonant. Imaging showed dilated loops of bowel and free air in the abdomen with no intestinal perforation. The free abdominal air had come down from the thorax by dissecting down around the oesophagus. A pneumomediastinum was present in her chest, secondary to her extensive emphysematous disease. She was treated conservatively and her pneumomediastinum resolved several weeks later, with subsequent resumption of intestinal motility and return to premorbid function. Surgical intervention would not have helped her condition. PMID:23060378

  2. Noninvasive assessment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease: A comparative study between five different Doppler indices

    PubMed Central

    Roushdy, Alaa Mahmoud; Ragab, Iman; Abd el Raouf, Wessam

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is an important hemodynamic parameter in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Noninvasive estimation of PVR represents an attractive alternative to invasive measurements. Methods The study included 175 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to CHD. All patients underwent full echocardiographic study and invasive hemodynamic measurements. The study population was then subdivided into four subgroups. Each of the following Doppler indices was measured in one of these four subgroups: peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV), the ratio of the TRV to the velocity time integral of the right ventricular outflow tract (TRV/TVIRVOT), peak velocity of tricuspid annular systolic motion (TSm), heart rate corrected acceleration time and infliction time of the proximal left pulmonary artery (ATc, InTc). The data obtained was correlated with invasive PVR measurement. An ROC curve analysis was done to generate cutoff points with the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict PVR > 6WU/m2. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were compared with each other to determine the most reliable cutoff point in predicting elevated PVR > 6WU/m2. Results There was a significant correlation between both the TRV and TSm and invasive measurement of PVR (r = ?0.511, 0.387 and P value = 0.0002, 0.006 respectively). The TSm and TRV cutoff values were the most reliable to predict elevated PVR > 6 WU/m2. A TSm cutoff value of ?16.16 cm/s provided the best balanced sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (66.7%) to determine PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. A cutoff value less than 7.62 cm/s had 100% specificity to predict PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. A TRV cutoff value of >3.96 m/s provided the best balanced sensitivity (66.7%) and specificity (100%) to determine PVRCATH > 6 WU/m2. Both TRV and TSm had the highest area under the ROC curve among the 5 DOPPLER indices studied. Conclusion Prediction of elevated PVR in children with PH secondary to CHD could be achieved noninvasively using a number of Doppler indices. Among the five Doppler indices examined in the current study, the peak TRV and the TSm of the lateral tricuspid annulus had the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict PVRI > 6 WU/m2. PMID:24174831

  3. Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive lesson on minerals starts with a definition of minerals and compares crystalline and amorphous minerals. The composition is discussed and a chart shows the relative amounts of elements in minerals. Next, there is a discussion of the characteristics by which minerals are identified including luster, color, streak, hardness, and cleavage and fracture along with special properties such as magnetism. The characteristics of calcite, talc, hematite, magnetite, and galena are then observed.

  4. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  5. The Pathophysiology of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and the Consequences of Uncontrolled Mineral Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Role of COSMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge B. Cannata-And ´ õa; Fernando Carrera

    2008-01-01

    The development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. SHPT develops as a consequence of mineral metabolism disturbances and is characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hyper- plasia. Evidence suggests that SHPT contributes to the development of vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease, as well as to the development of renal osteodys- trophy.

  6. An incidental pulmonary meningioma revealing an intracranial meningioma: primary or secondary lesion?

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Marco; De Simone, Matilde; Gerosa, Martino; Guttadauro, Angelo; Cioffi, Ugo

    2015-04-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent a resection of the right middle lobe for a solitary lesion detected at computed tomography. The histologic result was suggestive for a pulmonary meningioma. Although the result of a preoperative brain computed tomography scan was negative, magnetic resonance imaging showed a skull-base meningioma. On the basis of the absence of symptoms, we decided to observe the intracranial meningioma. At 3 years of follow-up, the patient was free of recurrence and the cerebral lesion was stable. Primary pulmonary meningioma and benign meningioma metastasis share identical microscopic findings, and only a central nervous system radiologic study allows their distinction. The pulmonary lesion in our patient was classified as a meningioma metastasis. PMID:25841855

  7. Pulmonary patch repair of tracheobronchial necrosis with perforation secondary to caustic ingestion.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shintaro; Brichkov, Igor

    2014-06-01

    Corrosive aerodigestive injury complicated by tracheobronchial necrosis is a rare complication after caustic ingestion that carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity. If left untreated, tracheobronchial necrosis results in perforation, mediastinitis, and death. Pulmonary patch repair is a safe, effective, and easily performed surgical technique for the treatment of tracheobronchial necrosis with perforation. Frequent endoscopic surveillance leads to early diagnosis and prompt operative management to prevent significant morbidity. We describe a pulmonary patch repair of a patient who had stage 3b necrosis of the esophagus and the stomach with tracheobronchial necrosis and perforation after caustic ingestion. PMID:24882314

  8. Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    This slide show provides students with basic information on mineralogy. It explains how the term "mineral" is defined, the properties that are used to identify minerals, their importance in daily life, and some general facts. For each identifying property, an example mineral and photograph are provided. Addresses to websites with additional information are also included.

  9. Malondialdehyde and 3-Nitrotyrosine in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Retired Elderly Coal Miners with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Ju-Hwan; Baek, Jin Ee; Choi, Byung-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important cause of occupational mortality in miners exposed to coal mine dust. Although the inflammatory mediators involved in COPD have not been defined, many studies have shown that inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved in orchestrating the complex inflammatory process in COPD. Methods To investigate the relevance of exhaled biomarkers of oxidative and nitrosative stress in participants with COPD, we determined the levels of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in 90 retired elderly coal miners (53 non-COPD and 37 COPD participants). Results Mean levels of MDA (4.64 nM vs. 6.46 nM, p = 0.005) and 3-NT (3.51 nM vs. 5.50 nM, p = 0.039) in EBC were significantly higher in participants with COPD. The median level of MDA did show statistical difference among the COPD severities (p = 0.017), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MDA (0.67) for the diagnostic discrimination of COPD indicated the biomarker. The optimal cutoff values were 5.34 nM (64.9% sensitivity and 64.2% specificity) and 5.58 nM (62.2% sensitivity and 62.3% specificity) for MDA and 3-NT, respectively. The results suggest that high levels of MDA and 3-NT in EBC are associated with COPD in retired elderly miners. Conclusion These results showed that the elevated levels of EBC MDA and EBC 3-NT in individuals with COPD are biomarkers of oxidative or nitrosative stress. PMID:25180140

  10. Volcanic stratigraphy and secondary mineralization of U. S. G. S. Pucci geothermal test well, Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gannett, M.W.; Bargar, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-one sample splits of drill cuttings from approximately 6.1 m intervals in the 610 m hole that was completed in 1979 were provided for this study. An additional 225 sample splits (3.05 m intervals) from 536 m to the bottom of the drill hole at 1220 m were added to the study following the deepening of the drill hole. Stratigraphic and petrologic observations of the cuttings were made. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer examinations were made of alteration minerals. The lithology and secondary mineralization are discussed.

  11. [Cardiac arrest and secondary pulmonary oedema following accidental intramucosal injection of naphazoline in an adult].

    PubMed

    Villeret, I; Tellier, A C; Erhmann, S; Réa, D; Delalande, J P

    2003-05-01

    During neurosurgery for hypophysary adenoma under general anaesthesia in a prone position, a 34 year-old-women received accidental 6 ml intramucosal injection of lidocaine with naphazoline. The patient presented a severe bradycardia associated with a major increase in arterial blood pression followed by a brief cardiac arrest. She also presented a prolonged awakening and a pulmonary oedema, which lead to mechanical ventilation. The patient rapidly recovered a normal clinical state. PMID:12831977

  12. Secondary Aspergillus in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from North-India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shahid; A. Malik; R. Bhargava

    To find out the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, to study the anti-Aspergillus antibodies in patient's sera and to study the anti-fungal susceptibility of the isolated Aspergillus strains. BALs obtained from sixty-five patients of pulmonar y tuberculosis and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. Direct microscopy was performed by 10% KOH and Lacto- Phenol

  13. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metastasis and secondary paresis in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Carpenter, James W; Schumacher, Loni L; Shumacher, Loni L; Moon, Rachel S

    2012-12-01

    A 16-yr-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented with an acute history of lethargy, inappetance, ataxia, and paralysis. The bird had rapidly progressed from a normal state to complete inability to perch or ambulate within a 48-hr period. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral hind limb paresis with upper motor neuron signs present in both legs and the vent. Radiographs identified multiple nodular soft-tissue opacities within the cranial coelomic cavity and a single nodule superimposed with the thoracic spine. The bird was euthanized and submitted for necropsy, which revealed a primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with multiple sites of osseous metastasis, including the vertebrae, and subsequent spinal cord compression. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in this species, although reports of similar tumors in other psittacines have been published. This report, along with others previously published, suggests that vertebral metastasis of primary pulmonary tumors may be more common in psittacine species than previously recognized and, as such, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in psittacine birds exhibiting signs of neurologic dysfunction attributed to a spinal cord lesion. PMID:23272361

  14. Pulmonary lesions and serum levels of soluble Fas (sCD95) in former hard coal miners

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Fas/APO-1 (CD95) and Fas Ligand (FasL) is a major mediator system that activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) and is most important for pulmonary cellular homeostasis. Another form of Fas, circulating soluble Fas (sCD95), produced by alternative mRNA splicing antagonizes the cell-surface Fas function. It was the aim of the study to test the hypothesis that the Fas/FasL system is implicated in the development of silica-induced pulmonary nodular lesions. Materials and methods We investigated the serum levels of sCD95 in 55 former hard coal miners. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) was assumed when the profusion of small round opacities according to the ILO 2000 classification system was 1/1 or greater. Analyses of sCD95 were performed by a sandwich ELISA. Results Radiologic CWP was found in 34 of the 55 individuals. The age of subjects with and without CWP was similar (73.5 (SD 7.2) years vs. 73.5 (7.1) years; P = 0.924). sCD95 could be quantified in all samples; significantly higher levels were observed in subjects with radiologic signs of CWP (914 (752-1251) pg/ml vs. 632 (509-804) pg/ml, P < 0.001). However, there was no relationship between sCD95 serum concentrations and the quantity of profusion according to ILO. Conclusions The hypothesis of elevated sCD95 concentrations in CWP was corroborated. The usefulness of sCD95 for prevention and diagnosis of CWP and other forms of silica-induced fibrosis needs to be established By epidemiological studies. PMID:21147622

  15. Secondary uranium mineralization in southern Finland and its relationship to recent glacial events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, David; Black, Stuart; Buckby, Tracy; Hellmuth, Karl-Heinz; Marcos, Nuria; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja

    2008-02-01

    Uranium series dating has been carried out on secondary uranyl silicate minerals formed during sub-glacial and post-glacial weathering of Proterozoic uraninite ores in south west Finland. The samples were obtained from two sites adjacent to the Salpauselkä III ice marginal formation and cover a range of depths, from the surface to more than 60 m. Measured ages fall into three distinct groups, 70-100 ka, 28-36 ka and < 2500 yr. The youngest set is associated with surface exposures and the crystals display clear evidence of re-working. The most likely trigger for uranium release at depths below the surface weathering zone is intrusion of oxidising glacial melt water. The latter is often characterised by very high discharge rates along channels, which close once the overpressure generated at the ice margin is released. There is excellent correspondence between the two Finnish sites and published data for similar deposits over a large area of southern and central Sweden. None of the seventy samples analysed gave a U-Th age between 40 and 70 ka; a second hiatus is apparent at 20 ka, coinciding with the Last Glacial Maximum. Thus, the process responsible for uranyl silicate formation was halted for significant periods, owing to a change in geochemical conditions or the hydrogeological regime. These data support the presence of interstadial conditions during the Early and Middle Weichselian since in the absence of major climatic perturbations the uranium phases at depth are stable. When viewed in conjunction with proxy data from mammoth remains it would appear that the region was ice-free prior to the Last Glacial Maximum.

  16. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

    1998-02-01

    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  17. Comparison of microstructure of superplastically deformed synthetic materials and ultramylonite: Coalescence of secondary mineral grains via grain boundary sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Tasaka, M.; Yoshida, H.

    2011-12-01

    Using very fine-grained aggregates of forsterite containing ~10vol% secondary mineral phase such as periclase and enstatite, we have been able to demonstrate their superplascity, that is, achievement of more than a few 100 % tensile strain (Hiraga et al. 2010). Superplastic deformation is commonly considered to proceed via grain boundary sliding (GBS) which results in grain switching in the samples. Hiraga et al. (2010) succeeded in detecting the operation of GBS from observing the coalescence of grains of secondary phase in superplastically deformed samples. The secondary phase pins the motion of grain boundaries of the primary phase; however, the reduction of the number of the grains of secondary phase due to their coalescence allows grain growth of the primary phase. We analyzed the relationships between grain size of the primary and secondary phases, between strain and grain size, and between strain and the number of coalesced grains in the superplastically deformed samples. The results supports participation of all the grains of the primary phase in grain switching process indicating that the grain boundary sliding accommodates almost entire strain during the deformation. Mechanical properties of these materials such as their stress and grain size exponents of 1-2 do not conflict this conclusion. We applied the relationships obtained from analyzing superplastic materials to the microstructure of the natural samples, which has been considered to have deformed via grain boundary sliding, that is, ultramylonite. The microstructure of greenschist-grade ultramylonite reported by Fliervoet et al. (1997) was analyzed. Distributions of the mineral phases (i.e., quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite) show distinct coalescence of the same mineral phases in the direction almost perpendicular to the foliation of the rock. The number of coalesced grains indicates that the strain that rock experienced is > 2. [reference] Hiraga et al. (2010) Nature 468, 1091-1094; Fliervoet et al. (1997) Journal of Structural Geology 19, 1495-1520

  18. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; White, Art F.; Stonestrom, Dave A.

    2009-05-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO 2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  20. Autopsy confirmation of severe pulmonary interstitial fibrosis secondary to Munchausen syndrome presenting as cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Croft, Philip R; Racz, Mark I; Bloch, John D; Palmer, Charles H

    2005-09-01

    Chronic factitious disorder with physical symptoms, or Munchausen syndrome, is a well-recognized but uncommonly diagnosed psychiatric condition characterized by the deliberate production of signs and symptoms of disease in order to receive medical attention. Clinical suspicion of this disease is rarely confirmed by autopsy, as the patients usually do not die as a consequence of feigning illness. Here we report the autopsy confirmation of a case of a suspected Munchausen syndrome patient who presented with a history of cystic fibrosis. Examination of the lungs demonstrated extensive severe interstitial fibrosis, and polariscopic examination revealed a large quantity of crystalline material throughout the tissue; X-ray diffraction identified the material as talc. Synopses of published cases of Munchausen syndrome presenting as cystic fibrosis, and cases of Munchausen syndrome with pulmonary talcosis are presented as part of the discussion. PMID:16225229

  1. Environmental pulmonary health problems related to mineral dusts: Examples from central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do?an, M.

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of benign disorders including pleural thickening (PT), calcified pleural plaques (CPP), and malignant diseases such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in central Anatolia. Earlier studies suggested tremolite was the main cause, and there was no explanation why some of the population did not have malignant cases, and plaques were by far the most frequent manifestation of asbestos-induced injury. In this study, geological, mineralogical and environmental data were evaluated. While the prolonged continuous exposure to high or low doses of long (8-30 µm) and thin (less than 0.25 µm) mixed fibers such as chrysolite, and/or anthophyllite or tremolite, and also silica particles may be the cause of MPM in central Anatolia, two different reasons for the CPP and PT are suggested. The first one is short (less than 8 µm) and thin mixed-type mineral fibers. The second reason is low doses of long, but thick, splintery tremolite fibers.

  2. Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) and its mineral structure: Implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L.

    2015-01-01

    Austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm-1 are assigned to the ?2, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO43- unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm-1 correspond to the ?1, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO43- unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm-1 for IR and 3270 cm-1 both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals.

  3. Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) and its mineral structure: implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L

    2015-01-25

    Austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm(-1) are assigned to the ?2, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3-) unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm(-1) correspond to the ?1, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3(-) unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm(-1) for IR and 3270 cm(-(1) both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals. PMID:25087167

  4. Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W. [U.S. DOE; Soong, Yee [U.S. DOE; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}–water–rock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldspars–CO{sub 2}–brine interactions at 150–200 °C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolution–precipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate–?G{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral information at CO{sub 2} storage conditions.

  5. A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.

    2012-12-01

    A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

  6. Lymphangitic Pulmonary Metastases Secondary to Breast Cancer with Normal Chest X-Rays and Abnormal Perfusion Lung Scans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Sadoff; James Grossman; Harold Weiner

    1975-01-01

    Three patients with advanced breast cancer are described who developed lymphangitic pulmonary metastases with normal chest x-rays and abnormal perfusion lung scans. The abnormal lung scans can probably be attributed to embolization of the pulmonary vasculature, first described in association with lymphangitic pulmonary metastases in 1903. The importance of recognizing this condition in patients with breast cancer is shown by

  7. Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

  8. Control of pit-lake water chemistry by secondary minerals, Summer Camp pit, Getchell mine, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bowell; J. V. Parshley

    2005-01-01

    At the Summer Camp pit of the Getchell mine in northern Nevada, the sulfate mineralogy is complex and includes gypsum, jarosite, pickeringite–halotrichite, copiapite, melanterite, langite, and bukovskyite that occur along with scorodite–mansfieldite and Ca–Cu–Zn arsenate minerals. Leaching of these minerals by meteoric water seasonally contributes As, Fe, Ca, trace metals, sulfate, and hydrogen ions to the lake. During the early

  9. Secondary minerals from extrapedogenic per latus acidic weathering environments at geomorphic edges, Eastern Nebraska, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Joeckel; K. D. Wally; B. J. Ang Clement; P. R. Hanson; J. S. Dillon; S. K. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Acidic weathering of the sulfidic Upper Cretaceous Carlile and Pierre Shales in Nebraska has led to the precipitation of the Al sulfate–hydroxide minerals aluminite, alunite, “basaluminite”\\/felsöbányaite (e.g.,), the aluminum hydroxides gibbsite and bayerite, and the rare Al phosphate hydroxide vashegyite. Kaolinite has also been produced as a result of this acidic weathering. These minerals do not appear as neoformed constituents

  10. Migrating bullet: A case of a bullet embolism to the pulmonary artery with secondary pulmonary infarction after gunshot wound to the left globe

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Eugene; Peterson, Andrew A; Erly, William K

    2014-01-01

    Bullet embolism is a rare phenomenon following gunshot injuries. We present a case of a 25-year-old male who sustained a gunshot wound to his left globe with the bullet initially lodged in his right transverse sinus. The bullet ultimately embolized to a left lower lobe pulmonary artery resulting in a pulmonary infarct. A discussion of select prior cases, pathophysiology, and management strategies follows. PMID:24550629

  11. Collagen type-I leads to in vivo matrix mineralization and secondary stabilization of Mg-Zr-Ca alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Mushahary, Dolly; Wen, Cuie; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Lin, Jixing; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter; Pande, Gopal; Li, Yuncang

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-zirconia-calcium (Mg-Zr-Ca) alloy implants were coated with Collagen type-I (Coll-I) and assessed for their rate and efficacy of bone mineralization and implant stabilization. The phases, microstructure and mechanical properties of these alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and compression test, respectively, and the corrosion behavior was established by their hydrogen production rate in simulated body fluid (SBF). Coll-I extracted from rat tail, and characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, was used for dip-coating the Mg-based alloys. The coated alloys were implanted into the femur bones of male New Zealand white rabbits. In vivo bone formation around the implants was quantified by measuring the bone mineral content/density (BMC/BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osseointegration of the implant and new bone mineralization was visualized by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Upon surface coating with Coll-I, these alloys demonstrated high surface energy showing enhanced performance as an implant material that is suitable for rapid and efficient new bone tissue induction with optimal mineral content and cellular properties. The results demonstrate that Coll-I coated Mg-Zr-Ca alloys have a tendency to form superior trabecular bone structure with better osteoinduction around the implants and higher implant secondary stabilization, through the phenomenon of contact osteogenesis, compared to the control and uncoated ones in shorter periods of implantation. Hence, Coll-I surface coating of Mg-Zr-Ca alloys is a promising method for expediting new bone formation in vivo and enhancing osseointegration in load bearing implant applications. PMID:25179112

  12. minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildner, Manfred; Giester, Gerald; Kersten, Monika; Langer, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Polarized electronic absorption spectra of colourless chalcocyanite, CuSO4, have been measured using microscope-spectrometric techniques. The spectra are characterized by a structured and clearly polarized band system in the near-infrared spectral range with components centred at 11,720, 10,545, 9,100, and 7,320 cm-1, which have been assigned to crystal field d- d transitions of Cu2+ cations in pseudo-tetragonally elongated CuO6 polyhedra with point symmetry C i (). The polarization behaviour is interpreted based on a D 2( C 2?) pseudo-symmetry. Crystal field calculations were performed for the actual triclinic point symmetry by applying the Superposition Model of crystal fields, as well as in terms of a `classic' pseudo-tetragonal crystal field approach yielding the parameters Dq (eq) = 910, Dt = 395, and Ds = 1,336 cm-1, corresponding to a cubically averaged Dq cub = 679 cm-1. A comparative survey on crystal fields in Cu2+ minerals shows that the low overall crystal field strength in chalcocyanite, combined with a comparatively weak pseudo-tetragonal splitting of energy levels, is responsible for its unique colourless appearance among oxygen-based Cu2+ minerals. The weak crystal field in CuSO4 can be related to the lower position of the SO4 2- anion compared to, e.g. the H2O molecule in the spectrochemical series of ligands.

  13. Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, C.A. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK). Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

    1989-01-01

    A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

  14. The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2013-06-03

    The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

  15. Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many important geochemical reactions occur at the mineral-water interface, including sorption and desorption reactions of contaminants. Fundamental knowledge of the kinetics of these processes is based primarily on experimental observations of reactions at faces of single crystals or macroscopic data from pure mineral powder suspensions. Sorption reactions at crystal faces are generally very fast, on the order of microseconds or less, with reaction times often limited only by film diffusion at the mineral-water interface. In well-stirred suspensions of aquifer sediments, however, sorptive equilibrium can take many hours or days to achieve steady-state concentrations. We have examined the potential reasons for sorption rate limitation using uranium(VI) sorption by sediments from a sandy aquifer in Savannah River, South Carolina (USA). U(VI) sorption by sand-sized grains from the aquifer is dominated by reaction with secondary mineral coatings on quartz and feldspar grains. The coatings studied were on the order of 15 microns in thickness (i.e., from quartz grain to aqueous solution) and composed primarily of clay minerals and hematite of varying particle size. Microfocused-XRF imaging of elemental concentrations (e.g., U, Fe) of polished cross-sections of the grain/coating contact showed strong spatial correlations of U and Fe within the coatings, regardless of the length of reaction time (30 minutes to 4 weeks). The spatial resolution of the ?-XRF technique is of the order of 2 microns in horizontal directions, but the uncertainty of the observed spatial gradients is high due to grain curvature away from the polished surface and fluorescence contributed from the entire 30 micron thickness of a typical grain/epoxy thin section. TEM characterization of focused-ion-beam (FIB), vertically-extracted samples of the grain-coating contact shows that complex pore networks exist within the coatings of variable dimensions and unknown connectivity. Using scanning TEM (STEM) tomography, it can be seen that there are large numbers of pore throat sizes less than 10 nm within the coatings. We hypothesize that diffusion through these pores, which likely have electrically charged surfaces, controls the observed macroscopic rates of U(VI) sorption in batch experiments with sand grains. Evidence to support this hypothesis was observed by studying U and Fe fluorescence spatial variation within FIB samples (1 micron thick) at 200 nm spatial resolution. With this greater spatial resolution, it is possible to see U concentration variations within the coatings that are dependent on the time of sorption reaction, and illustrates how the coating environment constitutes a diffusion constraint to achieve adsorptive equilibrium between an aqueous phase and the mineral surfaces. Including this diffusion constraint within conceptual models for reactive contaminant transport may be significant at the field scale, because secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site. This is important in resolving long-term transport predictions at DOE sites, such as Hanford and Savannah River, where equilibrium versus kinetic reactive transport models are being evaluated.

  16. Localization of mineral elements in normal and strontium-intoxicated quail eggshell by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Quintana; Annick Quettier; Daniel Sandoz

    1980-01-01

    Summary  Localization of mineral elements in the shell of quail eggs was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electron\\u000a probe microanalysis (EPMA). Normal eggs as well as eggs from hens intoxicated with strontium were studied.\\u000a \\u000a A simple preparative technique was employed that is advantageous for the study of mineralized tissues. Semithin (1 m) sections\\u000a of material embedded in Araldite

  17. Mineral Association Changes the Secondary Structure and Dynamics of Murine Amelogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Junxia; Xu, Yimin; Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2013-12-18

    Biomineralization proteins, present during the formation of hard tissues including bones, teeth, egg shells and nacre, result in the exquisite structures and properties of the resulting materials.[1] The structure of these proteins is often implicated in the control of the mineral properties, however very little structural data is available for the bulk of these proteins due to the difficulty in determining structures of immobilized proteins. Solid-state NMR is uniquely suited to the study of the structure of proteins bound to surfaces, demonstrated with the structural and orientation insights provided for the hydroxyapatite mineralization proteins statherin and the amelogenin, LRAP.[2] While these data are some of the only structural data available for this important class of protein, the experiments are often expensive and time consuming, due to the need to prepare and measure samples with isolated spin pairs, and are limited to a size of ~60 residues. In this work, we utilized a combination of 1D and recent 2D[3] solid-state NMR techniques along with a sparsely labelled sample to characterize the structure and dynamics of potential HAP binding residues of the 180 residue enamel protein, amelogenin. Amelogenin nanospheres and mineral bound amelogenin were investigated and a shift from unstructured to ?-sheet structure was observed, along with a decrease in protein flexibility. This work provides the first molecular level structure and dynamic information of full-length amelogenin on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and within nanospheres, and demonstrates the ability to evaluate structural characteristics of large biomineralization proteins bound to their physiologically relevant surface. The research was performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a facility operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, with a portion of it performed at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. DOE Biological and Environmental Research program.

  18. Syntrophic Effects in a Subsurface Clostridial Consortium on Fe(III)-(Oxyhydr)oxide Reduction and Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Madhavi; Lin, Chu-Ching; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Xiuhong; Wang, Yangping; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2013-12-02

    In this study, we cultivated from subsurface sediments an anaerobic Clostridia 25 consortium that was composed of a fermentative Fe-reducer Clostridium species (designated as 26 strain FGH) and a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium belonging to the Clostridia family 27 Vellionellaceae (designated as strain RU4). In pure culture, Clostridium sp. strain FGH mediated 28 the reductive dissolution/transformation of iron oxides during growth on peptone. When 29 Clostridium sp. FGH was grown with strain RU4 on peptone, the rates of iron oxide reduction 30 were significantly higher. Iron reduction by the consortium was mediated by multiple 31 mechanisms, including biotic reduction by Clostridium sp. FGH and biotic/abiotic reactions 32 involving biogenic sulfide by strain RU4. The Clostridium sp. FGH produced hydrogen during 33 fermentation, and the presence of hydrogen inhibited growth and iron reduction activity. The 34 sulfate-reducing partner strain RU4 was stimulated by the presence of H2 gas and generated 35 reactive sulfide which promoted the chemical reduction of the iron oxides. Characterization of 36 Fe(II) mineral products showed the formation of magnetite during ferrihydrite reduction, and 37 the precipitation of iron sulfides during goethite and hematite reduction. The results suggest an 38 important pathway for iron reduction and secondary mineralization by fermentative sulfate-39 reducing microbial consortia is through syntrophy-driven biotic/abiotic reactions with biogenic 40 sulfide.

  19. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  20. Chronostratigraphy of Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy): secondary mineral microtextures and 39Ar-40Ar systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Igor M.; Buettner, Annett

    2009-12-01

    The eruptive history of Monte Vulture has been the subject of several geochronological investigations during the past decades, which reliably dated only a small number of eruptions. Understanding the causes of sub-optimum data yield in the past requires an interdisciplinary approach. We re-analyzed samples from previous works and present new data on samples from the main volcano-stratigraphic units of Monte Vulture, so as to provide an improved, consistent chronostratigraphic database. Imaging of minerals by cathodoluminescence and backscattered electrons reveals that heterochemical, high-temperature deuteric reaction textures are ubiquitous. Such observations are common in metamorphic rocks but had not frequently been reported from volcanic rocks. In view of the mineralogical complexity, we base our chronological interpretation on isochemical steps, defined as steps for which the Cl/K and/or the Ca/K ratios are constant. Isochemical steps carry the isotopic signature of chemically homogeneous mineral phases and therefore allow a well-constrained age interpretation. Comparison of old and new 39Ar-40Ar data proves the reproducibility of age spectra and their shapes. This quantifies the analytical reliability of the irradiation and mass-spectrometric analyses. Anomalous age spectra are a reproducible property of some specific samples and correlate with mineralogical anomalies. The present data allow us to fine-tune the age of the volcanostratigraphic units of Monte Vulture during the known interval of main volcanic activity from ca. 740 to 610 ka. After a very long stasis, the volcanic activity in the Monte Vulture area resumed with diatremic eruptions, one of which (Lago Piccolo di Monticchio, the site of a palynological-paleoclimatological drilling) was dated at ca. 140 ka.

  1. Water chemistry impacts on arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation: implications for managed aquifer recharge.

    PubMed

    Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Schupp, Don; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-04-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic mobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is imperative to identify the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization during MAR. In this bench-scale study, arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite (FeAsS) was characterized for conditions relevant to MAR operations. Experimentally determined activation energies for arsenic mobilization from FeAsS under aerobic conditions were 36.9 ± 2.3 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium chloride, 40.8 ± 3.5 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium nitrate, and 43.6 ± 5.0 kJ/mol for secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. Interestingly, the sodium chloride system showed higher arsenic mobilization under aerobic conditions. In addition, secondary mineral precipitation varied among systems and further affected arsenic mobilization. For example, the wastewater system inhibited precipitation, while in the sodium chloride system, faster phase transformation of iron(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates was observed, resulting in hematite formation after 7 days. The phase transformation to hematite will result in less available surface area for arsenic attenuation. These new observations and activation energies can be useful to develop improved reactive transport models for the fate of arsenic during MAR, and develop strategies to minimize arsenic release. PMID:24621369

  2. Secondary arsenic minerals and arsenic mobility in a historical waste rock pile at Ka?k near Kutná Hora, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourková-Víšková, E.; Loun, J.; Sracek, O.; Houzar, S.; Filip, J.

    2015-02-01

    The arsenic mineralization in historical waste rock pile at Ka?k site near Kutná Hora developed over a period of about 500 years. The objective of this study was to determine principal secondary arsenic mineral phases and their environmental stability. The only common primary As-bearing mineral - arsenopyrite - occurs in the mineral assemblage of Kutná Hora base-metal deposit together with quartz, pyrite, sphalerite, and pyrrhotite. Most of arsenic is bound in supergene minerals (scorodite, jarosite-beudantite, bukovskýite, pitticite), which are relatively stable under oxidizing conditions prevailing in the pile. The Ka?k site is a type locality for bukovskýite, ka?kite, zýkaite, and parascorodite. In long-term perspective, the most stable minerals from viewpoint of As-binding appear to be scorodite and beudantite. A higher mobility was observed for As incorporated into jarosite and poorly crystalline to amorphous phases (FeIII -oxyhydroxides, pitticite). This study has not confirmed significant mobility of arsenic within the pile and water infiltrating in recharge periods of the year (late winter-early spring) should not mobilize arsenic at a significant rate. However, monitoring of the stability of secondary As-phases and dissolved arsenic in the environment around the pile is required to avoid future migration of arsenic out of the pile.

  3. A Case of Antiphospholipid Syndrome Refractory to Secondary Anticoagulating Prophylaxis after Deep Vein Thrombosis-Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Kang Mo; Shin, Jong Wook

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by a combination of clinical criteria, including vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity and elevated antiphospholipid antibody titers. It is one of the causes of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that can be critical due to the mortality risk. Overall recurrence of thromboembolism is very low with adequate anticoagulation prophylaxis. The most effective treatment to prevent recurrent thrombosis is long-term anticoagulation. We report on a 17-year-old male with APS, who manifested blue toe syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and cerebral infarction despite adequate long-term anticoagulation therapy. PMID:25580146

  4. Ultrasound accelerated catheter directed thrombolysis for pulmonary embolus and right heart thrombus secondary to transvenous pacing wires.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, Kwame S; Seymour, Keri; Costanza, Michael J; Gahtan, Vivian

    2011-04-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is associated with a significant number of deaths each year, which are commonly attributed to deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity. Pulmonary embolism due to right-sided cardiac thrombus associated with transvenous wires is a rare occurrence. Treatment considerations have been systemic anticoagulation with heparin or systemic thrombolytic therapy. A unique case of a patient with symptomatic PE and extensive atrial and ventricle thrombus formation associated with transvenous pacing wires treated with ultrasound accelerated catheter directed thrombolysis is presented. PMID:21278170

  5. Pore-scale study of the effect of secondary carbonate precipitation on the dissolution of primary minerals using the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Q.; Chen, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive transport processes involving dissolution and/or precipitation are pervasive in Earth, energy, and environmental systems. One typical example is geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Among these reactive processes, it is commonly encountered that a second phase precipitates while the primary phase dissolves, and the precipitation and dissolution reactions are fully coupled with each other. In the case of mineral trapping of CO2, the primary silicate mineral dissolves due to a decrease of pH caused by the dissolution of CO2 into the solution; meanwhile the dissolved CO2 can react with cations to form a secondary precipitate of carbonate mineral. Although the effect of precipitation of secondary solid phase on the dissolution of the primary solid phase has been studied extensively, the results reported in the literature are often inconclusive and sometimes even contradict one another. The reason is that the coupled dissolution and precipitation processes are controlled by several factors whose contribution is difficult to ascertain, including the dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, temperature and pressure, pH and species concentration of the solution, physicochemical properties of the primary and secondary minerals, as well as the nucleation and crystal mechanisms of the precipitates, etc. In this study, a pore-scale (mesoscopic) model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to investigate the effects of secondary precipitation on the dissolution of the primary mineral. The model can predict coupled multiple physicochemical processes including fluid flow, mass transport, chemical reaction, dissolution, precipitation consisting of nucleation and crystal growth, as well as dynamical evolution of pore geometries. Effects of dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, molar volumes of primary and secondary minerals, initial powder size and surface roughness of the primary mineral, as well as nucleation and crystal growth mechanisms on the dissolution and precipitation processes are investigated in terms of rate and amount of dissolution and precipitation. Several types of dissolution and precipitation processes are identified based on the morphology and structure of the precipitates and on the extent to which the precipitates affect the dissolution of the primary mineral. Simulation results are also compared with existing experimental results. Depending on the conditions, the effect of the precipitates spans the full range of possible behavior from trivial changes to enhanced or reduced dissolution rates of the primary phase.

  6. The role of secondary minerals in controlling the migration of arsenic and metals from high-sulfide wastes (Berikul gold mine, Siberia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Gieré; N. V Sidenko; E. V Lazareva

    2003-01-01

    The role of secondary minerals in controlling the migration of As, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd has been investigated in piles of high-sulfide waste at the Berikul Au mine, Kemerovo region, Russia. These wastes contain 40–45 wt.% sulfides and have been stored for approximately 50 a near the Mokry Berikul river. Sulfide oxidation generates acid pore solutions (pH=1.7) with high

  7. Rare earth element redistribution and fractionation during secondary mineral formation: examples from reef carbonate karst (Jebel Stah, Tunisia) and from oceanic basalts (site 417A, Northern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlig, S.

    Rare earth element (REE) distributions of fluorite-carbonate deposits from Northern Tunisia (Jebel Stah) and submarine alteration products of oceanic basalts from the Northern Atlantic (site 417A, D.S.D.P., Leg 51-53) were studied. The REE distributions of secondary minerals infilling karst at the Jebel Stah clearly illustrate the mobility and fractionation of the group. Calcite concentrates the highest amounts of REE (10 2 orders of higher magnitude) and is heavy REE enriched, whereas fluorite has the lower values and shows heavy but clearly medium REE enrichment. These fractionation and distributions are thought to be due to the effects of carbonate and/or fluoride complexes on the REE behaviour during the formation of secondary minerals. Celadonite-nontronite, saponite and Fe-oxyhydroxides formed early during submarine alteration, exhibit REE contents and distributions always similar to those of parental basalts, although they gained Ce and thus present positive Ce anomalies. Beidellites of the intermediary alteration stages show great heavy REE depleted REE curves and this is apparently due to chemical modifications where the increase of the CO 2 partial pressure and REE-carbonate complex caused losses of the heavy REE relative to lighter members of the group. Thereafter, heavy REE complexes were probably released later along with the diminution of the CO 2 partial pressure and precipitation of calcite and analcite and thus the heavy REE were accumulated in minerals of the latest stages. These fractionation and distributions of the REE during the secondary formation of minerals in karst and during the submarine alteration of basalts are thought to be due to effects of carbonate and/or fluoride complexes on the REE behaviour in the milieu.

  8. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components

    PubMed Central

    Housley, D; Berube, K; Jones, T; Anderson, S; Pooley, F; Richards, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. Aims: To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Methods: Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Results: Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Conclusion: Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation. PMID:12107295

  9. Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

    2013-11-01

    The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)?1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)?0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)?4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22?2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ?1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ?4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ?2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

  10. Pulmonary Transfusion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Bux, Jürgen; Sachs, Ulrich J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background In recent years, pulmonary transfusion reactions have gained increasing importance as serious adverse transfusion events. Methods Review of the literature. Results Pulmonary transfusion reactions are not extremely rare and, according to hemovigilance data, important causes of transfusion-induced major morbidity and death. They can be classified as primary with predominant pulmonary injury and secondary as part of another transfusion reaction. Primary reactions include transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion-associated dyspnea (TAD). Secondary pulmonary reactions are often observed in the wake of hemolytic transfusion reactions, hypotensive/anaphylactic reactions, and transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. Conclusion Knowledge and careful management of cases of pulmonary transfusion reactions are essential for correct reporting to blood services and hemovigilance systems. Careful differentiation between TRALI and TACO is important for taking adequate preventive measures. PMID:21512622

  11. A Case of Secondary Syphilis Involving Tonsil, Pulmonary, and Multiple Lymph Nodes: 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhanli; Zhang, Jin; Li, Qian; Liu, Meng; Kang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    A 50-year-old man with general fatigue and weight loss underwent FDG PET/CT scan to detect possible occult malignancy. The images revealed abnormal FDG activity in the tonsils, right lung, and in the cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes. Lymphoma was initially suspected. However, pathologic examination after cervical lymph node biopsy revealed only reactive hyperplasia. Further examinations including serologic tests led to a diagnosis of secondary syphilis. A follow-up PET/CT scan after a 6-month benzylpenicillin therapy showed significant interval improvement. PMID:25546195

  12. Osteological and Biomolecular Evidence of a 7000-Year-Old Case of Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy Secondary to Tuberculosis from Neolithic Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Muriel; Molnár, Erika; Donoghue, Helen D.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Minnikin, David E.; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Lee, Oona Y-C.; Bull, Ian D.; Pálfi, György

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hódmez?vásárhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults. Several cases showed potential signs of tuberculosis, particularly the remains of the individual HGO-53. This is an important finding that has significant implications for our understanding of this community. The aim of the present study was to seek biomolecular evidence to confirm this diagnosis. HGO-53 was a young male with a striking case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), revealing rib changes and cavitations in the vertebral bodies. The initial macroscopic diagnosis of HPO secondary to tuberculosis was confirmed by analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific cell wall lipid biomarkers and corroborated by ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. This case is the earliest known classical case of HPO on an adult human skeleton and is one of the oldest palaeopathological and palaeomicrobiological tuberculosis cases to date. PMID:24205173

  13. EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn L. Nagy

    2004-04-22

    Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion of the number of sites where reactions can occur. Results were also finalized on a component of a previous project related to the Hanford waste tanks that had the goal of measuring the incorporation of rhenium, an analogue of radioactive technetium, in iron and aluminum-oxides minerals as they aged in tank sludges at higher temperatures. Small amounts of rhenium were occluded in the iron-rich solids and the amount increased with aging time. Results from the quartz and biotite experiments are in a form that can be used in models of fluid flow in the Hanford subsurface. Results from the rhenium experiments can be used to understand aspects of closing certain of the Hanford tanks.

  14. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in secondary sulfate minerals in soils of mined areas in Southeast Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Carmona; Á. Faz Cano; J. M. Arocena

    2009-01-01

    Soils in mined areas in southeastern Spain are commonly characterized by extreme acidity, high salinity, and metals. These present challenges to establish vegetation as a management option for these environmentally-problematic landscapes. We collected salt efflorescence and the corresponding soil materials to better understand the geochemical cycling of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils of mined areas. Mineral composition was

  15. Tumors of the Pulmonary Vascular Bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunhee S. Yi

    \\u000a Primary or secondary tumors of the lung can affect all levels of the pulmonary vascular bed, including the pulmonary arteries,\\u000a veins, and capillaries. Most primary tumors of the pulmonary vasculature are poorly differentiated, highly fatal sarcomas\\u000a of the large main pulmonary arteries and veins. Pulmonary arterial sarcoma (PAS) is far more prevalent than its venous counterpart,\\u000a although both arterial and

  16. Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Kornfeld, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

  17. 2D imaging in a 3D world: Observing sub-grain scale variations and secondary mineral precipitates in reacted pore networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Advancements in 3D imaging techniques and analysis methods, and easier access to benchtop 3D X-ray microscopes, have led to a proliferation of 3D imaging studies of chemical alterations within porous media. However, 2D imaging methods continue to offer complementary insights into processes controlling sub-grain scale variations in mineralogy and intragranular porosity that are often difficult to observe with 3D methods. For example, 2D imaging studies of mineral precipitation-induced changes in the pore network structure including detailed observations of distributions of secondary mineral precipitates can be coupled with 3D image analysis of a pore network to determine the pore properties required to infer permeability. In this work, the combined advantages of 2D and 3D imaging methods are highlighted through 3D X-ray Computed Microtomography (X-ray CT) and 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of a reacted column experiment in the context of the Hanford, WA site and a sedimentary rock sample from the Alberta basin. Both samples were imaged using 3D X-ray CT imaging at a voxel resolution of 4 ?m and analyzed using 3DMA Rock to determine pore and throat size distributions as well as pore coordination numbers. Polished sections were then created from each sample and imaged using 2D SEM imaging with resolutions of 0.4 ?m for the reacted column and an order of magnitude larger for the sedimentary rock. 2D images were analyzed using an erosion dilation method to determine pore and throat size distributions that were then corrected using sample-specific bias correction factors. The permeability of each sample was predicted from pore network models informed with the 2D or 3D pore and throat size distributions and the coordination numbers determined from the 3D analysis. Differences in 2D and 3D image resolutions resulted in over- or under- estimating small pore throats and led to predicted permeabilities that differed by orders of magnitude. For both samples, higher resolution images resulted in over-estimating small pore throats and under-estimating expected permeability. While higher resolution images are generally favored, they may not improve predictions of permeability as they require additional processing to distinguish small flow-conducting pore throats from surface roughness features. While 3D imaging is required to determine the network coordination, 2D imaging is necessary to understand where secondary minerals precipitate within the pore network and to quantify sub-grain scale variations. These advantages are demonstrated through SEM imaging of polished sections from the reacted column experiment. 2D images revealed that secondary mineral precipitates occurred as a relatively uniform coating on grain surfaces, unrelated to mineralogy, pore size, or other factors. SEM images also revealed new observations of sub-grain scale variations that showed that Hanford sand grains have a high amount of intragranular porosity and mineral precipitates formed in intragranular regions. These observations, which are important to understanding the reactive system, could not have been made if 3D imaging was used exclusively.

  18. Commentary: assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?

    PubMed

    Dublyansky, Yuri V; Smirnov, Sergey Z

    2005-04-01

    Two papers recently published in the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology by Marshall et al. [Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., Peterman, Z.E., 2003. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam. Hydrol. 62-63, 237-247] and Xu et al. [Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Bodvarsson, G., 2003. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock. J. Contam. Hydrol. 64, 113-127] attempt to assess past volumes of seepage and infiltration fluxes through the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, on the basis of the modeling of the spatial distribution of secondary calcite. In this commentary, we argue that the employed methodology is not viable. In addition, the thermal boundary conditions used in simulations do not correspond to the temperatures of the mineral forming fluids established on the basis of the fluid inclusion studies. PMID:15763356

  19. Use of Cu isotopes to distinguish primary and secondary Cu mineralization in the Cañariaco Norte porphyry copper deposit, Northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Ryan; Ruiz, Joaquin; Casselman, Michael J.; Megaw, Peter; van Egmond, Robert

    2012-10-01

    A significant proportion of the copper in the Cañariaco Norte porphyry copper deposit in northern Peru occurs in chalcocite and covellite-rich veins and disseminations that exist from the surface to depths greater than 1 km. The overall range of Cu isotopic ratios of 42 mineral separates from Cañariaco varies from -8.42 to 0.61 ‰, with near-surface chalcocite and Fe oxides having isotopically depleted values compared to chalcocite, covellite, and chalcopyrite from deeper levels. The majority (34 of 36) of measured Cu sulfides have a typical hypogene copper isotope composition of ?65Cu = 0.18 ± 0.38 ‰, with no enriched isotopic signature existing in the Cañariaco Norte sulfide data. Thus, the copper isotope data indicate that most of the chalcocite and covellite formed from high-temperature hypogene mineralization processes and that only a minor portion of the deposit is enriched by supergene processes. The nonexistence of an enriched ?65Cu reservoir suggest the presence of an undiscovered lateral/exotic Cu occurrence that enriched 65Cu that remained in solution during weathering. Regardless of the cause, the comparative analysis of the Cu isotope dataset reveals that little exploration potential for an extensive supergene enrichment blanket exists because the weathering history at Cañariaco Norte was not conducive to preservation of enriched Cu at depth beneath the leach cap.

  20. Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Edward J; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M

    2010-06-15

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. "Fast" Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having "low" cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with "high" cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d(-1)] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction. PMID:20476735

  1. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 ??m) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-M.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  2. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  3. DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn L. Nagy

    2009-05-04

    The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  4. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  5. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  6. Comorbidity and health-related quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending Swedish secondary care units

    PubMed Central

    Sundh, Josefin; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Kjell; Lindén, Anders; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Janson, Christer; Sandström, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our understanding of how comorbid diseases influence health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited and in need of improvement. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between comorbidities and HRQL as measured by the instruments EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Methods Information on patient characteristics, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, depression, and EQ-5D and CAT questionnaire results was collected from 373 patients with Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) <50% of predicted value from 27 secondary care respiratory units in Sweden. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were performed using EQ-5D index, EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), and CAT scores as response variables. Results Having more comorbid conditions was associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by all instruments. Chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by EQ-5D index (adjusted regression coefficient [95% confidence interval] ?0.07 [?0.13 to ?0.02]), EQ-5D VAS (?5.17 [?9.42 to ?0.92]), and CAT (3.78 [2.35 to 5.20]). Musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly associated with worse EQ-5D index (?0.08 [?0.14 to ?0.02]), osteoporosis with worse EQ-5D VAS (?4.65 [?9.27 to ?0.03]), and depression with worse EQ-5D index (?0.10 [?0.17 to ?0.04]). In stratification analyses, the associations of musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression with HRQL were limited to female patients. Conclusion The instruments EQ-5D and CAT complement each other and emerge as useful for assessing HRQL in patients with COPD. Chronic bronchitis, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression were associated with worse HRQL. We conclude that comorbid conditions, in particular chronic bronchitis, depression, osteoporosis, and musculoskeletal symptoms, should be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with severe COPD. PMID:25653516

  7. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis Involving the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Varun; Silverman, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs as a complication of hematologic disorders such as myelofibrosis, sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. The extramedullary tissue usually involves liver, spleen and lymph nodes, less frequently the chest. We present a recent case of a man with myeloproliferative neoplasm who developed pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to EMH in the lung and pulmonary artery. Radiation therapy was considered the best approach, but it didn’t work and the patient died a week after radiation therapy was completed. We also review herein the present literature.

  8. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  9. Pulmonary Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis describes a number of distinct disorders that are pathologically characterized by the destruction of blood vessels. The clinical manifestations of each disorder are defined by the size, type, and location of the affected vasculature. The clinical approach to these disorders rests upon an astute clinician considering the diagnosis and identifying the specific patterns of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and pathologic abnormalities. Lung involvement is most commonly seen with the primary, idiopathic, small-vessel, or antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitides; Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. However, primary, idiopathic medium and large-vessel vasculitis, primary immune complex–mediated vasculitis, and secondary vasculitis are all capable of presenting with lung involvement. In this article, we focus on the more common, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated disorder, vasculitides. PMID:16493151

  10. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  11. An uncommon pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Prevel, Renaud; Garcon, Philippe; Philippart, François

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report an unusual case of suicide attempt secondary complicated of pulmonary and systemic embolisms. Data Source: A 49-year-old-woman, with a factor V Leiden mutation and a notion of chronic depression, admitted to our intensive care unit for a suicide attempt by ingestion ofmepronizine and lormetazepam. Data Extraction: We report the rare evolution of this patient with a persistent alteration of consciousness associating a respiratory degradation. Despite the drug intoxication and possibility of aspiration, we performed a computed tomography (CT) angiography which confirmed the presence of a bilateral, proximal, pulmonary embolism suspected on transthoracic echocardiography. A cerebral CT showed left sylvian and cerebellar infarctions complicated of perilesional edema. Association of stroke and pulmonary embolism led us to suspect a patent foramen ovale (PFO). There was also a context of genetical perturbation of hemostasis. Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the presence of a PFO undiagnosed by transthoracic echography. The PFO was complicated by an entrapped thrombus. The thrombotic complications were treated by unfractionated heparin. Data Synthesis: Neurological and respiratory degradation following voluntary drug intoxication led to the discovery of both a pulmonary and cerebral embolism secondary to a PFO entrapped thrombus. Conclusions: An entrapped thrombus in a PFO is a rare and dangerous situation, associated with many complications. Association of systemic and pulmonary embolisms should lead to PFO detection to guide therapeutic interventions.

  12. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePLUS

    Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... pulmonary embolus is most often caused by a blood clot in a vein. The most common blood clot ...

  13. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  14. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pulmonary atresia may occur with or without a ventricular septal defect (VSD) . If the person does not have a VSD, the condition is called pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS). If the person has both ...

  15. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  16. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return presenting with adult-onset pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Edmund H.; Aliotta, Jason M.; Klinger, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a rare cause of adult onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that can present with a wide spectrum of severity from early childhood throughout adult life. We present two patients with PAH secondary to PAPVR who reflect this range of disease. The diagnosis and treatment of PAPVR and its role in pulmonary vascular disease is discussed. Cardiac and pulmonary physicians should be aware of this entity and its diagnosis and management options. PMID:22837866

  17. Pulmonary hypertension: pathology.

    PubMed

    Dorfmüller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening and often fatal disease, characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and secondary right ventricular failure. Since etiologies of PH are multiple and its pathogenesis is complex, histology from lungs of patients with PH may help us to determine different etiological factors of the disease. The degree of involvement of various cell types and structures within the lung tissue represents an important indicator of the pathophysiologal process. So even if the role for pathologists in routine management of PH is limited, lessons can be learned from morphology. The present chapter outlines the current understanding of this disease from the pathologist's point of view. PMID:24092336

  18. Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of Bosentan Dose Optimization in Symptomatic Heart Failure Patients with Severe Systolic Dysfunction, Associated with Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension – A MultiCenter Randomized Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edo Kaluski; Gad Cotter; Marina Leitman; Olga Milo-Cotter; Ricardo Krakover; Isaac Kobrin; Tina Moriconi; Maurizio Rainisio; Avraham Caspi; Leonardo Reizin; Reuven Zimlichman; Zvi Vered

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Toevaluate the effects of bosentan on echo-derived hemodynamic measurements, and clinical variables in symptomatic heart failure (HF) patients. Method: Multi- center, double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study comparing bosentan (8–125 mg b.i.d.) to placebo in patients with New York Heart Association class IIIb–IV HF, left ventricular ejection fraction <35% and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) >40 mm Hg. Primary and

  19. Natural radionuclide mobility and its influence on U-Th-Pb dating of secondary minerals from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, L.A.; Amelin, Y.V.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme U and Pb isotope variations produced by disequilibrium in decay chains of 238U and 232Th are found in calcite, opal/chalcedony, and Mn-oxides occurring as secondary mineral coatings in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These very slowly growing minerals (mm my-1) contain excess 206Pb and 208Pb formed from excesses of intermediate daughter isotopes and cannot be used as reliable 206Pb/238U geochronometers. The presence of excess intermediate daughter isotopes does not appreciably affect 207Pb/235U ages of U-enriched opal/chalcedony, which are interpreted as mineral formation ages. Opal and calcite from outer (younger) portions of coatings have 230Th/U ages from 94.6 ?? 3.7 to 361.3 ?? 9.8 ka and initial 234U/238U activity ratios (AR) from 4.351 ?? 0.070 to 7.02 ?? 0.12, which indicate 234U enrichment from percolating water. Present-day 234U/238U AR is ???1 in opal/chalcedony from older portions of the coatings. The 207Pb/235U ages of opal/chalcedony samples range from 0.1329 ?? 0.0080 to 9.10 ?? 0.21 Ma, increase with microstratigraphic depth, and define slow long-term average growth rates of about 1.2-2.0 mm my-1, in good agreement with previous results. Measured 234U/238U AR in Mn-oxides, which pre-date the oldest calcite and opal/chalcedony, range from 0.939 ?? 0.006 to 2.091 ?? 0.006 and are >1 in most samples. The range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71156-0.71280) in Mn-oxides overlaps that in the late calcite. These data indicate that Mn-oxides exchange U and Sr with percolating water and cannot be used as a reliable dating tool. In the U-poor calcite samples, measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios have a wide range, do not correlate with Ba concentration as would be expected if excess Ra was present, and reach a value of about 1400, the highest ever reported for natural Pb. Calcite intergrown with opal contains excesses of both 206Pb and 207Pb derived from Rn diffusion and from direct ??-recoil from U-rich opal. Calcite from coatings devoid of opal/chalcedony contains 206Pb and 208Pb excesses, but no appreciable 207Pb excesses. Observed Pb isotope anomalies in calcite are explained by Rn-produced excess Pb. The Rn emanation may strongly affect 206Pb-238U ages of slow-growing U-poor calcite, but should be negligible for dating fast-growing U-enriched speleothem calcite.

  20. Natural radionuclide mobility and its influence on U Th Pb dating of secondary minerals from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neymark, L. A.; Amelin, Y. V.

    2008-04-01

    Extreme U and Pb isotope variations produced by disequilibrium in decay chains of 238U and 232Th are found in calcite, opal/chalcedony, and Mn-oxides occurring as secondary mineral coatings in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These very slowly growing minerals (mm my -1) contain excess 206Pb and 208Pb formed from excesses of intermediate daughter isotopes and cannot be used as reliable 206Pb/ 238U geochronometers. The presence of excess intermediate daughter isotopes does not appreciably affect 207Pb/ 235U ages of U-enriched opal/chalcedony, which are interpreted as mineral formation ages. Opal and calcite from outer (younger) portions of coatings have 230Th/U ages from 94.6 ± 3.7 to 361.3 ± 9.8 ka and initial 234U/ 238U activity ratios (AR) from 4.351 ± 0.070 to 7.02 ± 0.12, which indicate 234U enrichment from percolating water. Present-day 234U/ 238U AR is ˜1 in opal/chalcedony from older portions of the coatings. The 207Pb/ 235U ages of opal/chalcedony samples range from 0.1329 ± 0.0080 to 9.10 ± 0.21 Ma, increase with microstratigraphic depth, and define slow long-term average growth rates of about 1.2-2.0 mm my -1, in good agreement with previous results. Measured 234U/ 238U AR in Mn-oxides, which pre-date the oldest calcite and opal/chalcedony, range from 0.939 ± 0.006 to 2.091 ± 0.006 and are >1 in most samples. The range of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.71156-0.71280) in Mn-oxides overlaps that in the late calcite. These data indicate that Mn-oxides exchange U and Sr with percolating water and cannot be used as a reliable dating tool. In the U-poor calcite samples, measured 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios have a wide range, do not correlate with Ba concentration as would be expected if excess Ra was present, and reach a value of about 1400, the highest ever reported for natural Pb. Calcite intergrown with opal contains excesses of both 206Pb and 207Pb derived from Rn diffusion and from direct ?-recoil from U-rich opal. Calcite from coatings devoid of opal/chalcedony contains 206Pb and 208Pb excesses, but no appreciable 207Pb excesses. Observed Pb isotope anomalies in calcite are explained by Rn-produced excess Pb. The Rn emanation may strongly affect 206Pb- 238U ages of slow-growing U-poor calcite, but should be negligible for dating fast-growing U-enriched speleothem calcite.

  1. Mineral County Secondary Data Analysis

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ,4 Stroke prevalence 2.5% 2.5% 2.6% Diabetes prevalence 5.6% 6.2% 8.3% Acute Myocardial Infarction prevalence (Heart Attack) 4.0% 4.1% 6.0% All Sites Cancer 466.5 455.5 543.2 1 Community Health Data, MT, Missoula, and Ravalli Chronic Disease Hospitalization Rates County Montana Stroke1 Per 100

  2. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  3. Neonatal pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    PubMed

    Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1?mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5?mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. PMID:25389504

  4. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    PubMed Central

    Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1?mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5?mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. PMID:25389504

  5. Pulmonary hypertension in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Anne; Khetriwal, Babita

    2005-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn occurs in 1.9 per 1000 live births and affected infants are hypoxaemic because of right-to-left shunts through the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn may be primary, or secondary to a variety of conditions including intrapartum asphyxia, infection, pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart disease or drug therapy. It may occur in association with a normal number (maladaptation) or a decreased number of arteries (for example with pulmonary hypoplasia). Few strategies used in infants with pulmonary hypertension of the newborn have been subjected to rigorous evaluation. Inhaled nitric oxide has been shown to reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation but not mortality, in term or near term born infants. Preliminary evidence suggests that other vasodilators given by the inhaled route may improve oxygenation and new vasodilators have become available; appropriately designed trials with long-term outcomes are required to test such therapies. PMID:15911456

  6. High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 ?g L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 ?g L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 ?g L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 ?g L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the groundwater of marine origin are, in contrast, explained by relatively fast cation exchange reactions. As indicated by the field data and predicted by 1D solute transport modeling, alkali cations with low-energy hydration carried by intruding marine water are capable of (NH4+ in particular and K+ to some extent) replacing Cs+ on frayed edge (FES) sites on illite in the fracture coatings. The result is a rapid and persistent (at least in the order of decades) buildup of dissolved Cs concentrations in fractures where marine water flows downward. The identification of high Cs concentrations in young groundwater of marine origin and the predicted capacity of NH4+ to displace Cs from fracture solids are of particular relevance in the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock.

  7. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

  8. Enumeration of Thiobacilli within pH-Neutral and Acidic Mine Tailings and Their Role in the Development of Secondary Mineral Soil

    PubMed Central

    Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicates, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 × 108 most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides (below 40 cm) to chlorides and phosphates (at the surface). Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings material prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy that they were being immobilized as bona fide fine-grain minerals containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone. Images PMID:16348721

  9. Aspergillus endocarditis in a paediatric patient after a cardiac surgery, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana O; de Sousa, António Rodrigues; Monterroso, José

    2015-03-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and secondary pulmonary hypertension, in a 4-year-old boy with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot. The diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus endocarditis remains highly challenging. The best therapeutic option for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to an infectious thromboembolic event is highly debatable and the results are poor. PMID:24702799

  10. The distribution of secondary mineral phases along an eroding hillslope and its effect on carbon stabilization mechanisms and the fate of soil carbon fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, Sebastian; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Opfergelt, Sophie; Boeckx, Pascal; Bodé, Samuel; Six, Johan; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Soil redistribution processes can change soil carbon (C) dynamics drastically by moving carbon from high decomposition and re-sequestration environments at the eroding hillslope to low decomposition and burial at the depositional footslope and valley basin. This leads to not only spatially diverse soil carbon storage throughout the landscape, but also to qualitative changes of the transported carbon and the mineral phase. The interaction between those parameters and the effect on stabilization mechanisms for soil C are still a matter of debate. Here, we present an analysis that aims to clarify the bio/geo-chemical and mineralogical components involved in stabilizing C at various depths along an eroding cropped slope and how this affects the abundance of microbial derived carbon. We use the results of an incubation experiment combined with the abundance of amino sugars in different isolated soil C fractions as a tracer for the stability of the respective fraction. We applied further (i) a sequential extraction of the reactive soil phase using pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, and (ii) a qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, to analyze the changes in the mineral phase for the different isolated fractions along the slope transect. Our results emphasize the importance of physical protection within microaggregates to stabilize buried, chemically labile C. Our data further indicates that the stability of these aggregates is related to the presence of organo-mineral associations and poorly crystalline minerals. However, decreasing contents of these minerals with depth indicate a temporal limitation of this stabilization mechanism. Non-expandable clay minerals experience a relative enrichment at the depositional site while expandable clay minerals experience the same at the eroding site. These changes in clay mineralogy along the slope are partly responsible for the abundance of silt and clay associated C and the effectiveness of the clay fractions to stabilize C. In summary, our data clearly show that a variety of stabilization mechanisms together with changes in the organic and the mineral phase of soils need to be considered to understand this highly dynamic environment.

  11. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

  12. Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Thomas, Maria Joana; Daniels, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block.

  13. Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, George R

    2011-12-01

    Coccidioidomycosis refers to the spectrum of disease caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Clinical manifestations vary depending upon both the extent of infection and the immune status of the host. Coccidioidomycosis has been reported to involve almost all organ systems; however, pulmonary disease is the most common clinical manifestation. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis continues to rise, and primary coccidioidal pneumonia accounts for 17 to 29% of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia in endemic regions. The majority of patients with coccidioidomycosis resolve their initial infection without sequelae; however, several patients develop complications of disease ranging in severity from complicated pulmonary coccidioidomycosis to widely disseminated disease with immediately life-threatening manifestations. This review focuses on complications of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis with an emphasis on the management of primary coccidioidal infection, solitary pulmonary nodules, pleural effusions, cavitary disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), miliary disease, and sepsis. PMID:22167403

  14. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) . You can get TB by breathing ... chap 332. Fitzgerald DW, Sterling TR, Haas DW. Mycobacterium tuberculosis . In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. ...

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  16. Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Lung Disease > Pulmonary Fibrosis Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis If you have pulmonary fibrosis there are steps you can take to stay ... get you help. In depth resources on pulmonary fibrosis A A A Share Print State of Tobacco ...

  17. Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru - Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Gobac, Željka Žigove?ki; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Lana, Cristiano; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The mineral coquimbite has been analysed using a range of techniques including SEM with EDX, thermal analytical techniques and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral originated from the Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru. The chemical formula was determined as ()?2.00()3·9HO. Thermal analysis showed a total mass loss of ˜73.4% on heating to 1000 °C. A mass loss of 30.43% at 641.4 °C is attributed to the loss of SO3. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of sulphate tetrahedra, aluminium oxide/hydroxide octahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. The Raman spectrum shows well resolved bands at 2994, 3176, 3327, 3422 and 3580 cm-1 attributed to water stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with thermal analysis provides insight into the structure of coquimbite.

  18. Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Zhang; Mengyang Deng; Shiwen Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has potent properties for the treatment of a variety of vascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke and pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, there are few data about the role of TMP in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage. This study examined the effect of TMP on hypoxia-induced pulmonary

  19. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  20. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lung from a vein in the leg. A clot that forms in one part of the body and travels in the ... complications of PE. Rate This Content: Next >> July 1, 2011 Pulmonary Embolism Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether ...

  1. Secondary osteoporosis in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Çakir; E. Odabasi; M. Turan; S. Güler; M. Kutlu

    2002-01-01

    Secondary osteoporosis comprises a minority of all osteoporosis cases. In this study we summarize the causes of secondary\\u000a osteoporosis we encountered in patients currently on follow-up in our osteoporosis outpatient clinic. A total of 1015 female\\u000a patients are involved in the study. Recorded data of the patients are evaluated retrospectively. Patients with spine bone\\u000a mineral density (BMD) 2.5 standard deviation

  2. When to refer a patient with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension for pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago; de Perrot, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is much more frequent than previously estimated, potentially occurring with an incidence of several thousand cases per year in Canada. Refinements in the surgical technique of pulmonary endarterectomy, the development of medical therapy and, more recently, the introduction of balloon pulmonary angioplasty have provided an increasing array of therapeutic options for this disease. CTEPH is related to the presence of chronic thromboembolic disease and the development of a secondary vasculopathy that leads to worsening pulmonary hypertension despite adequate anticoagulation, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate referral to achieve optimal therapeutic results. It is increasingly recognized that patients with CTEPH can present with acute on chronic pulmonary emboli. Recognition of the underlying chronic disease at the time of the acute presentation is important to ensure that these patients are adequately managed and followed with ventilation-perfusion scan and echocardiogram after their initial diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli. Chronic thromboembolic disease should be suspected in the presence of idiopathic and/or recurrent pulmonary emboli, larger perfusion defects, longer times between symptom onset and diagnosis, a systolic pulmonary artery pressure > 50 mm Hg on echocardiogram and the presence of organized mural thrombi, mosaic parenchymal perfusion, and/or arterial web or bands on the computed tomography scan. Pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of choice for CTEPH. The surgery leads to major long-term clinical improvement and is curative in a large proportion of patients with resolution of the pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25840100

  3. A petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (O, H, C and Sr) investigation of secondary minerals in volcaniclastic rocks at Minna Bluff, Antarctica: Petrogenesis of alteration and implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antibus, J. V.; Panter, K. S.; Wilch, T. I.; Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.; Blusztajn, J.; Tripati, A. K.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    The alteration of volcanic deposits is a function of eruptive style, environment of deposition and post-depositional processes. In this study we use petrographic and geochemical data on secondary minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45-km-long volcanic peninsula in the southern Ross Sea active between 12 and 4 Ma, to unravel their history and study the environmental conditions responsible for their alteration. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits, including lapilli tuff, hyaloclastite breccia and volcanic sediments, have been altered to contain secondary minerals zeolite, carbonate and rare chalcedony and clay (dickite). Carbonates include calcite, Mg-calcite (MgCO3> 4 to <48 mol%), dolomite, magnesite, siderite and rhodochrosite. Zeolites include phillipsite and chabazite and have high and variable alkali contents (Na+K/Ca up to 154) relative to fresh lavas (<15). During the alteration of these deposits, phillipsite formed first followed by chabazite and/or carbonate although carbonates are still thought to be a very early diagenetic precipitate. Compositional zoning in zeolites is poorly developed while carbonates are commonly complex showing changes in Fe, Mn and Sr and Mg/Ca ratios across layers. Carbonate ?18O and ?13C values show wide variations ranging from -0.50 to 21.53‰ and -1.04 to 8.98‰, respectively. Chalcedony ?18O, measured on multiple aliquots from individual vugs and within each vug from one sample, range from 0.68 to 10.37‰ and ?D values are light (-187.8 to -220.6‰), matching Antarctic meteoric water. A mean 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70327 ±0.0009 (1?, n = 12) for carbonates is comparable to values from lavas in this region (Erebus Volcanic Province), indicating that seawater even at low elevations (<40 m asl) was not involved in the alteration of these deposits. Field relationships and laboratory results indicate that alteration and associated mineral precipitation was a result of isolated, ephemeral events involving the exchange between meteoric water (ice and snow) and glass-rich volcaniclastics during or soon after the formation of each deposit. Changing conditions between anoxic and oxic environments are indicated by variations in the intensity of luminescence and Fe2+/Mn ratios measured in zoned carbonates. Secondary minerals were formed at elevated temperatures based on the stability of the zeolites (10°-99°C) and refined further using estimates from carbonate 13C-18O paleothermometry (5°-43°C). Evaporative distillation, possibly from steam vents, can explain enriched 18O compositions of some Mg-rich carbonates and chalcedony. The results may provide a record of climate variability during the growth of Minna Bluff. Using the estimated temperatures of formation and published fractionation factors, the ?18O of meteoric water in equilibrium with carbonates is calculated. In conjunction with estimates for the timing of alteration constrained by lavas dated above and below each deposit, these data reveal a broad shift from lighter (-24‰) to heavier (-16‰) values between ~11 and ~8.5 Ma, consistent with a period of climate warming. These findings are independently corroborated by the interpretation of Late Miocene sedimentary sequences recovered from the nearby AND-1B core.

  4. Pathology and pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guignabert, Christophe; Dorfmuller, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a devastating, life-threatening disorder with no curative options, characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and secondary right ventricular failure. Although the etiologies of pulmonary arterial hypertension are multiple and its pathogenesis is complex, there is growing evidence that inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, aberrant vascular wall cell proliferation, as well as mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene play a crucial role in triggering pathological vascular remodeling. The present article outlines the current understanding of this disease from the point of view of pathology and pathobiology. PMID:24037624

  5. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  6. Ore Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

  7. Successful Combined Heart-Bilateral Lung-Kidney Transplantation From a Same Donor to Treat Severe Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy With Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension and Renal Failure: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Rana; S. Ghandehari; J. A. Falk; S. A. Simsir; A. S. Ghaly; W. Cheng; J. L. Cohen; A. Peng; L. S. C. Czer; E. R. Schwarz; G. E. Chaux

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the first reported case of a combined heart-lung-kidney transplantation. Our patient suffered from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to long-standing hypertension with Dana Point Classification Group 2 pulmonary hypertension from the underlying cardiac disease, along with renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy. Twenty months after the transplant procedure, she has stable pulmonary and renal function, plus has resumed a

  8. Mandible Bone Metastases Secondary to Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dirican¹, Nigar; Gunes, Sedat; Karakaya, Yeliz; Kaya, Vildan; Cerci, Sureyya; Dirican, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Metastatic tumors of the mandible are rare and usually present clinically as growths. The prognosis of lung cancer patients with bone metastases is poor. Case Report: This article shows a metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the lung affecting the mandible of a 75-year-old female patient where the metastatic lesion was detected before primary tumor. The patient were treated with radiation therapy with palliative and antalgic intent. But the patient died 8 weeks after the diagnosis. Conclusion: Radiation therapy was effective and well tolerated in the case. Bone metastases particularly mandible metastasis of lung cancer has poor prognosis. Palliative and supportive therapy may be firstly chose because of poor prognosis. PMID:25568572

  9. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease that comes from contact with ... rodents or their urine, droppings or saliva. The HPS infection cannot be transmitted from one person to ...

  10. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) ... is safe and effective for humans. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the News May 19, 2014 Common treatment ...

  11. About Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    About Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis An estimated 10-15 percent of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have a form of the pulmonary fibrosis that runs in families. This is called Familial ...

  12. Imaging of pulmonary emphysema: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masashi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nitta, Norihisa; Takazakura, Ryutaro; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Murakami, Yoko; Otani, Hideji; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘emphysema’ is generally used in a morphological sense, and therefore imaging modalities have an important role in diagnosing this disease. In particular, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a reliable tool for demonstrating the pathology of emphysema, even in subtle changes within secondary pulmonary lobules. Generally, pulmonary emphysema is classified into three types related to the lobular anatomy: centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. In this pictorial review, we discuss the radiological – pathological correlation in each type of pulmonary emphysema. HRCT of early centrilobular emphysema shows an evenly distributed centrilobular tiny areas of low attenuation with ill-defined borders. With enlargement of the dilated airspace, the surrounding lung parenchyma is compressed, which enables observation of a clear border between the emphysematous area and the normal lung. Because the disease progresses from the centrilobular portion, normal lung parenchyma in the perilobular portion tends to be preserved, even in a case of far-advanced pulmonary emphysema. In panlobular emphysema, HRCT shows either panlobular low attenuation or ill-defined diffuse low attenuation of the lung. Paraseptal emphysema is characterized by subpleural well-defined cystic spaces. Recent topics related to imaging of pulmonary emphysema will also be discussed, including morphometry of the airway in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, combined pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema, and bronchogenic carcinoma associated with bullous lung disease. PMID:18686729

  13. Recent trends in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Rajagopalan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a serious and unrelenting pulmonary vascular disorder that affects the functional quality of patients and significantly decreases their life span. If diagnosed early, with the number of new therapeutic options that are available, a better quality of life can be provided for a protracted length of time. It is likely that the available treatment will change the natural course of the disease and perhaps prolong survival. As symptoms are often subtle in the early stages of the disease it is imperative that physicians are aware of the manifestations of this condition. A thorough investigation of patients suspected of this condition is essential so that appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The routine workup of a patient suspected to have pulmonary hypertension could easily be carried out in any well-equipped peripheral hospital in many affluent and advanced countries. However, it must be mentioned that in some less advanced countries the necessary work up can only be done in major teaching hospitals. Both pulmonologists and cardiologists should be aware of the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the workup and the treatment options that are available. Patients with refractory pulmonary hypertension should be referred to these research centers for enrolment into any ongoing drug trials as well as for evaluation for heart–lung, single lung, or double lung transplantation. This paper is primarily aimed at pulmonologists and cardiologists taking care of these patients. Unless indicated otherwise this paper mainly deals with WHO group 1 pulmonary hypertension which is designated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Extensive review of the literature spanning the last 30 years was made through Medline using titles such as primary pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, secondary pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:21654985

  14. Dysfunctional Voltage-Gated K1 Channels in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Xiao-Jian Yuan; Ann M. Aldinger; Magdalena Juhaszova; Jian Wang; John V. Conte; Sean P. Gaine; Jonathan B. Orens; Lewis J. Rubin

    Background—Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare disease of unknown cause. Although PPH and secondary pulmonary hypertension (SPH) share many clinical and pathological characteristics, their origins may be disparate. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), the activity of voltage-gated K1 (KV) channels governs membrane potential (Em) and regulates cytosolic free Ca21 concentration ((Ca21)cyt). A rise in (Ca21)cyt is a

  15. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavros Tryfon

    1. PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA Acute heart failure is defined as the rapid onset of symptoms and signs secondary to abnormal cardiac function and it may occur with or without previous cardiac disease. The patient with AHF may present with one of several distinct clinical conditions like pulmonary edema, hypertensive acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, high output failure, and

  16. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension in the general adult intensive care unit: a role for oral sildenafil?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ng; S. J. Finney; R. Shulman; G. J. Bellingan; M. Singer; P. A. Glynne

    2005-01-01

    Use of inhaled nitric oxide for treatment of pulmonary hypertension in adult critical illness is limited by its mode of delivery and high costs, prompting evaluation of alternative therapies. We report the use of oral sildenafil in a patient with severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction. Following reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonaryvascularresistance withinhaled nitricoxide,crossovertosildenafil therapymaintained

  17. Relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Asker, Muntecep; Asker, Selvi; Kucuk, Ugur; Kucuk, Hilal Olgun; Ozbay, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension and whether pulmonary hypertension is an additional risk factor for the presence and extent of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension, and undergone diagnostic coronary angiography for evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease constituted the study group. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease and compared for age, gender, accompanying chronic disease, and pulmonary function tests. A total of 95 patients were recruited in the study. Comparison of the groups revealed that two groups were significantly different on gender (p=0.029), presence of hypertension (p=0.027), and biomass (p=0.040). Correlation analysis of variables revealed that male gender (rs=0.224, p=0.029), hypertension (rs=0.227, p=0.07) were positively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=-0.253, p=0.013) and sPAP (rs=-0.215, p=0.037) were negatively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. High prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found. However, no correlation between the presence and severity of coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension was detected. PMID:25664116

  18. Pulmonary macrophage transplantation therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takuji; Arumugam, Paritha; Sakagami, Takuro; Lachmann, Nico; Chalk, Claudia; Sallese, Anthony; Abe, Shuichi; Trapnell, Cole; Carey, Brenna; Moritz, Thomas; Malik, Punam; Lutzko, Carolyn; Wood, Robert E; Trapnell, Bruce C

    2014-10-23

    Bone-marrow transplantation is an effective cell therapy but requires myeloablation, which increases infection risk and mortality. Recent lineage-tracing studies documenting that resident macrophage populations self-maintain independently of haematological progenitors prompted us to consider organ-targeted, cell-specific therapy. Here, using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor-?-deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) mice that develop a myeloid cell disorder identical to hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (hPAP) in children with CSF2RA or CSF2RB mutations, we show that pulmonary macrophage transplantation (PMT) of either wild-type or Csf2rb-gene-corrected macrophages without myeloablation was safe and well-tolerated and that one administration corrected the lung disease, secondary systemic manifestations and normalized disease-related biomarkers, and prevented disease-specific mortality. PMT-derived alveolar macrophages persisted for at least one year as did therapeutic effects. Our findings identify mechanisms regulating alveolar macrophage population size in health and disease, indicate that GM-CSF is required for phenotypic determination of alveolar macrophages, and support translation of PMT as the first specific therapy for children with hPAP. PMID:25274301

  19. Mineral Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem set challenges students to determine the chemical classification of minerals based on their chemical formula (provided). For oxygen-bearing minerals, students must also provide the valences of the various cations.

  20. Reply to 'Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?', by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur

    2005-03-14

    Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon.

  1. Mineral Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Wood

    2010-11-14

    You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

  2. Mineral Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mineralogy 4 Kids

    This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

  3. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Mineral Chart KidsHealth > Teens > Miscellaneous > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size Type ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  4. Acute postobstructive pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS N. GUFFIN; GADY HAR-EL; ABRAHAM SANDERS; FRANK E. LUCENTE; MICHAEL NASH

    1995-01-01

    Acute postobstructive pulmonary edema may occur after airway obstruction. A decrease in intrathoracic and intraalveolar pressures causes an increased blood flow into the pulmonary vasculature and favors the development of pulmonary edema. Two mechanisms for the development of acute postobstructive pulmonary edema are proposed: type 1 follows acute airway obstruction, and type 2 follows relief of chronic airway obstruction. (OTOLARYNGOL

  5. Mineral Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    rmesser

    2010-11-16

    Imagine you are hiking with your family and this shiney looking crystal catches your eye. You bring it home and no one in your family is able to tell you what it is. How do you find out? First you need to practice. Identifying minerals. Click on the following link. Identify all five minerals. On your peice of paper tell me their Name Color Luster Cleavage/Fracture Hardness Glenco simple mineral identification Now try and identify 7 real minerals using a virtual key. Answer the following questions What properties do you use to identify the mineral? Which ...

  6. Identifying Minerals from Their Infra-red Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a British secondary school's use of a spectrometer to identify minerals. Discusses the origins of mineral spectra, the preparation of the specimen, the actual spectroscopic scanning, and the interpretation of the spectra. (TW)

  7. Mineral Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    This lesson discusses the question 'What is a mineral?' in the context of the guessing game 'Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral?'. It introduces a definition of the term, discusses the criteria used in the definition, and presents the common physical properties used in mineral identification. The lesson includes an activity in which students observe and record the physical properties of ten specimens and attempt to identify them using an online reference for practice.

  8. Living with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis No cure is available for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ( ... Pulmonary Fibrosis, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the News May 19, 2014 Common treatment ...

  9. Mineral Densities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students are given cubic cell edge dimensions and asked to calculate mineral densities and vice versa. The final question of this homework assignment provides students with a mineral density and unit cell edge length in order to determine the number of formula units per cell.

  10. Mineral Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    In this activity, students use written and online materials to answer a set of questions on the general properties and identification of minerals. They will learn about physical properties such as color, hardness, and cleavage; special properties such as fluorescence and effervescence; and complete a chart listing properties for a selection of minerals. Links to the necessary information are provided.

  11. Mineral Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners search for various kinds of items made from minerals around their home or school, including toothpaste, wall paint, kitty litter, and bricks. The PDF contains a check off list as well as recommended sites for more information on minerals.

  12. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a rare but severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantavirus. What are the ...

  13. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dizziness Shortness of breath Symptoms and diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) can be tricky. Early on, you may ... a definite health problem that needs treatment. Although primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is rare, diagnosing and treating PPH is ...

  14. Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Pulmonary rehabilitation program How often is it covered? Medicare covers a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program if you have moderate to very severe ...

  15. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  16. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PF is unknown, the diagnosis is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) . Idiopathic means there is no known cause ... this happens, the disease is called Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis . The fact that PF runs in certain families ...

  17. Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patient Education Resources Accomplishments About Us Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis 10866 W. Washington Blvd #343 • Culver City, CA ... of their respective owners. ©2001 – 2011 Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis Site Last Updated: March 25, 2015

  18. Pulmonary hemorrhage in cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Winstone, Tiffany; Wilcox, Pearce; Van Eeden, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary manifestations of cryoglobulinemia are uncommon and their clinical behaviour is unpredictable, ranging from mild dyspnea to life-threatening presentations. A patient with cryoglobulinemia who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure attributed to pulmonary hemorrhage is reported. PMID:25493699

  19. Mystery Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Morgan

    In this activity, students will discover that minerals have specific characteristics that help to identify them. They will learn that minerals are formed by inorganic processes, are crystalline solids with an internal orderly arrangement of atoms, have specific chemical compositions, and have specific physical and chemical characteristics. They will also learn that minerals are commonly identified by the physical properties they possess, such as hardness, color, crystal shape, specific gravity, and streak. In addition, they will discover some other useful properties such as reaction with hydrochloric acid or a characteristic taste. They should also understand that color is not always a useful property for identifying minerals because it can vary. The students will also develop listening and observational skills and learn the uses of a few common minerals.

  20. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

  1. Pulmonary hypertension in pulmonary langerhans cell granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Held, Matthias; Schnabel, Philipp; Warth, Arne; Jany, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis is a rare disease with a variable course. In pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis pulmonary hypertension is frequent and has an independent prognostic impact. A vasculopathy which ist not related to ventilatory disturbance and fibrosis has been identified. An arteriopathy and even a venulopathy have been described. Due to this possible venulopathy vasodilators carry a significant risk for pulmonary congestion and edema. No drugs have been approved until now. Case Presentation. One female with PLCG developed severe PH four years after primary diagnosis of pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis. Retrospective analysis of lung biopsies revealed an arterial vasculopathy at the time of primary diagnosis without clinical signs of PH at this time. Sildenafil led to a sustained improvement of hemodynamic features and exercise capacity. Conclusion. This paper underlines that patients with PLCG with an arterial vasculopathy-related PH might improve under sildenafil. Further trials addressing treatment of PH and vasculopathy are needed. PMID:22481950

  2. Cholesterol granulomas of the lungs associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E G; Marek, J M; Morris, A; Nashelsky, M B

    2000-12-01

    Cholesterol granulomas unrelated to endogenous lipoid pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, or cholesterol pneumonia are a rare finding during pneumectomy or autopsy. They have been occasionally reported in association with pulmonary hypertension. We report a case where these lesions were associated with long-standing pulmonary hypertension and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Plexiform lesions were present in the pulmonary vasculature secondary to pulmonary hypertension, causing hemolysis and thrombocytopenia. We suggest that destruction of red blood cells and platelets could provide membrane lipids that are taken up by phagocytic cells, which promotes the formation of these cholesterol deposits. PMID:11100063

  3. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain problems, such as ...

  4. Radiographic and histopathologic characteristics of pulmonary fibrosis in nine cats.

    PubMed

    Evola, Maria G; Edmondson, Elijah F; Reichle, Jean K; Biller, David S; Mitchell, Colleen W; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal interstitial lung disease that is often idiopathic, occurs in multiple species, and may be caused by a number of inciting factors. The purpose of this retrospective, multicenter study was to describe the radiographic and histopathologic characteristics of idiopathic and induced pulmonary fibrosis in a group of cats. Cats with thoracic radiographs and histopathologically confirmed pulmonary fibrosis were recruited using the American College of Veterinary Radiology list serve. A board-certified veterinary radiologist and diagnostic imaging intern reviewed radiographs and recorded characteristics by consensus. Findings from additional imaging modalities were also recorded when available. All histopathology samples were re-reviewed by a veterinary pathology resident. A total of nine cats met inclusion criteria. All patients had a broad range of radiographic characteristics that included broncho-interstitial pattern, alveolar pattern, pulmonary masses, pulmonary bullae, pleural effusion, and cardiomegaly. Cats with available echocardiographic studies had characteristics that included right ventricular dilation and hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial hypertension interpreted to be secondary to primary lung disease. Cats with available CT studies had characteristics that included focally increased soft tissue attenuation, masses, and ventral consolidation that exhibited no improvement with dorsal versus ventral recumbency. Histopathology showed pulmonary fibrosis, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy in all patients. Epithelial metaplasia was present only in one patient. Findings from the current study indicated that cats with pulmonary fibrosis have highly variable radiographic characteristics and that these characteristics may mimic other diseases such as asthma, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, or neoplasia. PMID:24103063

  5. Riociguat for pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cannon, John E; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension, an elevation of the mean pulmonary artery pressure ?25 mmHg, ultimately leads to premature death due to right ventricular dysfunction. Ten treatments from three classes of drugs are licensed for the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These treatments have improved exercise capacity but median survival is still poor. Additionally there are no licensed therapies for the other groups of pulmonary hypertension. Riociguat is a novel drug that stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase independently of nitric oxide and in synergy with nitric oxide. This review summarises the available evidence for riociguat in the treatment across all groups of pulmonary hypertension with a focus on pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24580082

  6. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoeper, Marius M; Madani, Michael M; Nakanishi, Norifumi; Meyer, Bernhard; Cebotari, Serghei; Rubin, Lewis J

    2014-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but debilitating and life-threatening complication of acute pulmonary embolism. CTEPH results from persistent obstruction of pulmonary arteries and progressive vascular remodelling. Not all patients presenting with CTEPH have a history of clinically overt pulmonary embolism. The diagnostic work-up to detect or rule out CTEPH should include ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, which has high sensitivity and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. CT angiography usually reveals typical features of CTEPH, including mosaic perfusion, part or complete occlusion of pulmonary arteries, and intraluminal bands and webs. Patients with suspected CTEPH should be referred to a specialist centre for right-heart catheterisation and pulmonary angiography. Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for CTEPH and is associated with excellent long-term results and a high probability of cure. For patients with inoperable CTEPH, various medical and interventional therapies are being developed. PMID:24898750

  7. Primary pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Bomin; Zhang, Xiuhe; Zhang, Mingqiu; Ni, Lujia; Yang, Ping

    2011-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of dyspnoea and radiating upper-right quadrant pain and oedema in her lower extremities for more than 20 days. The ultrasonographic study of the heart revealed the adherence of a substantive hypoechoic mass (73 x 34 mm) to the antelateral wall of the pulmonary artery and resultant pulmonary stenosis. Computed tomographic imaging of the pulmonary artery revealed an irregularly shaped filling defect (approximately 41 x 39 x 59 mm) in the main pulmonary artery. The boundary of the defect was irregular, but demarcation with healthy tissue was clear. After surgical treatment, the histologic and immunohistochemical assays revealed a primary pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcoma. Pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcomas are usually misdiagnosed as other pulmonary artery obstructive diseases. There should be a greater focus of clinical attention and resection is the appropriate surgical treatment for such malignant tumours. PMID:21744714

  8. Pulmonary hypertension complicating connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A; Saggar, Rajeev; Fishbein, Michael C; Saggar, Rajan

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may complicate connective tissue disease (CTD), particularly systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma), and markedly increases mortality. More than 70% of cases of PH complicating CTD occur in SSc, which is the major focus of this article. Pulmonary complications (i.e., interstitial lung disease [ILD] and PH) are the leading causes of scleroderma-related deaths. "Isolated" PH (i.e., without ILD) complicates SSc in 7.5 to 20% of cases; secondary PH may also occur in patients with SSc-associated ILD. Several clinical markers and specific autoantibody profiles have been associated with PH in SSc. The role of PH-specific therapy is controversial, as prognosis and responsiveness to therapy are worse in SSc-associated PH compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We discuss medical therapies for CTD-associated PH and the role of lung transplantation for patients failing medical therapy. PMID:24037627

  9. Pleomorphic malignant histiocytoma of pulmonary arteries presenting as pulmonary aneurysms.

    PubMed

    De La Cerda Belmont, Gustavo Armando; Lezama Urtecho, Carlos Alberto

    2013-03-01

    Pulmonary aneurysms and primary neoplasms of the great vessels are very rare entities; pulmonary aneurysms are commonly associated with congenital heart diseases, and less frequently in atherosclerosis, medial cystic necrosis, trauma, infection, and inflammatory processes. Many patients have pulmonary hypertension, most frequently resulting from pulmonary artery sarcomas mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism. Symptoms are vague. In 30% of cases, rupture and death occur, related to pulmonary aneurysms. We present the case of a patient with a diagnosis of pulmonary artery pleomorphic malignant histiocytoma that presented as a right pulmonary aneurysm thrombosis and a contained rupture of a left pulmonary aneurysm. PMID:23438543

  10. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  11. Overview of current therapeutic approaches for pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Jason A.; Risbano, Michael G.; Mathier, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    There have been tremendous strides in the management of pulmonary hypertension over the past 20 years with the introduction of targeted medical therapies and overall improvements in surgical treatment options and general supportive care. Furthermore, recent data shows that the survival of those with pulmonary arterial hypertension is improving. While there has been tremendous progress, much work remains to be done in improving the care of those with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension, who constitute the majority of patients with this disorder, and in the optimal treatment approach in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will review general and targeted medical treatment, along with surgical interventions, of those with pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22034603

  12. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to exercise in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Scano, G.; Garcia-Herreros, P.; Stendardi, D.; Degre, S.; De Coster, A.; Sergysels, R.

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-six coal miners, without associated functional chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), assessed by normal airway resistance, were divided into three groups: (1) Group C, normal x-ray; (2) Group S1, micronodular silicosis; and (3) Group S2, complicated silicosis. All subjects were evaluated while at rest and during exercise. Significant lung volume reduction was observed in the S2 Group only. Blood gases, pulmonary pressure, and cardiac output were found to be within the normal range for all three groups when at rest. The pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were higher, however, for the S1 and S2 Groups when compared to the C Group. During exercise, pulmonary hypertension was observed in 50% of the patients with complicated silicosis. When all data (N = 26) were included, the high values for pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance correlated well with the loss in vital capacity (VC) and the decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/). From the initial 26 patients, 19 were selected on the basis of their normal airway resistance and FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0//VC ratio. This selection did not alter the differences noted for the pulmonary pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance, which previously existed between the groups, even though the correlations were not statistically significant. We conclude that silicosis without associated COLD leads to minimal hemodynamic impairment at rest and during exercise, and that airway resistance does not detect impairment of flow as effectively as FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/ reduction. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance observed, especially in complicated silicosis, may be best explained by the loss of lung parenchyma and possible impairment of small airways.

  13. Hemolysis and Pulmonary Insufficiency following Right Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sarah A; Soleimani, Behzad; Pae, Walter E

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of severe hemolysis and pulmonary valve insufficiency (PI) following right ventricular support using a paracorporeal pneumatic pump (Abiomed, Danvers, MA, USA). We speculate that the high velocity jet of blood emanating from the outflow cannula caused turbulence above the pulmonary valve, leading to PI and hemolysis. Despite the growing number of implanted ventricular assist devices, we could find no report in the literature describing pulmonary valve insufficiency secondary to right ventricular assist device (RVAD) placement. Fortunately, in this case, right ventricular function recovered sufficiently after seven days of support, allowing explantation of the device and resolution of PI and hemolysis. PMID:23213613

  14. Unilateral pulmonary edema and acute rheumatic fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Giuliano Jr; Priya Sekar; Catherine L. Dent; William L. Border; Russel Hirsch; Peter B. Manning; Derek S. Wheeler

    2008-01-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) are well known, a high index of suspicion is necessary in\\u000a order to assure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We present a case of an 8-year-old child who presented with unilateral\\u000a pulmonary edema secondary to acute mitral insufficiency due to ARF. ARF should be considered in the differential diagnosis\\u000a of unilateral

  15. Pulmonary hypertension caused by pulmonary venous hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) on the pulmonary circulation is extraordinarily variable, ranging from no impact on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to a marked increase. The reasons for this are unknown. Both acutely reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction and pathological remodeling (especially medial hypertrophy and intimal hyperplasia) account for increased PVR when present. The mechanisms involved in vasoconstriction and remodeling are not clearly defined, but increased wall stress, especially in small pulmonary arteries, presumably plays an important role. Myogenic contraction may account for increased vascular tone and also indirectly stimulate remodeling of the vessel wall. Increased wall stress may also directly cause smooth muscle growth, migration, and intimal hyperplasia. Even long-standing and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) usually abates with elimination of PVH, but PVH-PH is an important clinical problem, especially because PVH due to left ventricular noncompliance lacks definitive therapy. The role of targeted PH therapy in patients with PVH-PH is unclear at this time. Most prospective studies indicate that these medications are not helpful or worse, but there is ample reason to think that a subset of patients with PVH-PH may benefit from phosphodiesterase inhibitors or other agents. A different approach to evaluating possible pharmacologic therapy for PVH-PH may be required to better define its possible utility. PMID:25610595

  16. Handbook of pulmonary emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

  17. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Sometimes doctors can find out what is causing ... Pulmonary Fibrosis, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the News May 19, 2014 Common treatment ...

  18. Hydrothermal Experiments on Refractory Minerals Related to CAIs: Implications for Aqueous Alteration in Parent Bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nomura; M. Miyamoto

    1995-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrites contain secondary minerals such as nepheline, calcite and phyllosilicates [1]. There is no consensus on whether secondary minerals were produced by reaction with a solar nebular gas [2] or by aqueous alteration in parent bodies [3]. We performed hydrothermal experiments on several minerals common in CAIs to study aqueous alteration in parent bodies. Experiments:

  19. Primary pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEWISJ. RUBIN; BERTRON M. GROVES; MICHAEL FROSOLONO; FRANKLIN HANDEL

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Toevaluate theeffects ofprostacyclin (prostaglandin 12) on pulmonary vascular tonein primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), we performed right-heart catheterization on sevenpatients with PPHandmadehemodynamic measurements before andafter infusing incremental doses ofprostacyclin. In maximaldoses of2-12ng\\/kg\\/min (mean5.7± 3.1ng\\/kg\\/min), prostacyclin reduced mean pulmonary arterial pressurefrom62± 15to55± 16mm Hg(p< 0.05) andtotal pulmonary resistance from17.1 8.7to9.7+ 5.9units (p< 0.005), andincreased cardiac output from4.22 ± 1.64to6.57 ± 2.041\\/min

  20. Neostigmine and pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Bijapur, Mubina Begum; Shreyavathi, Shreyavathi; Rao, Raghavendra R S

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old child with no pre-existing cardiac or respiratory disease developed frank pulmonary oedema after administration of a neostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture to reverse neuromuscular blockade during general anaesthesia. Possible cardiac and extra-cardiac factors that could cause pulmonary oedema in this child were ruled out by appropriate investigations. As the pulmonary oedema manifested shortly after administration of the neostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture, we concluded that neostigmine was the most probable cause. This article briefly reports the occurrence of events and successful management of perioperative pulmonary oedema. PMID:25199191

  1. Perventricular closure of pulmonary stump in a 16-kg child.

    PubMed

    Darby, Scott; Ilbawi, Michel; Amin, Zahid

    2015-02-01

    Blind pouch formation of the pulmonary artery (PA) in patients having undergone a Fontan operation can present a serious risk for thromboembolic events. Either primary or secondary closure of this stump is necessary to reduce this risk. Unfortunately, secondary closure is oftentimes difficult due to the size and anatomy of the presenting patient. We describe the insertion of a muscular ventricular septal defect (VSD) device via a perventricular approach for successful closure of a pulmonary stump in a 3-year old, 16-kg child. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a perventricular approach for successful closure of a PA stump. PMID:24677797

  2. A Case of Low Bone Mineral Density with Vitamin D Deficiency Due to Prolonged Lactation and Severe Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m2. She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized.

  3. A case of low bone mineral density with vitamin d deficiency due to prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung; Kim, Koon Soon

    2015-02-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m(2). She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized. PMID:25774364

  4. Platelets in Pulmonary Hypertension: a Causative Role or a Simple Association?

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Keyhan Sayadpour

    2012-01-01

    Pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on three basic mechanisms: thrombotic pulmonary vascular lesions, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Platelets are related to all of these mechanisms by their aggregation, production, storage and release of several mediators. The role of platelets is more prominent in some types of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including those which are secondary to inflammatory and infectious diseases, hemoglobinopathies, essential thrombocythemia, drugs, thromboembolism, and cardiac surgery. Most pulmonary antihypertensive drugs have a negative effect on platelets. In this review, the mechanisms of platelets association with pulmonary arterial hypertension, those types of pulmonary arterial hypertension with greatest platelet contribution to their pathophysiology, and the effects of pulmonary antihypertensive drugs on platelets are summarized. PMID:23056879

  5. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  6. Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and plasmapheresis for pulmonary hemorrhage in microscopic polyangiitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemant Shyam Agarwal; Mary Barraza Taylor; Marek Janusz Grzeszczak; Harold Newt Lovvorn; Tracy Earl Hunley; Kathy Jabs; Venkatramanan Shankar

    2005-01-01

    Early initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to treat acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to massive pulmonary hemorrhage in microscopic polyangiitis in children can be life-saving while awaiting control of the autoimmune disease process by plasmapheresis and immunosuppression.

  7. Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...

  8. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L?1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L?1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  9. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners.

    PubMed

    Rom, W N; Kanner, R E; Renzetti, A D; Shigeoka, J W; Barkman, H W; Nichols, M; Turner, W A; Coleman, M; Wright, W E

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis. PMID:7224349

  10. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  11. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  12. Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images PMID:6702190

  13. Hereditary Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takuji; Sakagami, Takuro; Young, Lisa R.; Carey, Brenna C.; Wood, Robert E.; Luisetti, Maurizio; Wert, Susan E.; Rubin, Bruce K.; Kevill, Katharine; Chalk, Claudia; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Stevens, Carrie; Nogee, Lawrence M.; Campo, Ilaria; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: We identified a 6-year-old girl with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), impaired granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor function, and increased GM-CSF. Objectives: Increased serum GM-CSF may be useful to identify individuals with PAP caused by GM-CSF receptor dysfunction. Methods: We screened 187 patients referred to us for measurement of GM-CSF autoantibodies to diagnose autoimmune PAP. Five were children with PAP and increased serum GM-CSF but without GM-CSF autoantibodies or any disease causing secondary PAP; all were studied with family members, subsequently identified patients, and controls. Measurement and Main Results: Eight children (seven female, one male) were identified with PAP caused by recessive CSF2RA mutations. Six presented with progressive dyspnea of insidious onset at 4.8 ± 1.6 years and two were asymptomatic at ages 5 and 8 years. Radiologic and histopathologic manifestations were similar to those of autoimmune PAP. Molecular analysis demonstrated that GM-CSF signaling was absent in six and severely reduced in two patients. The GM-CSF receptor ? chain was detected in all patients, whereas the ? chain was absent in six and abnormal in two, paralleling the GM-CSF signaling defects. Genetic analysis revealed multiple distinct CSF2RA abnormalities, including missense, duplication, frameshift, and nonsense mutations; exon and gene deletion; and cryptic alternative splicing. All symptomatic patients responded well to whole-lung lavage therapy. Conclusions: CSF2RA mutations cause a genetic form of PAP presenting as insidious, progressive dyspnea in children that can be diagnosed by a combination of characteristic radiologic findings and blood tests and treated successfully by whole-lung lavage. PMID:20622029

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in CKD.

    PubMed

    Bolignano, Davide; Rastelli, Stefania; Agarwal, Rajiv; Fliser, Danilo; Massy, Ziad; Ortiz, Alberto; Wiecek, Andrzej; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Lindholm, Bengt; Parati, Gianfranco; Sicari, Rosa; Gargani, Luna; Mallamaci, Francesca; London, Gerard; Zoccali, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease often associated with positive antinuclear antibody and high mortality. Pulmonary hypertension, which rarely is severe, occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension ranges from 9%-39% in individuals with stage 5 CKD, 18.8%-68.8% in hemodialysis patients, and 0%-42% in patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy. No epidemiologic data are available yet for earlier stages of CKD. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD may be induced and/or aggravated by left ventricular disorders and risk factors typical of CKD, including volume overload, an arteriovenous fistula, sleep-disordered breathing, exposure to dialysis membranes, endothelial dysfunction, vascular calcification and stiffening, and severe anemia. No specific intervention trial aimed at reducing pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD has been performed to date. Correcting volume overload and treating left ventricular disorders are factors of paramount importance for relieving pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD. Preventing pulmonary hypertension in this population is crucial because even kidney transplantation may not reverse the high mortality associated with established pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23164943

  15. Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kadakia, Kunal C; Patel, Sandeep M; Yi, Eunhee S; Limper, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the lung, pleura and mediastinum with thin-walled lymphangiomas. DPL can result in mass effect from infiltrative disease, restrictive and obstructive pulmonary physiology, chylous effusions and respiratory failure. The present article discusses clinical, radiographic and pathological features, and treatment options for DPL. PMID:23457676

  16. Defective Skeletal Mineralization in Pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization. PMID:25638580

  17. Riociguat for pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Voswinckel, Robert; Gall, Henning; Schermuly, Ralph; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) encompasses a group of diseases associated with progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, right heart failure and premature death. Riociguat is a novel, first-in-class oral drug that directly stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase, both independently of the endogenous vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and in synergy with NO. Single oral doses of riociguat were well tolerated in a Phase I study of healthy volunteers. They had a favorable safety profile, and improved pulmonary hemodynamics and cardiac index to a greater extent than inhaled NO in a proof-of-concept study in patients with moderate-to-severe PH. In a 12-week Phase II trial in patients with chronic thromboembolic PH or pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity improved following individual dose titration with oral riociguat, which was generally well tolerated. Further trials in PH have been initiated. PMID:20230258

  18. Changes in Large Pulmonary Arterial Viscoelasticity in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    Changes in Large Pulmonary Arterial Viscoelasticity in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension Zhijie Wang1, Wisconsin, United States of America Abstract Conduit pulmonary artery (PA) stiffening is characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is an excellent predictor of mortality due to right ventricular

  19. Cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cancer rehabilitation. 2. Pulmonary rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Moldover

    1996-01-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights both pulmonary and nonpulmonary aspects in the rehabilitation of patients with pulmonary disease and the assessment and physical therapeutic options in the pulmonary management of patients with neurological disorders. It is part of the chapter on cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cancer rehabilitation in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and

  20. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS? HOW MUCH DO I ... HARMFUL? FOR MORE INFORMATION WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? Vitamins and minerals are sometimes called micronutrients. ...

  1. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ... of them each day. What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system, ...

  2. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  3. Mineral Commodities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This exercise introduces mineral commodities (elements). Students consider the elements aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, uranium, lead, gold, mercury and tin and match them with their definintions in a table. Then they use minable grade (minable weight percent) and normal crustal abundance (crustal weight percent) to calculate the concentration factor for several commodities to determine their economic minability. Students then graph their calculations and explain their trend.

  4. Secondary Headaches

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migraine and Other Headaches Headache Journal - Public Site Art Gallery Art Gallery Support the AMF American Migraine Foundation The ... but there are usually clues in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can ...

  5. Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    richrigby

    2010-02-23

    Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

  6. Haemodynamic evaluation of pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Chemla; V. Castelain; P. Herve; Y. Lecarpentier; S. Brimioulle

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary,hypertension,is characterised by the chronic elevation of pulmonary,artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary,vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular enlargement,and,hypertrophy. Pulmonary,hypertension,may,result from respiratory and cardiac diseases, the most severe forms occurring in thrombo- embolic and primary,pulmonary,hypertension. Pulmonary,hypertension is most often defined as a mean,PAP w25 mmHg,at rest or w30 mmHg during exercise, the pressure being measured invasively with a pulmonary

  7. Pulmonary hypertension associated with primary biliary cirrhosis in the absence of portal hypertension: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, E M; Erb, S R; Ostrow, D N; Ricci, D R; Scudamore, C H; Fradet, G

    1994-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is well described in association with portal hypertension of any cause including end stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The essential feature of this association is the presence of portosystemic shunting, including surgically created shunts. A patient with primary pulmonary hypertension and PBC without portal hypertension is reported. This suggests that primary pulmonary hypertension may be associated with PBC in the absence of portal hypertension. Decisions regarding appropriate organ transplantation may depend on whether pulmonary hypertension is primary or secondary to portal hypertension. PMID:8307485

  8. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-03-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

  9. Riociguat: Something new in pulmonary hypertension therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Elangovan; Jena, Amrita; George, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to be a disease that is associated with woeful outcomes. The search for an ideal drug molecule for PH led to the discovery of riociguat, which is a first-in-class drug molecule that activates soluble guanylate cyclase. We conducted a systematic literature search using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar to gather evidence generated from published clinical trials on the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and regulatory status of riociguat. CHEST-1 and the PATENT-1 were phase-3 pivotal clinical trials that showed that riociguat was able to significantly improve the 6-min walk distance with 16 weeks of therapy as compared with the placebo arm. The drug also showed improvement in secondary outcome measures such as improvement in the pulmonary vascular resistance, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, World Health Organization functional class, time to clinical worsening and Borg dyspnea score. The drug had a modest safety profile, with hypotension being the most bothersome adverse effect. These findings led to various regulatory agencies around the world granting approval for riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The entry of a new class of drug for PAH and CTEPH therapy portends some hope for patients with a disease that is traditionally linked with a poor prognosis. PMID:25709345

  10. Riociguat: Something new in pulmonary hypertension therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Elangovan; Jena, Amrita; George, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to be a disease that is associated with woeful outcomes. The search for an ideal drug molecule for PH led to the discovery of riociguat, which is a first-in-class drug molecule that activates soluble guanylate cyclase. We conducted a systematic literature search using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar to gather evidence generated from published clinical trials on the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and regulatory status of riociguat. CHEST-1 and the PATENT-1 were phase-3 pivotal clinical trials that showed that riociguat was able to significantly improve the 6-min walk distance with 16 weeks of therapy as compared with the placebo arm. The drug also showed improvement in secondary outcome measures such as improvement in the pulmonary vascular resistance, N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide levels, World Health Organization functional class, time to clinical worsening and Borg dyspnea score. The drug had a modest safety profile, with hypotension being the most bothersome adverse effect. These findings led to various regulatory agencies around the world granting approval for riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The entry of a new class of drug for PAH and CTEPH therapy portends some hope for patients with a disease that is traditionally linked with a poor prognosis. PMID:25709345

  11. [Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy. PMID:25650280

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension: Evaluation and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo A. Heresi; Raed A. Dweik

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a hemodynamic state characterized by elevation in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and\\u000a pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and premature death. PH can be the result of a variety\\u000a of diseases of different etiologies. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) should be distinctly differentiated from pulmonary\\u000a venous hypertension (PVH) as a result of left heart

  13. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

  14. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find a cure for the deadly disease. BROADWAY STARS SHOW OFF THEIR BELTING TALENTS TO RAISE FUNDS ... Patients The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has a four-star rating from Charity Navigator and is a Better ...

  15. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, J.M.; Paterson, I.S.; Mannick, J.A.; Valeri, C.R.; Shepro, D.; Hechtman, H.B. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-02-17

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B{sub 4} and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability.

  16. Facts about Pulmonary Atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the heart where the valve that controls blood flow from the heart to the lungs doesnâ??t ... pulmonary valve, which is the valve that controls blood flow from the right ventricle (lower right chamber of ...

  17. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Reesink, H.J.; Kloek, J.J.; Bresser, P.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rapidly progressive and deadly disease, resulting from incomplete resolution of acute pulmonary embolism. Historically, the incidence of CTEPH was significantly underestimated but it may be as high as 3.8% following acute pulmonary embolism. Although the medical management of CTEPH may be supportive, the only curative treatment is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). However, a careful screening programme is mandatory to select CTEPH patients who are likely to benefit from PEA. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic pitfalls, surgical treatment, outcome after surgery, and the potential benefit of medical treatment in inoperable CTEPH patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696637

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension after Splenectomy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marius M. Hoeper; Jost Niedermeyer; Frank Hoffmeyer; Peer Flemming; Helmut Fabel

    Results: The prevalence of asplenia in patients with pul- monary hypertension was 11.5% (95% CI, 4.7% to 22.2%) compared with 0% (CI, 0% to 3.2%) in those without pulmonary hypertension (P , 0.001). Histopathologic ex- amination of lung specimens from patients with postsple- nectomy pulmonary hypertension showed intimal fibrosis, plexiform lesions, and abundant thrombotic lesions. Conclusion: Patients who have had

  19. Pulmonary manifestations of bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renuka Heddurshetti; Wadchara Pumpradit; Larry I. Lutwick

    2001-01-01

    Along with smallpox, inhalation anthrax and pneumonic plague are among the diseases most likely to be spread by biowarfare,\\u000a either from a rogue nation or terrorist group. Neither anthrax nor plague has been seen by many pulmonary (or any other) physicians\\u000a in the United States. This article summarizes these two diseases as pulmonary manifestations of bioterrorism and discusses\\u000a the possibility

  20. Calcular pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mohamed H; Osman, Yasser; El-Diasty, Tarek

    2014-04-01

    Many complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PNL) were reported. In this report, we present a rare complication, which has never been reported. It is the migration of stone fragments into the venous system causing pulmonary emboli. We reviewed the literatures reporting complications following PNL, and there was no available previous report about such complication. It was suspected intraoperative and confirmed radiologically postoperative. In this case, pulmonary emboli have had no clinical consequences and were managed conservatively. PMID:24077988

  1. Management of pulmonary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, Jane

    1970-01-01

    Based on experience with 48 patients, a new simple classification of pulmonary atresia, according to pulmonary artery development is suggested. The need for extensive investigation including biplane aortography and right ventricular angiocardiography is emphasized. Adequate display of the anatomy is required to plan the surgical management. Early palliative procedures are advised for hypoxia and later radical correction is possible in a large number of these patients. Images PMID:5470046

  2. Acute pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryl R. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Opinion statement  Patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema require rapid assessment and therapy to prevent progression to respiratory\\u000a failure and cardiovascular collapse. The goal of therapy is to decrease the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure by decreasing\\u000a intravascular volume and shifting the blood volume into peripheral vascular beds. Mainstays of therapy include morphine sulfate\\u000a (a venodilator and an anxiolytic), furosemide (a venodilator

  3. Pharmacotherapy of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. While it can occur idiopathically, it is more commonly associated with other cardiac or lung diseases. While most of the available therapies were tested in adult populations, and most therapies in children remain off-label, new reports and randomized trials are emerging that inform the treatment of pediatric populations. This review discusses currently available therapies for pediatric pulmonary hypertension, their biologic rationales, and evidence for their clinical effectiveness. PMID:23036248

  4. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Auger; Peter F. Fedullo

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important form of pulmonary hypertension to detect because prompt\\u000a treatment can lead to a surgical cure. The true incidence is unknown, but it is estimated to occur in 1% to 3% of patients\\u000a following acute thromboembolism. Detection may be difficult, because symptoms are nonspecific and other diagnoses are often\\u000a made before that of

  5. Could uric acid be a modifiable risk factor in subjects with pulmonary hypertension?

    PubMed

    Zharikov, Sergey I; Swenson, Erik R; Lanaspa, Miguel; Block, Edward R; Patel, Jawaharlal M; Johnson, Richard J

    2010-06-01

    A high serum uric acid is common in subjects with pulmonary hypertension. The increase in serum uric acid may be a consequence of the local tissue ischemia and/or hypoxia, and it may also result from other factors independent of ischemia or hypoxia that occur in various forms of pulmonary hypertension. While classically viewed as a secondary phenomenon, recent studies suggest that hyperuricemia may also have a role in mediating the local vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling in the pulmonary vasculature. If uric acid does have a contributory role in pulmonary hypertension, we may see an increasing prevalence of pulmonary hypertension as hyperuricemia is common in subjects with obesity and metabolic syndrome. We propose studies to investigate the role of uric acid in pulmonary hypertension and to determine if lowering serum uric acid may have clinical benefit in this condition. PMID:20064695

  6. Apelin and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Charlotte U.; Hilberg, Ole; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E.; Simonsen, U.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary arterial remodeling, abnormal angiogenesis and impaired right ventricular function. Despite progress in pharmacological therapy, there is still no cure for PAH. The peptide apelin and the G-protein coupled apelin receptor (APLNR) are expressed in several tissues throughout the organism. Apelin is localized in vascular endothelial cells while the APLNR is localized in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vessels and in the heart. Apelin is regulated by hypoxia inducible factor -1? and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2. Patients with PAH have lower levels of plasma-apelin, and decreased apelin expression in pulmonary endothelial cells. Apelin has therefore been proposed as a potential biomarker for PAH. Furthermore, apelin plays a role in angiogenesis and regulates endothelial and smooth muscle cell apoptosis and proliferation complementary and opposite to vascular endothelial growth factor. In the systemic circulation, apelin modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, induces eNOS-dependent vasodilatation, counteracts angiotensin-II mediated vasoconstriction, and has positive inotropic and cardioprotective effects. Apelin attenuates vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arteries, and chronic treatment with apelin attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The existing literature thus renders APLNR an interesting potential new therapeutic target for PH. PMID:22140623

  7. REACTIVE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN SPECIES IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Diana M.; Frizzell, Sheila; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular disease can be defined as either a disease affecting the pulmonary capillaries and pulmonary arterioles, termed pulmonary arterial hypertension, or as a disease affecting the left ventricle, called pulmonary venous hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary circulation characterized by endothelial dysfunction, as well as intimal and smooth muscle proliferation. Progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure impair the performance of the right ventricle, resulting in declining cardiac output, reduced exercise capacity, right heart failure, and ultimately death. While the primary and heritable forms of the disease are thought to affect over 5,000 patients in the U.S., the disease can occur secondary to congenital heart disease, most advanced lung diseases, and many systemic diseases. Multiple studies implicate oxidative stress in the development of PAH. Further, this oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways, whereby bioavailable NO is decreased and ROS and RNS production are increased. Many canonical ROS and NO signaling pathways are simultaneously disrupted in PAH, with increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and xanthine oxidoreductase, uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and reduction in mitochondrial number, as well as impaired mitochondrial function. Upstream dysregulation of ROS/NO redox homeostasis impairs vascular tone and contributes to the pathological activation of anti-apoptotic and mitogenic pathways, leading to cell proliferation and obliteration of the vasculature. This manuscript will review the available data regarding the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, and provide a description of targeted therapies for this disease. PMID:22401856

  8. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated? Doctors may prescribe medicines, oxygen therapy , pulmonary ... Pulmonary Fibrosis, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the News May 19, 2014 Common treatment ...

  9. Minerals and Fossils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    mineraltown.com

    This site is dedicated to rock and mineral collecting. It contains information for worldwide mineral and fossil collectors with articles, mineral photos, videos, a search engine and free classified ads.

  10. Mineral Sands Down Under

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

  11. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  12. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Minerals Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), minerals are inorganic elements that come ... earth; soil and water and are absorbed by plants. Animals and humans absorb minerals from the plants ...

  13. Properties of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    Students examine a number of key mineral properties and how they are displayed by different minerals. Mineral properties examined include crystal habit, cleavage, parting, fracture, hardness, tenacity, specific gravity, luster, color, and streak.

  14. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  15. Changes in pulmonary hemodynamics in acute pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Serebrovskaya; É. P. Rubin

    1965-01-01

    Experiments were made on dogs to study the hemodynamic changes following intravenous injections of chloramine and adrenaline. Chloramine injections were followed by the development of a severe pulmonary edema in an of the dogs. In most of them, however, the capillary pressure in the pulmonary circulation increased, but insignificantly. The great increase in the pulmonary capillary pressure following adrenaline injection

  16. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staitieh, Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

  17. Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... known as the pulmonary arteries) About Pulmonary Hypertension sickle cell disease and HIV infection. Finally, PAH can ... between stimulants and PH? Information from a new study suggests that methamphetamine (speed) use is associated with ...

  18. Diagnosis and hemodynamic assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Rajan; Saggar, Rajeev; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Belperio, John A; Zisman, David A; Lynch, Joseph P

    2009-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can occur as either a primary or a secondary process, and in general, its presence increases overall morbidity and mortality. Importantly, the majority of prior studies have been in the setting of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH); thus the following discussion focuses on IPAH. Because the majority of available diagnostic strategies lack sensitivity and specificity, the physician must maintain a high index of suspicion in considering PAH. This article provides an overview of the available diagnostic studies for PAH with a particular focus on hemodynamic assessment. Novel approaches to the often delayed diagnosis of PAH are being studied and are also discussed here. PMID:19634079

  19. Secondary pleural hydatidosis: Complication of intrapulmonary echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Feki, Walid; Ketata, Wajdi; Bahloul, Najla; Msaad, Sameh; Kammoun, Samy

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid disease has a wide geographic distribution around the world. In human, the liver is the most commonly affected organ, followed by the lungs. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary locations are generally the mediastinum, pleura, pericardium and chest wall. Pleural involvement usually follows the rupture of a pulmonary or hepatic cyst inside the pleural space causing secondary pleural hydatidosis. We report four cases of patients who were referred to our hospital for management of pleural hydatid disease as a complication of intrapulmonary echinococcosis. PMID:25125817

  20. Alterations in lung arginine metabolism in lambs with pulmonary hypertension associated with increased pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sud, Neetu; Wiseman, Dean A.; Tian, Jing; Rehmani, Imran; Datar, Sanjeev; Oishi, Peter; Fratz, Sohrab; Venema, Richard C.; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling in children and animal models with congenital heart defects and increased pulmonary blood flow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations remain incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if early changes in arginine metabolic pathways could play a role in the reduced NO signaling demonstrated in our lamb model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt lambs). The activities of the arginine recycling enzymes, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) were both decreased in lung tissues of Shunt lambs while arginase activity was increased. Associated with these alterations, lung L-arginine levels were decreased. These changes correlated with an increase in NO synthase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to decreased NO signaling in Shunt lambs and suggests that altered arginine metabolism may play a role in the development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:19818875

  1. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik R. Swenson

    \\u000a High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is an uncommon form of pulmonary edema that occurs in healthy individuals within a few\\u000a days of arrival at altitudes above 2,500–3,000 m. The crucial pathophysiology is an excessive hypoxia-mediated rise in pulmonary\\u000a vascular resistance (PVR) or hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) leading to increased microvascular hydrostatic pressures\\u000a despite normal left atrial pressure. The resultant hydrostatic stress

  2. Echocardiography in Pulmonary Vascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Forfia

    \\u000a This chapter will focus on the principles and uses of the Doppler echocardiography (DE) examination in patients with pulmonary\\u000a vascular disease (PVD). That is, patients who have pulmonary hypertension that is related to a marked increase in the pulmonary\\u000a vascular resistance (PVR) and loss of large pulmonary artery (PA) compliance. We will also address the role of DE in the

  3. Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. Clardy; Jess Mandel

    \\u000a Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare and highly lethal disorder of the pulmonary vasculature. In contrast to\\u000a the insights into pathophysiology and management that have characterized the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary\\u000a arterial hypertension (IPAH; formerly known as primary pulmonary hypertension) over the past decade, the pathophysiologic\\u000a mechanisms underlying PVOD are incompletely understood, the clinical diagnosis is notoriously

  4. Adenosine A2B receptor and hyaluronan modulate pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Weng, Tingting; Garcia-Morales, Luis J; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Pedroza, Mesias; Zhong, Hongyan; Molina, Jose G; Bunge, Raquel; Bruckner, Brian A; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A; Loebe, Matthias; Zeng, Dewan; Seethamraju, Harish; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with COPD is strongly associated with increased mortality. Chronic inflammation and changes to the lung extracellular matrix (ECM) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, yet the mechanisms that lead to PH secondary to COPD remain unknown. Our experiments using human lung tissue show increased expression levels of the adenosine A2B receptor (ADORA2B) and a heightened deposition of hyaluronan (HA; a component of the ECM) in remodeled vessels of patients with PH associated with COPD. We also demonstrate that the expression of HA synthase 2 correlates with mean pulmonary arterial pressures in patients with COPD, with and without a secondary diagnosis of PH. Using an animal model of airspace enlargement and PH, we show that the blockade of ADORA2B is able to attenuate the development of a PH phenotype that correlates with reduced levels of HA deposition in the vessels and the down-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of HA. PMID:23855769

  5. Fungal Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis Masquerading as a Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Kevin B.; Lee, Peter H. U.; Essandoh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Septic pulmonary emboli (SPE) can be a difficult clinical entity to distinguish from thromboembolic pulmonary embolism (TPE) in a patient with history of IV drug abuse (IVDA). We present a case of a patient who presented with failure to thrive and presumed diagnosis of recurrent PE that ultimately was discovered to have fungal pulmonary valve endocarditis resulting in a right ventricular outflow obstruction. This required replacement of the pulmonary valve and repair of the right ventricular outflow tract. This case highlights difficulty in differentiating pulmonary valve endocarditis with septic emboli from chronic PE in a patient with a complex medical history.

  6. Computed tomography correlates with cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine whether computed tomography angiography (CTA) measurements of pulmonary artery size can noninvasively assess hemodynamics and diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). Twenty SCD patients with confirmed PH were compared with 20 matched controls. Diameters of the pulmonary artery trunk and branches were measured with CTA and a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm. Measurements were normalized by body size and correlated (Spearman rank) with hemodynamic markers from right-heart catheterization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to investigate the role of pulmonary artery sizes in diagnosing PH. Analysis of pulmonary artery sizes adjusted for body surface area (BSA) resulted in the most significant discrimination between subjects with PH secondary to SCD and controls (P < 0.001); PH was diagnosed accurately with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. There was significant correlation between pulmonary artery sizes and body mass index (BMI) and BSA only in controls (r = 0.46–0.68, P < 0.04 for all). The most significant correlations with hemodynamic markers were found between BMI-adjusted pulmonary artery sizes and high systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, high pulmonary vascular resistance, high systemic vascular resistance, and low cardiac output (r = 0.47, 0.62, 0.61, and 0.66, respectively; P < 0.04 for all). BMI-adjusted CTA measures of the pulmonary artery relate to high pulmonary vascular resistance and reduced cardiac output in patients with SCD and PH. CTA with quantitative image analysis is a powerful noninvasive diagnostic tool for PH in SCD and shows promise as estimator of hemodynamic markers. PMID:25006451

  7. Physical inactivity and idiopathic pulmonary embolism in women: prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association between physical inactivity (that is, a sedentary lifestyle) and incident idiopathic pulmonary embolism. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study. Participants 69 950 female nurses who completed biennial questionnaires from 1990 to 2008. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was idiopathic pulmonary embolism confirmed in medical records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models controlled for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, smoking, pack years, race, spouse’s educational attainment, parity, menopause, non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, multivitamin supplements, hypertension, coronary heart disease, rheumatological disease, and dietary patterns. The primary exposure was physical inactivity, measured in hours of sitting each day. The secondary exposure was physical activity, measured in metabolic equivalents a day. Results Over the 18 year study period, there were 268 cases of incident idiopathic pulmonary embolism. There was an association between time of sitting and risk of idiopathic pulmonary embolism (41/104 720 v 16/14 565 cases in most inactive v least inactive in combined data; P<0.001 for trend). The risk of pulmonary embolism was more than twofold in women who spent the most time sitting compared with those who spent the least time sitting (multivariable hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 4.20). There was no association between physical activity and pulmonary embolism (P=0.53 for trend). Conclusions Physical inactivity is associated with incident pulmonary embolism in women. Interventions that decrease time sitting could lower the risk of pulmonary embolism. PMID:21727169

  8. Pulmonary valve cusp augmentation for pulmonary regurgitation after repair of valvular pulmonary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu Rim; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan; Jung, Jo Won; Kim, Young Jin; Shin, Hong Ju

    2015-03-01

    A 23-year-old female patient with a history of pulmonary valvectomy for pulmonary stenosis at 2 years of age underwent pulmonary valve repair, which consisted of remnant cusp extension using a fresh pericardium and commissural resuspension. An immediate postoperative computed tomographic scan showed full movement of the extended anterior cusp during systole, yet flail motion during diastole. However, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at 10 months postoperatively revealed a small amount of pulmonary flow regurgitation (2.0%). PMID:25742858

  9. [Pulmonary surgery for pulmonary lesion with pulmonary tuberculosis or of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Niimi, S; Kato, T; Hayakawa, Y; Hirota, M; Kako, T

    2001-11-01

    Nine patients with pulmonary tuberculosis underwent open chest surgery for pulmonary lesions of tuberculosis or other than tubercolosis. They were 1 case of lung cancer, 4 cases of pneumothorax, 1 case of multi drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and 3 cases of tuberculoma. Postoperative complications developed in 3 cases including 2 of pneumothorax and 1 of lung collapse. PMID:11712371

  10. MINERAL FACILITIES MAPPING PROJECT

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    MINERAL FACILITIES MAPPING PROJECT Yadira Soto-Viruet Supervisor: David Menzie, Yolanda Fong-Sam Minerals Information Team (MIT) USGS Summer Internship 2009 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Minerals Information Team (MIT): Annually reports on the minerals facilities of more than 180 countries

  11. Mineral Scavenger Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Museum of Natural History

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners participate in a scavenger hunt, searching for and recognizing minerals and products that contain minerals. They make note of their finds on a Mineral Scavenger Hunt checklist. Learners search for the materials in their classroom, at home, or even in stores. This resource includes discussion questions to encourage learner reflection about how minerals play a role in daily life.

  12. Introduction to Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity can be used as the introduction for a unit on mineral or crystal structure. It requires the students to create shapes cooperatively and put them together. This is analogous to individual crystals forming or to minerals forming. They will understand that minerals are made up of structures in certain patterns, and that these structures determine some of the properties of the minerals.

  13. Calculating a Mineral's Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrea Distelhurst

    2011-10-05

    Students will use the Density=Mass/Volume formula to calculate the density of an unknown mineral. By using water displacement and a triple beam balance students will collect measurements of volume and mass for an unknown mineral. With this data, they will calculate the mineral's density then identify the mineral based on calculated density.

  14. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

  15. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rogerio; Jardim, Carlos; Humbert, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), formerly called primary pulmonary hypertension, is a rare disease (incidence and prevalence rates of approximately one and six cases per million inhabitants, respectively) with different clinical phenotypes. A group of diverse conditions manifest pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and share similar pathological and/or clinical findings with IPAH. By definition, IPAH is diagnosed only after alternative diagnoses have been ruled out. Extensive investigation is needed to determine if PAH is associated with thyroid diseases, infectious diseases, autoimmune conditions, exposure to certain drugs (particularly anorexigens), certain genetic mutations, and so on. The presence of genetic abnormalities and risk factors (such as specific drug exposures) reinforces the "multiple hit" concept for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Fortunately, within the past two decades, therapeutic options have become available for IPAH, resulting in improved survival and clinical outcomes. At least seven different compounds have been registered for PAH treatment. However, even with aggressive PAH-specific therapy, mortality rates remain high (?40% at 5 years). Given the high mortality rates, the use of combinations of agents that work by different pathways has been advocated (either as "add-on" therapy or initial "up front" therapy). Further, new therapeutic agents and treatment strategies are on the near horizon, aiming to further improve survival from the remarkable progress already seen. PMID:24037625

  16. Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Pena-Gil; Jaume Figueras; Jordi Soler-Soler

    2005-01-01

    The frequency distribution and severity of the cardiac disease underlying acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE) to define appropriate subsequent diagnostic and management strategies were investigated in 216 consecutive patients. To this effect, the clinical, electrocardiographic, ecocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were analyzed. Coronary artery disease was identified in 185 patients (86%)—146 with acute myocardial infarction—as the underlying cause, isolated valvular disease

  17. Cytokines and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Zhang; Sem H. Phan

    1996-01-01

    In the past several years, significant progress in many aspects of pulmonary fibrosis research has been made. Among them, the finding that a variety of cytokines play important roles in the complex process appears most intriguing. These cytokines include at least transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, (TGF-?), interleukin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneursym.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Singh, Kulbir; Aditi; Singh, Parminderpal; Aneja, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    Idopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare lesion. Clinical experience with this condition is limited and current knowledge is mainly derived from autopsy findings. We report a patient who came to us with complaints of chest pain, breathlessness on exertion and pedal oedema and was diagnosed to have PAA. PMID:24930208

  19. A rare nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism after vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Bansal, Ojas; Townley, Theresa A

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is used to treat osteoporotic compression fractures and bone loss due to malignancy. The cement used can serve as a potential nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). An 87-year-old woman with recent L2 vertebroplasty presented with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Thoracoabdominal CT scan revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli associated with a 9 cm cement fragment in the inferior vena cava (IVC) extending proximally from the level of the right superior renal vein, likely secondary to cement leak from the vertebral plexus into the IVC. She refused catheter extraction was managed conservatively. There are 51 reported cases of cement pulmonary embolism. IVC foreign bodies serving as a nidus for PTE have been reported with IVC filters with an incidence of 6.2%. This is the second reported case of vertebroplasty cement serving as a nidus for PTE. Treatment depends on time interval between the procedure and the symptom onset. PMID:24154998

  20. Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

    2011-02-01

    The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

  1. Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1991-01-01

    Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction. PMID:1954926

  2. Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling

    E-print Network

    Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling Qiang Wei, Matei Ripeanu, Konstantin Beznosov responses 2. infer approximate responses Secondary Decision Point (SDP) Secondary Authorization Recycling Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling SDP SDP SDP Discovery Service each SDP serves only its own PEP

  3. Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces R. G. Ford Metal sorption to clay minerals may lead to the formation of secondary precipitates structurally similar to the mineral takovite. Saturation with respect to this phase is promoted, in part

  4. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  5. IREB2 and GALC Are Associated with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ? 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10(-8); versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10(-9)). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10(-8)). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  6. Community pulmonary rehabilitation after hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Man, William D-C; Polkey, Michael I; Donaldson, Nora; Gray, Barry J; Moxham, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of an early community based pulmonary rehabilitation programme after hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design A single centre, randomised controlled trial. Setting An inner city, secondary and tertiary care hospital in London. Participants 42 patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of COPD. Intervention An eight week, pulmonary rehabilitation programme for outpatients, started within 10 days of hospital discharge, or usual care. Main outcome measures Incremental shuttle walk distance, disease specific health status (St George's respiratory questionnaire, SGRQ; chronic respiratory questionnaire, CRQ) and generic health status (medical outcomes short form 36 questionnaire, SF-36) at three months after hospital discharge. Results Early pulmonary rehabilitation, compared with usual care, led to significant improvements in median incremental shuttle walk distance (60 metres, 95% confidence interval 26.6 metres to 93.4 metres, P = 0.0002), mean SGRQ total score (-12.7, -5.0 to -20.3, P = 0.002), all four domains of the CRQ (dyspnoea 5.5, 2.0 to 9.0, P = 0.003; fatigue 5.3, 1.9 to 8.8, P = 0.004; emotion 8.7, 2.4 to 15.0, P = 0.008; and mastery 7.5, 4.2 to 10.7, P < 0.001) and the mental component score of the SF-36 (20.1, 3.3 to 36.8, P = 0.02). Improvements in the physical component score of the SF-36 did not reach significance (10.6, -0.3 to 21.6, P = 0.057). Conclusion Early pulmonary rehabilitation after admission to hospital for acute exacerbations of COPD is safe and leads to statistically and clinically significant improvements in exercise capacity and health status at three months. PMID:15504763

  7. Minerals 4 Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy McMillan

    Minerals 4 Kids contains four Web-based activities offered for K-12 Education by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA). These activities are entitled: Minerals in Your House, Mineral Groups, Mineral Properties, and All About Crystals. Also included are links to Mineral Games, the Rock Cycle diagram that leads to descriptions of the three rock types, and Ask-A-Mineralogist that enables the user to submit a mineralogical question. Many of these activities are linked to other mineralogy-related Web sites. Minerals in Your House is designed to introduce the concept of how minerals are present in common household items found in the bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen. Mineral Groups introduces mineral classification according to chemical composition. The learner can explore each of the seven major chemical groups and several minor chemical groups. Mineral Properties introduces learners to the physical properties of minerals such as hardness, cleavage, streak, color, luster, specific gravity, as well as other miscellaneous properties (i.e., magnetic, effervescence, striations, etc.). Mineral Properties, additionally, contains a five-step Mineral Identification process that uses the physical properties to narrow down a mineral's identity that, ultimately, leads to a Mineral Identification Chart. All About Crystals enables the learner to become familiar with symmetry, crystal symmetry, crystal chemistry, and crystal forms. This activity includes online 3-D models, an activity that enables the user to draw and explore symmetry patterns, a variety of detailed descriptions with figures, and an extensive vocabulary

  8. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ? 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ? 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  9. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  10. Gata4 is necessary for normal pulmonary lobar development.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Kate G; Wang, Jianlong; Luo, Liqing; Fujiwara, Yuko; Orkin, Stuart H; Beier, David R

    2007-04-01

    Mutations of Fog2 in mice result in a phenotype that includes pulmonary lobar defects. To determine whether formation of the accessory lobe bronchus is mediated by a Gata family cofactor, we evaluated embryonic lungs from mice carrying missense mutations that cause loss of FOG-GATA protein interaction. Lungs from embryos carrying a missense mutation in Gata6 were structurally normal, while lungs from embryos carrying mutations of either Gata4 or of both Gata4 and Gata6 had a structural phenotype that matched the Fog2 mutant phenotype. Expression analysis showed that Gata4 and Fog2 are expressed in the ventral and medial pulmonary mesenchyme during secondary budding. Although Gata4 has not previously been suspected as playing a role in lung development, we have found that a Fog2-Gata4 interaction is critical for the development of normal pulmonary lobar structure, and this phenotype is not influenced by the additional loss of Gata6 interaction. Fog2 and Gata4 in the early pulmonary mesenchyme participate in patterning the secondary bronchus of the accessory lobe. PMID:17142311

  11. Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

  12. Learning from the pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    Porres, Diego Varona; Morenza, Oscar Persiva; Pallisa, Esther; Roque, Alberto; Andreu, Jorge; Martínez, Manel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic embryology and anatomy of the pulmonary veins and the various imaging techniques used to evaluate the pulmonary veins, as well as the radiologic findings in diseases affecting these structures. Specific cases highlight the clinical importance of the imaging features, particularly the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography (CT). Pulmonary vein disease can be broadly classified into congenital or acquired conditions. Congenital disease, which often goes unnoticed until patients are adults, mainly includes (a) anomalies in the number or diameter of the vessels and (b) abnormal drainage or connection with the pulmonary arterial tree. Acquired disease can be grouped into (a) stenosis and obstruction, (b) hypertension, (c) thrombosis, (d) calcifications, and (e) collateral circulation. Pulmonary vein stenosis or obstruction, which often has important clinical repercussions, is frequently a result of radiofrequency ablation complications, neoplastic infiltration, or fibrosing mediastinitis. The most common cause of pulmonary venous hypertension is chronic left ventricular failure. This condition is difficult to differentiate from veno-occlusive pulmonary disease, which requires a completely different treatment. Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially severe condition that can have a local or distant cause. Calcifications have been described in rheumatic mitral valve disease and chronic renal failure. Finally, the pulmonary veins can act as conduits for collateral circulation in cases of obstruction of the superior vena cava. Multidetector CT is an excellent modality for imaging evaluation of the pulmonary veins, even when the examination is not specifically tailored for their assessment. PMID:23842969

  13. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

  14. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics during hemorrhagic shock in baboons.

    PubMed Central

    Bredenberg, C E; Nomoto, S; Webb, W R

    1980-01-01

    The pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic response to four hours of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation has been studied in 17 baboons using both open and closed chest models. No pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension occurred during shock or resuscitation except for an increase in lft ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) secondary to intravascular volumee overload with Dextran. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased during shock but returned to control levels with reinfusion of shed blood and correction of acidosis. PVR was moderately elevated following reinfusion of shed blood if acidosis was not corrected or if volum resuscitation was inadequate. No increase in gradients occurred between PA pressure and left atrial (LA) pressure or LVEDP and there was no gradients between small pulmonary vein and LA pressure. Arterial PO2 uniformly increased during shock and remained at or above control levels of reinfusion. Gross or histologic evidence of "congestive atelectasis" or "shock lung" was not observed. These observations suggest that in the subhuman primate, hemorrhage alone does not produce significant injury to the lung during shock or the immediate postresuscitation interval. Hemorrhage alone did not produce changes in the lung which would result in increased pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure following appropriate resuscitation. PMID:6773481

  15. Mineral Spectroscopy Server

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    George Rossman

    This server is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on mineral absorption in the visible, infrared, Raman and Mossbauer spectra. Both data coordinates and images of the spectra are available for selected minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs, but individuals throughout the world also contribute to this ever growing community resource. In addition to data files, the site provides an extensive list of references to papers on mineral optical spectroscopy. Citations are available sorted both by mineral name and by first authors of papers.

  16. Pulmonary embolism and concomitant paradoxical embolism. A case report.

    PubMed

    Abad-Arranz, María; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Martos-Maine, José Luis; Carrasco-Hernandez, Laura; Ortega-Ruiz, Francisco; Otero-Candelera, Remedios

    2014-03-01

    Although patent foramen ovale is a relatively common disease, the presence of paradoxical embolism is a rare clinical condition, representing less than 2% of arterial ischemias. We report the case of a 55-year-old male diagnosed with massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolism in the right arm, secondary to patent foramen ovale. We also highlight some uncertainties in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with paradoxical embolism. PMID:24491889

  17. Primary pulmonary botryomycosis: a late complication of foreign body aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tuggey, J; Hosker, H; DaCosta, P

    2000-01-01

    Primary pulmonary botryomycosis is a rare cause of haemoptysis and can enter the differential diagnosis of a mass on the plain chest radiograph. The case history is presented of a 63 year old man with botryomycosis which was initially thought to be a bronchial carcinoma. When the diagnosis was made several years later it was found to be secondary to persisting vegetable material in the bronchial tree following previous aspiration.?? PMID:11083895

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease 

    E-print Network

    McAllister, David Anthony

    2011-07-05

    Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

  19. Infant Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie D.

    2011-01-01

    Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

  20. Pulmonary Complications of Cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajan Kochar; Moises I. Nevah Rubin; Michael B. Fallon

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease comprise two distinct clinical entities: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS—microvascular\\u000a dilatation and angiogenesis) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH—vasoconstriction and remodeling in resistance vessels).\\u000a These complications occur in similar pathophysiologic environments and may share pathogenic mechanisms. HPS is found in 15%\\u000a to 30% of patients with cirrhosis and its presence increases mortality and the risks of liver transplantation,

  1. Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan B. Watts; Robert O. Williams

    \\u000a This chapter aims to provide a rational for the use of nanoparticles in pulmonary delivery as well as an overview of strategies\\u000a and physiological implications of nanoparticle delivery to the lungs. Formulation aspects of nanoparticle systems in the form\\u000a of liquid dispersions and inhaled dry powders are also reviewed. The chapter also addresses the expanse of lung toxicology\\u000a research surrounding

  2. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bärtsch; Heimo Mairbäurl; Erik R. Swenson; Marco Maggiorini

    1997-01-01

    Altitude, speed and mode of ascent and, above all, individual susceptibility are the most important determinants for the occurrence of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). This illness usually occurs only 2-5 days after acute exposure to altitudes above 2,500-3,000 m. Chest radiographs and CT scans show a patchy predominantly peripheral distribution of edema. Wedge pressure is normal at rest, and there

  3. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  4. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Wu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed. PMID:20054434

  5. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  6. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective testing for pulmonary embolism is necessary, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. No single test has ideal properties (100% sensitivity and specificity, no risk, low cost). Pulmonary angiography is regarded as the final arbiter but is ill suited for diagnosing a disease present in only a third of patients in whom it is suspected. Some tests are good for confirmation and some for exclusion of embolism; others are able to do both but are often non-diagnostic. For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial test should be guided by clinical assessment of the likelihood of embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. Standardised clinical estimates can be used to give a pre-test probability to assess, after appropriate objective testing, the post-test probability of embolism. Multidetector computed tomography can replace both scintigraphy and angiography for the exclusion and diagnosis of this disease and should now be considered the central imaging investigation in suspected pulmonary embolism. PMID:15192162

  7. Pulmonary Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles from the Perspective of Industrial Hygiene

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    Pulmonary Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles from the Perspective of Industrial Hygiene Mean samples were tested. Samples marked "trtd" went through a heat treatment process, 800C for 8 hours under minerals, were tested after ion exchange with iron. Erionite is a potent human carcinogen; mordenite is not

  8. Simple method of estimating severity of pulmonary fibrosis on a numerical scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Ashcroft; J M Simpson; V Timbrell

    1988-01-01

    A continuous numerical scale for determining the degree of fibrosis in lung specimens was devised for correlation with other pulmonary variables such as lung function tests or mineral burden. Grading was scored on a scale from 0 to 8, using the average of microscope field scores. The system allows fibrosis to be measured in small samples of tissue (1 cm)

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Denault, André; Deschamps, Alain; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lambert, Jean; Perrault, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is an important prognostic factor in cardiac surgery associated with increased morbidity and mortality. With the aging population and the associated increase severity of illness, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in cardiac surgical patients will increase. In this review, the definition of pulmonary hypertension, the mechanisms and its relationship to right ventricular dysfunction will be presented. Finally, pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic and preventive approaches will be presented. PMID:21286273

  10. What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation Most pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs last a few months. At the ... Rate This Content: Next >> August 1, 2010 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed October 2010 What is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive lung ...

  12. Surgical management of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Picciocchi, A; Granone, P; Margaritora, S; Cesario, A; Galetta, D

    1998-01-01

    Surgery for pulmonary tubercolosis (PTB) is now the second place treatment. Among the surgical indications the most debated is the multi-drug resistance of a focal pulmonary tuberculous disease. Other indications are: bronchiectasis, hemoptysis and the presence of a broncho-pleural fistula. Pulmonary Aspergilloma is a frequent indication for surgery; it is commonly a PTB sequela and causes severe complications. The presence of an unknown pulmonary mass or nodule is a surgical criterion because it might signal a cancer. Surgery therefore now constitutes a valid option for the treatment of clinical patterns of PTB unresponsive to medical treatment in severe, potentially fatal clinical conditions. PMID:9673145

  13. Fulvine and the pulmonary circulation

    PubMed Central

    Kay, J. M.; Heath, Donald; Smith, Paul; Bras, G.; Summerell, Joan

    1971-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid, fulvine, is now accepted as a major cause of veno-occlusive disease of the liver in the West Indies, where it is ingested as a decoction of the plant Crotalaria fulva in bush tea. Fulvine is similar in chemical structure to monocrotaline, which is known to cause pulmonary hypertension in rats. Thirty young female rats were given a single dose of fulvine either by intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg body weight) or by stomach tube (80 mg/kg body weight). Eleven of these rats died of acute haemorrhagic centrilobular necrosis of the liver, and two of pneumonia, within 23 days of receiving fulvine. These 13 showed no evidence of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. The remaining 17 rats (which survived from 24 to 37 days) developed hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease with right ventricular hypertrophy together with medial thickening of the pulmonary trunk and muscular pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary arterioles showed hypertensive changes and some contained thrombi. In four animals an acute necrotizing arteritis also occurred. We have shown that fulvine resembles monocrotaline in its ability to produce pulmonary hypertension in rats. We suggest that, in any patient presenting with unexplained pulmonary hypertension, a careful enquiry should be made to elicit the possibility of recent ingestion of drugs or plant extracts that may have caused a rise in the pulmonary arterial pressure. Images PMID:4253539

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Mourani, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is common in bronchopulmonary dysplasia and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This pulmonary hypertension is due to abnormal microvascular development and pulmonary vascular remodeling resulting in reduced cross-sectional area of pulmonary vasculature. The epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, suggested management, and outcomes of pulmonary hypertension in the setting of bronchopulmonary dysplasia are reviewed. In summary, pulmonary hypertension is noted in a fifth of extremely low birth weight infants, primarily those with moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and persists to discharge in many infants. Diagnosis is generally by echocardiography, and some infants require cardiac catheterization to identify associated anatomic cardiac lesions or systemic-pulmonary collaterals, pulmonary venous obstruction or myocardial dysfunction. Serial echocardiography and B-type natriuretic peptide measurement may be useful for following the course of pulmonary hypertension. Currently, there is not much evidence to indicate optimal management approaches, but many clinicians maintain oxygen saturation in the range of 91 to 95%, avoiding hypoxia and hyperoxia, and often provide inhaled nitric oxide, sometimes combined with sildenafil, prostacyclin, or its analogs, and occasionally endothelin-receptor antagonists. PMID:24616323

  15. Ohio Mineral Resources Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provides information about Mineral Resources in Ohio and management. Mine safety, oil and gas, coal mining, industrial minerals, and abandoned mined lands are related subheadings for the site. Good for finding history, factual reports, programs, regulations and policies.

  16. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  17. Angioscopy Is Useful In The Evaluation Of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shure, Deborah; Gregoratos, Gabriel; Moser, Kenneth M.

    1984-10-01

    We have previously described a fiberoptic angioscope for diagnostic use in the right heart and pulmonary arteries. The instrument has a 4 mm 0.D., a proximal flexion control lever, and a 0.8 mm inner channel used to inflate a polyurethane balloon attached to the distal end of the instrument. A conventional xenon light source provides illumination. The instrument is inserted through a right jugular venotomy and passed into the right heart and pulmonary arteries using direct vision and fluoroscopic guidance. The procedure has been performed in 4 patients with pulmonary hypertension suspected to be caused by chronic pulmonary emboli. Chronic emboli were found in two patients and central (resectable) emboli could be distinguished from peripheral ones. The third patient had normal pulmonary arterial intima and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension was made. The fourth patient had extrinsic compression of pulmonary arteries by enlarged mediastinal nodes secondary to fibrosing mediastinitis. No complications occurred. We conclude that angioscopy appears to be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries.

  18. Sedimentary and Related Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of sedimentary minerals and rocks. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine a tray of Halides, Carbonates, Borates, and Clays and record their physical properties, composition, habit, and occurence. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences of the minerals. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe sedimentary minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

  19. Color in Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darby Dyar

    Why do minerals have color? When is that color diagnostic, and when is it likely to fool you? Why is color important, and what can it tell us about the chemistry of minerals? This exercise will try to answer some of these questions, and to introduce students to the fascinating world of mineral spectroscopy, where chemistry meets mineralogy.

  20. Minerals in our Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This downloadable poster (36 in. by 60 in.) describes how minerals are used in household substances and objects, listed by name, with numbers corresponding to locations in a typical house. For example, in the kitchen, appliances contain steel and copper, clay minerals are found in china, and table salt contains the mineral halite.

  1. Mineral Properties Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Hirsch

    These sheets are designed to give students a framework for making observations of minerals in hand specimen and (for selected minerals) in thin section. I place most of the emphasis on the distinguishing properties, rather than requiring an exhaustive list. Students use hand specimen observation, thin section observation (for selected minerals) and references to complete the forms.

  2. Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, extremely hypoplastic pulmonary arteries, major aorto–pulmonary collaterals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Metras; Philippe Chetaille; Bernard Kreitmann; Alain Fraisse; Olivier Ghez; Alberto Riberi

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Among 63 patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (VSD), 10 patients with extreme hypoplasia of the pulmonary arteries (PA) (mean Nakata index 20.6 mm2\\/m2), but with confluent arteries and a diminutive main PA, and major aorto–pulmonary collaterals (MAPCAS), have been submitted to a ‘rehabilitation’ of the PA with several stages: (i) connection between RV and PAs, (ii)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cell division ; diameter ; dyspnea ; edema ; fainting ; familial ; family history ; gene ; hypertension ; idiopathic ; inherited ; mutation ; pulmonary ; pulmonary artery ; sporadic ; syndrome ; ventricle ...

  4. Pulmonary MRA: Differentiation of pulmonary embolism from truncation artifact

    PubMed Central

    Bannas, Peter; Schiebler, Mark L; Motosugi, Utaroh; François, Christopher J; Reeder, Scott B; Nagle, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Truncation artifact (Gibbs ringing) causes central signal drop within vessels in pulmonary MRA that can be mistaken for emboli, reducing the diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE). We propose a quantitative approach to differentiate truncation artifact from PE. Methods Twenty-eight patients who underwent pulmonary CTA for suspected PE were recruited for pulmonary MRA. Signal intensity drops within pulmonary arteries that persisted on both arterial-phase and delayed-phase MRA were identified. The percent signal loss between the vessel lumen and central drop was measured. CTA served as the reference standard for presence of pulmonary emboli. Results A total of 65 signal intensity drops were identified on MRA. 48 (74%) of these were artifact and 17 (26%) were PE, as confirmed by CTA. Truncation artifacts had a significantly lower median signal drop than PE at both arterial-phase (26% [range 12–58%] vs. 85% [range 53–91%]) and at delayed-phase MRA (26% [range 11–55%] vs. 77% [range 47–89%]), p<0.0001 for both. ROC analyses revealed a threshold value of 51% (arterial-phase) and 47%-signal drop (delayed-phase) to differentiate between truncation artifact and PE with 100% sensitivity and >90% specificity. Conclusion Quantitative signal drop is an objective tool to help differentiate truncation artifact and pulmonary embolism in pulmonary MRA. PMID:24863886

  5. Preoperative pulmonary evaluation: identifying and reducing risks for pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Gerald W

    2006-03-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are among the most common sources of morbidity in patients undergoing major surgery. For this reason, the preoperative patient evaluation should emphasize risk factors for pulmonary complications as well as for traditional cardiac complications, as the former are comparably frequent and associated with longer hospital stays. Procedure-related risk factors are more important than patient-related risk factors for predicting pulmonary events, but clinicians should assess both types of factors. Pulmonary function testing has a limited role and should not be the basis for denying surgery if the surgical indication is compelling. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include optimizing management of chronic lung disease before surgery, lung expansion maneuvers, pain control, and selective placement of nasogastric tubes. PMID:16570546

  6. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension after Pulmonary Embolism, Thrombolysis, Catheter Fragmentation, and Embolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wiedenroth, Christoph B.; Guth, Stefan; Rolf, Andreas; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    A 21-year-old male patient with massive acute pulmonary embolism was treated by thrombolysis, interventional thrombus fragmentation, and surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Within the following 2 years, the patient developed progressive dyspnea at exertion. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed by right-heart catheter, VQ scan, magnetic resonance, and conventional pulmonary angiography. A normalization of the patient's exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics could be achieved by pulmonary endarterectomy and patch reconstruction of the right main pulmonary artery.

  7. Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

  8. Riociguat for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, H A; Hoeper, M M; Halank, M; Meyer, F J; Staehler, G; Behr, J; Ewert, R; Weimann, G; Grimminger, F

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the therapeutic potential of riociguat, a novel soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in adults with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH; n = 42) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; n = 33) in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class II/III. In this 12-week, multicentre, open-label, uncontrolled phase II study, patients received oral riociguat 1.0-2.5 mg t.i.d. titrated according to systemic systolic blood pressure (SBP). Primary end-points were safety and tolerability; pharmacodynamic changes were secondary end-points. Riociguat was generally well tolerated. Asymptomatic hypotension (SBP <90 mmHg) occurred in 11 patients, but blood pressure normalised without dose alteration in nine and after dose reduction in two. Median 6-min walking distance increased in patients with CTEPH (55.0 m from baseline (390 m); p<0.0001) and PAH (57.0 m from baseline (337 m); p<0.0001); patients in functional class II or III and bosentan pre-treated patients showed similar improvements. Pulmonary vascular resistance was significantly reduced by 215 dyn·s·cm(-5) from baseline (709 dyn·s·cm(-5); p<0.0001). 42 (56%) patients were considered to have experienced drug-related adverse events (AEs; 96% mild or moderate). Dyspepsia, headache and hypotension were the most frequent AEs. Study discontinuation because of AEs was 4%. These preliminary data show that riociguat has a favourable safety profile and improves exercise capacity, symptoms and pulmonary haemodynamics in CTEPH and PAH. Randomised controlled trials are underway. PMID:20530034

  9. Effects of Different Pulmonary Vasodilators on Arterial Saturation in a Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva Maria; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bechem, Martin; Keldenich, Jörg; Klipp, Alexandra; Schaefer, Katja; Ulbrich, Hannes-Friedrich; Truebel, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Background Approved therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension can induce oxygen desaturation when administered to patients with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), probably due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Thus, so far these treatments have largely failed in secondary forms of PH. Methods We established an animal model of heterogeneous lung ventilation to evaluate the desaturation potential of mechanistically distinct vasoactive drugs launched or currently in clinical development for the treatment of PH. Single-lung ventilation was induced in five groups (N?=?6) of anesthetized minipigs (7 weeks, 4 to 5 kg BW), and their hemodynamic parameters were monitored before and after intravenous injection of control (vehicle only), endothelin antagonist (bosentan; 0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil; 3, 10, 30, 100 µg/kg), and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators (BAY 41–8543 and riociguat; 1, 3, 10, 30 µg/kg). Cumulative doses were administered before successive unilateral ventilation cycles. The doses were chosen to achieve equal effect on blood pressure by the different pharmacologic principles. Results Single-lung ventilation resulted in transient increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and desaturation. In contrast to control, all drugs dose-dependently decreased hypoxic mPAP (a positive treatment effect) and increased area under the arterial hemoglobin saturation curve (unwanted desaturation effect). Riociguat and bosentan reduced hypoxic mPAP to the greatest extent, while the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators riociguat and BAY 41–8543 lowered arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin the least. Conclusions Future investigations will be required to confirm these findings in clinical settings. PMID:24015306

  10. Pulmonary haemorrhage following renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, G. A.; Klapper, P.

    1995-01-01

    The case history is presented of a 32 year old black man who developed haemoptysis leading to pulmonary haemorrhage and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. He was found to have Kaposi's sarcoma of the lung with no evidence of skin or endobronchial lesions. PMID:7886663

  11. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis: 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.; Mittman, C. (City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the topic of pulmonary emphysema. Included are the following chapters: Abnormality of secretion of Z Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Proteases, antiproteases, and oxidants in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, Alveolar Leukocytes and protease responses with continuous vs. intermittent exposures to NO{sub 2}.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  13. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  15. Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Objective The objective of this evidence-based review was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Technology Pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually tailored and designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy. Exercise training is the cornerstone of pulmonary re

  16. Fungal pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Davies, S F; Sarosi, G A

    1996-12-01

    With AIDS has come a new level of T-cell immunosuppression, beyond that previously seen. The impact of the HIV pandemic on the field of fungal infections includes a major increase in the number of serious fungal infections, an increase in the severity of those infections, and even some entirely new manifestations of fungal illness. In this article fungal pulmonary complications of AIDS are discussed. T-cell opportunists including Cryptococcus neoformans and the endemic mycoses are the most important pathogens. Phagocyte opportunists, including Aspergillus species and agents of mucormycosis, are less important. PMID:9016374

  17. Diseases of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Wert, Susan E; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-01-24

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  18. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  19. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1984-01-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

  20. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

  1. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  2. Acute pulmonary edema following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Naeije; A. Peretz; A. Cornil

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a patient who presented with coma and acute pulmonary edema after severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Hemodynamic evaluation revealed elevated systemic and pulmonary arterial, pulmonary wedge and right atrial pressures, together with an increased cardiac output. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that a neurogenic mechanism plays a role in the pulmonary edema of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Balbir; Sabharwal, Raghu; Singh, Mandeep; Singh, Amarjeet

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:21139727

  4. Emergent Unilateral Renal Artery Stenting for Treatment of Flash Pulmonary Edema: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asaad Akbar; McFadden, Eugene Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Flash pulmonary edema is characteristically sudden in onset with rapid resolution once appropriate therapy has been instituted (Messerli et al., 2011). Acute increase of left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure is the usual cause of sudden decompensated cardiac failure in this patient population. Presence of bilateral renal artery stenosis or unilateral stenosis in combination with a single functional kidney in the susceptible cohort is usually blamed for this condition. We describe a patient who presented with flash pulmonary edema in the setting of normal coronary arteries. Our case is distinct as our patient developed flash pulmonary edema secondary to unilateral renal artery stenosis in the presence of bilateral functioning kidneys. Percutaneous stent implantation in the affected renal artery resulted in rapid resolution of pulmonary edema.

  5. Acute respiratory failure associated with polymethyl methacrylate pulmonary emboli after percutaneous vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Zaccheo, Matthew V; Rowane, Joseph E; Costello, Erin M

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of symptomatic polymethyl methacrylate pulmonary emboli after percutaneous vertebroplasty to alert clinicians to this potential cause of pulmonary emboli. A 77-year-old woman developed acute respiratory failure after multilevel percutaneous vertebroplasty. She received mechanical ventilatory support and anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin. Multiple pulmonary polymethyl methacrylate cement emboli were identified by computed tomography angiogram. Polymethyl methacrylate cement extravasation into the vertebral venous circulation is common during vertebroplasty. Pulmonary embolism caused by cement migration after this procedure is extremely rare, as reported in the literature to date. However, the frequency of this complication may increase secondary to the widespread use of percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for osteoporotic compression fractures. PMID:18534316

  6. Emergent unilateral renal artery stenting for treatment of flash pulmonary edema: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Khan, Asaad Akbar; McFadden, Eugene Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Flash pulmonary edema is characteristically sudden in onset with rapid resolution once appropriate therapy has been instituted (Messerli et al., 2011). Acute increase of left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure is the usual cause of sudden decompensated cardiac failure in this patient population. Presence of bilateral renal artery stenosis or unilateral stenosis in combination with a single functional kidney in the susceptible cohort is usually blamed for this condition. We describe a patient who presented with flash pulmonary edema in the setting of normal coronary arteries. Our case is distinct as our patient developed flash pulmonary edema secondary to unilateral renal artery stenosis in the presence of bilateral functioning kidneys. Percutaneous stent implantation in the affected renal artery resulted in rapid resolution of pulmonary edema. PMID:25793128

  7. American Strategic Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mangone, G.

    1984-01-01

    American Strategic Minerals brings together seven contributors in the fields of marine studies, mining engineering, earth sciences, and economics to discuss and analyze strategic minerals. The future demands of the United States upon limited sources of supply are examined and there is an analysis of alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed, including copper, nickel, manganese, and cobalt. The book contains an examination of the investments that the United States has made in developing countries that could affect both the national security and national economy of America in the years ahead. After a review of minerals policy in the United States, the conflicting interests that influence the President and Congress in making decisions about strategic minerals, and other dimensions of strategic minerals, are exposed to clarify both the facts and myths about supply and demand, security and danger, and high and low prices.

  8. The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Elske; Bem, Reinout A.; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and received TIP or saline (control group) by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration) or day seven (late administration) after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. Results TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. Conclusion In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease. PMID:25047452

  9. Minerals Under the Microscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Browning, Paul

    This website provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the basics of optical mineralogy. Topics include the polarized light microscope, mineral shape and cleavage, relief, color and pleochroism, interference colors, extinction angles, twinning, opacity, vibration directions and mineral identification. The site features short, clear descriptions accompanied by photographs and drawings. This website would be useful as a concise introduction to the use of a petrographic microscope in identifying minerals.

  10. Weathering of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Van Norden

    Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

  11. USGS: Mineral Resources Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The Mineral Resources Program funds science to provide and communicate current, impartial information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources." This website divides the mineral resource information, project descriptions, and products for the United States into four main regional categories: Eastern, Central, Western, and Alaska. Researchers can discover new grant opportunities and can obtain access to the National Geochemical Survey's database. Students and educators can find statistics and information on how the United State's supply-and-demand for minerals and materials affects the economy, security, and environment.

  12. Mineral Classification Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

  13. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  14. Minerals by Chemical Composition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive periodic table displays a listing of minerals by element, sorted by percent of the element. Clicking on a symbol on the table leads users to information on the element (atomic mass and number, name origin, year of discovery, and a brief description), and to a table listing each mineral known to contain the element in decreasing order by percentage. Each mineral name in the table is linked to additional information on the mineral, such as formula and composition, images, crystallography, physical properties, and many others.

  15. Occurrence of respiratory alkalosis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf P. Wüthrich

    1995-01-01

    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients are prone to develop respiratory alkalosis when hypoxemia occurs secondary to pulmonary problems. This is due to “fixed” bicarbonate levels that do not allow for an unlimited degree of hyperventilation. Recognition of this problem is important because treatment with oxygen or acidification with ammonium chloride is effective in avoiding severe alkalemia in these patients.

  16. Microsatellite Instability of Endothelial Cell Growth and Apoptosis Genes Within Plexiform Lesions in Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Yeager; George R. Halley; Heiko A. Golpon; Norbert F. Voelkel; Rubin M. Tuder

    2010-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a frequently fatal disease whose pathobiology is poorly understood. Monoclonal endothelial cell growth is present within plexiform lesions of patients with PPH but not secondary PH because of congenital heart malformations. We hypothesized that endothelial cells within PPH plexiform lesions harbor mutations permissive for clonal cell growth. We found that endothelial cells in PPH plexiform

  17. Broncho pleuro subcutaneous fistula with subcutaneous emphysema: A rare presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Mukul; Shameem, Mohammad; Bhargava, Rakesh; Baneen, Ummul; Alam, Mohd Mazhar; Fatima, Nazish

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a several clinical settings but spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax with broncho pleuro subcutaneous fistula is rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax.

  18. Reversible Catecholamine-lnduced Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Acute Pulmonary Edema in a Patient with Pheochromocytoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Elian; David Harpaz; Edgar Sucher; Elieser Kaplinsky; Michael Motro; Zvi Vered

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac injury caused by elevated levels of circulating catecholamines is a well-known phenomenon. We report a patient who, secondary to transient regional left ventricular dysfunction (despite normal coronary arteries), developed acute pulmonary edema. Echocardiography showed marked anteroapical hypokinesia and an apical thrombus. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made by plasma catecholamine levels, abdominal ultrasound and finally at operation. The patient

  19. Integrating mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a highly heterogeneous and lethal pathological process with limited therapeutic options. Although research on the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis has frequently focused on the mechanisms that regulate the proliferation, activation, and differentiation of collagen-secreting myofibroblasts, recent studies have identified new pathogenic mechanisms that are critically involved in the initiation and progression of fibrosis in a variety of settings. A more detailed and integrated understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis could help pave the way for effective therapeutics for this devastating and complex disease. PMID:21727191

  20. Pulmonary Complications of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Leon S.; Boylen, Thomas C.

    1974-01-01

    Complications resulting from drug abuse more frequently affect the lung than any other organ. The spectrum of pulmonary complications associated with drug abuse is wide. The current practice of using mixtures of drugs is mainly responsible for the increase in pulmonary complications. The chief complications observed in a series of 241 drug abuse patients were aspiration pneumonitis (12.9 percent), pulmonary edema (10.0 percent), and pneumonia (7.5 percent). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4812215

  1. Primary and Secondary Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

    2010-01-23

    Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

  2. Elevated Pulmonary Artery Pressure Is a Risk Factor for Primary Graft Dysfunction Following Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Adam; Studer, Sean; Kawut, Steven M.; Ahya, Vivek N.; Lee, James; Wille, Keith; Lama, Vibha; Ware, Lorraine; Orens, Jonathan; Weinacker, Ann; Palmer, Scott M.; Crespo, Maria; Lederer, David J.; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Demissie, Ejigayehu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often associated with elevations in pulmonary artery pressures. Although primary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been associated with primary graft dysfunction (PGD), the role of secondary PAH in mediating PGD risk in patients with IPF is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and PGD among patients with IPF. Methods: We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study of 126 lung transplant procedures performed for IPF between March 2002 and August 2007. The primary outcome was grade 3 PGD at 72 h after lung transplant. The mPAP was measured as the initial reading following insertion of the right-sided heart catheter during lung transplant. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding variables. Results: The mPAP for patients with PGD was 38.5 ± 16.3 mm Hg vs 29.6 ± 11.5 mm Hg for patients without PGD (mean difference, 8.9 mm Hg [95% CI, 3.6-14.2]; P = .001). The increase in odds of PGD associated with each 10-mm Hg increase in mPAP was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.18-2.26; P = .003). In multivariable models, this relationship was independent of confounding by other clinical variables, although the use of cardiopulmonary bypass partially attenuated the relationship. Conclusions: Higher mPAP in patients with IPF is associated with the development of PGD. PMID:20864607

  3. Chemical differences between minerals from mineralizing and barren intrusions from some North American porphyry copper deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. A. F.; Chivas, A. R.; Long, J. V. P.; Reed, S. J. B.

    1985-05-01

    Major-element analyses (by electron microprobe) and copper contents (by ion-probe) are reported for primary biotite, amphibole, magnetite, pyroxene, ilmenite, sphene and secondary biotite from intrusive rocks from mineralizing and barren stocks. The districts studied include Christmas, Globe-Miami, Sierrita and Tombstone, in Arizona; Bingham and Alta, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Brenda, British Columbia. Amphiboles from barren rocks are relatively iron-rich and display only minor compositional variation. In contrast, amphiboles from mineralizing rocks span the range from magnesio-hornblende to actinolite, commonly even within one grain. Barren intrusions (type B) that are temporally distinct from mineralizing intrusions, and barren intrusions outside areas of known mineralization have higher Cu contents in their constituent minerals than do mineralizing intrusions. Barren intrusions (type A) that are deep-level temporal equivalents of Cu-bearing porphyritic rocks are depleted in copper. This suggests that copper is abstracted from not only the apical portions of porphyries but from parts of the deeper parent intrusions. The Cu contents of biotites (av. 23 ppm) and magnetites (97 ppm) from barren type B intrusions contrast with those from mineralizing intrusions, with biotites containing 7 ppm Cu and magnetites 3 ppm Cu. Primary amphiboles from all intrusive rock types have low copper contents, typically 2 to 5 ppm. In the continental North American deposits, the amount of copper available by liberation from or non-incorporation into amphibole, biotite and magnetite during magmatic crystallization or the early hydrothermal stage is low, perhaps too low to be the sole source of copper mineralization, unless copper is abstracted from large volumes (˜ 100 km3) of rock. These results contrast with a study of the island-arc porphyry copper at Koloula, Guadalcanal, where it was argued that sufficient copper for mineralization could have been abstracted from relatively small volumes of host rocks that originally contained as much Cu as the contemporaneous barren rock types.

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  5. Association of man-made mineral fibre exposure and sarcoidlike granulomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. DRENT; P. H. H. BOMANS; R. J. VAN SUYLEN; R. J. S. LAMERS; A. BAST; E. F. M. WOUTERS

    2000-01-01

    It is assumed that sarcoidosis is caused by inhalation of air borne agents in susceptible persons triggering the inflammatory reaction. The association of metallic dust exposure, such as beryllium and aluminium, and sarcoidlike pulmonary disorders is well known. The ability of man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) to cause granulomatous lung disease has not been appreciated until now. Recently, we observed the

  6. Pulmonary mucormycosis mimicking as pulmonary tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajiv; Marak, Rungmei Sk; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Jagdeep; Sanjay; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-07-01

    Pulmonary Mucormycosis is an uncommon disease caused by fungi of class Zygomycetes. It occurs predminantly in an immunodeficient host most common risk factor being diabetes mellitus. The lesions are localized in the lungs or the mediastinum. We are reporting a case of 70 years old male, having cough, haemoptysis, fever and chest pain. He was on antituberculosis treatment (RHEZ) for last 10 days and was later found to have Pulmonary Mucormycosis on further evaluation. PMID:20165666

  7. PULMONARY MUCORMYCOSIS MIMICKING AS PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rajiv; Marak, Rungmei SK; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Jagdeep; Sanjay; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary Mucormycosis is an uncommon disease caused by fungi of class Zygomycetes. It occurs predminantly in an immunodeficient host most common risk factor being diabetes mellitus. The lesions are localized in the lungs or the mediastinum. We are reporting a case of 70 years old male, having cough, haemoptysis, fever and chest pain. He was on antituberculosis treatment (RHEZ) for last 10 days and was later found to have Pulmonary Mucormycosis on further evaluation. PMID:20165666

  8. Pulmonary Hypertension Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Schieb, Linda J.; Ayala, Carma; Talwalkar, Anjali; Levant, Shaleah

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an uncommon but progressive condition, and much of what we know about it comes from specialized disease registries. With expanding research into the diagnosis and treatment of PH, it is important to provide updated surveillance on the impact of this disease on hospitalizations and mortality. This study, which builds on previous PH surveillance of mortality and hospitalization, analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey between 2001 and 2010. PH deaths were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes I27.0, I27.2, I27.8, or I27.9 as any contributing cause of death on the death certificate. Hospital discharges associated with PH were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 416.0, 416.8, or 416.9 as one of up to seven listed medical diagnoses. The decline in death rates associated with PH among men from 1980 to 2005 has reversed and now shows a significant increasing trend. Similarly, the death rates for women with PH have continued to increase significantly during the past decade. PH-associated mortality rates for those aged 85 years and older have accelerated compared with rates for younger age groups. There have been significant declines in PH-associated mortality rates for those with pulmonary embolism and emphysema. Rates of hospitalization for PH have increased significantly for both men and women during the past decade; for those aged 85 years and older, hospitalization rates have nearly doubled. Continued surveillance helps us understand and address the evolving trends in hospitalization and mortality associated with PH and PH-associated conditions, especially regarding sex, age, and race/ethnicity disparities. PMID:24700091

  9. Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga H.; Kim, Nick H.; Mandel, Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Schistosomiasis, a parasite-borne disease, is highly prevalent in Africa and Asia; it is estimated that close to 20 million people worldwide have a severe form of the disease. The chronic form can affect the gastrointestinal system and lead to hepatosplenic disease, and it may cause cardiopulmonary complications, including pulmonary hypertension. The exact pathogenesis of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension (Sch-PH) remains unclear, although several mechanisms, including parasitic arterial embolization, pulmonary arteriopathy, and portopulmonary hypertension–like pathophysiology, have been suggested. The immunopathology of the disease is also unclear, although there are similarities with the immunology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Finally, the treatment of Sch-PH has not been well studied. There is some evidence on treating the underlying infection, with unclear effect on Sch-PH, and advanced PAH therapies are now being suggested, but more studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. PMID:25610596

  10. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePLUS

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a ...

  11. [Pulmonary involvement in tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Kullnig, P; Flückiger, F; Kopp, W; Popper, H

    1988-07-01

    The authors present a case of tuberous sclerosis with marked pulmonary involvement, confirmed by both radiological and pathological studies. The radiological manifestations and basic pathology of this rare condition are reviewed with emphasis on differential diagnosis. PMID:3045877

  12. PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Graham

    2011-10-13

    This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

  13. Pulmonary Edema in Myasthenic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Uttara Swati; Arulneyam, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration. PMID:24829832

  14. Inflammation in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dorfmuller; F. Perros; K. Balabanian; M. Humbert

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory,mechanisms,appear to play a significant role in some types of pulmonary hypertension (PH), including monocrotaline-induced PH in rats and pulmonary arterial hypertension of various origins in humans, such as connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective disease), human immunodeficiency virus infection, or plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal (M) protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome.

  15. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  16. Mineral Image Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This image gallery provides pictures of thousands of mineral specimens, arranged alphabetically. For each specimen, a thumbnail and a larger image are provided. Other information includes a brief description of the specimen being shown, scale bar (when available), locality data, and a link to additional information on the mineral.

  17. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyday

    1990-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position

  18. Rocks & Mineral Solitaire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrea J. Catania

    This site features a solitaire game designed to help students identify rocks and minerals. The card game would be used by the students after class discussions about rock/mineral categories and classifications. Several sets of the card game, managed by the teacher, would be available for the students. The cards could be used both during and after class.

  19. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  20. Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

  1. Minerals in Our Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frank, Dave

    This color poster shows how we use minerals in our everyday life. It depicts common household items (furniture, appliances, plumbing fixtures, personal products, etc.) which are keyed by number to short descriptions that provide information on the minerals used in the manufacture of these items.

  2. Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide provides introductory information about rocks and minerals. Topics include some of the common rock-forming minerals, what rocks are made of, and where they come from (the three basic rock types). There are descriptions and photos of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, a glossary, and a simple identification chart that has links to websites with additional information.

  3. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  4. Atoms and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 23 questions on the topic of atoms and minerals, which covers mineral types and characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

  5. Vitamin and mineral requirements

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table and mineral requirements in human nutrition : report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand REQUIREMENTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION iv 2.2.4 Risk factors 22 2.2.5 Morbidity and mortality 23 2.3 Units

  6. Minerals, Crystals and Gems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.

  7. USGS: Energy & Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-20

    The Energy and Minerals Mission Area of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) "conducts research and assessments on the location, quantity, and quality of material and energy resources, including the economic and environmental effects of resource extraction and use." Visitors to the site can click on thematic sections such as Energy Resources and Mineral Resources. Each of these areas contains information about each program, along with fact sheets, databases, and detailed geospatial maps. The Program News area contains links to documents such as "Understanding the Global Distribution of Nonfuel Mineral Resources" and a host of summary documents on mineral commodities. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Mineral Resources Products area. Here, visitors can look into hundreds of statistical reports, bulletins, and data sets intended for scientists, journalists, and members of the general public.

  8. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Crosswhite, Patrick; Sun, Zhongjie

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a persistent elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling with unknown etiology. Current therapeutics available for PAH are primarily directed at reducing the pulmonary blood pressure through their effects on the endothelium. It is well accepted that pulmonary arterial remodeling is primarily due to excessive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation that leads to narrowing or occlusion of the pulmonary vessels. Future effective therapeutics will be successful in reversing the vascular remodeling in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on molecular mechanisms involved in pulmonary arterial remodeling with a focus on growth factors, transcription factors, and epigenetic pathways in PASMC proliferation. In addition, this review will highlight novel therapeutic strategies for potentially reversing PASMC proliferation. PMID:24676136

  11. N-acetylcysteine improves established monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcome of patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are predominantly determined by the response of the right ventricle to the increase afterload secondary to high vascular pulmonary resistance. However, little is known about the effects of the current available or experimental PAH treatments on the heart. Recently, inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PAH. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known safe anti-oxidant drug, has immuno-modulatory and cardioprotective properties. We therefore hypothesized that NAC could reduce the severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats exposed to monocrotaline (MCT), lowering inflammation and preserving pulmonary vascular system and right heart function. Methods Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and NAC treated rats (day 14–28) were evaluated at day 28 following MCT for hemodynamic parameters (right ventricular systolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output), right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular morphometry, lung inflammatory cells immunohistochemistry (monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells), IL-6 expression, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. Results The treatment with NAC significantly decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling, lung inflammation, and improved total pulmonary resistance (from 0.71?±?0.05 for MCT group to 0.50?±?0.06 for MCT?+?NAC group, p?pulmonary vascular and right heart function in experimental PH. PMID:24929652

  12. [Multiple pulmonary emboli complicating infective endocarditis in a child with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Ajdakar, S; Elbouderkaoui, M; Rada, N; Drais, G; Bouskraoui, M

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare condition, associated with high mortality. Clinical presentation is nonspecific. Pulmonary embolism may present initially similar to bacterial endocarditis of the right heart, septic thrombophlebitis, or osteomyelitis. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who had dyspnea over the four months before consultation, complicated three months later by hemoptysis. She was diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis secondary to group D Streptococcus, developed upon a ventricular septal defect. Two weeks later, the child had sudden chest pain and tachypnea. Lung scintigraphy showed multiple pulmonary embolisms. The therapeutic approach was to continue antibiotics without anticoagulant treatment. The outcome was favorable with apyrexia and stabilization on the respiratory level. Pulmonary embolism is a rare disease in children with an incidence of 3.7%. Classically, it presents with fever, hemoptysis, and nonspecific infiltrates on chest X-ray. These signs were noted in our patient, although the infiltrates on the chest X-ray were hidden by the pulmonary edema associated with heart failure. The persistence of these left basal opacities after antidiuretic treatment suggested an infectious origin. Subsequently, lung scintigraphy showed that it was a pulmonary infarct. The therapy of septic pulmonary embolism is the same as that for infective endocarditis. Antibiotic treatment alone was maintained without anticoagulants because of the high risk of bleeding at the seat of the pulmonary embolism and the insubstantial significant benefit of this therapy. Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare disease, but its incidence is underestimated. Better knowledge on its actual impact and etiologies in children is necessary. Multicenter studies are needed to establish recommendations. PMID:25725970

  13. [Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis].

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Dorfmuller, Peter; Maitre, Sophie; Jaïs, Xavier; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The new classification of pulmonary hypertension proposed in the joint European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines, combines pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) from separate categories into a single subcategory within pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) because of specific similarities in their diagnosis, prognosis, and management. These diseases are characterized histologically by their predominant involvement of small pulmonary veins (PVOD) and capillaries (PCH). Their precise prevalence is not known, but they are thought to account for 5 to 10% of the forms of PAH initially considered idiopathic. They cannot be distinguished from idiopathic PAH by their clinical or hemodynamic presentation. Only pathology examination can confirm the diagnosis, but lung biopsies are high-risk procedures and not recommended. A less invasive approach combining chest CT (centrilobular ground-glass opacities, septal lines, and mediastinal adenopathy), blood gases (resting hypoxemia), lung function tests [collapse in carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO)] and bronchoalveolar lavage (occult intra-alveolar hemorrhage) makes it possible to screen the patients at risk of PVOD or HCP and thus avoid a lung biopsy. These patients have a poor prognosis and are at risk of developing severe pulmonary edema after the initiation of specific treatment for PAH. In view of their limited response to specific treatment and poor prognosis, pulmonary transplantation remains the treatment of choice for PVOD and HCP. In patients with the most severe disease, the prudent use of continuous intravenous epoprostenol, can serve as bridge-therapy while awaiting a lung transplant. PMID:19914027

  14. Obesity and Pulmonary Complications in Critically Injured Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Lesly A.; Heffernan, Daithi; Lightfoot, Michelle; Collier, Bryan; Diaz, Jose J.; Sawyer, Robert G.; May, Addison K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary complications following injury significantly contribute to subsequent mortality. Obese patients have preexisting risk factors for pulmonary complications, and are at risk for these complications following elective surgery. Whether or not obesity contributes to pulmonary complications after critical injury is poorly understood. Methods: A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of critically injured adults requiring at least 48 h of intensive care was performed. Patients were classified into the following body mass index groups: ? 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight); 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 (normal); 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 (overweight); 30.0 to 39.9 kg/m2 (obese); and ? 40.0 kg/m2 (severely obese). Outcomes included the rates of ARDS and pneumonia, the placement of a tracheostomy tube, and in-hospital mortality rate. Results: A total of 1,291 patients were available for analysis, and 30% of these patients were classified as either obese or severely obese. The age-, gender-, and severity-adjusted rate of ARDS was lower in severely obese patients (odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13 to 0.99) compared to normal weight patients. The rates of pneumonia (37%), tracheostomy (10%), and in-hospital mortality (11%) did not differ among the groups. Despite no difference in pulmonary complications, the severely obese group had an ICU length of stay that was 4.8 days (95% CI, 1.8 to 7.7 days) longer than the normal weight group. Conclusion: Obesity does not appear to be an independent risk factor for increased pulmonary complications after critical injury, but severely obese patients are likely to require longer ICU stays. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00170560 PMID:18719063

  15. Use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Torrent-Vernetta, Alba; de Mir Messa, Inés; Amigo, Sandra Rovira; Piña, Ferran Gran; Gartner, Silvia; Brotons, Dimpna Albert

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in children is a serious disorder, for which the major goal of treatment is to prevent progressive vascular remodeling, and improve clinical status and survival. Iloprost is approved for the treatment of PH in adults; however, few studies have evaluated its effects in children. The objective of this study is to analyze the long-term effects of inhaled iloprost treatment in children with PH. A retrospective study was conducted in patients treated with iloprost between 2000 and 2012. Patients with left-right cardiac shunt and persistent PH of the newborn were excluded. The cohort comprised 22 patients (15 females) with a median age of 2.6 years. Twelve patients had pulmonary arterial hypertension including idiopathic (n?=?6), hereditary (n?=?2) and associated (congenital heart disease [n?=?3], and schistosomiasis [n?=?1]). One patient had pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, six patients had PH secondary to lung disease and three had multifactorial PH. Median mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 55?mmHg and median pulmonary vascular resistance was 15.5?Wood units. Good tolerability was observed, with the exception of one case of recurring abdominal pain. PH resolved in two patients, with functional capacity improvement in 10 patients and stabilization in three patients. The clinical condition of six patients deteriorated; two died, and two received lung transplants. In conclusion, the results of this uncontrolled study showed that iloprost was effective and well tolerated in children. However, further research is needed to support this study, as PH is a serious condition that can require organ transplantation or result in death. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015; 50:370-379. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24729548

  16. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Signs and Symptoms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? The signs and symptoms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ( ... Pulmonary Fibrosis, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the News May 19, 2014 Common treatment ...

  17. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries.

  18. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: the clinical syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yen-Chun; Potoka, Karin C; Champion, Hunter C; Mora, Ana L; Gladwin, Mark T

    2014-06-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder in which endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling obstruct small pulmonary arteries, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary pressures. This leads to reduced cardiac output, right heart failure, and ultimately death. In this review, we attempt to answer some important questions commonly asked by patients diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension pertaining to the disease, and aim to provide an explanation in terms of classification, diagnosis, pathophysiology, genetic causes, demographics, and prognostic factors. Furthermore, important molecular pathways that are central to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension are reviewed, including nitric oxide, prostacyclin, endothelin-1, reactive oxygen species, and endothelial and smooth muscle proliferation. PMID:24951762

  19. Anomalous left pulmonary artery without sling formation.

    PubMed

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Basaran, Ipek; Barutca, Hakan; Bukte, Yasar

    2013-01-01

    A case of aberrant left pulmonary artery originating from the right pulmonary artery resembling pulmonary artery sling malformation, but without true sling formation, is presented. Anomalous left pulmonary artery was accompanied with long-segment proximal tracheal stenosis and other congenital malformations typically associated with PAS complex. The anomalous pulmonary artery passed anterior to the trachea; therefore, no true sling was formed. Because no airway compression by the aberrant left pulmonary artery was detected, the proximal tracheal stenosis was thought to be primary. PMID:22878809

  20. Comparison of treatments for mild secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olafur S Indridason; L Darryl Quarles

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of treatments for mild secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundIn the management of patients with mild secondary hyperparathyroidism, it is not known whether calcium supplementation alone is sufficient to correct abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism or if calcitriol is needed in either physiologic oral or intravenous pharmacologic doses.MethodsThis was a 40-week prospective nonmasked trial of 52 patients [parathyroid hormone

  1. Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the right ventricular functions, pulmonary arterypressure and pulmonary vascular resistance

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Canan; Demir, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis secondary to infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of themost common causes of viral hepatitis worldwide. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection have been recognized. In this study we aimed to examine right ventricular systolic functions and pulmonary artery pressure in HCV patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 HCV patients (mean age; 34 ± 12 years) and 50 other persons (mean age; 28 ± 11 years) as control group. Transthorasic echocardiography was performed in all the participants. Right ventricle systolic parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared between these two groups. Results: In the group of the patients with HCV, the right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE) and RV myocardial systolic velocity (St) values were lower than control group (31 ± 10 vs 48 ± 12%; 13.5 ± 1.5 vs 19.2 ± 3.4 mm and 8.3 ± 1.1 vs 17.7 ± 3.3 cm/s all P < 0.001, respectively); the right atrium (RA) and RV diameters were higher than controls (4.8 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.6 cm, P < 0.001; 4.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.3 ± 0.5 cm P < 0.001, respectively); additionally systolic pulmonary artery pressure and PVR were higher than control (36.3 ± 9.9 vs 23 ± 7.8 mmHg, 3.5 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 0.8; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The findings showed that HCV infection may be associated with right ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25232427

  2. Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

  3. Teaching with Secondary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Jeff

    1981-01-01

    Presents a general overview of the use of secondary data in teaching sociology on the college level. Topics discussed include potential for additional applications, sources which constitute secondary data, reasons for using secondary data in the classroom, information about computing, and potential problems. (Author/DB)

  4. Digging into Minnesota Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Digging into Minnesota Minerals Web site is part of the larger Minnesota State Department of Natural Resources site. These fun and interesting pages explain how Minnesota came to acquire its most common minerals over geologic time, what the basic types of rocks are, mining history of the state, the geology found in state parks, and much more. Included are basic descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and even educational activities for teachers related to the minerals. This well-designed site would be a great addition to any grade school or high school science curriculum.

  5. Exploitation of Antarctic minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.N.; Clarkson, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Exploitation of minerals either from continental shelves or land areas free of ice has yet to take place in the Antarctic. The paper considers pressures, commercial, strategic, and possible depletion of resources elsewhere that might encourage moves towards exploitation. A brief review is given of technical developments that will be required to allow minerals operators to establish themselves in the hostile Antarctic environment. Finally, the issues that arise in the control of mineral exploitation in a region not subject to conventional national authority are noticed and the necessary conditions for the supervision of such activity, and the protection of the Antarctic environment are outlined.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE MINERAL MINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a multimedia (air, liquid and solid wastes) environmental assessment of the domestic mineral mining industry. The primary objective of the study was to identify the major pollution problems associated with the industry. A secondary objective was to define res...

  7. Lactation Among Adolescent Mothers and Subsequent Bone Mineral Density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline J. Chantry; Peggy Auinger; Robert S. Byrd

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of breastfeed- ing during adolescence with bone mineral density (BMD) during young adulthood. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the Na- tional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, a na- tionally representative cross-sectional survey con- ducted from 1988 through 1994, was performed. The BMDs for 5 regions of the proximal femur as measured by dual

  8. Unexpected applications of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Preeti; Demain, Arnold L

    2011-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have been found to have interesting applications over and above their well-known medical uses, e.g., as antimicrobials, etc. These alternative applications include antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, immunosuppressant, antiprotozoal, antihelminth, antiviral and anti-ageing activities. Polyene antibiotics, such as amphotericin B, are of use as antiprion agents, antitumor drugs and against leishmaniasis. Other microbial natural products that show antibiotic activity are used against cancer e.g., doxorubicin, neomycin, ?-lactams, bleomycin and rapamycin. Macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, improve pulmonary function in patients suffering from panbioncholitis. Pigments like prodigiosin and shikonin have antitumor activity, while violacein has anti-ulcer and antitumor activity and also acts as an antiprotozoal agent. Statins, in addition to lowering cholesterol and LDL levels, also decrease elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels independent of their cholesterol effects. Immunosuppressants have many alternative effects: (i) Cyclosporin is proving useful in treatment of inflammatory disease such as asthma and muscular dystrophy. (ii) Rapamycin is extremely useful in preventing restenosis of stents grafted in balloon angioplasty. (iii) Tacrolimus and ascomycin help in treating inflammatory skin disease such as allergic contact dermatitis and psoriasis. Artemisinin, an antimalarial agent, is also showing antitumor activity. Other natural products, including those from plants (betulinic acid and shikonin), animals (bryostatins) and microbes (squalestatin and sophorolipids) have a multiplicity of potentially useful actions. Unexpected functions of known secondary metabolites are continuously being unraveled, and are fulfilling some of the needs of present day medicine and show great promise for the future. PMID:21130862

  9. Excess PTH in CRF induces pulmonary calcification, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Akmal; Robert R Barndt; Azizullah N Ansari; John G Mohler; Shaul G Massry

    1995-01-01

    Excess PTH in CRF induces pulmonary calcification, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Calcification of the lungs occurs in chronic renal failure (CRF) and may adversely affect both pulmonary and right ventricular function. The present study examined the role of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the genesis of pulmonary calcifications in dogs with experimental CRF and evaluated calcium content of

  10. Angiotensin II prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and vascular changes in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, M.; Mullen, M.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Maruyama, K.; O'Brodovich, H.; Olley, P.M. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1988-03-01

    Angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor, has been previously demonstrated to produce a secondary vasodilatation due to release of prostaglandins. Because of this effect, the authors investigated whether infusion of exogenous angiotensin II via miniosmopumps in rats during a 1-wk exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia might prevent pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes. They instrumented the rats with indwelling cardiovascular catheters and compared the hemodynamic and structural response in animals given angiotensin II, indomethacin in addition to angiotensin II (to block prostaglandin production), or saline with or without indomethacin. They then determine whether angiotensin II infusion also prevents acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. They observed that exogenous angiotensin II infusion abolished the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the right ventricular hypertrophy, and the vascular changes induced during chronic hypoxia in control saline-infused rats with or without indomethacin. The protective effects of angiotensin II was lost when indomethacin was given to block prostaglandin synthesis. During acute hypoxia, both antiotensin II and prostacyclin infusion similarly prevented the rise in pulmonary artery pressure observed in saline-infused rats and in rats given indomethacin or saralasin in addition to angiotensin II. Thus exogenous angiotensin II infusion prevents chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, associated right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes and blocks acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and this is likely related to its ability to release vasodilator prostaglandins.

  11. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral permits. 293.14 Section 293.14 Parks...AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws...

  12. Overview of Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body's cells. The body needs large quantities of calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, and sodium. These minerals are ... Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults Safe Upper Limit ... Chloride Salt, beef, pork, sardines, cheese, green olives, corn ...

  13. Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the temperate and subarctic regions of Asia. Cesium Chloride Cesium chloride is the salt form of the element cesium. ... amino acids, and trace minerals such as selenium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper. Peppermint Peppermint is a ...

  14. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

  15. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  16. Private Mineral Gallery Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    Students make and display posters of the mineral they researched throughout the semester. The instructor and TA review the posters while students answer questions as they walk around and examine each other's posters.

  17. Measurements of Mouse Pulmonary Artery Biomechanics

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    Primary pulmonary hypertension PPH is a rapidly progressing and deadly disease that induces substantial been shown to change with hypoxia- induced pulmonary hypertension 3,4 . Stress and strain distribu

  18. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment for Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Treatment What are the Symptoms of Pulmonary Fibrosis? Shortness of breath, particularly during exercise Dry, hacking ... of the fingers or toes) How is Pulmonary Fibrosis Detected? Your doctor will do a physical exam. ...

  19. Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis 

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with ...

  20. Who Is at Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exact number of people who have pulmonary hypertension (PH) isn't known. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension ( ... have group 1 PAH tend to be overweight . PH that occurs with another disease or condition is ...

  1. Gems and Gem Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of a Gem and Minerals class at the University of Texas. The course objectives are to explore the following topics: what are gems and minerals, methods of identification, physical and optical propoerties, crystallography and optics, lapidary arts, the geology of major gem localities, and the value of gems. The site offers access to the course syllabus, handouts, exams with interactive answer-checking, and reference material for common gems.

  2. Ice is a Mineral

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson about the characteristics of ice as a mineral and how it compares to other minerals with respect to hardness. Learners will observe ice crystals, develop a hardness scale and position ice on it. Learners will also practice working collaboratively in a team. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 3 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

  3. Mineral prospecting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

  4. The changes of pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy adults who had no cardiopulmonary-related diseases. Pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests were performed on the same subjects at 9:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 5:00 pm. The pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25–75%). Pulmonary strength tests assessed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). [Results] FEV1 showed statistically significant differences according to time of day. Other pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests revealed no statistical differences in diurnal variations. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests should be assessed considering the time of day and the morning dip phenomenon. PMID:25642028

  5. CT and MRI of pulmonary valvular abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rajiah, P; Nazarian, J; Vogelius, E; Gilkeson, R C

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary valve disease constitutes a wide spectrum of conditions. Traditionally, echocardiography has been the technique of choice for the evaluation of pulmonary and other valvular disease. However, with advances in technology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are playing increasingly important roles in the evaluation of these disorders. In this article, we review the normal appearance of the pulmonary valve and then illustrate various variants and pathological entities of the pulmonary valve. PMID:24582177

  6. Group B streptococcal phospholipid causes pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jerri; Kim, Geumsoo; Wehr, Nancy B.; Levine, Rodney L.

    2003-04-01

    Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension, which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and identified them as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary hypertension in newborns with Group B streptococcal infection opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  7. Pulmonary clearance of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Coin, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work investigates the pulmonary clearance of asbestos fibers, specifically these hypotheses: (1) The clearance rate depends on exposure conditions (concentration and time). (2) The clearance rate depends on fiber length. (3) A previously described sequestration model is inappropriate for the clearance of fibers. (4) Asbestos body formation (fiber coating) is, like clearance, first-order process. These hypotheses were addressed in two series of experiments. In the first series (washouts), groups of male hamsters were exposed by inhalation to either 66 or 21 fibers/cc of UICC amosite asbestos for 48 hours. Sub-groups were sacrificed for determination of fiber burden in the lungs by light and electron microscopy up to 135 days post-exposure. A stratified counting scheme was used in order to obtain accurate fiber length distributions in the range of 1.25 to 20 {mu}m. In the second series (build-up) a group of hamsters was exposed chronically for up to 8 months. Sub-groups were sacrificed at various times during the exposure and the fiber burden determined as in the washouts. Clearance rates of fibers were found to be relatively independent of exposure regimen, disproving hypothesis (1). Clearance rates were found to depend strongly on fiber length, verifying hypothesis (2). Fibers of length {ge}20{mu}m were not measurably cleared from the lung. Shorter fibers were cleared with half-lives of 22 to 55 days, the half-lives increasing continuously with fiber length. Estimates of retained fiber mass verified hypothesis (3). Fiber coating was first-order, but was much slower than clearance. This study, along with other work on cytotoxicity and in vivo toxicity, suggests that the long asbestos fibers are especially hazardous.

  8. Ferruginous bodies in sputum as an indication of exposure to airborne mineral fibers in the mesothelioma villages of Cappadocia.

    PubMed

    Sébastien, P; Awad, L; Bignon, J; Petit, G; Barris, Y I

    1984-01-01

    The counts of ferruginous bodies (pulmonary-coated mineral fibers) in sputum samples from inhabitants in each of the two agricultural villages of Karain and Tusköy (Cappadocia, central Turkey) increased with subjects' age, whereas 94% of samples collected in the neighboring villages were free of ferruginous body. These findings are consistent with the previous hypothesis that the very high frequency of mesothelioma in Karain and Tusköy was related to exposure to airborne mineral fibers of natural origin. PMID:6324702

  9. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  12. Drug induced pulmonary parenchymal disease.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Pawan; Singh, Abhijeet; Goel, Nitin

    2014-12-01

    Drug-induced pulmonary parenchymal disease (DIPPD) can be caused by a variety of agents, including antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, antiarrhythmic agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). DIPPD includes acute bronchospasm, organizing pneumonia, alveolar hypoventilation and hypersensitivity reactions. History, physical examination and investigations are required mainly to exclude other causes of lung diseases. Investigations may include chest radiography, pulmonary function testing and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Recognition of DIPPD is difficult because the clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings are nonspecific. Management includes drug withdrawal and in some cases corticosteroid therapy. In this article we reviewed the various drugs known to cause pulmonary parenchymal diseases, various patterns of parenchymal diseases observed and their management. PMID:25639301

  13. [Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patient].

    PubMed

    Rîp?, Carmen; Cojocaru, Ingrid; Luca, Mariana; Luca, C?t?lina Mihaela; Leon, Maria; Bahnea, Roxana-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunosuppressed patients and its diagnosis mainly relies upon biological confirmation of the parasite. We present the case of a 47 years patient in medullar aplasia after induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that developed pulmonary infiltrates of parasitic origin. The diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis was established after identification of the parasite in brochioloalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and peripheral blood. Serological tests are of limited utility in immunosuppressed patients. We used classical methods for the diagnosis of parasitosis but they are being replaced by molecular methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows a highly specific and sensitive diagnosis on any sample but it cannot be performed in any center. PMID:23077869

  14. Cardiac Disease in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy A. Falk; Steven Kadiev; Gerard J. Criner; Steven M. Scharf; Omar A. Minai; Philip Diaz

    2008-01-01

    The cardiac manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are numerous. Impairments of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular disease are well known to complicate the clinical course of COPD and correlate inversely with survival. The pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease in COPD is likely multi- factorial and related to alterations in gas exchange and vascular biology, as well as

  15. Surgical treatment of pulmonary artery sarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhard Mayer; Jörg Kriegsmann; Andreas Gaumann; Hans Ulrich Kauczor; Manfred Dahm; Ulrich Hake; Franz Xaver Schmid; Hellmut Oelert

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary artery sarcomas are rare and usually fatal tumors. The diagnosis is difficult and delayed in most cases. Newer imaging techniques could allow early diagnosis in patients with symptoms of pulmonary vascular obstruction. Surgical resection improves clinical symptoms and offers the only chance of cure. We report the case histories of 7 patients with primary pulmonary artery sarcomas treated

  16. Mortality in patients treated for pulmonary embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph S. Alpert; Roger E. Smith; C. Jeffrey Carlson; Ira S. Ockene; Lewis Dexter; James E. Dalen

    1976-01-01

    The hospital course of 144 consecutive patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) demonstrated by pulmonary angiography was reviewed to determine the mortality of patients with treated PE. Twelve patients (8%) died of PE, and eight died of causes other than PE; 124 (86%) survived. Pulmonary embolism was the primary cause of death in only four of the 12 patients who died

  17. REVIEW Open Access Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. GroupREVIEW Open Access Pulmonary arterial hypertension David Montani1,2,3 , Sven Günther1,2,3 , Peter,2,3 and Olivier Sitbon1,2,3* Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease

  18. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  19. The Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The "Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom" allows one to sort and search for minerals and gemstones by alphabetical, chemical group, color, streak, hardness, crystal group, elemental affiliations, and dana classification. Includes image galleries of rocks, minerals and gemstones: pictures accompanied with physical descriptions of the rock or mineral. Also includes a glossary of terms.

  20. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  1. Mineral impurities in coal combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raask

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses the many and varied problems associated with coal combustion and suggests remedial measures to assist in producing electrical energy from coal more efficiently. Contents include: influence of coal mineral matter on boiler design; mineral impurities in coal; quality of coal utilized in power stations; coal grinding, abrasive fuel minerals and plant wear; particulates silicate minerals in boiler

  2. Serum Levels of Soluble ICAM-1 in Children with Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Melahat Melek; Oguz, Ayse Deniz; Sanli, Cihat; Cevik, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study attempted to determine both the usefulness of the serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a biomarker for pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease and the nature of this marker's association with catheter angiographic findings. Our study included a total of 70 male and female children, comprising 30 patients with both pulmonary artery hypertension and congenital heart disease, 20 patients with congenital heart disease alone, and 20 healthy control subjects. Levels of ICAM-1 in plasma samples from all groups were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Cardiac catheterization was also performed in all patients. The mean serum ICAM-1 levels in pediatric patients who had congenital heart disease with and without pulmonary artery hypertension were 349.6 ± 72.9 ng/mL and 312.3 ± 69.5 ng/mL, respectively (P=0.002). In healthy control subjects, the mean serum ICAM-1 level was 231.4 ± 60.4 ng/mL. According to the results of this study, the ICAM-1 level of the pulmonary artery hypertension group was significantly higher than those of the congenital heart disease group and the healthy control group. Correlation analysis showed that ICAM-1 level was correlated with systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressures (r=0.62, P=0.001; r=0.57, P=0.001)—which are 2 important values used in diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded consistent results for the prediction of pulmonary artery hypertension. Therefore, we conclude that ICAM-1 has potential use as a biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary artery hypertension. PMID:24808775

  3. Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

  4. Pulmonary radiological findings in hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Amene, P C; Mbonu, O O; Umerah, B C

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary radiological features of 27 patients with a diagnosis of hepatoma were reviewed and compared with 64 controls. Coin shadows, nodular, lymphangitic or hilar node metastases were observed in 50% of the hepatoma cases. Other radiological pulmonary findings in hepatoma included statistically significant elevation of the right hemidiaphragm, double contour of the diaphragmatic silhouette and discoid atelectasis. Left hemidiaphragm changes may occur with left lobe involvement. Double contour of the crest of the diaphragm appeared to be specific and common in hepatoma in this African population. Doming of the diaphragm was not specific to hepatoma. PMID:6317274

  5. [Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sitbon, Olivier; Savale, Laurent; Jaïs, Xavier; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald

    2014-09-01

    Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) must be referred to expert centers (reference center and competences centers in the French PAH network). Despite progresses in the knowledge of PAH pathophysiology, it is still a devastating disease needing an aggressive approach of therapy to improve long-term outcomes. The target of current therapies is endothelial dysfunction of pulmonary arteries. Continuous intravenous infusion of epoprostenol remains the only recommended therapy for the most severe patients with PAH. If treatment goals are not met, a sequential combination therapy is recommended (i.e. combination of drugs targeting different dysfunctional pathways). Lung transplantation remains the only curative treatment of PAH. PMID:25153783

  6. ST2 in Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Ednan K; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Januzzi, James L

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have focused on the use of soluble ST2 (sST2) as a clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, much preclinical data points to involvement of the ST2 pathway in inflammation, and specifically in pulmonary inflammation. This report summarizes the current body of clinical data suggesting the potential role of the ST2 pathway in clinical disease, including evidence that sST2 could be a useful biomarker in both allergic and nonallergic pulmonary disease. PMID:25665765

  7. Incidence of pulmonary embolism: a comparison of two Australian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Shiraev, T P; Omari, A; Rushworth, R L

    2015-03-01

    In this retrospective observational study, we noted that there were significantly more admissions at the public than the private hospital due to both a principal (1.87 vs 0.83 per 1000, P < 0.001) and secondary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) (3.10 vs 2.01 per 1000, P = 0.002), with no difference in mortality. There was a highly significant increase in secondary PE diagnoses at the private hospital (R(2) = 0.68, ? = 0.14, P = 0.003) over the study period. Despite disparate rates of PE between the two hospitals, there was no difference in mortality, suggesting there may be an element of overdiagnosis. PMID:25735578

  8. Right or Left: The Role of Nanoparticles in Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuefei; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Chunying; Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of the nanotechnology industry in the last decade, nanoparticles (NPs) are omnipresent in our everyday life today. Many nanomaterials have been engineered for medical purposes. These purposes include therapy for pulmonary diseases. On other hand, people are endeavoring to develop nanomaterials for improvement or replacement of traditional therapies. On the other hand, nanoparticles, as foreign material in human bodies, are reported to have potential adverse effects on the lung, including oxidase stress, inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity. Further, these damages could induce pulmonary diseases and even injuries in other tissues. It seems that nanoparticles may exert two-sided effects. Toxic effects of nanomaterials should be considered when their use is developed for therapies. Hence this review will attempt to summarize the two-side roles of nanoparticles in both therapies for pulmonary diseases and initiation of lung diseases and even secondary diseases caused by lung injuries. Determinants of these effects such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticles will also be discussed. PMID:25268624

  9. [Health impact of indoor mineral particle pollution].

    PubMed

    Vincent, M; Chemarin, C

    2011-04-01

    Mineral particle air pollution consists of both atmospheric pollution and indoor pollution. Indoor pollution comes from household products, cosmetics, combustion used to heat homes or cook food, smoking, hobbies or odd jobs. There is strong evidence that acute respiratory infections in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women are associated with indoor biomass smoke. Detailed questioning is essential to identify at risk activities and sampling of airborne particles may help with the identification of pollution risks. Particle elimination depends on the standard of ventilation of the indoor environment. Five per cent of French homes have levels of pollution greater than 180 ?g/m³ for PM 10 and 2% for PM 2.5. The principal mineral particle air pollutants are probably silica, talc, asbestos and carbon, whereas tobacco smoke leads to exposure to various ultrafine particles. The toxicity of these particles could be more related to surface exchange than to density. Tissue measurements by electron microscopy and microanalysis of particle samples may identify an uptake of particles similar to those in the environmental sample. PMID:21549904

  10. Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

    1983-09-01

    The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

  11. [Surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Ladurie, François-Leroy; Angel, Claude; Brenot, Philippe; Riou, Jean-Yves; Bourkaib, Riad; Lehouerou, Daniel; Musat, Andy; Stephan, François; Rohnean, Adéla; Jaïs, Xavier; Humbert, Marc; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Dartevelle, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a rare but underdiagnosed disease. The development of imaging played a crucial role for the screening and the decision of operability over the past few years. Indeed, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is the only type of pulmonary hypertension with a potential curative treatment: pulmonary endarterectomy. It is a complexe surgical procedure performed under cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The aim of the procedure is to completely remove the scar tissue inside the pulmonary arteries down to the segmental and sub-segmental levels. Compared to lung transplantation, which carries a postoperative mortality of 15-20% and a 5-year survival of 50%, pulmonary endarterectomy is a curative treatment with a postoperative mortality of less than 3%. However, lung transplantation remains an option for young patients with inoperable distal disease or after pulmonary endarterectomy failure. Considering that medical history of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is lacking in 25 to 50%, the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remains challenging. The lung V/Q scan is useful for the diagnosis showing ventilation and perfusion mismatches. Lesions located at the level of the pulmonary artery, the lobar or segmental arteries may be accessible to surgical removal. The pulmonary angiogram with the lateral view and the pulmonary CT scan help to determine the level of the intravascular lesions. If there is a correlation between the vascular obstruction assessed by imaging and the pulmonary resistance, pulmonary endarterectomy carries a postoperative mortality of less than 3% and has a high rate of success. If the surgery is performed at a later stage of the disease, pulmonary arteriolitis developed mainly in unobstructed territories and participated in the elevated vascular resistance. At this stage, postoperative risk is higher. PMID:25154908

  12. Pulmonary effects and complications of snakebites.

    PubMed

    Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka

    2014-11-01

    This review is on the pulmonary complications of snakebites, which can have fatal consequences. We identified three common themes as reported in the literature regarding envenomation: generalized neuromuscular paralysis affecting airway and respiratory muscles, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hemorrhages or thrombosis due to coagulopathy. Respiratory paralysis and pulmonary edema can be due to either elapid or viper bites, whereas pulmonary complications of coagulopathy are exclusively reported with viper bites. The evidence for each complication, timeline of appearance, response to treatment, and details of pathophysiology are discussed. PMID:25367476

  13. An unusual case of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Khakural, Prabhat; Shrestha, Kajan R.; Sapkota, Ranjan; Shrestha, Uttam K.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Metastatic choriocarcinoma presenting as pulmonary embolism is a rare event. Here, we report a case of a 25-year-lady with a history of worsening shortness of breath for 4 months who was treated as a case of pneumonia and tuberculosis. Owing to the worsening condition, she had a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) chest done and was diagnosed to have pulmonary embolism. She underwent pulmonary embolectomy. The histopathological examination of the embolus revealed it to be metastatic choriocarcinoma. She showed a good response to chemotherapy. Metastatic choriocarcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with pulmonary embolism. PMID:25687445

  14. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  15. The Genetic Approach in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, William E.; Loyd, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple investigators have undertaken genetic studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis populations in attempts to define genetic links to disease in hopes that this would improve understanding of disease pathogenesis and target pathways for therapy. Multiple genes have been evaluated using a candidate gene approach with limited success, with results suggesting a disease modifier effect rather than a disease causing effect. Using this approach, associations have been observed between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and specific polymorphisms in genes encoding interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-?, and complement receptor 1. Recently investigators have used familial pulmonary fibrosis cohorts to evaluate for genetic mutations associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Using one pulmonary fibrosis kindred, a mutation in the gene encoding surfactant protein C was identified as the cause of pulmonary fibrosis in this family. Subsequently, another individual with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was identified with a different mutation in surfactant protein C. Though rarely found in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, these surfactant protein C mutations highlight the importance of the alveolar epithelium in disease pathogenesis. A recent collaboration between investigators at three major centers has resulted in the largest collection of families with pulmonary fibrosis to date, with hopes that this effort will identify genetic mutations associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. If genetic links to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are defined in this study, then the pathways involved with these genes and gene products can be targeted by investigators to help identify potential treatment options for this disease. PMID:16738199

  16. Pulmonary Embolism After Knee Arthroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Tucker; Kevin Doulens

    2010-01-01

    ymptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after knee arthroscopy is rare, particularly in the ambu- latory patient. In this report, we present an unusual case of bilateral pulmonary emboli after arthroscop- ic treatment of an osteochondral defect; this treatment included the microfracture technique. We also review the current literature and recommendations for prophylaxis against postarthroscopic DVT. The authors have obtained the

  17. Preoperative assessment for pulmonary resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Hallward; Brian Keogh

    2008-01-01

    Adequate preoperative assessment is important to stratify and therefore minimize the risk associated with pulmonary resection. It is a multidisciplinary process but should focus on selecting those with surgically resectable disease who will tolerate surgery with an acceptable risk. Anaesthetic assessment focuses on cardiovascular fitness and lung function, in particular evaluating the effects of resection on postoperative lung function. Predicted

  18. Aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Lee, Joyce S; Pianosi, Paolo T; Ryu, Jay H

    2015-03-01

    Aspiration of foreign matter into the airways and lungs can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders with various presentations. The type of syndrome resulting from aspiration depends on the quantity and nature of the aspirated material, the chronicity, and the host responses. Aspiration is most likely to occur in subjects with a decreased level of consciousness, compromised airway defense mechanisms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and recurrent vomiting. These aspiration-related syndromes can be categorized into airway disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction, large airway obstruction with a foreign body, bronchiectasis, bronchoconstriction, and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, or parenchymal disorders, including aspiration pneumonitis, aspiration pneumonia, and exogenous lipoid pneumonia. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, aspiration has been implicated in disease progression and acute exacerbation. Aspiration may increase the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients who have undergone a lung transplant. Accumulating evidence suggests that a causative role for aspiration is often unsuspected in patients presenting with aspiration-related pulmonary diseases; thus, many cases go undiagnosed. Herein, we discuss the broadening spectrum of these pulmonary syndromes with a focus on presenting features and diagnostic aspects. PMID:25732447

  19. Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    McGoon, Michael D.; Kane, Garvan C.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive, symptomatic, and ultimately fatal disorder for which substantial advances in treatment have been made during the past decade. Effective management requires timely recognition and accurate diagnosis of the disorder and appropriate selection among therapeutic alternatives. Despite progress in treatment, obstacles remain that impede the achievement of optimal outcomes. The current article provides an overview of the pathobiologic mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including genetic substrates and molecular and cellular mechanisms, and describes the clinical manifestations and classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The article also reviews established approaches to evaluation and treatment, with emphasis on the appropriate application of calcium channel blockers, prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. In addition, the authors discuss unresolved issues that may complicate patient management, such as the clinical importance of mild or exercise-related pulmonary arterial hypertension, and they identify avenues by which treatment may advance in the future through the use of combination treatment, outcomes assessment, and exploration of alternative pharmacologic strategies. PMID:19181654

  20. Congenital Pulmonary Malformation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Montasser; Elnazir, Basil; Greally, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Pulmonary Malformations (CPMs) are a group of rare lung abnormalities affecting the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature. They represent a spectrum of abnormal development rather than discrete pathological entities. They are caused by aberrant embryological lung development which occurs at different stages of intrauterine life. PMID:24278678

  1. New mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Strieter, Robert M; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-11-01

    The understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis continues to evolve. The initial hypothetical model suggested chronic inflammation as the cause of pulmonary fibrosis, whereas a subsequent hypothesis posited epithelial injury and impaired wound repair as the etiology of fibrosis without preceding inflammation. Over the past decade, several concepts have led to refinement of these hypotheses. These include the following: (1) the importance of the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier basement membrane (BM) to conserving the architecture of the injured lung; (2) conversely, that the failure of reepithelialization and reendothelialization of this BM results in pathologic fibrosis; (3) transforming growth factor-beta is necessary but not sufficient to the pathologic fibrosis of the lungs; (4) the role of persistent antigens in the pathogenesis of usual interstitial pneumonia; and (5) the contribution of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation and bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. In this review, we will discuss these evolving conceptual mechanisms for the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis relevant to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:19892675

  2. New Mechanisms of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Strieter, Robert M.; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis continues to evolve. The initial hypothetical model suggested chronic inflammation as the cause of pulmonary fibrosis, whereas a subsequent hypothesis posited epithelial injury and impaired wound repair as the etiology of fibrosis without preceding inflammation. Over the past decade, several concepts have led to refinement of these hypotheses. These include the following: (1) the importance of the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier basement membrane (BM) to conserving the architecture of the injured lung; (2) conversely, that the failure of reepithelialization and reendothelialization of this BM results in pathologic fibrosis; (3) transforming growth factor-? is necessary but not sufficient to the pathologic fibrosis of the lungs; (4) the role of persistent antigens in the pathogenesis of usual interstitial pneumonia; and (5) the contribution of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation and bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. In this review, we will discuss these evolving conceptual mechanisms for the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis relevant to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:19892675

  3. Genes and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Sztrymf; Azzedine Yaïci; Barbara Girerd; Marc Humbert

    2007-01-01

    Familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) was first described more than 50 years ago. Before the availability of modern genetic tools, studies of the genealogies demonstrated that these cases segregated as an autosomic dominant trait, with an incomplete penetrance and a genetic anticipation phenomenon by which age at onset of the disease is decreasing in the subsequent generations. Germline mutations in

  4. Pulmonary edema induced by laryngospasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuko Kobayashi; Rokurou Shiba; Mitsuyoshi Lee; Yoshifumi Tanaka

    1993-01-01

    Although pulmonay edema has many causes, acute airway obstruction is rarely mentioned as one of them because of its infrequent occurrence. We describe a case of laryngospasm, which was complicated by the development of pulmonary edema. We discuss the pathophysiologic consequences of acute airway obstruction leading to this complication.

  5. Pulmonary fibrosis: a possible mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Haschek; H. Witschi

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that pulmonary fibrosis, a chronic and incurable respiratory disease in man, could develop if reepithelialization following acute lung damage was compromised by a second toxic agent was investigated. Previous work suggested that in the lung dividing alveolar type II cells are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of oxygen than dividing interstitial cells. Male BALB\\/c mice were injected

  6. The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cynthia A. Kearns

    Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

  7. Cardiomyopathy Induced by Pulmonary Sequestration in a 50-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Shaun; Comp, Robert A.; Grace, R. Randal

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old black man presented at the emergency department with midsternal, nonradiating chest pressure and chronic dyspnea on exertion. Four years before the current admission, he had been diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at another facility. After our complete evaluation, we suspected that his symptoms arose from left-to-left shunting in association with pulmonary sequestration, a congenital malformation. Our preliminary diagnosis of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed by normalization of the patient's ventricular size and function after lobectomy. To our knowledge, this patient is the oldest on record to present with cardiomyopathy consequent to pulmonary sequestration. His case is highly unusual because of his age and the rapid resolution of his symptoms after lobectomy. We believe that pulmonary sequestration should be included in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25873803

  8. Bile Pigments in Pulmonary and Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.

    2012-01-01

    The bile pigments, biliverdin, and bilirubin, are endogenously derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear. PMID:22408625

  9. Pulmonary arterial hypertension and lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Rajeev; Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A; Weigt, S Samuel; Derhovanessian, Ariss; Gupta, Sachin; Saggar, Rajan

    2010-04-01

    Heart-lung transplantation (HLT) and lung transplantation (LT) remain important therapies for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), but recent advances in medical therapy can substantially delay or even obviate the need for transplantation, especially in certain PAH populations. By the early 1990s, the advent of epoprostenol, initially introduced as a bridge therapy to transplantation, in fact resulted in a survival advantage for IPAH. These benefits were comparable to those of HLT, and many patients who were thought to be destined for HLT were subsequently removed from active listing. Since 2005, however, the impact of the new lung allocation score (LAS) on IPAH has increased waiting list mortality. In the new millennium, the balance between the role of available medical therapies for PAH, the existing issues of the current LAS regarding the PAH patient, and the inherent morbidity associated with transplantation of PAH, will be critical to optimizing patient outcomes. The following discussion mainly focuses on adult IPAH, with some reference to congenital heart disease (CHD) and secondary PAH. PMID:20354928

  10. Maternal pulmonary oedema during foetoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Katz, S G; Somerville, K P; Welsh, A

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of maternal pulmonary oedema necessitating intubation and ventilation with associated hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis during foetoscopic laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), believed to be secondary to absorption of normal saline irrigation fluid. TTTS complicates 10% to 20% of monochorionic twin pregnancies and develops due to imbalanced vascular anastomoses and consequent unidirectional transfusion between the twins. The recipient is at risk of cardiac failure due to circulatory overload and the donor twin becomes hypoperfused. The recipient is polyhydramniotic and the donor is oligohydramniotic. Untreated severe TTTS has a mortality rate of up to 90%. Treatment options include delivery if viable, serial amnioreduction or foetoscopic laser ablation of the communicating vessels. Since the Eurofoetus study, laser ablation has been the mainstay of treatment for pre-viable TTTS, involving insertion of endoscopes transabdominally into the polyhydramniotic sac to allow visualisation and ablation of the anastosmotic vessels. Amnioreduction does not correct the underlying pathology and offers very little in advanced disease. Foetoscopic laser ablation leads to an improved survival past 28 days and a lower incidence of neurological complications compared to serial amnioreduction. PMID:25735693

  11. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  12. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O ? (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily implemented and economically efficient alternative to other technologies currently under development for mineral sequestration. Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC (2008) Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19, 235-240. Ferris FG, Wiese RG, Fyfe WS (1994) Precipitation of carbonate minerals by microorganisms: Implications of silicate weathering and the global carbon dioxide budget. Geomicrobiology Journal, 12, 1-13. Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL, Jr., Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy, 20, 1153-1170. Power IM, Wilson SA, Thom JM, Dipple GM, Gabites JE, Southam G (2009) The hydromagnesite playas of Atlin, British Columbia, Canada: A biogeochemical model for CO2 sequestration. Chemical Geology, 206, 302-316. Thompson JB, Ferris FG (1990) Cyanobacterial precipitation of gypsum, calcite, and magnesite from natural alkaline lake water. Geology, 18, 995-998.

  13. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) does not depress left ventricular function in patients with pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Calvin; A. A. Driedger; W. J. Sibbald

    1981-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on left ventricular function in 15 patients with acute respiratory insufficiency secondary to pulmonary edema with invasive (pressure; flow) measurements and radionuclide angiography (RA). Using RNA allowed a definition of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and then calculation of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), both before and after PEEP.

  14. Value of the plasma protein and hemoglobin concentration in the diagnosis of pulmonary edema in scorpion sting patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mabrouk Bahloul; Mounir Bouaziz; Hassen Dammak; Chokri Ben Hamida; Hichem Ksibi; Noureddine Rekik; Hedi Chelly; Jean Louis Teboul; Hatem Kallel

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the value of measuring total plasma protein and hemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of pulmonary edema secondary to scorpion envenomation. Design and setting. Retrospective study over a 4-year period in the medical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients. 67 patients older than 3 years admitted in the intensive care unit for scorpion envenomation and stratified

  15. Study on comprehensive utilization of secondary resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lihua, G.; Ruilu, L. [Beijing General Research Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy (China)

    1995-12-31

    In light of the properties on process mineralogy of the old tailings in a certain copper mine in the People`s Republic of China, a new process of combined reagent and stepwise flotation is applied in which the flotation of copper sulfides is followed by the flotation of copper oxides. Recoveries of copper and associated gold and silver have been greatly increased. The tailings obtained were subjected to the gravitational separation-magnetic separation process to recover iron minerals. Tailings from iron separation are taken as fillers and sent to the pit underground. Thus, the secondary resources are comprehensively utilized.

  16. Serum Pentraxin 3 and hs-CRP Levels in Children with Severe Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karakurt, Cem?it; Ba?p?nar, Osman; Çelik, Fazl? Serkan; Ta?kapan, Ça?atay; ?ahin, Ayd?n Derya; Yolo?lu, Saim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to untreated left-to-right shunt defects leads to increased pulmonary blood flow, endothelial dysfunction, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, vascular remodelling, neointimal and plexiform lesions. Some recent studies have shown that inflammation has an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate serum pentraxin 3 and high sensitive (hs)-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in children with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) secondary to untreated congenital heart defects and evaluate the role of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: After ethics committee approval and receiving consent from parents, there were 31 children were selected for the study with severe PAH, mostly with a left-to-right shunt, who had been assessed by cardiac catheterisation and were taking specific pulmonary vasodilators. The control group consisted of 39 age and gender matched healthy children. After recording data about all the patients including age, gender, weight, haemodynamic studies and vasodilator testing, a physical examination was done for all subjects. Blood was taken from patients and the control group using peripheral veins to analyse serum Pentraxin 3, N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP) and hs-CRP levels. Serum Pentraxin-3 levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and expressed as ng/mL. Serum hs-CRP levels were measured with an immunonephelometric method and expressed as mg/dL. The serum concentration of NT-proBNP was determined by a chemiluminescent immunumetric assay and expressed as pg/mL. Results: Serum Pentraxin- 3 levels were determined to be 1.28±2.12 (0.12–11.43) in the PAH group (group 1) and 0.40±0.72 (0.07–3.45) in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). Serum hs-CRP levels were measured as 2.92±2.12 (0.32–14.7) mg/dL in group 1 and 0.35±0.16 (0.07–3.45) mg/dL in group 2. The hs-CRP level was increased in the PAH group to a significant degree (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our study showed that pentraxin 3 and hs-CRP levels were increased significantly in the PAH group. We consider that inflammation plays an important role in severe pulmonary hypertension and progressive pulmonary arterial hypertension in children with PAH. PMID:25625020

  17. Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Howard, Luke S G E; Watson, Geoffrey M J; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A; Kiely, David G; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J Simon R; Wilkins, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy. PMID:23662181

  18. Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Luke S.G.E.; Watson, Geoffrey M.J.; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A.; Kiely, David G.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wilkins, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy. PMID:23662181

  19. The Physical Characteristics of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Offered by Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (an online minerals store), the Physical Characteristics of Minerals Web site offers a detailed description of how minerals are identified. Each page gives good information and examples of a particular characteristic (e.g, color, hardness, cleavage, feel, and taste). Also, on the first page are links to dozens of minerals that are categorized by name, class, interesting groupings, and great localities. These give the class, subclass, group, uses, physical characteristics, and sample photographs of that particular mineral. Anyone interested in geology, minerals, or gemstones will find this site very informative and fun to explore.

  20. Rocks and Minerals Of Kentucky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Kentucky rocks highlighted on this website are chiefly sedimentary, such as limestone and dolostone, since sedimentary rocks cover approximately 99 percent of the state. You will find an extensive list of minerals and mineral groups, such as oxides or halides, and mineral property descriptions that cover hardness, cleavage, color, crystal system, streak, and more. These properties are also discussed in relation to their use in identifying unknown minerals. Igneous and metamorphic rocks are covered in relation to gold and silver deposits, and the legend of the Jonathon Swift Silver mines. Information on Kentucky's state rock and mineral, museums, rock clubs, and mineral deposits are included.