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Sample records for secondary pulmonary mineralization

  1. Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:26029570

  2. Pulmonary disability in former Appalachian coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective case-control study was undertaken to assess respiratory disability in 133 former coal miners who were claimants for "black lung" benefits. Consecutive assignment was made to either case or control group based on their chest radiograph having shown coal workers' pneumoconiosis or no coal workers' pneumoconiosis. A respiratory occupational survey was completed with physical examination that placed special emphasis on the cardiorespiratory systems. Subjects underwent pulmonary function testing while 92 of these also received arterial blood gases to assess respiratory disability and pulmonary insufficiency. Arterial blood gases were superior to spirometry in assessment of pulmonary insufficiency/disability. Smoking interacts with coal workers' pneumoconiosis to cause pulmonary insufficiency. The most frequent spirometric pattern was obstructive. Disability was caused by occupational injuries and comorbidities, both of which occurred with greater frequency in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis than in controls. Pulmonary insufficiency appears to be a better discriminator than respiratory disability in coal miners, suggesting that arterial blood gases replace spirometry in their evaluation. Greater emphasis on smoking intervention among coal miners should be given. Images Figure PMID:8803434

  3. Secondary pulmonary hypertension--diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Bossone, E; Bottino, G; Monselise, A; Rubenfire, M

    2005-01-01

    Secondary pulmonary hypertension (SPHtn) is generally attributable to abnormalities in structure or function of the heart or lung parenchyma. While often defined as a physiologic parameter, pulmonary hypertension (PHtn) can be a major contributor to death and disability in cardiopulmonary diseases. Both detection and management are a challenge. We will review the pathophysiology, diagnostic tools, and treatment strategies in SPHtn with an emphasis on cor pulmonale associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary vasculopathies, and pulmonary embolus. The pathophysiology and common etiologies of SPHtn can be divided into three major categories: (1) elevated pulmonary venous pressure (LV failure and mitral valve disease), (2) pulmonary vascular occlusive disease with or without pulmonary parenchymal disease (pulmonary emboli, COPD, connective tissue diseases), and (3) hypoxemia (sleep apnea). The echo-Doppler is a simple cost-effective tool for detecting PHtn, evaluating right ventricular function, and distinguishing common etiologies such as abnormal systolic and diastolic left ventricular function and mitral valve disease. The ventilation-perfusion radionuclide scan can be used to exclude thromboembolic PHtn, but a helical computer tomography with contrast or pulmonary angiography are necessary to distinguish patients that may benefit from a pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The six minute walk oxygen saturation test is useful as a quantitative measure of functional capacity, prognosis, response to therapy, and oxygen requirement. Treatment strategies in cor pulmonale are tailored to the specific diagnosis, but generally include proper nutrition, exercise, oxygen supplementation, medications such as digoxin, diuretics, anti-coagulation, and pulmonary vasodilator therapy in selected patients. PMID:16479737

  4. Wedge and subselective pulmonary angiography in pulmonary hypertension secondary to venous obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, J.S.; Bookstein, J.J.; Johnson, A.D.; Peterson, K.L.; Moser, K.M.

    1985-06-01

    Pulmonary wedge or subselective angiography provided key diagnostic information in two cases of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary venous obstruction. Whereas conventional pulmonary angiograms and ventilation-perfusion lung scans were interpreted as showing embolism, plain radiographs demonstrated Kerley B lines, suggesting venous obstruction. Subselective or wedge angiography of nonopacified arteries verified their anatomical patency and also revealed venous stenoses, collaterals, and atrophy indicative of obstruction.

  5. Metal, mineral waste processing and secondary recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    Approximately 40 million tons of precious metals chemical wastes are produced in the United States every year. An estimated five percent of these wastes are being reused/recycled to recover the precious and critical metals they contain. The rest of these chemical wastes are disposed of by the methods incineration, dumping at sea and dumping on land. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the research work published during 1985-1986 on metal, mineral waste processing, secondary recovery and safe disposal.

  6. Pulmonary response to inhaled fibrogenic minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The fibrogenicity of silica, bentonite, kaolin, talc, vermiculite, feldspar, and coal in animals in nose only exposures was investigated, and the cytotoxicity of the minerals was studied in in-vitro tests. Data were evaluated to provide comparative cytotoxic correlations on fibrogenicity and information for interpreting human exposure effects. Enzymes were measured as indicators of adverse activity of minerals on macrophages. Results of physical and chemical analysis of the minerals showed that all minerals tested wre smaller than 7 micrometers and were within the respirable size range. In in-vitro hemolysis studies, bentonite, kaolin, silica, and vermiculite showed the greatest hemolysis, and talc, coal, and feldspar showed the least. Release of cytosolic enzyme lactate-dehydrogenase, indicative of membrane damage, was significant with kaolin, silica, and vermiculite and least with talc, coal, and bentonite. The studies suggested that silica, kaolin, bentonite, vermiculite and feldspar all induced an initial acute pulmonary response, but that there appeared to be no correlation between this acute response in-vivo and their chronic pulmonary response. The studies also indicated that the initial pulmonary response reflected in vitro was not correlated with the chronic response to the dust.

  7. Weathering and Secondary Minerals in the Martian Meteorite Shergotty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; McKay, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The Shergotty martian meteorite contains weathering features and secondary minerals much like those in Nakhla, including secondary silicates, NaCl, and Ca-sulfate. It is likely that the weathering occurred on Mars.

  8. Expression of mutant bone morphogenetic protein receptor II worsens pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Andrew J; Robinson, Linda J; Moore, Christy S; Blackwell, Thomas R; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L; Burman, Ankita; McClellan, Lucas J; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Tanjore, Harikrishna; McConaha, Melinda E; Gleaves, Linda A; Talati, Megha A; Hemnes, Anna R; Fessel, Joshua P; Lawson, William E; Blackwell, Timothy S; West, James D

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH), and previous studies have shown a potential link between bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2) and PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. We exposed transgenic mice expressing mutant BMPR2 and control mice to repetitive intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin for 4 weeks. The duration of transgene activation was too short for mutant BMPR2 mice to develop spontaneous PH. Mutant BMPR2 mice had increased right ventricular systolic pressure compared to control mice, without differences in pulmonary fibrosis. We found increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1-? stabilization in lungs of mutant-BMPR2-expressing mice compared to controls following bleomycin treatment. In addition, expression of the hypoxia response element protein connective tissue growth factor was increased in transgenic mice as well as in a human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line expressing mutant BMPR2. In mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, mutant BMPR2 expression resulted in increased HIF1-? and reactive oxygen species production following exposure to hypoxia, both of which were attenuated with the antioxidant TEMPOL. These data suggest that expression of mutant BMPR2 worsens secondary PH through increased HIF activity in vascular endothelium. This pathway could be therapeutically targeted in patients with PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26697175

  9. Expression of mutant bone morphogenetic protein receptor II worsens pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Linda J.; Moore, Christy S.; Blackwell, Thomas R.; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L.; Burman, Ankita; McClellan, Lucas J.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; McConaha, Melinda E.; Gleaves, Linda A.; Talati, Megha A.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Lawson, William E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; West, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary fibrosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH), and previous studies have shown a potential link between bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2) and PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. We exposed transgenic mice expressing mutant BMPR2 and control mice to repetitive intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin for 4 weeks. The duration of transgene activation was too short for mutant BMPR2 mice to develop spontaneous PH. Mutant BMPR2 mice had increased right ventricular systolic pressure compared to control mice, without differences in pulmonary fibrosis. We found increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1-? stabilization in lungs of mutant-BMPR2-expressing mice compared to controls following bleomycin treatment. In addition, expression of the hypoxia response element protein connective tissue growth factor was increased in transgenic mice as well as in a human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line expressing mutant BMPR2. In mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, mutant BMPR2 expression resulted in increased HIF1-? and reactive oxygen species production following exposure to hypoxia, both of which were attenuated with the antioxidant TEMPOL. These data suggest that expression of mutant BMPR2 worsens secondary PH through increased HIF activity in vascular endothelium. This pathway could be therapeutically targeted in patients with PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26697175

  10. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary hypertension

  11. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:26024348

  13. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to thrombosis of the pulmonary vessels in a patient with the primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brucato, A; Baudo, F; Barberis, M; Redaelli, R; Casadei, G; Allegri, F; De Juli, E; De Cataldo, F

    1994-05-01

    Recurrent pulmonary emboli or microthromboses are hypothesized as possible causes of pulmonary hypertension in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), but thrombosis of the pulmonary vessels has been rarely documented. We describe the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian man affected by thrombocytopenia, recurrent deep venous thrombosis, recurrent pulmonary embolism and fatal chronic pulmonary hypertension (systolic pressure: 85 mm Hg). Anticardiolipin antibodies were highly positive, and the lupus anticoagulant was present. At autopsy, recent thromboses of small vessels were observed in the lung, with organized clots and recanalized channels. Furthermore, friable and firm vegetations and nodules were observed on the cusps of the mitral and tricuspid valves, intermingled with recent surface fibrinous thrombi. In the adrenals we found vascular thrombotic lesions similar to those in the lungs. The pathological lesions suggest pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary arterial microthromboses. Moreover, this is the first documentation of tricuspid valve pathology in a patient with APS. PMID:8064740

  14. Bisphosphonates do not Alter the Rate of Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    R Fuchs; M Faillace; M Allen; R Phipps; L Miller; D Burr

    2011-12-31

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), ALN (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n=12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  15. Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.

    2011-05-18

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  16. Primary and Secondary Minerals in Meteorites Shed Light on the Habitability of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Gainey, S. R.; Bartlett, C. L.; Adcock, C. T.

    2015-07-01

    Primary and secondary minerals in meteorites record environmental conditions and potential nutrient availability. We present results interpreting these mineral assemblages with implications for the potential habitability of Mars.

  17. Secondary Iron Mineral Formation by Shewanellae Using Different Carbon Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, E. C.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Nealson, K. H.

    2007-12-01

    It has been known for some time that microbes play an important role in the redox cycling of iron. A considerable amount of work has been done investigating the various factors that play a role in solid phase iron reduction such as the type of iron oxide available for reduction, medium composition, surface area and ferrous iron concentration. However, the rate at which a single cell reduces iron oxides and the impact of dissimilatory iron reduction kinetics on mineral speciation are not well understood. In order to determine the relationship between iron oxide reduction rates and secondary mineral formation, we have tested 4 different strains of Shewanella with different carbon sources. Strains MR-1, MR-4, CN32 and W3-18-1 were incubated with HFO (hydrous ferric oxide) as electron acceptor and either lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine or uridine as the organic carbon source. Mineral products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Initial results suggest that reduction rates are similar among strains when using the same carbon source. However, qualitative assessment of mineral products suggests that while reduction rates for the tested strains may be similar, the secondary mineral products can be quite different.

  18. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  19. Evolving Concepts of Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Left Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Bhavadharini; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease is the most common form of pulmonary hypertension. Although its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, it is now well recognized that the presence of pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis. Right ventricular failure has independent and additive prognostic value over pulmonary hypertension for adverse outcomes in left heart disease. Recently, several new terminologies have been introduced to better define and characterize the nature and severity of pulmonary hypertension. Several new treatment options including the use of pulmonary arterial hypertension specific therapies are being considered, but there is lack of evidence. Here, we review the recent advances in this field and summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of use in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease. PMID:26886381

  20. Alterations in endothelial control of the pulmonary circulation in exercising swine with secondary pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Merkus, Daphne; Houweling, Birgit; de Beer, Vincent J; Everon, Zaida; Duncker, Dirk J

    2007-05-01

    Secondary pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction (MI) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and activation of the endothelin (ET) system. Here, we investigated whether an increased ET-mediated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence contributes to pulmonary hypertension after MI, and whether this increased ET vasoconstriction is caused by impaired nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoid production. For this purpose, chronically instrumented swine with and without MI ran on a treadmill at 0-4 km h(-1). Mixed ET(A)/ET(B) receptor blockade (tezosentan) was performed in the absence and presence of single or combined inhibition of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX, with indometacin). In normal swine, mixed ET(A)/ET(B) blockade decreased pulmonary vascular resistance, but only during exercise. In MI swine, an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor influence was observed in the pulmonary circulation both at rest and during exercise. Inhibition of COX resulted in pulmonary vasoconstriction at rest in MI, but not in normal swine; this vasoconstriction in MI swine was normalized by ET(A)/ET(B) receptor blockade. Inhibition of eNOS enhanced the vasodilator response to ET(A)/ET(B) blockade, indicating that NO blunts the pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET. However, this vasodilator response was enhanced to a similar degree in MI and normal swine. In summary, swine with a recent MI are characterized by an exaggerated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET. This increased ET-mediated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence is not caused by a loss of NO bioavailability, and is blunted by an increased prostanoid-mediated vasodilatation. In conclusion, an increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction, which does not appear to be the result of loss of endothelial vasodilators, contributes to pulmonary hypertension after MI. PMID:17289783

  1. Low temperature CO2 mineralization into basalt: solution chemistry and secondary mineral assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, A.; Stefnsson, A.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 represents one of the most abundant acid supplies in nature and has an important impact on element fluxes and water chemistry on the Earth surface. CO2 emissions due to increased industrialization are causing an important imbalance in this surface system and affect the global climate. Therefore, different methods to trap CO2 are developed and studied in response to the CO2 increase. CO2 sequestration into secondary minerals is considered as one possible way of reducing those CO2 levels. The Carbfix project is a pilot study in SW Iceland aiming to inject CO2-loaded waters from the Hellisheidi geothermal powerplant into basaltic rock formations. The goal is to mineralize CO2 by reacting Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 ions released by the basalt into carbonates. We investigated the geochemical aspects of CO2-water-basalt interaction at pCO2 between 0-20 bar and temperatures of 25-40C by combining experiments and numerical modelling. The aim of our studies are to gain a better understanding of the key reactions, mass fluxes and porosity changes associated to CO2-water-basalt interaction. Modelling results show that at low reaction progress (pH <7), the main secondary mineral assemblages formed by reacting CO2- water-basalt are amorphous SiO2, Fe-Mg carbonates, Al-silicates and Fe-hydroxides, whereas at high reaction progress (pH >8) the main stable minerals precipitating from solution are (Ca)-Mg-Fe clays, Ca-Mg carbonates and zeolites (Gysi and Stfansson 2008). Laboratory experiments were performed by reacting basaltic glass with aqueous solutions initially saturated at pCO2 ranging between 0-10 bar at 40C for 120 days. Results from solution chemistry show that there are three different element mobility behaviors: i) Si+4 and Al+3 dissolve non-stochiometrically and/or precipitate into secondary minerals independent of the intial pCO2 and the water/rock ratios used in the experiments, b) Ca+2 and Mg+2 dissolve stochiometrically independent of the initial pCO2, but precipitate into secondary minerals at high water/rock ratios and low initial pCO2 after about 100 days, c) elements like Fe show a mixed behavior from mobile to immobile depending on the solution pH and their oxidation state. Secondary mineral assemblages were identified using SEM, and WDS elemental maps combined with quantitative analysis on EMPA. In all experiments, secondary minerals precipitating from solution were (Ca)-(Mg)-Fe-rich carbonates, amorphous Fe-hydroxides and (Na)-Ca-Mg-Fe clays. Our model compare qualitatively well with the experiments, the key factors controlling CO2 mineralization into carbonates beeing competing reactions between clays and carbonates for Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 ions.

  2. Secondary hydrothermal mineral system in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, A.; Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mineral systems generally develop around the deep root of the volcanoes down to the degassing magma chamber due the selective enrichment process of elements within the host-rock. The mineralization process depends on i) volcanic structure, ii) magma and fluid chemistry, iii) host-rock type and texture, iv) temperature and pressure conditions, and v) action timing that affect the transport and precipitation conditions of elements in the solution. Firstly, it generates a hydrothermal system that in a later phase may generate considerable metallogenic mineralization, in terms of both spatial extension and specie abundance. The study of secondary assemblages through depth and, possibly, through time, together with the definition of the general geological, structural, mineralogical and petrological context is the background to understand the genesis of mineral-to-metallogenic systems. We report our study on the Campi Flegrei volcano of potassic Southern Italy belt. It is a sub-circular caldera characterized by an active high-temperature and fluid-rich geothermal system affected by seismicity and ground deformation in the recent decades. The circulating fluids originate at deeper level within a degassing magma body and give rise at the surface up to 1500 tonnes/day of CO2 emissions. Their composition is intermediate between meteoric water and brines. Saline-rich fluids have been detected at ~3000 in downhole. The hydrothermal alteration varies from argillitic to phillitic, nearby the caldera boundary, to propilitic to thermo-metamorphic facies towards its centre. The Campi Flegrei caldera was defined as analogue of mineralized system such as White Island (New Zealand) that is an example of an active magmatic and embryonic copper porphyry system. In order to enhance the knowledge of such a type of embryonic-like metallogenic system, we have carried out macroscopic and microscopic investigations, SEM-EDS and electron microprobe analyses on selected samples from deep wells drilled in the '80s by the Agip Oil Company at the Campi Flegrei caldera. The new data have been merged with those available in the current volcanological, mineralogical and petrological literature in order to generate an innovative model and define the relationship between the caldera structure and the secondary mineralogy.

  3. Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Rye, R.O.; Breit, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low-temperature environments in which SO2 is scrubbed out by groundwater or where H2S is oxidized. Jarosite-group minerals associated with smectite in only slightly altered volcanic rock are formed largely from aqueous sulfate derived from supergene oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite above the water table. Soluble Al- and Fehydroxysulfates form in low-pH surface environments, especially around fumaroles, and from the oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite. Anhydrite/gypsum, often associated with native sulfur and occasionally with small amounts of barite, also commonly form around fumaroles. Some occurrences of anhydrite/gypsum may be secondary, derived from the dissolution and reprecipitation of soluble sulfate. Edifice collapse may also reveal deep veins of anhydrite/gypsum??barite that formed from the mixing of saline fluids with magmatic sulfate and dilute meteoric water. Alteration along structures associated with both hydrothermal and supergene sulfates, as well as the position of paleo-water tables, may be important factors in edifice collapse and resulting debris flows at some volcanoes. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content < 300 g/t) occurred from 1972 to 1990 using acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.7-2.8) and diluted sulphuric acid (10 g/l). Secondary mineral phases like birnessite, todorokite and goethite occur within a natural attenuation process associated with enrichment of heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance of iron on this process, as some MOB isolates were able to oxidize manganese independently from the iron content, whereas some are not. The latter isolates are only able to oxidize manganese if iron is present in the media. In the lysimeter, SEM-EDX data showed microorganisms in organic rich phases together with the occurrence of manganese, oxygen, and nickel, indicating manganese oxides enriched in nickel. Although this new mineral phases could not yet be identified microprobe EDX results from polished thin sections showed needle-like mineral structures that are similar to the birnessite and todorokite samples observed from field samples. Hence, the lysimeter experiment revealed that the formation of iron and manganese minerals that are involved in heavy metal natural attenuation is result of both abiotic and biotic processes.

  5. Effects of theophylline-ethylendiamine on chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, P; Viroli, L; Chelucci, G; Cresci, F

    1984-01-01

    The use of theophylline in the treatment of chronic lung disease is wide spread thanks to the positive effects on the bronchial tree, on ventilation and on diaphragmatic contractile activity, which are well documented. On the other hand, the cardiovascular effects of this drug have not been studied much, particularly the effects on the hemodynamics of the pulmonary circulation. The latest studies were carried out by Parker (1966 and 1967) and by Jezek (1970) with heart catheterization and by Matthay (1978) with isotopic angiocardiography, but the problem has not been fully explored from the standpoint of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therefore we are studying the effects of intravenous infusions of aminophylline in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, trying to examine the effects of this drug on three different groups of patients: the 1st without pulmonary arterial hypertension; the 2nd with latent pulmonary arterial hypertension; the 3rd with evident pulmonary arterial hypertension. We consider pulmonary arterial hypertension as pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 20 mmHg at rest and pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 35 mmHg at the end of 8 min of exercise in the supine position, with 40 W load cycle ergometer. The experimental protocol includes the clinical and functional identification of subjects with chronic obstructive long disease, the performance of right heart catheterization and the cannulation of a peripheral artery, measuring all pressure levels, cardiac output, hemogasanalytic data and theophylline levels in steady state (20-30 min. after the end of invasive manoeuvres) at the 10th, 20th and 30th min after the end of an infusion of 10 mg/kg of aminophylline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6534771

  6. TEVAR for Flash Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm to Pulmonary Artery Fistula.

    PubMed

    Bornak, Arash; Baqai, Atif; Li, Xiaoyi; Rey, Jorge; Tashiro, Jun; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2016-01-01

    Enlarging aneurysms in the thoracic aorta frequently remain asymptomatic. Fistulization of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) to adjacent structures or the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and TAA may lead to irreversible cardiopulmonary sequelae. This article reports on a large aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with communication to the pulmonary artery causing pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory failure. The communication was ultimately closed after thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair allowing rapid symptom resolution. Early diagnosis and closure of such communication in the presence of TAA are critical for prevention of permanent cardiopulmonary damage. PMID:26522587

  7. Successful whole lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis secondary to lysinuric protein intolerance: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ceruti, Michele; Rodi, Giuseppe; Stella, Giulia M; Adami, Andrea; Bolongaro, Antonia; Baritussio, Aldo; Pozzi, Ernesto; Luisetti, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterised by accumulation of lipoproteinaceous material within alveoli, occurring in three clinically distinct forms: congenital, acquired and secondary. Among the latter, lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defective transport of cationic amino acids. Whole Lung Lavage (WLL) is currently the gold standard therapy for severe cases of PAP. Case presentation We describe the case of an Italian boy affected by LPI who, by the age of 10, developed digital clubbing and, by the age of 16, a mild restrictive functional impairment associated with a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pattern consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. After careful assessment, he underwent WLL. Conclusion Two years after WLL, the patient has no clinical, radiological or functional evidence of pulmonary disease recurrence, thus suggesting that WLL may be helpful in the treatment of PAP secondary to LPI. PMID:17386098

  8. Pulmonary edema secondary to a cardiac schwannoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Justin D; Rapoport, Gregg; Fallaw, Tiffany; Calvert, Clay A; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    A 4-year-old castrated labrador retriever presented for cardiac evaluation to determine the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema diagnosed 1 month prior. A large pedunculated mass involving the ventral aspect of the mural mitral valve leaflet and the endocardial surface of the left ventricular free wall, resulting in severe mitral regurgitation, was identified on echocardiogram. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of this mass and other endocardial masses identified at necropsy for S-100 protein were consistent with a diagnosis of schwannoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a benign intracardiac schwannoma described in the left heart of a dog. PMID:26048635

  9. Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SRμCT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SRμCT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SRμCT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in an Elderly.

    PubMed

    Koester, Stefan; Lee, Justin Z; Lee, Kwan S

    2016-01-01

    Background. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality, which may present in the adult population. It is often associated with sinus venosus defect (SVD). The diagnosis and therapy for this condition may be challenging. Case Presentation. We describe a case of an elderly woman who presented with NYHA Class IV dyspnea and was suspected to have symptomatic pulmonary hypertension. She was later found to have anomalous right upper pulmonary vein return to the superior vena cava and associated SVD with bidirectional shunting. Therapeutic options were discussed and medical management alone with aggressive diuresis and sildenafil was adopted. Follow-up visits revealed success in the planned medical therapy. Conclusions. PAPVR is a rare congenital condition that may present during late adulthood. The initial predominant left-to-right shunting associated with this anomaly may go undetected for years with the gradual development of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure due to right heart volume overload. Awareness of the condition is important, as therapy is time-sensitive with early detection potentially leading to surgical therapy as a viable option. PMID:27006835

  11. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in an Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Stefan; Lee, Justin Z.; Lee, Kwan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality, which may present in the adult population. It is often associated with sinus venosus defect (SVD). The diagnosis and therapy for this condition may be challenging. Case Presentation. We describe a case of an elderly woman who presented with NYHA Class IV dyspnea and was suspected to have symptomatic pulmonary hypertension. She was later found to have anomalous right upper pulmonary vein return to the superior vena cava and associated SVD with bidirectional shunting. Therapeutic options were discussed and medical management alone with aggressive diuresis and sildenafil was adopted. Follow-up visits revealed success in the planned medical therapy. Conclusions. PAPVR is a rare congenital condition that may present during late adulthood. The initial predominant left-to-right shunting associated with this anomaly may go undetected for years with the gradual development of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure due to right heart volume overload. Awareness of the condition is important, as therapy is time-sensitive with early detection potentially leading to surgical therapy as a viable option. PMID:27006835

  12. The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Samson, Sherry D.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-06-27

    The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site were investigated by reacting quartz and Hanford sediment (Warden Soil) with caustic solution of high ionic strength (2 M NaNO3), high pH (~13), high temperature (~90oC), and dissolved Al(0.01 M Al(NO3)3). Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3-10 days reaction time. The presence of dissolved Al in the simulated tank fluid was found to depress the net Si dissolved concentration. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results, secondary precipitates (cancrinite) at the primary mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides of major concern at the Hanford Site such as 129I, 79Se, 99Tc, and 90Sr.

  13. The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub CAI, I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub CAI) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub CAI) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub CAI) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for CAI. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for CAI in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted CAIs by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "CAI age" thus determined, T(sub CAI,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub CAI) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub CAI, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub CAI)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5) and a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4558.6 Ma for the LEW86010 angrite. However. the (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of "intermediate" age D'Orbigny-clan angrites and Asuka 881394 are inconsistent with radioactive decay from CAI values with a Mn-55 half-life of 3.7+/-0.4 Ma. in spite of consistency between (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I). Nevertheless, it appears that the Mn-Cr method with I(Mn)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) can be used to date primary igneous events and also secondary mineralization on asteroid parent bodies. We summarize ages thus determined for igneous events on differentiated asteroids and for carbonate and fayalite formation on carbonaceous asteroids.

  14. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibition in rats with established pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J S; Sheedy, W; Morice, A H

    1994-01-01

    1. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) causes vasorelaxation in the pulmonary vasculature. ANP levels are elevated in conditions characterized by pulmonary hypertension and it has been hypothesized that ANP may be autoregulatory in the pulmonary circulation. 2. One route of ANP metabolism in vivo is by the action of the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP). We have studied the effects of the NEP inhibitor, SCH 42495, in rats with established pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic hypoxia. 3. Rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups. Normoxic controls were kept in air for 10 days (NC10) and all other animals were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (F1 O2 10%). Chronic hypoxic controls were studied at 10 days (CHC10). After 10 days hypoxia the two remaining groups received oral treatment for a further 10 days, consisting of either SCH 42495 (30 mg kg-1, twice daily CHT20) or methyl cellulose vehicle (0.4%, twice daily, CHV20). 4. Animals were anaesthetized and blood collected for measurement of plasma ANP. Hearts were dissected and ventricles weighed and the histology of the pulmonary vasculature examined. 5. CHC10 rats had significant right ventricular hypertrophy (0.53 +/- 0.08) and pulmonary vascular remodelling (29.0 +/- 0.01%) and had gained significantly less body weight (33.2 +/- 5.5 g) than NC10 rats (0.31 +/- 0.04, 10.9 +/- 0.01%, and 59.2 +/- 11.9 g respectively). CHC10 rats had significantly elevated plasma ANP levels (58.4 +/- 9.9 pM) compared with NC10 rats (23.9 +/- 32 pM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 3 PMID:7889263

  15. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ??6mm, R-wave in V6 ??3mm, S-wave in V6 ??3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ?25?mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ??6?mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system Scranton PHT (SP) score. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P?=?0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  16. Aortoiliac thrombus secondary to a mineralized arteriosclerotic lesion.

    PubMed

    Drost, W T; Bahr, R J; Henry, G A; Campbell, G A

    1999-01-01

    A 12-year-old, neutered female, Siberian Husky dog presented with a hind limb weakness of one month duration. To facilitate making a diagnosis multiple imaging modalities were performed. These modalities included radiography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and selective angiography of the abdominal aorta. In this dog, the MRI/MRA studies provided the first documentation of the external iliac thrombi and the collateral circulation via the lumbar arteries. At necropsy, an aortoiliac thrombus caused by a mineralized arteriosclerotic plaque was noted. PMID:10519305

  17. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mallia, Patrick; Footitt, Joseph; Sotero, Rosa; Jepson, Annette; Contoli, Marco; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Oleszkiewicz, Gregory; Gray, Katrina; Message, Simon D.; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Kon, Onn M.; Johnson, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. Objectives: To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations. Methods: We infected subjects with moderate COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected before and repeatedly after rhinovirus infection and virus and bacterial loads measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture. The antimicrobial peptides secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, α-defensins and β-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatants. Measurements and Main Results: After rhinovirus infection, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 60% of subjects with COPD, 9.5% of smokers, and 10% of nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Sputum virus load peaked on Days 5–9 and bacterial load on Day 15. Sputum neutrophil elastase was significantly increased and SLPI and elafin significantly reduced after rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Conclusions: Rhinovirus infections are frequently followed by secondary bacterial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicrobial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate these secondary bacterial infections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or enhancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus-induced COPD exacerbations. PMID:23024024

  18. Sorption of trace constituents from aqueous solutions onto secondary minerals. II. Radium

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.; McGarrah, J.E.; Walker, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Radium sorption efficiencies as a function of temperature, Ra concentration, and secondary mineral sorbate were determined in a 0.01 M NaCl solution. Radium sorption on a characterized clinoptilolite, montmorillonite, nontronite, opal, silica gel, illite, kaolinite, and glauconite under comparable experimental conditions allowed determination of Ra sorption efficiency curves for each, through use of Freundlich constants, over the same temperature and initial Ra solution concentration range Similar sorption data for U on the same secondary minerals over the same temperatures allowed comparison of sorption efficiencies for Ra and U. Clinoptilolite, illite, and nontronite were the most efficient Ra sorbents, while opal and silica gel were the poorest Ra sorbents. Generally, Ra sorption on secondary minerals was much greater than U sorption under the same experimental conditions. 13 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Pulmonary Hemorrhage Secondary to Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Plata-Menchaca, Erika P; de Leon, V M De la Puente-Diaz; Pea-Romero, Adriana G; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to disseminated strongyloidiasis is an unusual, well-recognized entity in immunocompromised patients with autoimmune disease, which is associated with the hyperinfection syndrome, sepsis, and a high mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 44-year-old Mexican woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and acute bacterial meningitis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, treated with broad spectrum systemic antibiotics and high dose methylprednisolone, who subsequently developed a characteristic purpuric skin eruption and septic shock and died two days later of refractory hypoxemia caused by massive pulmonary bleeding. The postmortem examination reports filariform larvae of S. stercolaris in lung, skin, and other organs. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering disseminated strongyloidiasis in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus, and screening for S. stercolaris infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, especially in endemic areas. Disseminated strongyloidiasis has a high mortality rate, explained in part by absence of clinical suspicion. PMID:26101672

  20. Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Petermann, Arndt; Visouli, Aikaterini; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Ketteler, Markus; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Brachmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly applied in adults with acute refractory respiratory failure that is deemed reversible. Bleeding is the most frequent complication during ECMO support. Severe pre-existing bleeding has been considered a contraindication to ECMO application. Nevertheless, there are cases of successful ECMO application in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock or head trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. ECMO has proved to be life-saving in several cases of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hemorrhage of various causes, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegeners disease). We successfully applied ECMO in a 65-year-old woman with acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to diffuse massive pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, manifested as severe pulmonary-renal syndrome. ECMO sustained life and allowed disease control, together with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, corticoids, and renal replacement therapy. The patient was successfully weaned from ECMO, extubated, and discharged home. She remains alive on dialysis at 17 months follow-up. PMID:23926421

  1. Pulmonary Hemorrhage Secondary to Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Plata-Menchaca, Erika P.; de Leon, V. M. De la Puente-Diaz; Peña-Romero, Adriana G.; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to disseminated strongyloidiasis is an unusual, well-recognized entity in immunocompromised patients with autoimmune disease, which is associated with the hyperinfection syndrome, sepsis, and a high mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 44-year-old Mexican woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and acute bacterial meningitis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, treated with broad spectrum systemic antibiotics and high dose methylprednisolone, who subsequently developed a characteristic purpuric skin eruption and septic shock and died two days later of refractory hypoxemia caused by massive pulmonary bleeding. The postmortem examination reports filariform larvae of S. stercolaris in lung, skin, and other organs. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering disseminated strongyloidiasis in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus, and screening for S. stercolaris infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, especially in endemic areas. Disseminated strongyloidiasis has a high mortality rate, explained in part by absence of clinical suspicion. PMID:26101672

  2. Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

    2011-12-01

    A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the incubation. Other possible mechanisms include the presence of soluble Fe as an alternative energy source in the goethite treatment, the presence of toxic soluble Al in the gibbsite treatment, the loss of available phosphorus in the secondary mineral treatments due to sorption by secondary mineral surfaces, and variations in mineral surfaces as microhabitats. These findings suggest that Al and Fe oxides, such as goethite or gibbsite, are a factor in determining microbial community structure.

  3. The Paris CM chondrite: Secondary minerals and asteroidal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchi, Yves; Gounelle, Matthieu; Blanchard, Ingrid; Caste, Florent; Kearsley, Anton T.

    2014-07-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least-altered CM identified so far (Hewins et al.). Compared to other CMs, Paris exhibits (1) a higher concentration of Fe-Ni metal beads, with nickel contents in the range 4.1-8.1 wt%; (2) the systematic presence of thin lamellae and tiny blebs of pentlandite in pyrrhotite grains; and (3) ubiquitous tochilinite/cronstedtite associations with higher FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 ratios. In addition, Paris shows the highest concentration of trapped 36Ar reported so far for a CM chondrite (Hewins et al.). In combination with the findings of previous studies, our data confirm the reliability of (1) the alteration sequence based on the chemical composition of tochilinite/cronstedtite associations to quantify the fluid alteration processes and (2) the use of Cr content variability in type II ferroan chondrule olivine as a proxy of thermal metamorphism. In contrast, the scales based on (1) the Fe3+ content of serpentine in the matrix to estimate the degree of aqueous alteration and (2) the chemical composition of Fe-Ni metal beads for quantifying the intensity of the thermal metamorphism are not supported by the characteristics of Paris. It also appears that the amount of trapped 36Ar is a sensitive indicator of the secondary alteration modifications experienced by chondrites, for both aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Considering Paris, our data suggest that this chondrite should be classified as type 2.7 as it suffered limited but significant fluid alteration and only mild thermal metamorphism. These results point out that two separated scales should be used to quantify the degree of the respective role of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in establishing the characteristics of CM chondrites.

  4. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  5. Weathering features and secondary minerals in Antarctic Shergottites ALHA77005 and LEW88516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that all three sub-groups of the shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) clan of meteorites contain aqueous precipitates of probable pre-terrestrial origin. In the context of secondary minerals, the most thoroughly studied shergottite has been Elephant Moraine, Antarctica A79001 (EETA79001). The recognition of LEW88516 as the latest SNC specimen, and its close similarity with ALHA77005, invite a comparative study of the latter two meteorites, and with EETA79001, from the perspective of aqueous alteration. The fusion crusts of the two meteorites are quite similar except that ALHA77005 is more vesicular (possibly indicating a higher indigenous volatile content). Secondary aluminosilicates (and salts on LEW88516) of definite Antarctic origin partially fill vesicles and fractures on both fusion crusts. Interior samples of the two meteorites are grossly similar in that traces of secondary minerals are present in both.

  6. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  7. Pulmonary Disease Secondary to Reflux Mimicking Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Montes, Ricardo Azêdo de Luca; Mazolli Veiga, Nathalia; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Mocarzel, Luis Otávio Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease due to the variety of clinical presentations, often superimposed on other conditions, related or not to the connective tissue. We report a 43-year-old Brazilian woman with limited systemic sclerosis and pulmonary symptoms secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease, with a clinical presentation similar to a diffuse interstitial lung disease. Because of the frequency of interstitial lung injury due to systemic sclerosis, this was an important differential diagnosis, which could be excluded after optimized treatment of reflux disease, with clinical and radiological improvement. Clinical management of patients with collagen diseases requires clinician skills to identify the natural history and understand its nuances. This is a common situation in clinical practice, but with a few discussions in international literature. PMID:26885429

  8. Pulmonary Disease Secondary to Reflux Mimicking Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Ricardo Azêdo de Luca; Mazolli Veiga, Nathalia; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Mocarzel, Luis Otávio Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease due to the variety of clinical presentations, often superimposed on other conditions, related or not to the connective tissue. We report a 43-year-old Brazilian woman with limited systemic sclerosis and pulmonary symptoms secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease, with a clinical presentation similar to a diffuse interstitial lung disease. Because of the frequency of interstitial lung injury due to systemic sclerosis, this was an important differential diagnosis, which could be excluded after optimized treatment of reflux disease, with clinical and radiological improvement. Clinical management of patients with collagen diseases requires clinician skills to identify the natural history and understand its nuances. This is a common situation in clinical practice, but with a few discussions in international literature. PMID:26885429

  9. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Use in Cardiac Arrest Secondary to Fulminant Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Tariq; Brinton, Taylor; Ahmed, Khansa; Iskander, Joy; Woznicka, Daniel; Kramer, Jason; Kopiec, Adam; Chadaga, Amar R.; Ortiz, Kathia

    2016-01-01

    Background Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is used emergently to dissolve thrombi in the treatment of fulminant pulmonary embolism. Currently, there is a relative contraindication to tPA in the setting of traumatic or prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation > 10 minutes because of the risk of massive hemorrhage. Methods Our single-center, retrospective study investigated patients experiencing cardiac arrest (CA) secondary to pulmonary embolus. We compared the effectiveness of advanced cardiac life support with the administration of tPA vs. the standard of care consisting of advanced cardiac life support without thrombolysis. The primary endpoint was survival to discharge. Secondary endpoints were return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), major bleeding, and minor bleeding. Results We analyzed 42 patients, of whom 19 received tPA during CA. Patients who received tPA were not associated with a statistically significant increase in survival to discharge (10.5% vs. 8.7%, P = 1.00) or ROSC (47.4% vs. 47.8%, P = 0.98) compared to the control group. We observed no statistically significant difference between the groups in major bleeding events (5.3% in the tPA group vs. 4.3% in the control group, P = 1.00) and minor bleeding events (10.5% in the tPA group vs. 0.0% in the control group, P = 0.11). Conclusion This study did not find a statistically significant difference in survival to discharge or in ROSC in patients treated with tPA during CA compared to patients treated with standard therapy. However, because no significant difference was found in major or minor bleeding, we suggest that the potential therapeutic benefits of this medication should not be limited by the potential for massive hemorrhage. Larger prospective studies are warranted to define the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic use in this population. PMID:26858790

  10. Alteration Products and Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The martian meteorites contain alteration products and secondary minerals that are a critical part of understanding their near-surface histories on both Mars and Earth. In some martian meteorites, suspected martian preterrestrial alteration products can be distinguished from terrestrial weathering effects Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), we are studying natural fracture surfaces of ALH 84001 chips, including samples from both the interior and the exterior of the meteorite. Exterior samples include fusion crust surfaces, which are important in determining the extent of terrestrial weathering of meteorites. The focus of this study is weathering features and secondary minerals other than the distinctive carbonate globules that continue to be studied by many researchers.

  11. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  12. Reduction of jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and secondary mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingjie, Ouyang; Xiancai, Lu; Huan, Liu; Juan, Li; Tingting, Zhu; Xiangyu, Zhu; Jianjun, Lu; Rucheng, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Jarosite is a common mineral in a variety of environments formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide normally accompanying with the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) in mining areas or acid rock drainages (ARD) in many localities. Decomposition of jarosite by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) influences the mobility of many heavy metals generally accommodated in natural jarosite. This study examined the anaerobic reduction of synthesized jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a typical facultative bacteria. The release of ferrous and ferric ion, as well as sulfate and potassium, in the inoculated experimental group lasting 80 days is much higher than that in abiotic control groups. The detection of bicarbonate and acetate in experimental solution further confirms the mechanism of microbial reduction of jarosite, in which lactate acts as the electron donor. The produced ferrous iron stimulates the subsequent secondary mineralization, leading to precipitation and transformation of various iron-containing minerals. Green rust and goethite are the intermediate minerals of the microbial reduction process under anoxic conditions, and the end products include magnetite and siderite. In aerobic environments, goethite, magnetite and siderite were also detected, but the contents were relatively lower. While in abiotic experiments, only goethite has been detected as a product. Thus, the microbial reduction and subsequent mineral transformation can remarkably influence the geochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in supergene environments, as well as the mobility of heavy metals commonly accommodated in jarosite.

  13. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  14. Mineral dissolution and secondary precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions affecting subsurface porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-01

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89 °C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  15. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Chun-rong; Chen, Miao; Zhang, Jian-heng; Lin, Zhi-ya; Chen, Rong-chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV) function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin. Results The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95) than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09), and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79), with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05. Conclusions Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD. PMID:26998756

  16. Pulmonary Vein Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Blunt Trauma: A Novel Management Strategy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mui Heng; Teo, Li Tserng; Pua, Uei

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic pulmonary vein pseudoaneurysm is an extremely rare condition that is challenging to manage. We present a unique case of a pulmonary vein pseudoaneurysm from blunt trauma in a patient with previous ipsilateral decortication. The patient was treated with percutaneous transparenchymal access to the pulmonary vein pseudoaneurysm. PMID:26897211

  17. Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Ian E.; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine; Mills, Stuart J.

    2006-12-01

    Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A x[(W,Fe)(O,OH) 3] yH 2O are described. Phyllotungstite ( A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3) , c=19.55(1) , space group P6 3/ mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia ( A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1) , c=50.49(1) , space group P-6 m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111) py pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111) py blocks have the same thickness, 6 , whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12 . The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111) py oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO 3.

  18. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Minerals KidsHealth > For Kids > Minerals Print A A A Text Size What's in ... commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals ? But when you think of minerals, food isn' ...

  19. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  20. Bone mineral density evaluation among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to cerebral palsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Leonel, Rayana Bomfim; Perim, Larissa Grobério Lopes; Oliveira, Tarcísio Guimarães Silva; Jacob Júnior, Charbel; Júnior, José Lucas Batista; Lourenço, Rafael Burgomeister

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate bone mineral density among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study in which both bone densitometric and anthropometric data were evaluated. The inclusion criteria used were that the patients should present quadriplegic cerebral palsy, be confined to a wheelchair, be between 10 and 20 years of age and present neuromuscular scoliosis. Results We evaluated 31 patients (20 females) with a mean age of 14.2 years. Their mean biceps circumference, calf circumference and body mass index were 19.4 cm, 18.6 cm and 16.9 kg/m2, respectively. The mean standard deviation from bone densitometry was −3.2 (z-score), which characterizes osteoporosis. Conclusion There is high incidence of osteoporosis in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:26229882

  1. Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; Serne, R. Jeff; Yabusaki

    2001-06-01

    Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. At issue is the distribution of contaminants beneath the tanks, and the processes that led to their current disposition and will control their future mobility. The high ionic strength, high pH, and high aluminum concentrations in the tank liquids can significantly alter the vadose zone sediments through dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary minerals. Dissolution and precipitation directly influence (1) the flow paths that control contaminant transport and (2) the reactivity of the solid matrix that controls contaminant mobility. The impact of these processes, however, depends on mineral reaction kinetics and the dynamic interaction of the reactions with the flow field and contaminant sorption, neither of which are well-known for this extreme chemical system. Data obtained will be directly useful to other EMSP projects addressing contaminant mobility in the vadose zone. We are addressing three specific issues: (1) Recognized factors that control the kinetics of dissolution and precipitation must be quantified for the unnatural system of tank solutions mixing with soils, including effects of high pH, high ionic strength (especially NaNO3 solutions), temperature, and saturation state. (2) A clear understanding of the roles of nucleation mechanism, nucleation sites on soils minerals, and the role of reactive surface area in simultaneous dissolution and precipitation reactions are the key unknown components in comprehending this contaminated soil system. (3) Results obtained will help build a mechanistic understanding of how tank fluids migrate through the vadose zone. Local changes in porosity and permeability will dictate preferential flow paths which directly regulate the transport of later arriving chemical species. Changes in mineral surface area affect sorption site distribution. A comprehensive model is needed that integrates these feedback mechanisms with all the critically available data.

  2. Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail. PMID:20851443

  3. Alteration of bentonite by hyperalkaline fluids: A review of the role of secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, David; Walker, Colin; Arthur, Randy; Rochelle, Chris; Oda, Chie; Takase, Hiro

    Data concerning potential solid products of the interaction of cement pore fluids with bentonite have been reviewed with respect to accurate prediction of bentonite alteration in the long-term. Calcium (aluminium) silicate hydrates (C(A)SH), zeolites, feldspars, hydroxides, carbonates, polymorphs of silica, and some sheet silicates (all of varying degrees of crystallinity) are potential products of cement-bentonite interaction. Evidence from natural systems and laboratory studies suggests that most, or all of these phases, may precipitate on timescales of interest to safety assessment of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. These data indicate that growth kinetics of secondary minerals is equally as important as thermodynamic stability in controlling occurrence. C(A)SH show variable Ca/Si ratio and Al contents. At high pH (>11), the growth of C(A)SH minerals provides a means by which OH - ions from cement pore fluids may be titrated. Although thermodynamic data exist for a number of naturally-occurring crystalline C(A)SH minerals, they are of doubtful quality and should be applied with caution in predictive modelling. Zeolites are likely to form at lower pH than for C(A)SH, with the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite decreasing with increasing pH of the fluid. Zeolite stability is also strongly dependent upon silica activity in the fluid phase. Although silica activity in bentonite pore fluids will be spatially (and temporally) variable as hyperalkaline alteration proceeds, it is likely that minerals which could form would be those stable in quartz-saturated or supersaturated fluids. Currently available thermodynamic data for zeolites tend to overestimate their stability, leading to inaccurate predictions of their occurrence. Notwithstanding this uncertainty, it is considered that the following secondary minerals are the most likely to form in low temperature cement-bentonite systems: calcite, dolomite, chalcedony, C(A)SH of variable Ca/Si ratio, K-feldspar, illite, phillipsite, analcime, clinoptilolite, and heulandite. The relatively more siliceous zeolites (clinoptilolite, phillipsite) are likely to form at lower pH (distal regions of migrating cement pore fluids), whereas C(A)SH, illite, feldspars, and the more aluminous zeolites (analcime, heulandite) are more likely to form at higher pH and hence, the more proximal regions of migrating cement pore fluids. Predominantly Na-, K-bearing solids will be transformed to those dominated by Ca as the composition of cement pore fluids evolves with time.

  4. Relative mesothelioma induction in rats by mineral fibers: Comparison with residual pulmonary mineral-fiber number and epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Coffin, D.L.; Cook, P.M.; Creason, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Large differences in mesothelioma induction by various minerals were demonstrated in rats on the basis of tumor to fiber ratios. Erinoite was 500-800 times more tumorigenic and crocidolite 30-60 times more tumorigenic than chysotile. Erionite was relatively more potent when introduced intratrachealy than either asbestos. The data rank similarly to human exposure to the same mineral fibers. The authors propose that a factor here termed intrinsic potency probably related to surface activity overrides both fiber number and geometric configuration when fibers of strongly different tumorigenicity are compared. The potency difference may be related to differing tendencies of the respective surfaces to coordinate endogenous iron and release free radicals via the Fenton reaction during the reduction from the ferric to the ferrous state. It is suggested that such potency differences may explain the failure of certain man-made fibers to induce mesothelioma from inhalation exposure because of insufficient dose reaching the mesothelium. (Copyright (c) 1992 by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.)

  5. A Rare Case of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Secondary to Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kunal; Zainah, Hadeel; Bhatnagar, Shubhita; Stein, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare presentation of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. While histoplasmosis has been reported to cause hemoptysis and alveolar hemorrhage in children, the English language literature lacks any adult case reports documenting this association. We report a case of pulmonary histoplasmosis where the initial presentation was pneumonia with a subsequent diagnosis of DAH. PMID:26435863

  6. [State of pulmonary surfactant and hemodynamics of lesser blood circulation in Donets Basin coal miners during development of dust-induced respiratory tract diseases].

    PubMed

    Korzh, E V; Valutsina, V M; Protsiuk, R G

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory diseases caused by dust in coal miners and high-risk group are manifested by accumulation of low surface-active surfactant masses, which thicken alveolar-capillary membrane, thus the smallest bronchi and alveoli collapse and diffusion of oxygen across blood-gas barrier becomes inadequate. Respiratory hypoxemia leads to reflectory construction of pulmonary arterioles, hence pulmonary hypertension occurs and cuts down blood supply to middle and lower portions of lungs, where dust is the most likely to invade. The blood supply is therefore shunted to the upper portions of lungs, which is compensatory. The stated changes appear at early stages of occupational respiratory diseases in miners. PMID:8061983

  7. Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets

    PubMed Central

    Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

  8. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    PubMed

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. PMID:21879833

  9. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  10. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B. (1991) EPSL, 101, 180-195. [12] Swindle T. D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2215-2227. [13]

  11. Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2003-06-01

    This project, renewal of a previous EMSP project of the same title, is in its first year of funding at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The purpose is to continue investigating rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals found in the Hanford subsurface and leaked waste tank solutions. The goals are to understand processes that result in (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. A post-doctoral scientist, Dr. Sherry Samson, has been hired and two masters of science students are beginning to conduct experimental research. One research project that is underway is focused on measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms. The first set of experiments is being conduced at room temperature. Subsequent experiments will examine the role of temperature because tank solutions in many cases were near boiling when leakage is thought to have occurred and temperature gradients have been observed beneath the SX and BX tank farms. The dissolution experiments are being conducted in stirred-flow kinetic reactors using powdered labradorite feldspar from Pueblo Park, New Mexico.

  12. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  13. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50th percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared with those with higher (>50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced aBMD in some patients with COPD. PMID:26003953

  14. Origin, timing, and temperature of secondary calcite-silica mineral formation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Nicholas S. F.; Cline, Jean S.; Amelin, Yuri V.

    2003-03-01

    The origin of secondary calcite-silica minerals in primary and secondary porosity of the host Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain has been hotly debated during the last decade. Proponents of a high-level nuclear waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain have interpreted the secondary minerals to have formed from cool, descending meteoric fluids in the vadose zone; critics, citing the presence of two-phase fluid inclusions, argued that the minerals could only have formed in the phreatic zone from ascending hydrothermal fluids. Understanding the origin, temperature, and timing of these minerals is critical in characterizing geologically recent fluid flux at the site, and has significant implications to whether waste should be stored at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic and paragenetic studies of 155 samples collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and repository block cross drift (ECRB) tunnels indicate that heterogeneously distributed calcite with lesser chalcedony, quartz, opal, and fluorite comprise the oldest secondary minerals. These are typically overgrown by intermediate-aged calcite, often exhibiting distinctive bladed habits. The youngest event recorded across the site is the deposition of Mg-enriched (up to ˜1 wt%) and depleted, growth-zoned calcite intergrown with U-enriched opal. The cyclical variation in Mg enrichment and depletion is probably related to climate changes that have occurred during the last few million years. The distribution of secondary minerals is consistent with precipitation in the vadose zone. Fluid inclusion petrography of sections from the 155 samples determined that 96% of the fluid inclusion assemblages (FIAs) contained liquid-only inclusions that formed at ambient temperatures (<35°C). However, 50% of the samples (n = 78) contained relatively rare FIA that contain both liquid-only and liquid plus vapor inclusions (herein termed two-phase FIAs) that formed at temperatures above 35°C. Virtually all of these two-phase FIAs occur in paragenetically old calcite; rare two-phase inclusion assemblages were also observed in early fluorite and quartz, and early-intermediate calcite. Homogenization temperatures (≡ trapping temperatures) across Yucca Mountain are generally 45 to 60°C, but higher temperatures reaching 83°C were recorded in calcite from the north portal and ramp of the ESF. Cooler temperatures of ˜35 to 45°C were recorded in the intensely fractured zone. Multiple populations of two-phase FIAs from lithophysal cavities in the ESF and ECRB cross drift indicate early fluid cooling with time from temperatures >45°C in early calcite, to <35 to 45°C in paragenetically younger calcite. Freezing point depressions range from -0.2 to -1.6°C, indicating trapping of a low salinity fluid. The majority of intermediate calcite and all outermost Mg-enriched calcite contains rare all-liquid inclusions and formed from ambient temperature (<35°C) fluids. Carbon and oxygen isotope data reveal a consistent trend of decreasing δ 13C (from 9.5 to -8.5‰) and increasing δ 18O (from 5.2 to 22.1‰) values from paragenetically early calcite to Mg-enriched growth-zoned calcite. Depleted δD values (-131 to -90‰) of inclusion fluids from intermediate and the youngest Mg-enriched calcite indicate derivation from surface meteoric fluids. Recalculation of δ 18O H 2O values of -12 to -10‰ is consistent with derivation from paleometeoric fluids. Results of integrated U-Pb dating (opal and chalcedony) and fluid inclusion microthermometry indicate that two-phase FIAs that trapped fluids of >50°C are older than 6.29 ± 0.30 Ma. Two-phase FIAs in paragenetically later calcite, which formed from fluids of 35 to 45°C, are older than 5.32 ± 0.02 Ma. There is no evidence for trapping of fluids with elevated temperatures during the past 5.32 my. The youngest Mg-enriched calcite intergrown with opal began to precipitate between about 1.9 to 2.9 Ma and has continued to precipitate within the past half million years. The presence of liquid-only inclusions and the consistent occurrence of Mg-enriched calcite and opal as the youngest event indicate a minor, but chemically distinct, ambient temperature (<35°C) fluid flux during the past 2 to 3 my.

  15. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  16. Vasovagal response secondary to permanent contraception device in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ataya, Ali; Cope, Jessica; Alnuaimat, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Adequate contraception is an essential component of managing pulmonary hypertension in women of childbearing age. Intrauterine devices are a popular contraceptive choice for many women but are associated with a risk of vagal response upon placement in certain patients with pulmonary hypertension, which may not be well tolerated. More recently, newer permanent contraception devices have emerged in the market, such as the Essure. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of vagal-associated response due to an Essure device placement. PMID:26697184

  17. Vasovagal response secondary to permanent contraception device in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Jessica; Alnuaimat, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adequate contraception is an essential component of managing pulmonary hypertension in women of childbearing age. Intrauterine devices are a popular contraceptive choice for many women but are associated with a risk of vagal response upon placement in certain patients with pulmonary hypertension, which may not be well tolerated. More recently, newer permanent contraception devices have emerged in the market, such as the Essure. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of vagal-associated response due to an Essure device placement. PMID:26697184

  18. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  19. Right Atrial Thrombus Mimicking Myxoma with Pulmonary Embolism in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Secondary Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cianciulli, Toms F.; Saccheri, Mara C.; Redruello, Hctor J.; Cosarinsky, Lucas A.; Celano, Leonardo; Trila, Carla S.; Parisi, Coloma E.; Prezioso, Horacio A.

    2008-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is a well-defined entity that is characterized by spontaneous abortion, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent arterial and venous thromboses. A partially calcified right atrial thrombus mimicking myxoma with recurrent pulmonary embolism has not been previously reported in a patient who also had systemic lupus erythematosus and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. Herein, we describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome who was admitted to the hospital with progressive exertional dyspnea. Ventilation-perfusion scanning showed multiple parenchymal defects in the lungs that portended pulmonary embolism. In addition, the scanning revealed normal regional ventilation. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography showed a right atrial mass that was highly suggestive of myxoma, and the patient subsequently underwent surgery. A histologic examination showed an organized, partially calcified thrombus. Intracardiac thrombus has been rarely reported as a complication of antiphospholipid syndrome. In our patient, the preoperative investigations could not differentiate the partially calcified right atrial thrombus from a myxoma, and the diagnosis was made postoperatively. PMID:19156241

  20. 9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

  1. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100 μg L(-1) As; >1000 μg L(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities). PMID:25898346

  2. Management of In-vitro Fertilization Twin Pregnancy with Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Systemic Lupus Erthematosus

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Brent; Yang, Howard; Devendra, Gehan

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated severe pulmonary hypertension developing in pregnancy is a rare and clinically serious phenomenon. Mortality in this patient population is as high as 56%. We present a case of new onset SLE-associated pulmonary hypertension with in-vitro fertilization (IVF) twin pregnancy. This is a 44-year-old Chinese woman with past medical history significant for SLE who initially presented to outpatient pulmonology clinic with progressive shortness of breath during the 21st week of her IVF pregnancy. Initial work up included a transthoracic echocardiogram that estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure to be 55 mm Hg. Further evaluation including right heart catheterization revealed mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 48 mm Hg. At 25 weeks into pregnancy, she was admitted to the medical intensive unit for epoprostenol infusion under the care of a multidisciplinary team including pulmonology, obstetrics-gynecology, neonatology, and cardiology. Additional management included oral furosemide, fluid restriction and sildenafil. Enoxaparin for thrombosis prophylaxis was discontinued due to significant thrombocytopenia that developed during hospitalization. She did not develop a lupus flare during her hospitalization while on hydroxychloroquine and prednisone. Patient delivered at 30 weeks via cesarean section under slow epidural infusion. A viable male infant and female infant were delivered without complications. She continued epoprostenol infusion until worsening thrombocytopenia led to transition to treprostinil therapy. She was discharged from the hospital in stable condition and is doing well on continued treprostinil infusion with sildenafil. Combination of immunosuppressive and intravenous-vasodilator therapy have been implemented and subsequently reported in available case studies of this rare phenomenon. A similar regimen aimed at management of profound hemodynamic changes and lupus control was successfully utilized in the care of this patient with twin pregnancy, which may suggest a potential standard of care in these rare cases. Patients in the postpartum are at particular risk for mortality due to the loss of pulmonary vasodilation that normally occurs, leading to right ventricular failure. Long term prognosis and complications of SLE-associated pulmonary hypertension are still under investigation.

  3. Effects of salinity and the extent of water on supercritical CO2-induced phlogopite dissolution and secondary mineral formation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongbo; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

    2011-02-15

    To ensure the viability of geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), we need a holistic understanding of reactions at supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock interfaces and the environmental factors affecting these interactions. This research investigated the effects of salinity and the extent of water on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of phlogopite [KMg2.87Si3.07Al1.23O10(F,OH)2], a model clay mineral in potential GCS sites. Salinity enhanced the dissolution of phlogopite and affected the location, shape, size, and phase of secondary minerals. In low salinity solutions, nanoscale particles of secondary minerals formed much faster, and there were more nanoparticles than in high salinity solutions. The effect of water extent was investigated by comparing scCO2-H2O(g)-phlogopite and scCO2-H2O(l)-phlogopite interactions. Experimental results suggested that the presence of a thin water film adsorbed on the phlogopite surface caused the formation of dissolution pits and a surface coating of secondary mineral phases that could change the physical properties of rocks. These results provide new information for understanding reactions at scCO2-saline water-rock interfaces in deep saline aquifers and will help design secure and environmentally sustainable CO2 sequestration projects. PMID:21222477

  4. Pulmonary lesions and serum levels of soluble Fas (sCD95) in former hard coal miners

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Fas/APO-1 (CD95) and Fas Ligand (FasL) is a major mediator system that activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) and is most important for pulmonary cellular homeostasis. Another form of Fas, circulating soluble Fas (sCD95), produced by alternative mRNA splicing antagonizes the cell-surface Fas function. It was the aim of the study to test the hypothesis that the Fas/FasL system is implicated in the development of silica-induced pulmonary nodular lesions. Materials and methods We investigated the serum levels of sCD95 in 55 former hard coal miners. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) was assumed when the profusion of small round opacities according to the ILO 2000 classification system was 1/1 or greater. Analyses of sCD95 were performed by a sandwich ELISA. Results Radiologic CWP was found in 34 of the 55 individuals. The age of subjects with and without CWP was similar (73.5 (SD 7.2) years vs. 73.5 (7.1) years; P = 0.924). sCD95 could be quantified in all samples; significantly higher levels were observed in subjects with radiologic signs of CWP (914 (752-1251) pg/ml vs. 632 (509-804) pg/ml, P < 0.001). However, there was no relationship between sCD95 serum concentrations and the quantity of profusion according to ILO. Conclusions The hypothesis of elevated sCD95 concentrations in CWP was corroborated. The usefulness of sCD95 for prevention and diagnosis of CWP and other forms of silica-induced fibrosis needs to be established By epidemiological studies. PMID:21147622

  5. Delayed Pneumoperitoneum and Acute Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Acute Gastric Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae Yun; Kim, Jong Kun

    2015-01-01

    Pneumoperitoneum caused by acute gastric dilatation (AGD) is a very rare complication. We report a case of pneumoperitoneum and acute pulmonary edema caused by AGD in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. A 78-year-old woman presented with pneumonia and AGD. We inserted a nasogastric tube and administered empirical antibiotics. We performed an endoscopy, and perforation or necrosis of the stomach and pyloric stenosis were not observed. Thirty-six hours after admission, the patient suddenly developed dyspnea and shock, and eventually died. We suspected the cause of death was pneumoperitoneum and acute pulmonary edema caused by AGD during the conservative treatment period. Immunocompromised patients with chronic illness require close observation even if they do not show any symptoms suggestive of complications. Even if the initial endoscopic or abdominal radiologic findings do not show gastric necrosis or perforation, follow-up with endoscopy is essential to recognize complications of AGD early. PMID:26668807

  6. Pulmonary Function and Survival in Idiopathic vs Secondary Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Matthew J.; Sprunger, David; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R.; Frankel, Stephen K.; Huie, Tristan J.; Olson, Amy L.; Solomon, Joshua; Brown, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern of lung injury may occur in the setting of connective tissue disease (CTD), but it is most commonly found in the absence of a known cause, in the clinical context of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Our objective was to observe and compare longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and survival between patients with biopsy-proven UIP found in the clinical context of either CTD or IPF. METHODS: We used longitudinal data analytic models to compare groups (IPF [n = 321] and CTD-UIP [n = 56]) on % predicted FVC (FVC %) or % predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco %), and we used both unadjusted and multivariable techniques to compare survival between these groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in longitudinal changes in FVC % or Dlco % up to diagnosis, or from diagnosis to 10 years beyond (over which time, the mean decrease in FVC % per year [95% CI] was 4.1 [3.4, 4.9] for IPF and 3.5 [1.8, 5.1] for CTD-UIP, P = .49 for difference; and the mean decrease in Dlco % per year was 4.7 [4.0, 5.3] for IPF and 4.3 [3.0, 5.6] for CTD-UIP, P = .60 for difference). Despite the lack of differences in pulmonary function, subjects with IPF had worse survival in unadjusted (log-rank P = .003) and certain multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Despite no significant differences in changes in pulmonary function over time, patients with CTD-UIP (at least those with certain classifiable CTDs) live longer than patients with IPF—an observation that we suspect is due to an increased rate of mortal acute exacerbations in patients with IPF. PMID:24700149

  7. Volcanic stratigraphy and secondary mineralization of U. S. G. S. Pucci geothermal test well, Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gannett, M.W.; Bargar, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-one sample splits of drill cuttings from approximately 6.1 m intervals in the 610 m hole that was completed in 1979 were provided for this study. An additional 225 sample splits (3.05 m intervals) from 536 m to the bottom of the drill hole at 1220 m were added to the study following the deepening of the drill hole. Stratigraphic and petrologic observations of the cuttings were made. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer examinations were made of alteration minerals. The lithology and secondary mineralization are discussed.

  8. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some of the minerals you get from food. Calcium Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to ... on tasty food. Which foods are rich in calcium? dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt ...

  9. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  10. Environmental pulmonary health problems related to mineral dusts: Examples from central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do?an, M.

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of benign disorders including pleural thickening (PT), calcified pleural plaques (CPP), and malignant diseases such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in central Anatolia. Earlier studies suggested tremolite was the main cause, and there was no explanation why some of the population did not have malignant cases, and plaques were by far the most frequent manifestation of asbestos-induced injury. In this study, geological, mineralogical and environmental data were evaluated. While the prolonged continuous exposure to high or low doses of long (8-30 m) and thin (less than 0.25 m) mixed fibers such as chrysolite, and/or anthophyllite or tremolite, and also silica particles may be the cause of MPM in central Anatolia, two different reasons for the CPP and PT are suggested. The first one is short (less than 8 m) and thin mixed-type mineral fibers. The second reason is low doses of long, but thick, splintery tremolite fibers.

  11. Exertional abdominal pain as a symptom of secondary pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Najafian, J; Toghianifar, N; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare presentation of mitral stenosis (MS). MS is a common valvular disease, the first manifestation of which is usually easy fatigability and exertional dyspnea. As the disease progresses in severity, other signs and symptoms appear, such as orthopnea, hemoptysis, and peripheral edema. This is the first report of a case of mitral stenosis presenting with exertional abdominal pain as the first manifestation. This case report describes the clinical characteristics of a 55-year-old woman with mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension, whose first symptom was exertional abdominal pain. PMID:23377483

  12. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

    SciTech Connect

    SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

    1998-10-23

    Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

  13. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

    1998-02-01

    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  14. Comparison of microstructure of superplastically deformed synthetic materials and ultramylonite: Coalescence of secondary mineral grains via grain boundary sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Tasaka, M.; Yoshida, H.

    2011-12-01

    Using very fine-grained aggregates of forsterite containing ~10vol% secondary mineral phase such as periclase and enstatite, we have been able to demonstrate their superplascity, that is, achievement of more than a few 100 % tensile strain (Hiraga et al. 2010). Superplastic deformation is commonly considered to proceed via grain boundary sliding (GBS) which results in grain switching in the samples. Hiraga et al. (2010) succeeded in detecting the operation of GBS from observing the coalescence of grains of secondary phase in superplastically deformed samples. The secondary phase pins the motion of grain boundaries of the primary phase; however, the reduction of the number of the grains of secondary phase due to their coalescence allows grain growth of the primary phase. We analyzed the relationships between grain size of the primary and secondary phases, between strain and grain size, and between strain and the number of coalesced grains in the superplastically deformed samples. The results supports participation of all the grains of the primary phase in grain switching process indicating that the grain boundary sliding accommodates almost entire strain during the deformation. Mechanical properties of these materials such as their stress and grain size exponents of 1-2 do not conflict this conclusion. We applied the relationships obtained from analyzing superplastic materials to the microstructure of the natural samples, which has been considered to have deformed via grain boundary sliding, that is, ultramylonite. The microstructure of greenschist-grade ultramylonite reported by Fliervoet et al. (1997) was analyzed. Distributions of the mineral phases (i.e., quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite) show distinct coalescence of the same mineral phases in the direction almost perpendicular to the foliation of the rock. The number of coalesced grains indicates that the strain that rock experienced is > 2. [reference] Hiraga et al. (2010) Nature 468, 1091-1094; Fliervoet et al. (1997) Journal of Structural Geology 19, 1495-1520

  15. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; White, Art F.; Stonestrom, Dave A.

    2009-05-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO 2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  17. [AA-type amyloidosis secondary to multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: implications for therapy].

    PubMed

    Baux, E; Henard, S; Alauzet, C; Goehringer, F; Laurain, C; Champigneulle, J; Vaillant, P; Hardy, A; Rabaud, C; May, T

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed to a 32-year-old man. An AA-amyloidosis was subsequently diagnosed on the renal biopsy performed for nephrotic syndrome and macroscopic hematuria. A 6-drug antibiotic treatment was delivered quickly after first results of genotypic antibiogram given the renal failure, and was secondarily adapted to the phenotypic antibiogram. Multidrug therapy was fairly well tolerated. Clinical and biological improving were slow. Although tuberculosis is a classic cause of amyloidosis, this is the first case reporting an association between a multidrug resistant case and an amyloidosis in adults. This case also raises the question of MDR probabilistic treatments in situations whether a vital organ prognosis is engaged. PMID:26198876

  18. Low bone mineral density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is common in patients with COPD but the likely multi-factorial causes contributing to this condition (e.g. sex, age, smoking, therapy) mask the potential contribution from elements related to COPD. In order to study osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD) related to COPD, we studied a well-defined group of patients and controls. Methods BMD, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), circulating bone biomarkers and biochemistry were determined in 30 clinically stable male ex-smokers with confirmed COPD and 15 age matched "ex-smoker" male controls. None of the patients were on inhaled corticosteroids or received more than one short course of steroids. Results Mean (SD) FEV1% predicted of patients was 64(6)%, the majority having Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) II airflow obstruction. There were 5/30 patients and 1/15 controls who were osteoporotic, while a further 17 patients and 5 controls were osteopenic. The BMD at the hip was lower in patients than controls, but not at the lumbar spine. Mean values of procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide and osteocalcin, both markers of bone formation, and Type 1 collagen β C-telopeptide, a marker of bone resorption, were similar between patients and controls. However, all bone biomarkers were inversely related to hip BMD in patients (r = -0.51, r = -0.67, r = -0.57, p < 0.05) but did not relate to lumbar spine BMD. 25-OH Vitamin D was lower in patients. Conclusions Men with COPD had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia than age matched male controls, with a marked difference in BMD at the hip. Bone biomarkers suggest increased bone turnover. PMID:21812978

  19. Minerals and rocks, what a passion! A CLIL unit in an Italian lower secondary class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Piera; Fiorineschi, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    CLIL means Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since September 2014 the teaching of a discipline in a foreign language has been compulsory in the final year of all high schools of Italy and recommended in lower secondary schools. So I decided to take part in a training course about "CLIL in Sciences teaching " that ANISN (Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Scienze Naturali ) was being held in Bologna from October to December 2014. There I learned that CLIL is much more than the translation of a traditional lecture to a foreign language. It is actually a set of new methodologies, largely based on Bloom's taxonomy, and making use of many kinds of technical support often referred to as "scaffolding" . It provides a context to improve communication because "natural language is never learned divorced from meaning". But CLIL is even more effective in order to learn the content, which is more important here than in immersion methodology. In the course we had to chose a subject , develop it in a structured unit, experiment the unit in a class of ours, using just English, and finally present it to the colleagues in Bologna. I decided to do the activity with 13 year old students. We had started the science lessons with chemistry, this year and I needed a subject consistent with that. So the choice was: Minerals! Because they belong to chemistry, being chemical compounds. Subsequently, even when the course in Bologna had come to an end, we continued with: Rocks! Since the pupils were pleased to do it and I was satisfied with their results. I worked together with my colleague who teaches English in the same class. We developed the subject following the instructions I had been given at the course: we showed the students videos found on line, providing them with the script; we made the text easier for them; we made them work in couples; I organized lab activities to improve learning skills to which they could apply their knowledge . Cross - curricolar links are an important advantage of such a unit; minerals and rocks are linked to physics, chemistry, geomorphology, and also to geography , history, econonomics, and maths. The follow up activities were even more interesting. When we found that the weathering of feldspars to clay can increase the probability of a landslide, I gave the students an example of one of the most famous landslides in the world, Vajont. The students were so interested that they looked by themselves for further information about that tragedy, and the context in which it was possible to happen. Another concept which turned out to be fascinating to the students was how rocks can tell us the geological history of a region . The results of the activities were quite good in Sciences and good in English; the students accepted the challenge, they played along with us and had fun explaining their activities during the open labs devoted to the families of younger students.

  20. Tracking rainfall variations in the late Pleistocene using U isotopes in dated secondary soil minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, D. E.; Oster, J. L.; Maher, K.

    2011-12-01

    Past changes in rainfall are an important indicator of variations in atmospheric circulation. However, there are very few approaches that are uniquely sensitive to past changes in rainfall and use common materials that can be accurately dated. Secondary minerals in arid soils form directly from rainfall and can precipitate continuously over hundreds of thousands of years. Previous studies have used stable isotope measurements of soil carbonates to look at a variety of processes such as precipitation source and amount, evaporation, temperature, and vegetation. Often, the challenge with stable isotope approaches is to distinguish between these factors. In addition, stable isotope studies have not traditionally used high-resolution analytical techniques to capture the temporal variations within a given sample. The development of alternative isotopic systems that more directly reflect rainfall would provide a complimentary tool to more traditional strategies. In order to evaluate whether widely observed variations in the calculated initial U isotopic composition of dated soil minerals (e.g. (234U/238U)0) reflect changes in past rainfall, we sampled modern soil pore waters, soils and dust from a rainfall gradient in Fish Lake Valley, NV. In situ ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) techniques were used to determine the 230Th-U ages and (234U/238U)0 from uranium-rich soil opal collected at three field sites in western North America. Modern pore waters in desert soils from Fish Lake Valley, NV show systematic decreases in (234U/238U) with increasing rainfall. This is attributed to increasing infiltration flux and chemical weathering at higher rainfall rates, as the eolian influence should likely remain the same across the rainfall gradient. Although changes in the uranium concentration and isotopic composition of dust through time may also influence the (234U/238U) of soil water, these changes are likely minimal relative to changes in infiltration flux. The variations in (234U/238U)0 obtained from 230Th-U dating of soil opal span approximately the last 5-60 kyrs. Based on the modern pore water data, we interpret low (234U/238U)0 to indicate periods of higher rainfall, and high (234U/238U)0 to indicate periods of reduced rainfall. We observe nearly synchronous shifts during the last glacial-interglacial transition along the latitudinal transect of our field sites. Our initial results show that the transition from MIS 3 to 2 was likely characterized by increasing precipitation, with peak rainfall at the beginning of MIS 2. This corresponds to generally decreasing SST off of the California coast and rainier periods in speleothem records from the southwestern United States. Additionally (234U/238U)0 from our soil opal records co-varies with fluctuations in lake levels of large pluvial lake systems in western North America. The synchronous signal of increased rainfall during MIS 2 is consistent with a southward-shift in westerly storm tracks at the LGM. Our approach demonstrates an alternative method for increasing the spatial coverage and chronology of climate records in arid regions.

  1. Preservation of primary mineral inclusions and secondary mineralization in igneous zircon: a case study in orthogneiss from the Blue Ridge, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.

    2016-03-01

    A wide variety of minerals occur as inclusions in igneous zircon and can provide valuable evidence of source magma composition from originally magmatic zircons in metamorphic and clastic sedimentary rocks. However, it is not clear the extent to which zircons preserve the primary composition of their inclusions through a variety of geologic processes. This paper documents a case study of inclusion-rich, originally igneous zircon from an orthogneiss in the Blue Ridge of southwest Virginia. Zircon inclusions isolated from cracks contain 4 % clearly metamorphic phases (mainly in hosts with disturbed U-Pb systems) and otherwise retain distinct plagioclase chemistry, K-feldspar/plagioclase pairs, and biotite with much wider-ranging Mg/(Mg + Fe) than biotite in the rock matrix. A clearly secondary mineralization suite filling cracks in the zircons consists of quartz, biotite, albite, and epidote. Overall, these zircons preserve mineral inclusions distinct from their current host rock (except when exposed to external environments via cracks), demonstrating that non-metamict zircons may preserve their primary inclusion assemblages through later amphibolite to lower granulite facies metamorphism.

  2. Involvement of NADPH oxidase and iNOS in rodent pulmonary cytokine responses to urban air and mineral particles.

    PubMed

    Becher, Rune; Bucht, Anders; vrevik, Johan; Hongslo, Jan K; Dahlman, Hans Jrgen; Samuelsen, Jan Tore; Schwarze, Per E

    2007-06-01

    We have investigated the potential of two complex mineral particles (feldspar and mylonite), quartz (Min-U-Sil), and suspended particulate matter (SRM-1648) (SPM) from urban air to induce inflammatory cytokine responses in primary rat alveolar type 2 cells and alveolar macrophages, and the involvement of cellular formation of free radicals in these responses. All particle types induced an increased release of interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 from type 2 cells. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), a selective inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase, reduced the IL-6 and MIP-2 responses to quartz, SPM and mylonite. N-(3-[Aminomethyl] benzyl) acetamidine (1400W), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), significantly reduced the Il-6 response to SPM and feldspar in the type 2 cells. The macrophages displayed significantly increased TNF-alpha and MIP-2 release upon exposure to quartz or SPM. Here, DPI significantly reduced the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and MIP-2 responses to quartz, and the MIP-2 response to SPM. No significant effect of 1400 W was detected in the alveolar macrophages. The role of particle-induced cellular generation of free radicals in lung cytokine responses was further elucidated in mice that lacked either NADPH-oxidase or iNOS as well as in wild-type (wt) mice. All particles were able to elicit increased cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of the mice, although the levels depended on particle type. The NADPH-oxidase knockout (KO) mice demonstrated a significantly lower IL-6 and MIP-2 responses to SPM compared to their respective wt mice. The iNOS KO mice displayed significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-alpha, and MIP-2 responses to SPM. The overall results indicate the involvement of cellular free-radical formation in the pulmonary cytokine responses to particles of varying composition. PMID:17510837

  3. A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.

    2012-12-01

    A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

  4. Chronic granulomatous disease with pulmonary mass-like opacities secondary to hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic granulomatous disease, one of the primary immunodeficiency syndromes, is characterized by failure of phagocytic capacity due to loss of reactive oxygen species production, as well as formation of granulomas in organs. Clinically, dysregulated inflammation by excessive cytokine production due to loss of reactive oxygen species production is suggested as a cause of noninfectious inflammatory problems such as chronic granulomatous disease colitis. We experienced a rare case of a patient with chronic granulomatous disease with unique pathological and radiological presentations of hypersensitive pneumonitis, which to our knowledge has never been previously reported. Case presentation A 20-year-old Japanese man with chronic granulomatous disease was referred due to cough and abnormal chest imaging findings. Computed tomography of his chest showed diffuse, bilateral, centrilobular nodules and multiple mass lesions in lower lobes that do not fit a common image of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Pathological findings of both nodules and mass lesions on surgical lung biopsy were homogeneous, and excessive granulomas in the bronchioles and alveolar duct as well as lymphocytic alveolitis were seen, all consistent with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The radiological and laboratory abnormalities did not improve after antigen avoidance; however, they disappeared after high-dose steroid therapy. Conclusions When we encounter a case of hypersensitive pneumonitis showing atypical pulmonary mass-like opacities in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, we should consider hyperinflammatory status and excessive granuloma formation of chronic granulomatous disease and start with high-dose steroid therapy as treatment. PMID:24989247

  5. Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W.; Soong, Yee; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}waterrock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldsparsCO{sub 2}brine interactions at 150200 C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolutionprecipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate?G{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral information at CO{sub 2} storage conditions.

  6. Detoxification and mineralization of Acid Blue 74: study of an alternative secondary treatment to improve the enzymatic decolourization.

    PubMed

    Mndez-Hernndez, J E; Ramrez-Vives, F; Sols-Oba, M; Sols-Oba, A; Sobrino-Figueroa, A S; Loera, O

    2013-05-01

    Many reports describe the decolourization of dyes by fungal enzymes. However, these enzymes do not contribute to dye mineralization but only to its biotransformation into less coloured or colourless molecules persisting in solution. Therefore, it is essential to analyse the identity of the metabolites produced during enzymatic treatments and its biodegradation into an appropriate system. The present work examines the decolourization/detoxification of a simulated effluent (containing Acid Blue 74) by fungal enzymes and proposes a secondary treatment using an anaerobic system to improve the enzymatic decolourization through the complete mineralization of the dye. Ligninolytic enzymes were produced by solid culture using the thermo-tolerant fungus Fomes sp. EUM1. The enzymes produced showed a high rate of decolourization (>95 % in 5 h) and were stable at elevated temperature (40 C) and ionic strength (NaCl, 50 mM). Isatin-5-sulphonic acid was identified via (1)H-NMR as oxidation product; tests using Daphnia magna revealed the non-toxic nature of this compound. To improve the enzymatic degradation and avoid coupling reactions between the oxidation products, the effluent was subjected to an anaerobic (methanogenic) treatment, which achieved high mineralization efficiencies (>85 %). To confirm the mineralization of isatin-5-sulphonic acid, a specific degradation study, which has not been reported before, with this single compound was conducted under the same conditions; the results showed high removal efficiencies (86 %) with methane production as evidence of mineralization. These results showed the applicability of an anaerobic methanogenic system to improve the enzymatic decolourization/detoxification of Acid Blue 74 and achieve its complete mineralization. PMID:23247918

  7. Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

  8. Migrating bullet: A case of a bullet embolism to the pulmonary artery with secondary pulmonary infarction after gunshot wound to the left globe

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Eugene; Peterson, Andrew A; Erly, William K

    2014-01-01

    Bullet embolism is a rare phenomenon following gunshot injuries. We present a case of a 25-year-old male who sustained a gunshot wound to his left globe with the bullet initially lodged in his right transverse sinus. The bullet ultimately embolized to a left lower lobe pulmonary artery resulting in a pulmonary infarct. A discussion of select prior cases, pathophysiology, and management strategies follows. PMID:24550629

  9. Sildenafil to facilitate weaning from inhaled nitric oxide and mechanical ventilation in a patient with severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomo; Sviri, Sigal; Orenbuch-Harroch, Efrat; Fellig, Yakov; Ben-Yehuda, Arie; Fridlender, Zvi G; Gilon, Dan; Bayya, Abed

    2011-10-01

    We describe the case of a woman who presented to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation. She had severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease, and her history included sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. She was dependent on inhaled nitric oxide (INO) to maintain safe arterial oxygen saturation and could not be weaned from mechanical ventilation. Echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale with substantial right-to-left shunt, which probably contributed to her hypoxemia. Sildenafil enabled weaning from INO and substantially reduced the flow through the patent foramen ovale. She was successfully extubated and discharged home. To our knowledge, this is the first report of weaning from INO and mechanical ventilation in a patient with both severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale. PMID:21513610

  10. Spatial distributions of secondary minerals in the Martian meteorite MIL 03346,168 determined by Raman spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Wang, Alian

    2015-06-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 03346 is a nakhlite meteorite that has been extensively studied due to its unique complex secondary mineral phases and their potential implications for the hydrologic history of Mars. We conducted a set of Raman spectroscopic and Raman imaging studies of MIL 03346,168, focusing on the secondary mineral phases and their spatial distributions, with a goal to better understand the possible processes by which they were generated on Mars. This study revealed three types of calcium sulfates, a solid solution of (K, Na)-jarosite and two groups of hydrated species with low crystallinity (HSLC) in the veins and/or mesostasis areas of the meteorite. The most abundant Ca-sulfate is bassanite that suggests two possible paths for its direct precipitation from a Ca-S-H2O brine, either having low water activity or with incomplete development (producing bassanite with gypsum microcrystals) on Mars. The second most abundant Ca-sulfate is soluble ?-CaSO4 which raises a new question on the origins of this phase in the Martian meteorite, since ?-CaSO4 readily hydrates in the laboratory but is apparently stable in Atacama Desert. The close spatial relationship of (K, Na)-jarosite solid solutions with rasvumite (KFe2S3), magnetite, HSLC, and fine-grained low-crystallinity alkali feldspar in mesostasis suggests a potential in situ formation of mesostasis jarosite from these Fe-K,Na-S-O-H2O species.

  11. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-09-29

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

  12. Secondary alteration of the impactite and mineralization in the basal Tertiary sequence, Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Doreen E.; Kjarsgaard, Ingrid M.; Pope, Kevin O.; Dressler, Burkhard; Pilkington, Mark

    2004-07-01

    The 65 Ma Chicxulub impact crater formed in the shallow coastal marine shelf of the Yucatán Platform in Mexico. Impacts into water-rich environments provide heat and geological structures that generate and focus sub-seafloor convective hydrothermal systems. Core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) hole, drilled by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), allowed testing for the presence of an impact-induced hydrothermal system by: a) characterizing the secondary alteration of the 100 m-thick impactite sequence; and b) testing for a chemical input into the lower Tertiary sediments that would reflect aquagene hydrothermal plume deposition. Interaction of the Yax-1 impactites with seawater is evident through redeposition of the suevites (unit 1), secondary alteration mineral assemblages, and the subaqueous depositional environment for the lower Tertiary carbonates immediately overlying the impactites. The least-altered silicate melt composition intersected in Yax-1 is that of a calc-alkaline basaltic andesite with 53.4-56 wt% SiO2 (volatile-free). The primary mineralogy consists of fine microlites of diopside, plagioclase (mainly Ab 47), ternary feldspar (Ab 37 to 77), and trace apatite, titanite, and zircon. The overprinting alteration mineral assemblage is characterized by Mg-saponite, Kmontmorillonite, celadonite, K-feldspar, albite, Fe-oxides, and late Ca and Mg carbonates. Mg and K metasomatism resulted from seawater interaction with the suevitic rocks producing smectite-Kfeldspar assemblages in the absence of any mixed layer clay minerals, illite, or chlorite. Rare pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite occur near the base of the impactites. These secondary alteration minerals formed by low temperature (0-150 °C) oxidation and fixation of alkalis due to the interaction of glass-rich suevite with down-welling seawater in the outer annular trough intersected at Yax-1. The alteration represents a cold, Mg-K-rich seawater recharge zone, possibly recharging higher temperature hydrothermal activity proposed in the central impact basin. Hydrothermal metal input into the Tertiary ocean is shown by elevated Ni, Ag, Au, Bi, and Te concentrations in marcasite and Cd and Ga in sphalerite in the basal 25 m of the Tertiary carbonates in Yax-1. The lower Tertiary trace element signature reflects hydrothermal metal remobilization from a mafic source rock and is indicative of hydrothermal venting of evolved seawater into the Tertiary ocean from an impact generated hydrothermal convective system.

  13. The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2013-06-03

    The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

  14. Mineral Association Changes the Secondary Structure and Dynamics of Murine Amelogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Junxia; Xu, Yimin; Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2013-12-18

    Biomineralization proteins, present during the formation of hard tissues including bones, teeth, egg shells and nacre, result in the exquisite structures and properties of the resulting materials.[1] The structure of these proteins is often implicated in the control of the mineral properties, however very little structural data is available for the bulk of these proteins due to the difficulty in determining structures of immobilized proteins. Solid-state NMR is uniquely suited to the study of the structure of proteins bound to surfaces, demonstrated with the structural and orientation insights provided for the hydroxyapatite mineralization proteins statherin and the amelogenin, LRAP.[2] While these data are some of the only structural data available for this important class of protein, the experiments are often expensive and time consuming, due to the need to prepare and measure samples with isolated spin pairs, and are limited to a size of ~60 residues. In this work, we utilized a combination of 1D and recent 2D[3] solid-state NMR techniques along with a sparsely labelled sample to characterize the structure and dynamics of potential HAP binding residues of the 180 residue enamel protein, amelogenin. Amelogenin nanospheres and mineral bound amelogenin were investigated and a shift from unstructured to -sheet structure was observed, along with a decrease in protein flexibility. This work provides the first molecular level structure and dynamic information of full-length amelogenin on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and within nanospheres, and demonstrates the ability to evaluate structural characteristics of large biomineralization proteins bound to their physiologically relevant surface. The research was performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a facility operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, with a portion of it performed at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. DOE Biological and Environmental Research program.

  15. Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many important geochemical reactions occur at the mineral-water interface, including sorption and desorption reactions of contaminants. Fundamental knowledge of the kinetics of these processes is based primarily on experimental observations of reactions at faces of single crystals or macroscopic data from pure mineral powder suspensions. Sorption reactions at crystal faces are generally very fast, on the order of microseconds or less, with reaction times often limited only by film diffusion at the mineral-water interface. In well-stirred suspensions of aquifer sediments, however, sorptive equilibrium can take many hours or days to achieve steady-state concentrations. We have examined the potential reasons for sorption rate limitation using uranium(VI) sorption by sediments from a sandy aquifer in Savannah River, South Carolina (USA). U(VI) sorption by sand-sized grains from the aquifer is dominated by reaction with secondary mineral coatings on quartz and feldspar grains. The coatings studied were on the order of 15 microns in thickness (i.e., from quartz grain to aqueous solution) and composed primarily of clay minerals and hematite of varying particle size. Microfocused-XRF imaging of elemental concentrations (e.g., U, Fe) of polished cross-sections of the grain/coating contact showed strong spatial correlations of U and Fe within the coatings, regardless of the length of reaction time (30 minutes to 4 weeks). The spatial resolution of the ?-XRF technique is of the order of 2 microns in horizontal directions, but the uncertainty of the observed spatial gradients is high due to grain curvature away from the polished surface and fluorescence contributed from the entire 30 micron thickness of a typical grain/epoxy thin section. TEM characterization of focused-ion-beam (FIB), vertically-extracted samples of the grain-coating contact shows that complex pore networks exist within the coatings of variable dimensions and unknown connectivity. Using scanning TEM (STEM) tomography, it can be seen that there are large numbers of pore throat sizes less than 10 nm within the coatings. We hypothesize that diffusion through these pores, which likely have electrically charged surfaces, controls the observed macroscopic rates of U(VI) sorption in batch experiments with sand grains. Evidence to support this hypothesis was observed by studying U and Fe fluorescence spatial variation within FIB samples (1 micron thick) at 200 nm spatial resolution. With this greater spatial resolution, it is possible to see U concentration variations within the coatings that are dependent on the time of sorption reaction, and illustrates how the coating environment constitutes a diffusion constraint to achieve adsorptive equilibrium between an aqueous phase and the mineral surfaces. Including this diffusion constraint within conceptual models for reactive contaminant transport may be significant at the field scale, because secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site. This is important in resolving long-term transport predictions at DOE sites, such as Hanford and Savannah River, where equilibrium versus kinetic reactive transport models are being evaluated.

  16. Fractionation of Stable Si Isotopes During in-situ Dissolution of Feldspars and Formation of Secondary Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, R. B.; Reynolds, B. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Zhu, C.

    2005-12-01

    It has been proposed that weathering of igneous silicate minerals may fractionate Si isotopes (Douthitt 1982, de la Rocha et al. 2000). This is supported by the observation that clays yield ?30Si compositions between +0.5 and -2.5 compared to the igneous range for ?30Si between +0.1 and -1 respectively (Douthitt 1982). The difference may relate to a discrimination against heavier Si isotopes during clay mineral formation. However, no study has yet shown a direct Si isotope fractionation between coexisting primary igneous and secondary clay mineral phases. We have measured the stable Si isotope fractionation during in-situ feldspar dissolution and formation of secondary clay minerals in the Navajo Sandstone, Black Mesa, Arizona. The Jurassic Navajo Sandstone is composed of about 94% quartz and 2-4% K-feldspar. The K-feldspar grains are covered with kaolinite, and both quartz and feldspars are covered with a mantle of smectite coating. Petrographic studies demonstrate that the clay minerals formed in situ as alteration products of feldspar, and the smectite is of a low-temperature variety (Zhu, 2005). Therefore, the Si isotope fractionation at low temperature (15-35C) can be evaluated - something that is difficult to replicate in the laboratory. For the Si isotope analyses we used 20-30 mg of 5 separated clay samples, and 0.36 mg of hand picked feldspars. The silicates were fused with an alkaline flux and dissolved in a weak HCl acid. The dissolved Si was then separated by ion-exchange chromatography. The relative Si isotope compositions were measured using a high-resolution MC-ICP-MS (The Nu1700 at ETH Zurich) and are reported in ? notation relative to the international Si standard NBS 28. The bulk rock and separated feldspar fraction have Si isotope compositions are -0.09 0.03 and -0.15 0.03 (2?SEM) ?30Si, respectively. The clay samples have ?30Si values of -0.24 0.05, -0.16 0.03, -0.30 0.03, -0.42 0.03 and -0.52 0.04 (2?SEM). These Si isotope analyses reveal that the majority of the clay separates are isotopically lighter by up to 0.4% compared to precursor feldspars. The results demonstrate for the first time that Si isotopes are indeed fractionated during the breakdown of feldspar minerals and the subsequent formation of isotopically lighter Si in clays. From mass-balance considerations, circulating fluids should have higher ?30Si values, however the analysis of groundwater samples show variations of ?30Si values between +0.43 and -1.43 representing the most negative dissolved Si isotope composition so far found. As groundwater constitutes 98% of the global fresh water (excluding ice), the global Si biogeochemical cycle must include groundwater as an important component that is often overlooked. References: De La Rocha, Brzezinski, and DeNiro (2000), A first look at the distribution of the stable isotopes of silicon in natural waters, GCA 64, 2467-2477; Douthitt (1982), The geochemistry of the stable isotopes of silicon, GCA 46, 1449 - 1458; Zhu (2005), In situ feldspar dissolution rates in an aquifer, GCA 69, 1435-1453.

  17. Syntrophic Effects in a Subsurface Clostridial Consortium on Fe(III)-(Oxyhydr)oxide Reduction and Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Madhavi; Lin, Chu-Ching; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Xiuhong; Wang, Yangping; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2013-12-02

    In this study, we cultivated from subsurface sediments an anaerobic Clostridia 25 consortium that was composed of a fermentative Fe-reducer Clostridium species (designated as 26 strain FGH) and a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium belonging to the Clostridia family 27 Vellionellaceae (designated as strain RU4). In pure culture, Clostridium sp. strain FGH mediated 28 the reductive dissolution/transformation of iron oxides during growth on peptone. When 29 Clostridium sp. FGH was grown with strain RU4 on peptone, the rates of iron oxide reduction 30 were significantly higher. Iron reduction by the consortium was mediated by multiple 31 mechanisms, including biotic reduction by Clostridium sp. FGH and biotic/abiotic reactions 32 involving biogenic sulfide by strain RU4. The Clostridium sp. FGH produced hydrogen during 33 fermentation, and the presence of hydrogen inhibited growth and iron reduction activity. The 34 sulfate-reducing partner strain RU4 was stimulated by the presence of H2 gas and generated 35 reactive sulfide which promoted the chemical reduction of the iron oxides. Characterization of 36 Fe(II) mineral products showed the formation of magnetite during ferrihydrite reduction, and 37 the precipitation of iron sulfides during goethite and hematite reduction. The results suggest an 38 important pathway for iron reduction and secondary mineralization by fermentative sulfate-39 reducing microbial consortia is through syntrophy-driven biotic/abiotic reactions with biogenic 40 sulfide.

  18. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  19. Field Observation of Heterogeneous Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols on Asian Mineral Dust Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the heterogeneous formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on dust surfaces by characterizing molecular compositions and size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, keto-carboxylic acids, a-dicarbonyls and inorganic ions in size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) in the urban atmosphere of Xi'an, China during dust storm periods and comparing with those in non-dust storm periods. In the presence of a dust storm, all the above mentioned SOA species in Xi'an are predominantly enriched on coarse particles (>2.1 m). Oxalic acid well correlated with NO3- (r2=0.72, p<0.01) rather than SO42-. This phenomenon differs greatly from the observed particles during a non-dust storm period, which is characterized by an enrichment of the SOA on fine particles (<2.1 m) with a strong correlation between C2 and SO42-. We propose a three-step formation pathway to explain these observations as follows. First, nitric acid and nitrogen oxides react with dust to form a liquid film on the surface via water vapor-absorption of calcium nitrate. Second, gaseous Gly and mGly partition into the aqueous-phase. Finally, the aqueous-phase Gly and mGly oxidize into glyoxylic acid (wC2), followed by a further oxidation into C2. To the best of our knowledge, we found for the first time the enrichments of glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (mGly) on dust surfaces. Our data indicate a more critical role of nitrate than sulfate in the heterogeneous formation process of SOA on dust surfaces. Mass ratio of C2 to wC2 was found to be higher in coarse particles than in fine particles during the dust storm events, which is due to low acidity condition of large particles that is favorable for conversion of wC2 to C2.

  20. Organic carbon and reducing conditions lead to cadmium immobilization by secondary Fe mineral formation in a pH-neutral soil.

    PubMed

    Muehe, E Marie; Adaktylou, Irini J; Obst, Martin; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Behrens, Sebastian; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is of environmental relevance as it enters soils via Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and endangers human health when taken up by crops. Cd is known to associate with Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in pH-neutral to slightly acidic soils, though it is not well understood how the interrelation of Fe and Cd changes under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Therefore, we investigated how the mobility of Cd changes when a Cd-bearing soil is faced with organic carbon input and reducing conditions. Using fatty acid profiles and quantitative PCR, we found that both fermenting and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were stimulated by organic carbon-rich conditions, leading to significant Fe(III) reduction. The reduction of Fe(III) minerals was accompanied by increasing soil pH, increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, and decreasing Cd mobility. SEM-EDX mapping of soil particles showed that a minor fraction of Cd was transferred to Ca- and S-bearing minerals, probably carbonates and sulfides. Most of the Cd, however, correlated with a secondary iron mineral phase that was formed during microbial Fe(III) mineral reduction and contained mostly Fe, suggesting an iron oxide mineral such as magnetite (Fe3O4). Our data thus provide evidence that secondary Fe(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed minerals could be a sink for Cd in soils under reducing conditions, thus decreasing the mobility of Cd in the soil. PMID:24191747

  1. Pore-scale study of the effect of secondary carbonate precipitation on the dissolution of primary minerals using the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Q.; Chen, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive transport processes involving dissolution and/or precipitation are pervasive in Earth, energy, and environmental systems. One typical example is geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Among these reactive processes, it is commonly encountered that a second phase precipitates while the primary phase dissolves, and the precipitation and dissolution reactions are fully coupled with each other. In the case of mineral trapping of CO2, the primary silicate mineral dissolves due to a decrease of pH caused by the dissolution of CO2 into the solution; meanwhile the dissolved CO2 can react with cations to form a secondary precipitate of carbonate mineral. Although the effect of precipitation of secondary solid phase on the dissolution of the primary solid phase has been studied extensively, the results reported in the literature are often inconclusive and sometimes even contradict one another. The reason is that the coupled dissolution and precipitation processes are controlled by several factors whose contribution is difficult to ascertain, including the dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, temperature and pressure, pH and species concentration of the solution, physicochemical properties of the primary and secondary minerals, as well as the nucleation and crystal mechanisms of the precipitates, etc. In this study, a pore-scale (mesoscopic) model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to investigate the effects of secondary precipitation on the dissolution of the primary mineral. The model can predict coupled multiple physicochemical processes including fluid flow, mass transport, chemical reaction, dissolution, precipitation consisting of nucleation and crystal growth, as well as dynamical evolution of pore geometries. Effects of dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, molar volumes of primary and secondary minerals, initial powder size and surface roughness of the primary mineral, as well as nucleation and crystal growth mechanisms on the dissolution and precipitation processes are investigated in terms of rate and amount of dissolution and precipitation. Several types of dissolution and precipitation processes are identified based on the morphology and structure of the precipitates and on the extent to which the precipitates affect the dissolution of the primary mineral. Simulation results are also compared with existing experimental results. Depending on the conditions, the effect of the precipitates spans the full range of possible behavior from trivial changes to enhanced or reduced dissolution rates of the primary phase.

  2. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hyperviscosity in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and acquired von Willebrand disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acquired von Willebrand disease is initiated by autoantibodies and hyperviscosity syndrome caused by a massive polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Acquired von Willebrand disease associated with autoimmune disease in addition to pulmonary hypertension during emergency room presentation is a rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case reported in the literature treated with success; the first one was reported in 1987. Case presentation A 28-year-old mestizo man with a 3-year history of inflammatory arthritis was admitted to our hospital. An overlap of rheumatoid arthritis with systemic lupus erythematosus was suspected; therefore methotrexate was initiated, and later changed to leflunomide because of liver toxicity. Prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin times were normal (11/10.4 seconds; 1.2; 31.1/26.9 seconds, respectively), von Willebrand factor activity was observed with low ristocetin cofactor at 33.6UI/dL, high von Willebrand factor antigen >200UI/dL, and a low von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor to von Willebrand factor antigen ratio. He was admitted to the emergency room with a 24-hour evolution of progressive dyspnea, cough, thoracic pain, and palpitations, 104 beats/min, 60/40 mmHg, temperature of 38C, pulse oximetric saturation 88% and 30 breaths/minute. Cold, pale and mottled skin was also observed. He was then transferred to the intensive care unit. The placement of a pulmonary artery catheter was made. The initial patterns showed a precapillary pulmonary hypertension; acute pulmonary embolism was the first choice for diagnosis. Pulmonary angiography was conducted, and when no clot was discovered, pulmonary artery hypertension associated with connective tissue disease was considered. Serum protein electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a massive polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and no paraproteinemia or monoclonal cell population was found from the electrophoretic pattern of the patients plasma. Hypergammaglobulinemia was the cause of hyperviscosity syndrome associated with autoantibodies. Three sessions of plasma exchange therapy were made, and clinical improvement was observed. He was then discharged from the intensive care unit and hospital, respectively. He is now attended by an external consult and has no respiratory symptomatology. Conclusions Hyperviscosity syndrome with pulmonary arterial hypertension presentation in a patient with acquired von Willebrand disease in an autoimmune context is a rare condition that can be treated successfully with plasmapheresis and critical care support. PMID:24088343

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Pulmonary Hypertension Overview What is pulmonary hypertension? "Pulmonary" means "in the lungs," and "hypertension" means "high blood pressure." Pulmonary hypertension is an increase ...

  4. In vivo and in vitro studies on the roles of neutrophil extracellular traps during secondary pneumococcal pneumonia after primary pulmonary influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Narayana Moorthy, Anandi; Narasaraju, T.; Rai, Prashant; Perumalsamy, R.; Tan, K. B.; Wang, Shi; Engelward, Bevin; Chow, Vincent T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections may lead to debilitating disease, and account for significant fatalities annually worldwide. Most of these deaths are attributed to the complications of secondary bacterial pneumonia. Evidence is accumulating to support the notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) harbor several antibacterial proteins, and trap and kill bacteria. We have previously demonstrated the induction of NETs that contribute to lung tissue injury in severe influenza pneumonia. However, the role of these NETs in secondary bacterial pneumonia is unclear. In this study, we explored whether NETs induced during pulmonary influenza infection have functional significance against infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacterial and fungal species. Our findings revealed that NETs do not participate in killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo and in vitro. Dual viral and bacterial infection elevated the bacterial load compared to animals infected with bacteria alone. Concurrently, enhanced lung pathogenesis was observed in dual-infected mice compared to those challenged with influenza virus or bacteria alone. The intensified NETs in dual-infected mice often appeared as clusters that were frequently filled with partially degraded DNA, as evidenced by punctate histone protein staining. The severe pulmonary pathology and excessive NETs generation in dual infection correlated with exaggerated inflammation and damage to the alveolar-capillary barrier. NETs stimulation in vitro did not significantly alter the gene expression of several antimicrobial proteins, and these NETs did not exhibit any bactericidal activity. Fungicidal activity against Candida albicans was observed at similar levels both in presence or absence of NETs. These results substantiate that the NETs released by primary influenza infection do not protect against secondary bacterial infection, but may compromise lung function. PMID:23467809

  5. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components

    PubMed Central

    Housley, D; Berube, K; Jones, T; Anderson, S; Pooley, F; Richards, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. Aims: To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Methods: Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Results: Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Conclusion: Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation. PMID:12107295

  6. Pulmonary angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... narrowing of the pulmonary vessels Pulmonary artery aneurysms Pulmonary hypertension , high blood pressure in the arteries of the ... the lungs (pulmonary embolism) Narrowed blood vessel Primary pulmonary hypertension Tumor in the lung

  7. Cost-effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention of fatal pulmonary embolism in high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hull, R. D.; Hirsh, J.; Sackett, D. L.; Stoddart, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Because death due to pulmonary embolism is relatively rare following general surgery, many question the need for prophylaxis. In addition, there has been reluctance to apply new interventions whose cost-effectiveness has not been adequately evaluated. A cost-effectiveness analysis based on over 1000 high-risk patients undergoing abdominothoracic surgery, with effectiveness measured in terms of numbers of deaths from pulmonary embolism averted, has shown subcutaneous administration of heparin in low doses starting 2 hours before the operation to be the most cost-effective of several active approaches to prophylaxis. It averted seven of the eight deaths expected without active prophylaxis per 1000 such patients and cost half as much as the traditional approach of intervening only when venous thromboembolism becomes clinically apparent. Intravenous administration of dextran, although effective, was expensive, and leg scanning with iodine-125-labelled fibrinogen was extremely expensive. Intermittent pneumatic compression of the legs was inexpensive, but, as with leg scanning, its effectiveness has not been determined in randomized trials. PMID:6182968

  8. Assessment of toxic potential of primary and secondary particulates/aerosols from biodiesel vis--vis mineral diesel fuelled engine.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Dixit, Neelabh; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra

    2013-05-01

    Toxicity of engine out emissions from primary and secondary aerosols has been a major cause of concern for human health and environmental impact. This study aims to evaluate comparative toxicity of nanoparticles emitted from a modern common rail direct injection engine (CRDI) fuelled with biodiesel blend (B20) vis--vis mineral diesel. The toxicity and potential health hazards of exhaust particles were assessed using various parameters such as nanoparticle size and number distribution, surface area distribution, elemental and organic carbon content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the particle surfaces, followed by toxic equivalent factor assessment. It was found that biodiesel particulate toxicity was considerably lower in comparison to mineral diesel. PMID:23631768

  9. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Osteological and Biomolecular Evidence of a 7000-Year-Old Case of Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy Secondary to Tuberculosis from Neolithic Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Muriel; Molnr, Erika; Donoghue, Helen D.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Minnikin, David E.; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Lee, Oona Y-C.; Bull, Ian D.; Plfi, Gyrgy

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hdmez?vsrhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults. Several cases showed potential signs of tuberculosis, particularly the remains of the individual HGO-53. This is an important finding that has significant implications for our understanding of this community. The aim of the present study was to seek biomolecular evidence to confirm this diagnosis. HGO-53 was a young male with a striking case of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), revealing rib changes and cavitations in the vertebral bodies. The initial macroscopic diagnosis of HPO secondary to tuberculosis was confirmed by analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific cell wall lipid biomarkers and corroborated by ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. This case is the earliest known classical case of HPO on an adult human skeleton and is one of the oldest palaeopathological and palaeomicrobiological tuberculosis cases to date. PMID:24205173

  11. Antifungal agents for secondary prophylaxis based on response to initial antifungal therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with prior pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qifa; Lin, Ren; Sun, Jing; Xiao, Yang; Nie, Danian; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Fen; Fan, Zhiping; Zhou, Hongsheng; Jiang, Qianli; Zhang, Fuhua; Zhai, Xiao; Xu, Dan; Wei, Yongqiang; Song, Jiayin; Li, Yiqing; Feng, Ru

    2014-08-01

    We performed a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of secondary antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) for patients with a history of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this study, the prophylactic agents used were chosen based on treatment response to initial antifungal therapy. One hundred and thirty-six patients undergoing allo-HSCT with prior IPA were enrolled in this multicenter study. The agents of SAP included itraconazole in 24, voriconazole in 74, caspofungin in 32, and liposomal amphotericin B in 6. Eighty-eight patients had stable IPA and 48 had active IPA at the time of transplantation. The success rate of SAP was 91.2%. Twelve patients developed breakthrough invasive fungal disease (IFD), and none discontinued antifungal agents because drug-related adverse events. The incidence of breakthrough IFD was neither different among the different antifungal agents (P=.675) nor between patients with active and stable IPA (P= .080). The 1-year cumulative incidence of IFD and IPA relapse was 27.3%4.5% and 24.7%4.4%, respectively. Our data indicate that SAP with antifungal agents based on initial antifungal therapy has favorable efficacy and safety in allo-HSCT recipients with prior IPA. Active IPA might not increase the risk of breakthrough IFD after transplantation. PMID:24769013

  12. Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Kornfeld, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

  13. Reaction path modelling used to explore the relationship between secondary mineral precipitation and low Si content in the meltwaters of a polythermal surge-type glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, J. W.; Flowers, G. E.; Kirste, D. M.; Hagedorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    The subglacial chemical weathering environment is characterized by low temperatures and the hydrolysis and carbonation of freshly comminuted mineral surfaces. Such conditions motivate the hypothesis that relatively low silica fluxes should be found in glacierized basins. Additionally, it is often assumed that glacier meltwaters are far from saturation and that the water chemistry is controlled solely by the dissolution of primary silicates and trace quantities of sulphide and carbonate minerals. Alternatively, we propose that the formation of secondary minerals and precipitates in the delayed drainage system play an important role in controlling the low silica fluxes observed in subglacial envrionments. Borehole and proglacial meltwater samples were collected from a polythermal surge-type glacier overlying granodiorite bedrock in the St. Elias Mountains of Yukon, Canada. The meltwater chemistry, along with the mineralogy of the bedrock and suspended sediments indicate the presence of mineral precipitation accompanied by substantial basal freeze-on. This is supported by field evidence of debris rich basal ice at the terminus and at the base of a borehole. The surplus of Cl- above the supraglacial input is used to calculate the amount of basal freeze-on in the delayed drainage system, and the amount of mixing between the delayed and fast drainage systems. We use Geochemist's Workbench for reaction path modelling with a focus on the silica composition to simulate the chemical evolution of glacial meltwater from (1) the initial water rock contact, (2) basal freeze on, and (3) mixing and post mixing reactions. Unless there is a substantial degree of non-stoichiometric dissolution, we find that the observed proglacial water chemistry at the terminus is largely controlled by the hydrochemistry of water in the delayed drainage system. Lastly, we use this model to explore the relationship between the proglacial water chemistry and the daily glacier surface velocities for the period of July, 2013, with an eye to identifying a relationship between water chemistry and short-term glacier dynamics.

  14. Effectiveness of the Assessment of Burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (ABC) tool: study protocol of a cluster randomised trial in primary and secondary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a growing worldwide problem that imposes a great burden on the daily life of patients. Since there is no cure, the goal of treating COPD is to maintain or improve quality of life. We have developed a new tool, the Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) tool, to assess and visualize the integrated health status of patients with COPD, and to provide patients and healthcare providers with a treatment algorithm. This tool may be used during consultations to monitor the burden of COPD and to adjust treatment if necessary. The aim of the current study is to analyse the effectiveness of the ABC tool compared with usual care on health related quality of life among COPD patients over a period of 18months. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in COPD patients in both primary and secondary care throughout the Netherlands. An intervention group, receiving care based on the ABC tool, will be compared with a control group receiving usual care. The primary outcome will be the change in score on a disease-specific-quality-of-life questionnaire, the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be a different questionnaire (the COPD Assessment Test), lung function and number of exacerbations. During the 18months follow-up, seven measurements will be conducted, including a baseline and final measurement. Patients will receive questionnaires to be completed at home. Additional data, such as number of exacerbations, will be recorded by the patients healthcare providers. A total of 360 patients will be recruited by 40 general practitioners and 20 pulmonologists. Additionally, a process evaluation will be performed among patients and healthcare providers. Discussion The new ABC tool complies with the 2014 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, which describe the necessity to classify patients on both their airway obstruction and a comprehensive symptom assessment. It has been developed to classify patients, but also to provide visual insight into the burden of COPD and to provide treatment advice. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register, NTR3788. PMID:25098313

  15. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or PH, is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. These arteries carry blood from your heart ...

  17. Commentary: assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?

    PubMed

    Dublyansky, Yuri V; Smirnov, Sergey Z

    2005-04-01

    Two papers recently published in the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology by Marshall et al. [Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., Peterman, Z.E., 2003. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam. Hydrol. 62-63, 237-247] and Xu et al. [Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Bodvarsson, G., 2003. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock. J. Contam. Hydrol. 64, 113-127] attempt to assess past volumes of seepage and infiltration fluxes through the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, on the basis of the modeling of the spatial distribution of secondary calcite. In this commentary, we argue that the employed methodology is not viable. In addition, the thermal boundary conditions used in simulations do not correspond to the temperatures of the mineral forming fluids established on the basis of the fluid inclusion studies. PMID:15763356

  18. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats: evaluation of bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, M; Kirpensteijn, J; Nielsen, D H; Buelund, L; Hansen, M S

    2010-01-01

    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands. After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. PMID:19997669

  19. Autoimmune disease leading to pulmonary AL amyloidosis and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, Claire M; McLean, Catriona; Williams, Trevor J; Snell, Gregory I; Whitford, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with past history of Sjgren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus presented with dyspnea and syncope secondary to pulmonary hypertension. After progressive symptoms over 4 years, she received bilateral lung transplantation. Histopathology of the explanted lungs showed isolated pulmonary amyloid light-chain amyloidosis and pulmonary cysts. No evidence of systemic amyloidosis was found at the time of transplantation. Seven years post lung transplantation, she remains well with no evidence of systemic amyloidosis recurrence. PMID:26090118

  20. Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Gorski, C. A.; Scherer, M. M.; Boyanov, M. I.; Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Iowa

    2010-06-15

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. 'Fast' Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d-1] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having 'low' cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with 'high' cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d-1] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction.

  1. Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: Implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, P.P. Jr.; Evans, J.R. ); Steinkampf, W.C. ); Horton, D.G. ); Solomon, G.C. ); White, L.D. )

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of {sup 18}O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Handford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filing vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the {sup 18}O content of ground water at the time the mineral assemblage formed. A fossil profile of {delta}{sup 18}O values projected for ground water in a 1500 m vertical section beneath the reservation suggest that the vertical mixing of shallow and deep ground water indicated by present-day hydrochemical data was also occurring during Neogene time. These data also suggest that a unidirectional depletion of {sup 18}O and deuterium recorded in Pleistocene ground waters may have extended considerably further back in time. This shift is tentatively attributed to the orographic depletion of {sup 18}O associated with the progressive uplift of the Cascade Range since the middle Miocene.

  2. DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn L. Nagy

    2009-05-04

    The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  3. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 ?m) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  4. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  5. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of Bone Height and Bone Mineral Density Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography After Secondary Bone Graft in Alveolar Cleft.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dai-zun; Xiao, Wen-lin; Zhou, Rong; Xue, Ling-fa; Ma, Long

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the optimal timing of subsequent dental implant placement and orthodontics after alveolar bone grafting (ABG) in patients with unilateral complete clefts of the alveolar process. Iliac bone graft surgery was performed on 60 patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) and height of the ABG areas were assessed using cone beam computed tomography at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The heights of the labial and palatal bone graft areas were classified using the modified Bergland classification. The study found that there was no change in BMD between 3 months (mean ± SD: 406.51 ± 71.28 Hounsfield units [HU]) and 6 months (409.53 ± 46.37 HU; P = 0.381). Significant changes in the distribution of bone height classifications were observed in the labial and palatal sides of the ABG between 3 and 6 months (P = 0.025 for labial bone height, P = 0.008 for palatal bone height). These results indicate that the alveolar density remained stable between 3 and 6 months, whereas bone height level declined during that period after ABG, the latter indicating bone graft absorption over time. It is, therefore, suggested that subsequent orthodontic or dental implants be placed 3 months after ABG rather than at 6 months or later. PMID:26114510

  7. Comorbidity and health-related quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending Swedish secondary care units

    PubMed Central

    Sundh, Josefin; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Kjell; Lindn, Anders; Lfdahl, Claes-Gran; Janson, Christer; Sandstrm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our understanding of how comorbid diseases influence health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited and in need of improvement. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between comorbidities and HRQL as measured by the instruments EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Methods Information on patient characteristics, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, depression, and EQ-5D and CAT questionnaire results was collected from 373 patients with Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) <50% of predicted value from 27 secondary care respiratory units in Sweden. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were performed using EQ-5D index, EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), and CAT scores as response variables. Results Having more comorbid conditions was associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by all instruments. Chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by EQ-5D index (adjusted regression coefficient [95% confidence interval] ?0.07 [?0.13 to ?0.02]), EQ-5D VAS (?5.17 [?9.42 to ?0.92]), and CAT (3.78 [2.35 to 5.20]). Musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly associated with worse EQ-5D index (?0.08 [?0.14 to ?0.02]), osteoporosis with worse EQ-5D VAS (?4.65 [?9.27 to ?0.03]), and depression with worse EQ-5D index (?0.10 [?0.17 to ?0.04]). In stratification analyses, the associations of musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression with HRQL were limited to female patients. Conclusion The instruments EQ-5D and CAT complement each other and emerge as useful for assessing HRQL in patients with COPD. Chronic bronchitis, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression were associated with worse HRQL. We conclude that comorbid conditions, in particular chronic bronchitis, depression, osteoporosis, and musculoskeletal symptoms, should be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with severe COPD. PMID:25653516

  8. Mucormycosis causing pulmonary artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Lakshman; Dewan, Sandeep; Kumar, Vishal; Wankhade, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon entity and is usually congenital in origin or secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension. Infections causing PAA are few, tuberculosis and bacterial infections being the common causative organisms. There have been few cases reported previously, in which the organism causing PAA was found to be a rare fungus called mucor. Pulmonary mucormycosis causing PAA is an infrequent and almost fatal complication as most of the diagnosis was made post mortem. This report brings out a case of pulmonary mucormycosis causing ruptured PAA in a patient with diabetes. This patient was cured by a timely treatment of a combination of surgery and medical therapy.

  9. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    PubMed

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID:26876130

  11. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  12. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  13. Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Malik, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism covers a wide spectrum of presentation from an asymptomatic individual to a life-threatening medical emergency. It is of paramount importance to appropriately risk stratify patients with pulmonary embolism, particularly with those who present without hypotension. Right ventricular dysfunction can evolve after a patient has received a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, necessitating aggressive measures rather than simple anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss definition, risk stratification, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and management, with particular focus on massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:26919674

  14. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return presenting with adult-onset pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Edmund H.; Aliotta, Jason M.; Klinger, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a rare cause of adult onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that can present with a wide spectrum of severity from early childhood throughout adult life. We present two patients with PAH secondary to PAPVR who reflect this range of disease. The diagnosis and treatment of PAPVR and its role in pulmonary vascular disease is discussed. Cardiac and pulmonary physicians should be aware of this entity and its diagnosis and management options. PMID:22837866

  15. Pan-Spectral Analysis of Classic Martian Low-Albedo Regions: Updates on the Nature and Distribution of Primary and Secondary Mineral Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Head, J. W.; Rogers, D.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the primary and secondary mineralogy of martian low-albedo regions using a combination of visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance and thermal infrared (TIR) emission datasets. TIR data were originally derived using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument by [1,2], who interpreted these low-albedo regions to contain variable amounts of both basaltic and high-silica components; however, the nature of these high-silica phases remains uncertain, and both primary (e.g., volcanic glass) and secondary (e.g., hydrated alteration minerals) origins have been proposed. The mineralogical signatures of the evolving martian geologic, hydrologic, and climatic systems are recorded in these low-albedo regions, making the characterization of the identified high-silica phases critical towards better understanding the history of Mars. Consequently, we have completed a pan-spectral (VNIR and TIR) investigation of the nine low-albedo regions characterized by [2] in order to further constrain the composition of these martian landscapes. We derived regional VNIR spectra using Observatoire pour la Minralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activit (OMEGA) data. Data were acquired, processed, atmospherically corrected, and weighted based on their relative areal contributions, resulting in nine representative regional spectra. The primary mineral phases identified in VNIR spectra are consistent with a dominantly basaltic composition and are in good agreement with previous TIR analyses. The variability in the shape and position of the broad 2 micron crystal field absorption feature, classically attributed to variations in pyroxene composition, is quantitatively assessed using modified Gaussian modeling (MGM) approaches. The position of this 2 micron band, though, can also be influenced by oxidative weathering processes like those identified in Antarctica, which result in more negative spectral slopes in the near-infrared as well as apparent shifts of the 2 micron band to shorter wavelengths [3]. We investigate the possibility that the observed variations of this feature on Mars may reflect a combination of primary pyroxene signatures conflated with variable amounts of oxidative weathering. All previously proposed martian high-silica phases exhibit similar TIR spectral signatures in addition to sharp vibrational absorptions in the VNIR at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.0-2.5 microns due to the presence of water and hydroxyl. Regional OMEGA spectra do not exhibit any of these vibrational absorption features, suggesting that these phases are not present at spectrally significant abundances. Interestingly, despite their similar TIR spectral signatures, products of oxidative weathering do not exhibit significant VNIR vibrational absorptions [4]. If oxidative weathering products are responsible for the previously observed "high-silica" spectral signatures, the martian surface has likely not experienced significantly warm and/or wet conditions capable of regional, subaerial, aqueous alteration since the formation of these low-albedo regions. [1] Rogers et al. (2007), [2] Rogers & Christensen (2007), [3] Salvatore (2013), [4] Salvatore et al. (2013).

  16. Mineral Fast Ion Conductors and Mineral Solid Electrolyte Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenji

    2002-12-01

    This paper is intended to be a review of the recent situation and advances in the studies of mineral fast ion conductors and mineral solid electrolyte batteries. The reviews involve the following parts: The definition of both mineral fast ion conductor and mineral solid electrolyte battery; Comments on mineral fast ion conductors: Describe some very useful starting mineral materials for the preparation of mineral fast ion conductors, like montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and kaolinite etc. Some important preparative methods for mineral fast ion conductors were introduced. The characterizations of mineral fast ion conductors: structure measurement, phase identification, ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability etc. also were described; Comments on mineral solid electrolyte batteries: The assembly for both of primary mineral solid electrolyte battery and secondary (rechargeable) mineral solid electrolyte battery was introduced. The concerned parameters of mineral solid electrolyte batteries were reported.

  17. The effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral metabolism, anemia parameters, left ventricular mass index and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Torun, Dilek; Yildiz, Ismail; Micozkadioglu, Hasan; Nursal, Gul Nihal; Yigit, Fatma; Ozelsancak, Ruya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinacalcet therapy on anemia parameters, bone mineral metabolism, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis (HD) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-five HD patients (M/F: 11/14, mean age: 45.217.9 years, mean HD duration: 96.432.7 months) were included in this prospective pilot study. The indication to start calcimimetic therapy was persistent serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH)>1000 pg/mL, refractory to intravenous (i.v.) vitamin D and phosphate-binding therapy. The initial and one-year results of adjusted serum calcium (Ca+2), phosphate (P), CaP product, PTH, hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels, transferrin saturation index (TSAT), median weekly erythropoietin (EPO) dose, LVMI, and parathyroid volume by parathyroid ultrasonography were determined. There were no differences between pre- and post-treatment levels of serum Ca+2 (P=0.853), P (P=0.447), CaP product (P=0.587), PTH (P=0.273), ferritin (P=0.153) and TSAT (P=0.104). After 1 year of calcimimetic therapy, the Hb levels were significantly higher than the initial levels (P=0.048). The weekly dose of EPO decreased with no statistical significance. The dose of cinacalcet was increased from 32.412.0 to 60.024.4 mg/day (P=0.01). There were no differences between the pre- and post-treatment results regarding weekly vitamin D dose, parenteral iron dose, LVMI and parathyroid volume. The results of our study suggest that cinacalcet therapy might have an additional benefit in the control anemia in HD patients. PMID:26787561

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilationperfusion relationships, lungheart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  19. Natural radionuclide mobility and its influence on U Th Pb dating of secondary minerals from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neymark, L. A.; Amelin, Y. V.

    2008-04-01

    Extreme U and Pb isotope variations produced by disequilibrium in decay chains of 238U and 232Th are found in calcite, opal/chalcedony, and Mn-oxides occurring as secondary mineral coatings in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These very slowly growing minerals (mm my -1) contain excess 206Pb and 208Pb formed from excesses of intermediate daughter isotopes and cannot be used as reliable 206Pb/ 238U geochronometers. The presence of excess intermediate daughter isotopes does not appreciably affect 207Pb/ 235U ages of U-enriched opal/chalcedony, which are interpreted as mineral formation ages. Opal and calcite from outer (younger) portions of coatings have 230Th/U ages from 94.6 3.7 to 361.3 9.8 ka and initial 234U/ 238U activity ratios (AR) from 4.351 0.070 to 7.02 0.12, which indicate 234U enrichment from percolating water. Present-day 234U/ 238U AR is 1 in opal/chalcedony from older portions of the coatings. The 207Pb/ 235U ages of opal/chalcedony samples range from 0.1329 0.0080 to 9.10 0.21 Ma, increase with microstratigraphic depth, and define slow long-term average growth rates of about 1.2-2.0 mm my -1, in good agreement with previous results. Measured 234U/ 238U AR in Mn-oxides, which pre-date the oldest calcite and opal/chalcedony, range from 0.939 0.006 to 2.091 0.006 and are >1 in most samples. The range of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.71156-0.71280) in Mn-oxides overlaps that in the late calcite. These data indicate that Mn-oxides exchange U and Sr with percolating water and cannot be used as a reliable dating tool. In the U-poor calcite samples, measured 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios have a wide range, do not correlate with Ba concentration as would be expected if excess Ra was present, and reach a value of about 1400, the highest ever reported for natural Pb. Calcite intergrown with opal contains excesses of both 206Pb and 207Pb derived from Rn diffusion and from direct ?-recoil from U-rich opal. Calcite from coatings devoid of opal/chalcedony contains 206Pb and 208Pb excesses, but no appreciable 207Pb excesses. Observed Pb isotope anomalies in calcite are explained by Rn-produced excess Pb. The Rn emanation may strongly affect 206Pb- 238U ages of slow-growing U-poor calcite, but should be negligible for dating fast-growing U-enriched speleothem calcite.

  20. [A case of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis].

    PubMed

    Nakano, H; Aizawa, H; Inoue, H; Takata, S; Minami, T; Hara, N; Watanabe, T; Sueishi, K

    2001-07-01

    In March 1995, a 54-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital because of exertional dyspnea and her condition was diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension. In September 1996, respiratory difficulty and hemosputum were woted. The chest computed tomographic scan showed diffuse micronodular opacities, and she was admitted to our hospital for examination of other pulmonary conditions giving rise to pulmonary hypertention. However no lung biopsy could be performed, because the pulmonary arterial pressure was too high. Although the patient received medication, she died of progressive right heart failure. The pathological diagnosis at autopsy was pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH). Although PCH is a very rare disease that causes secondary pulmonary hypertension, it is important to distinguish it from primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. PMID:11579525

  1. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  2. High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frdric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; strm, Mats E.

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (sp Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 ?g L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the sp Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the sp HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median sp HRL: 4.1 ?g L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 ?g L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (sp HRL: 4.2 ?g L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the groundwater of marine origin are, in contrast, explained by relatively fast cation exchange reactions. As indicated by the field data and predicted by 1D solute transport modeling, alkali cations with low-energy hydration carried by intruding marine water are capable of (NH4+ in particular and K+ to some extent) replacing Cs+ on frayed edge (FES) sites on illite in the fracture coatings. The result is a rapid and persistent (at least in the order of decades) buildup of dissolved Cs concentrations in fractures where marine water flows downward. The identification of high Cs concentrations in young groundwater of marine origin and the predicted capacity of NH4+ to displace Cs from fracture solids are of particular relevance in the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock.

  3. Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Valeyre, Dominique; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Jeny, Florence; Duchemann, Boris; Freynet, Olivia; Planès, Carole; Kambouchner, Marianne; Nunes, Hilario

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease, with lung involvement in almost all cases. Abnormal chest radiography is usually a key step for considering diagnosis. Lung impact is investigated through imaging; pulmonary function; and, when required, 6-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or right heart catheterization. There is usually a reduction of lung volumes, and forced vital capacity is the most accurate parameter to reflect the impact of pulmonary sarcoidosis with or without pulmonary infiltration at imaging. Various evolution patterns have been described. Increased risk of death is associated with advanced pulmonary fibrosis or cor pulmonale, particularly in African American patients. PMID:26593138

  4. Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

    2013-11-01

    The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)∑1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)∑0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)∑4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22ṡ2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ν2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

  5. Enumeration of thiobacilli within pH-neutral and acidic mine tailings and their role in the development of secondary mineral soil

    SciTech Connect

    Southam, G.; Beveridge, T.J. )

    1992-06-01

    The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicate, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 [times] 10[sup 8] most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides to chlorides and phosphates. Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings materials prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension complicating multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Tomer M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Sobol, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an infrequently reported complication of multiple myeloma (MM). PH has been more commonly associated with amyloidosis, myeloproliferative diseases, and the POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) syndrome. PH in MM is typically mild to moderate and may be secondary to a variety of conditions, which include left ventricular dysfunction, high-output cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease, treatment-related toxicities, and precapillary involvement. We describe 3 patients with MM and severe PH. Each patient underwent right heart catheterization. All patients demonstrated elevated pulmonary pressures, transpulmonary gradients, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Each patient was ultimately treated with pulmonary vasodilator therapy with improvement in cardiopulmonary symptoms. Additional studies are needed to define the prevalence, prognosis, and pathogenesis of PH in this complex population and to help clarify who may benefit from targeted PH therapy. PMID:26401262

  7. The distribution of secondary mineral phases along an eroding hillslope and its effect on carbon stabilization mechanisms and the fate of soil carbon fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, Sebastian; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Opfergelt, Sophie; Boeckx, Pascal; Bod, Samuel; Six, Johan; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Soil redistribution processes can change soil carbon (C) dynamics drastically by moving carbon from high decomposition and re-sequestration environments at the eroding hillslope to low decomposition and burial at the depositional footslope and valley basin. This leads to not only spatially diverse soil carbon storage throughout the landscape, but also to qualitative changes of the transported carbon and the mineral phase. The interaction between those parameters and the effect on stabilization mechanisms for soil C are still a matter of debate. Here, we present an analysis that aims to clarify the bio/geo-chemical and mineralogical components involved in stabilizing C at various depths along an eroding cropped slope and how this affects the abundance of microbial derived carbon. We use the results of an incubation experiment combined with the abundance of amino sugars in different isolated soil C fractions as a tracer for the stability of the respective fraction. We applied further (i) a sequential extraction of the reactive soil phase using pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, and (ii) a qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, to analyze the changes in the mineral phase for the different isolated fractions along the slope transect. Our results emphasize the importance of physical protection within microaggregates to stabilize buried, chemically labile C. Our data further indicates that the stability of these aggregates is related to the presence of organo-mineral associations and poorly crystalline minerals. However, decreasing contents of these minerals with depth indicate a temporal limitation of this stabilization mechanism. Non-expandable clay minerals experience a relative enrichment at the depositional site while expandable clay minerals experience the same at the eroding site. These changes in clay mineralogy along the slope are partly responsible for the abundance of silt and clay associated C and the effectiveness of the clay fractions to stabilize C. In summary, our data clearly show that a variety of stabilization mechanisms together with changes in the organic and the mineral phase of soils need to be considered to understand this highly dynamic environment.

  8. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means ... chap 332. Fitzgerald DW, Sterling TR, Haas DW. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In: Bennett JE, Dolan R, Blaser MJ, ...

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  10. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePLUS

    Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs. Less common causes include air bubbles, fat droplets, ...

  11. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Pulmonary atresia may occur with ... artery and aorta. The vessel is called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Multiple treatments are possible, but ...

  12. Pathophysiology and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Castro, Oswaldo L; Machado, Roberto F

    2016-02-18

    Pulmonary hypertension affects ?10% of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), particularly those with the homozygous genotype. An increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure, estimated noninvasively by echocardiography, helps identify SCD patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension, but definitive diagnosis requires right-heart catheterization. About half of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension patients have precapillary pulmonary hypertension with potential etiologies of (1) a nitric oxide deficiency state and vasculopathy consequent to intravascular hemolysis, (2) chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, or (3) upregulated hypoxic responses secondary to anemia, low O2 saturation, and microvascular obstruction. The remainder have postcapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Although the pulmonary artery pressure in SCD patients with pulmonary hypertension is only moderately elevated, they have a markedly higher risk of death than patients without pulmonary hypertension. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension were published recently by the American Thoracic Society. Management of adults with sickle-related pulmonary hypertension is based on anticoagulation for those with thromboembolism; oxygen therapy for those with low oxygen saturation; treatment of left ventricular failure in those with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension; and hydroxyurea or transfusions to raise the hemoglobin concentration, reduce hemolysis, and prevent vaso-occlusive events that cause additional increases in pulmonary pressure. Randomized trials have not identified drugs to lower pulmonary pressure in SCD patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Patients with hemodynamics of pulmonary arterial hypertension should be referred to specialized centers and considered for treatments known to be effective in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. There have been reports that some of these treatments improve SCD-related pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26758918

  13. Aspergillus endocarditis in a paediatric patient after a cardiac surgery, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana O; de Sousa, Antnio Rodrigues; Monterroso, Jos

    2015-03-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and secondary pulmonary hypertension, in a 4-year-old boy with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot. The diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus endocarditis remains highly challenging. The best therapeutic option for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to an infectious thromboembolic event is highly debatable and the results are poor. PMID:24702799

  14. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  15. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

  16. Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Thomas, Maria Joana; Daniels, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block. PMID:25861484

  17. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Related Topics How the Lungs Work Lung Transplant Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Rehabilitation Respiratory Failure Send a link to ... is respiratory failure . Other causes of death include pulmonary hypertension (HI-per-TEN-shun), heart failure , pulmonary embolism ( ...

  18. [Leiomyosarcoma of pulmonary artery origin diagnosed preoperatively].

    PubMed

    Arai, Junichi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Miyazaki, Takurou; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Tagawa, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    A 59-year-old woman was pointed out isotope uptake at the right pulmonary hilum by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed for postoperative follow up of thyroid cancer. Chest enhanced CT showed a mass in the right pulmonary artery, which was diagnosed as sarcoma of pulmonary artery origin by a transcatheter biopsy. Chemotherapy by doxorubicin with anticoagulation therapy was started 1st due to the secondary pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was improved, but the size of the tumor enlarged. She underwent right pneumonectomy with mediastinal dissection. The tumor was completely resected, but brain metastases developed. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma. A rare case of preoperatively diagnosed pulmonary arterial sarcoma was reported. PMID:22647327

  19. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  20. Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru - Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Gobac, Željka Žigovečki; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Lana, Cristiano; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The mineral coquimbite has been analysed using a range of techniques including SEM with EDX, thermal analytical techniques and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral originated from the Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru. The chemical formula was determined as ()∑2.00()3·9HO. Thermal analysis showed a total mass loss of ˜73.4% on heating to 1000 °C. A mass loss of 30.43% at 641.4 °C is attributed to the loss of SO3. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of sulphate tetrahedra, aluminium oxide/hydroxide octahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. The Raman spectrum shows well resolved bands at 2994, 3176, 3327, 3422 and 3580 cm-1 attributed to water stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with thermal analysis provides insight into the structure of coquimbite.

  1. Fourier transform infrared studies of secondary structure and orientation of pulmonary surfactant SP-C and its effect on the dynamic surface properties of phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrana, B.; Mendelsohn, R. ); Mautone, A.J. )

    1991-10-15

    SP-C, a highly hydrophobic, 3.7-kDa protein constituent of lung surfactant, has been isolated from bovine lung lavage, purified, and reconstituted into binary lipid mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPC). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been applied to examine SP-C secondary structure, the average orientation of {alpha}-helical segments relative to the bilayer normal in membrane films, and the effect of protein on the thermotropic properties of the phospholipid acyl chains. The helical segments exhibited an average angle of orientation of about 24{degree} with respect to the bilayer normal, suggesting a trans-bilayer orientation of the peptide. The observation that 70% of the peptide bond hydrogens are hard to exchange in D{sub 2}O further reflects the hydrophobic nature of the molecule. SP-C produced little effect on the thermotropic properties of the binary lipid mixture, as measured from acyl chain C-H and C-D stretching frequencies. However, the presence of 1 mol% protein markedly reduced the viscance and increased the elasticity of surface films, suggesting a mechanism by which SP-C facilitates the spreading of phospholipids on an aqueous surface. The possible physiological consequences of these observations are discussed.

  2. Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gagan; Taneja, Amit; Patel, Jayshil; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Tarima, Sergey; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Whittle, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary embolism is a common, often fatal condition that requires timely recognition and rapid institution of therapy. Previous studies have documented worse outcomes for weekend admissions for a variety of time-sensitive medical conditions. This phenomenon has not been clearly demonstrated for pulmonary embolism. Methods: We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2000 to 2008 to identify people with a principal discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We classified admissions as weekend if they occurred between midnight Friday and midnight Sunday. We compared all-cause in-hospital mortality between weekend and weekday admissions and investigated the timing of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and thrombolytic infusion as potential explanations for differences in mortality. Results: Unadjusted mortality was higher for weekend admissions than weekday admissions (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24). This increase in mortality remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding variables (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.22). Among patients who received an IVC filter, a larger proportion of those admitted on a weekday than on the weekend received it on their first hospital day (38% vs 29%, P < .001). The timing of thrombolytic therapy did not differ between weekday and weekend admissions. Conclusions: Weekend admissions for pulmonary embolism were associated with higher mortality than weekday admissions. Our finding that IVC filter placement occurred later in the hospital course for patients admitted on weekends with pulmonary embolism suggests differences in the timeliness of diagnosis and treatment between weekday and weekend admissions. Regardless of cause, physicians should be aware that weekend admissions for pulmonary embolism have a 20% increased risk of death and warrant closer attention than provided during the week. PMID:22459777

  3. Pulmonary blastoma

    PubMed Central

    Barson, A. J.; Jones, Aled W.; Lodge, K. V.

    1968-01-01

    A case of pulmonary blastoma is described in a man dying at the age of 50 from hepatic and cerebral metastases. Eleven previously reported cases are reviewed and the histogenesis is discussed. It is concluded that these rare tumours are a distinct form of pulmonary carcinosarcoma in which the epithelial element is an adenocarcinoma. It is this that gives it its characteristic and probably coincidental histological resemblance to foetal lung and the evidence for a blastomatous origin is regarded as insufficient. Images PMID:5697348

  4. Malnutrition secondary to non-compliance with vitamin and mineral supplements after gastric bypass surgery: What can we do about it?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Dina S.; Esmadi, Mohammad; Hammad, Hazem

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Nutritional deficiency due to loss of follow up and non-compliance with routine mineral and multivitamin supplements is not uncommonly encountered following bariatric surgery. In this report, and utilizing a case study, we will address issues related to loss of long term medical follow up and the measures that can be taken to prevent it in this patient population. Case Report: The case of a 38-year-old female patient who was recently managed for severe vitamin deficiency and iron deficiency anemia following bariatric surgery is presented. Non-compliance with routine vitamin and mineral supplements was believed to be the main culprit of her condition. Articles published in English addressing issues related to non-compliance with supplementations and regular follow up after bariatric surgery were accessed from PubMed and are discussed. Conclusions: Multiple factors affecting long term follow up and compliance have been studied including age, financial costs, distance from the clinic and psychiatric comorbidities. Preventive measures have also been tested and some of them have shown significant benefit. More research is needed to identify other modifiable factors and preventive measures influencing compliance and long term follow up following bariatric surgery. PMID:23569531

  5. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your medical history, imaging tests, a biopsy, and lung function tests to diagnose pulmonary fibrosis. There is no cure. Treatments can help with symptoms and improve your quality of life. ... or a lung transplant. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  6. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  7. Secondary amenorrhea

    MedlinePLUS

    Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... of amenorrhea. Many of the conditions that cause secondary amenorrhea will respond to treatment.

  8. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... that can cause them, go to "Types of Pulmonary Hypertension." Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: August 2, 2011 ...

  9. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... small blood vessels of the lungs. Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension Group 2 includes PH with left heart disease. ...

  10. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei; Morano, Karen; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Crawford, Jeffrey C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Blackstock, A. William; Vokes, Everett E.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  11. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  12. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism during winter in pre-menopausal Bangladeshi and Somali immigrant and ethnic Finnish women: associations with forearm bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Zahirul; Viljakainen, Heli T; Krkkinen, Merja U M; Saarnio, Elisa; Laitinen, Kalevi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the outcomes of vitamin D deficiency that negatively affects bone metabolism. We studied the ethnic differences in vitamin D status in Finland and its effect on serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) concentration and bone traits. The study was done in the Helsinki area (60N) during January-February 2008. A total of 143 healthy women (20-48 years of age) from two groups of immigrant women (Bangladeshi, n 34 and Somali, n 48), and a group of ethnic Finnish women (n 61) were studied in a cross-sectional setting. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) and S-iPTH were measured. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements were taken at 4 and 66% of the forearm length. In all groups, the distribution of S-25OHD was shifted towards the lower limit of the normal range. A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (S-25OHD<50nmol/l) was observed (896%) in the Somali group. The prevalence of SHPT (S-iPTH>65ng/l) was higher (791%) in Somali women than in Finnish women (16%). There was a significant association between S-25OHD and S-iPTH (r-049, P<0001). Ethnicity and S-25OHD together explained 30% of the variation in S-iPTH. The total bone mass at all sites of the forearm, fracture load and stress-strain index was higher (P<0001) in Bangladeshi and Finnish women than in Somali women. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, SHPT and low bone status in Somali women indicates a higher risk of osteoporosis. PMID:21824446

  13. Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

    2013-08-01

    Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (ϒ = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity at high shear rate seems to be associated with better secondary skin feeling. Products with higher Fischer-Tropsch wax content appear to be rated higher in terms of secondary skin feeling. PMID:23551222

  14. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  15. Minerals yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the latest available mineral data on more than 150 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals in the economies of these nations. A separate chapter reviews the international minerals industry in general and its relationship to the world economy.

  16. Formation of multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Gilberto Toshikawa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Fujihara, Satomi; Silva, Luigi Ferreira e; Cruz, Lorena de Britto Pereira; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Koyama, Roberta Vilela Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is one of the extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and can be due to the disease itself or secondary to the medications used in order to treat it. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and developed multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide. PMID:26176527

  17. Pulmonary Macrophage Transplantation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takuji; Arumugam, Paritha; Sakagami, Takuro; Lachmann, Nico; Chalk, Claudia; Sallese, Anthony; Abe, Shuichi; Trapnell, Cole; Carey, Brenna; Moritz, Thomas; Malik, Punam; Lutzko, Carolyn; Wood, Robert E.; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bone marrow transplantation is an effective cell therapy but requires myeloablation, which increases infection-risk and mortality. Recent lineage-tracing studies documenting that resident macrophage populations self-maintain independent of hematologic progenitors prompted us to consider organ-targeted, cell-specific therapy. Here, using GM-CSF receptor-β deficient (Csf2rb−/−) mice that develop a myeloid cell disorder identical to hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (hPAP) in children with CSF2RA/CSF2RB mutations, we show that pulmonary macrophage transplantation (PMT) of either wild-type or Csf2rb-gene-corrected macrophages without myeloablation was safe, well-tolerated, and that one administration corrected the lung disease, secondary systemic manifestations, normalized disease-related biomarkers, and prevented disease-specific mortality. PMT-derived alveolar macrophages persisted for at least one year as did therapeutic effects. Results identify mechanisms regulating alveolar macrophage population size in health and disease, indicate that GM-CSF is required for phenotypic determination of alveolar macrophages, and support translation of PMT as the first specific therapy for children with hPAP. PMID:25274301

  18. Unusual ventilation perfusion scintigram in a case of immunologic pulmonary edema clinically simulating pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Faust, J.M.; Ahmad, S.

    1987-11-01

    A case of immunologic pulmonary edema secondary to hydrochlorothiazide allergy developed in a 55-year-old woman that clinically simulated pulmonary embolism. The patient had abnormal washin images with normal washout images on an Xe-133 ventilation study. On the perfusion study, large bilateral central and posterior perfusion defects were present that showed an unusual mirror image pattern on the lateral and posterior oblique views. Resolution of radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred over a 3-day period in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy.

  19. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections.

    PubMed

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Yang, Shuangqiang; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  20. Reply to 'Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?', by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur

    2005-03-14

    Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon.

  1. Pulmonary resection for complications of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Marmon, L; Schidlow, D; Palmer, J; Balsara, R K; Dunn, J M

    1983-12-01

    Pulmonary sequelae account for a large proportion of the morbidity and mortality of cystic fibrosis. Bronchiectasis, hemoptysis, and abscess formation are often not responsive to conservative medical therapy. Pulmonary resection in selected cystic fibrosis patients is safe and therapeutically rewarding. Eleven pulmonary resections in ten patients with cystic fibrosis were performed. Patients ranged from 2.5 to 19 years of age. Indications for resection were: (1) abscess and bronchiectasis (nine patients), (2) atelectasis and mass (one patient), and (3) life-threatening hemorrhage (one patient). Surgical resection was employed only for medically refractory lesions which were life-threatening or contaminated otherwise functional lungs. Resection was limited to the most severely diseased areas, sparing functional lung parenchyma when possible. In this series, 9 lobectomies, 1 pneumonectomy, and 1 segmentectomy were performed. Preoperative management included aggressive chest physiotherapy and postural drainage, rigid bronchoscopic lavage, and broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics. All patients were extubated in the operating room immediately postoperatively. Tracheostomy was not employed. There were no perioperative complications. All patients experienced subjective improvement. Objectively, improvement following surgical resection included: decreased cough and sputum production, and decreased incidence of exacerbations of pulmonary infections. Limited pulmonary resection when combined with intensive preoperative pulmonary toilet is a safe adjunct in the treatment of bronchiectasis and hemoptysis secondary to cystic fibrosis. Pulmonary resection should be limited to only severely destroyed lung parenchyma which is refractory to medical management. In contradistinction to other authors we have not found tracheostomy a necessary adjunct in surgical management. PMID:6663409

  2. Failure of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in carcinoid pulmonary stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S C; Scarffe, J H; Levy, R D; Brooks, N H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Carcinoid heart disease typically results in pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid incompetence. Percutaneous balloon dilatation is an effective treatment for congenital pulmonary stenosis and has been applied successfully to tricuspid stenosis caused by carcinoid heart disease. The value of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in carcinoid pulmonary stenosis was assessed. METHODS--Two patients with severe congestive heart failure secondary to carcinoid heart disease and with documented pulmonary stenosis had balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. In both cases tricuspid regurgitation was also present together with reduced cardiac output. RESULTS--The procedure was technically successful in both patients. One patient experienced symptomatic benefit for two months and the other experienced no improvement. Both patients subsequently required combined tricuspid and pulmonary valve replacement from which good results and symptomatic improvement were obtained. CONCLUSION--Though balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve is technically feasible it is unlikely to provide useful palliation in carcinoid heart disease. Valve surgery should be considered in patients in whom the malignancy is controlled but carcinoid heart disease is producing drug resistant congestive heart failure. PMID:1622693

  3. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions 56.3400 Secondary breakage. Prior...

  4. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions 56.3400 Secondary breakage. Prior...

  5. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions 56.3400 Secondary breakage. Prior...

  6. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.

  7. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  8. Pulmonary Hypertension in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Robert P; Engel, Peter J; Nathan, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complication of sarcoidosis leading to dyspnea and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) can be due to several factors, including vascular involvement by the granulomatous inflammation, compression of the pulmonary arteries by adenopathy, fibrotic changes within the lung, and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Several case series have suggested that some patients with SAPH benefit from specific therapy for pulmonary hypertension. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial found 16weeks' bosentan therapy to be associated with significant improvement in pulmonary artery pressure. Future studies may better define who would respond to treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26593143

  9. [Idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Uehara, Mayuko; Kuroda, Yosuke; Ohori, Syunsuke; Mawatari, Toru; Morishita, Kiyofumi

    2010-07-01

    Pulmonary trunk aneurysm is generally associated with congenital cardiac defects, pulmonary hypertension, or infection. Idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm without any associated diseases is a rare lesion and has seldom been reported. Here, we report a case of a 68-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm. The maximum diameter of the aneurysm was 53 mm while she was 142 cm in height. We successfully performed aneurysmorrhaphy and her postoperative course was uneventful. Aneurysmorrhaphy was an effective technique for idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm without pulmonary hypertention. PMID:20662238

  10. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following:  ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith;  ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith;  ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and  EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below:  Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I (all isotopes) report primarily to the mineral product and not significantly to the off-gas;  {sup 99}Tc and Re show similar behavior in partitioning between product (major) and off-gas (trace) so Re is an acceptable surrogate for {sup 99}Tc;  {sup 99}Tc, Re, SO{sub 4} and Cr behavior, with respect to their durability in the final granular product, are controlled by the oxygen fugacity in the FBSR/BSR process, i.e. control of the REDuction/ OXidation (REDOX) equilibrium;  Mineralogy features related to the XRD patterns associated with the identified crystalline species and their relative amounts in radioactive and simulant products from the BSR and Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) are the same;  TCLP data are acceptable when RCRA metals are not shimmed in excess of their predicted concentrations in actual WTP-SW feeds and REDOX is controlled or an iron oxide catalyst is present as an insoluble spinel host for Cr;  ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing is below 2 g/m{sup 2} for the constituents of concern (COC); o Use of BET surface area to account for the surface roughness of the mineral granules demonstrates that the FBSR product is 2 orders of magnitude lower than the 2 g/m{sup 2} target;  All monoliths made from radioactive and non-radioactive (BSR and the ESTD engineering-scale) granular products pass compression testing at >500 psi, maintain PCT leach rates <2 g/m{sup 2}, and perform well in ASTM C1308 testing such that the measured Leach Indexes for key components (Na, Re/{sup 99}Tc and I) are all below current Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) target limits.  Good mass balance closure on Tc, Re, Cs, and I in all BSR tests (radioactive and non-radioactive); o SRS DWPF Secondary Waste shimmed to match WTP-SW  86-102% recovery of Re in the product streams for simulant and radioactive campaigns  109% recovery of 99Tc in the product streams for radioactive campaign;  91% recovery of I in the product streams for the simulant campaign;  98% recovery of {sup 129}I, ~93% recovery of {sup 125}I, and 151% recovery of {sup 127}I in the product streams ({sup 125}I has highest analytic sensitivity) for radioactive campaign.

  11. Identifying Minerals from Their Infra-red Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a British secondary school's use of a spectrometer to identify minerals. Discusses the origins of mineral spectra, the preparation of the specimen, the actual spectroscopic scanning, and the interpretation of the spectra. (TW)

  12. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Programs and Services Doctors Who Treat Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis No doctors are currently listed for this condition. ...

  13. Pulmonary hypertension - at home

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. With PAH, the right ... Chin K, Channick RN. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Broaddus VC, ... Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  14. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  15. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Caroline; Montani, David; Savale, Laurent; Sitbon, Olivier; Parent, Florence; Seferian, Andrei; Bulifon, Sophie; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Dartevelle, Philippe; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Grald; Jas, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by the persistence of thromboembolic obstructing the pulmonary arteries as an organized tissue and the presence of a variable small vessel arteriopathy. The consequence is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in progressive right heart failure. CTEPH is classified as group IV pulmonary hypertension according to the WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension. CTEPH is defined as precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure?25mmHg with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure?15mmHg) associated with mismatched perfusion defects on ventilation-perfusion lung scan and signs of chronic thromboembolic disease on computed tomography pulmonary angiogram and/or conventional pulmonary angiography, in a patient who received at least 3 months of therapeutic anticoagulation. CTEPH as a direct consequence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare, and a significant number of CTEPH cases develop in the absence of history of PE. Thus, CTEPH should be considered in any patient with unexplained PH. Splenectomy, chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, indwelling catheters and cardiac pacemakers have been identified as associated conditions increasing the risk of CTEPH. Ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q) is the best test available for establishing the thromboembolic nature of PH. When CTEPH is suspected, patients should be referred to expert centres where pulmonary angiography, right heart catheterization and high-resolution CT scan will be performed to confirm the diagnosis and to assess the operability. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) remains the gold standard treatment for CTEPH when organized thrombi involve the main, lobar or segmental arteries. This operation should only be performed by experienced surgeons in specialized centres. For inoperable patients, current ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension recommend the use of riociguat and say that off-label use of drugs approved for PAH and pulmonary angioplasty may be considered in expert centres. PMID:26585271

  16. Pulmonary hypertension: NO therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Adnot, S.; Raffestin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is a powerful pulmonary vasodilator which also prevents adhesion and aggregation of platelets, controls growth of smooth muscle, and influences the expression of growth promoting and vasoactive substances. Impaired endothelial NO production contributes to pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodelling in several forms of pulmonary hypertension. Exogenous NO gas delivered via the airspaces is a selective pulmonary vasodilator now used as treatment in various lung disorders. PMID:8882087

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Blinder, R.A.; Coleman, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common disease entity that is difficult to diagnose accurately by noninvasive methods. Ventilation-perfusion is a pivotal study in the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. The role of standard and newer modalities in evaluating pulmonary embolism is discussed in this article. 65 references.

  18. The many faces of pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Tenholder, M F

    1985-06-01

    The recognition of aspergillus in all its clinical disguises remains a challenge to clinicians in all fields of medicine. Fortunately, aspergillus has low pathogenicity for humans and requires very heavy inoculum of spores (aspergillary pneumonitis) in order to infect those whose pulmonary defense mechanisms, inherent structure, and physiology are intact. Patients with problems from aspergillus may be seen in either inpatient or outpatient clinical practice. The patient with fibrotic or cavitary lung disease finds himself at risk to be colonized and develop an aspergilloma (fungus ball). Conservative therapy (that is, antibiotics, pulmonary hygiene) or simple observation is often all that is required. With significant hemoptysis, surgical removal could be definitive treatment; but these patients often have such compromised pulmonary function that alternative therapies like infusion of antifungal agents locally are tempting. Part of the problem of the patient with asthma or COPD may actually be secondary to hypersensitivity to aspergillus (ABPA), which exacerbates bronchospasm and adds "pulmonary infiltrates" to the underlying disease. The recognition of this entity and then the judicious use of corticosteroids to control the symptoms will stabilize the clinical course of the disease. The immunocompromised patient may be relatively free of pulmonary disease.; but aspergillus, waiting until cytotoxic agents, corticosteroids, granulocytopenia, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and previous pneumonias destroy the local lung defense mechanisms, will then attack with a vengeance. The resultant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis requires treatment with amphotericin B, along with its own inherent toxicity. PMID:3892565

  19. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  20. Reperfusion pulmonary edema after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, K C; Cho, Y L; Lee, S Y

    2001-06-01

    Pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy is a potentially curative procedure in chronic, major vessel thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, persistent pulmonary hypertension and unrelenting reperfusion edema have serious complications, often requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. A 50-year-old man who was diagnosed with a thromboembolism in both pulmonary arteries underwent a bilateral pulmonary endarterectomy. He received O2-isoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia. When the lungs were reperfused with CPB weaning, massive hemorrhage occurred in the left lung. After the operation, the patient was taken to the intensive care unit. Mechanical ventilation was performed immediately and then both inhaled NO and i.v. furosemide therapies were administered. The patient was discharged from ICU 15 days postoperation. PMID:11475183

  1. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  2. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Al-Fares, Fatin; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation.

  3. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation. PMID:26425600

  4. Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, P.C.; Brant-Zawadski, M.

    1982-08-01

    Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography was performed in 14 patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism. In 13 of 14, useful clinical information was obtained. Four patients were found to have pulmonary emboli. In nine patients, digital subtraction angiography was performed through pulmonary artery catheters already in place for monitoring critically ill patients. Conventional angiography in nine patients confirmed the findings by digital angiography. This initial experience suggests that digital subtraction pulmonary angiography provides adequate image quality in certain circumstances with several advantages over conventional angiography.

  5. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventriclepulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  6. Pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and pneumoretroperitoneum complicating pulmonary metastatic carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Greci, V; Baio, A; Bibbiani, L; Caggiano, E; Borgonovo, S; Olivero, D; Rocchi, P M; Raiano, V

    2015-11-01

    This report describes a case of severe spontaneous tension pneumopericardium with concurrent pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and retropneumoperitoneum in a cat presenting with dyspnoea and signs of cardiac tamponade secondary to metastatic pulmonary carcinoma. Spontaneous pneumopericardium is an extremely uncommon condition consisting of pericardial gas in the absence of iatrogenic/traumatic causes. In humans, it has been described secondary to pneumonia or lung abscess and very rarely secondary to pulmonary neoplasia. PMID:25958888

  7. Expression of immunoreactive activin A protein in remodeling lesions associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuse, T.; Ikegami, A.; Ohga, E.; Hosoi, T.; Oka, T.; Kida, K.; Fukayama, M.; Inoue, S.; Nagase, T.; Ouchi, Y.; Fukuchi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The expression of activin A, one of the transforming growth factor-beta supergene family, was studied in various pulmonary conditions associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (3 cases with diffuse alveolar damage, 6 cases with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 1 case with pulmonary fibrosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis) using immunohistochemical techniques on paraffin-embedded sections. Controls consisted of 10 cases with normal pulmonary parenchyma, and 2 cases with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 case with secondary pulmonary hypertension were also studied. The lung specimens from normal parenchyma weakly expressed immunoreactive activin A on the bronchiolar epithelium. In marked contrast, all of the specimens from cases with diffuse alveolar damage and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated strong expression of activin A on metaplastic epithelium, hyperplastic smooth muscle cells, desquamated cells, and alveolar macrophages. Pulmonary arteries from patients with primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension showed abundant immunoreactive activin A on smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest a potential role for this growth factor, activin A, in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tissue remodeling associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8774126

  8. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoeper, Marius M; Madani, Michael M; Nakanishi, Norifumi; Meyer, Bernhard; Cebotari, Serghei; Rubin, Lewis J

    2014-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but debilitating and life-threatening complication of acute pulmonary embolism. CTEPH results from persistent obstruction of pulmonary arteries and progressive vascular remodelling. Not all patients presenting with CTEPH have a history of clinically overt pulmonary embolism. The diagnostic work-up to detect or rule out CTEPH should include ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, which has high sensitivity and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. CT angiography usually reveals typical features of CTEPH, including mosaic perfusion, part or complete occlusion of pulmonary arteries, and intraluminal bands and webs. Patients with suspected CTEPH should be referred to a specialist centre for right-heart catheterisation and pulmonary angiography. Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for CTEPH and is associated with excellent long-term results and a high probability of cure. For patients with inoperable CTEPH, various medical and interventional therapies are being developed. PMID:24898750

  9. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Schoepf, U Joseph; Chowdhury, Shahryar M; Fox, Mary A; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. PMID:25846076

  10. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to exercise in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Scano, G.; Garcia-Herreros, P.; Stendardi, D.; Degre, S.; De Coster, A.; Sergysels, R.

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-six coal miners, without associated functional chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), assessed by normal airway resistance, were divided into three groups: (1) Group C, normal x-ray; (2) Group S1, micronodular silicosis; and (3) Group S2, complicated silicosis. All subjects were evaluated while at rest and during exercise. Significant lung volume reduction was observed in the S2 Group only. Blood gases, pulmonary pressure, and cardiac output were found to be within the normal range for all three groups when at rest. The pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were higher, however, for the S1 and S2 Groups when compared to the C Group. During exercise, pulmonary hypertension was observed in 50% of the patients with complicated silicosis. When all data (N = 26) were included, the high values for pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance correlated well with the loss in vital capacity (VC) and the decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/). From the initial 26 patients, 19 were selected on the basis of their normal airway resistance and FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0//VC ratio. This selection did not alter the differences noted for the pulmonary pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance, which previously existed between the groups, even though the correlations were not statistically significant. We conclude that silicosis without associated COLD leads to minimal hemodynamic impairment at rest and during exercise, and that airway resistance does not detect impairment of flow as effectively as FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/ reduction. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance observed, especially in complicated silicosis, may be best explained by the loss of lung parenchyma and possible impairment of small airways.

  11. Two Cases of Late Shone Syndrome With Pulmonary Hypertension: Heart-Lung Transplant or Valve Surgery?

    PubMed

    Robich, Michael P; Stewart, Robert D; Zahka, Kenneth G; Krasuski, Richard A; Hanna, Mazen; Blackstone, Eugene H; Pettersson, Gosta B

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of Shone syndrome with severe mitral and aortic valve problems and pulmonary hypertension were referred for heart-lung transplantation. Severely elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was confirmed as was severe periprosthetic mitral and aortic regurgitation. Based on the severity of the valve lesions in both patients, surgery was decided upon and undertaken. Both experienced early pulmonary hypertensive crises, one more than the other, that gradually subsided, followed by excellent recovery and reversal of pulmonary hypertension and PVR. These cases illustrate Braunwald's concept that pulmonary hypertension secondary to left-sided valve disease is reversible. PMID:26715002

  12. Pulmonary response of normal human subjects to inhaled vasodilator substances.

    PubMed

    Brett, S J; Chambers, J; Bush, A; Rosenthal, M; Evans, T W

    1998-11-01

    1. Inhaled vasodilators such as nitric oxide and epoprostenol (prostaglandin I2) are now widely employed as supportive therapies to improve oxygenation and reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension. However, few data exist concerning their effects in normal individuals. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of the pulmonary circulation in normal individuals to inhaled nitric oxide and nebulized prostaglandin I2.2.Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to inhaled nitric oxide (0, 20 and 40 p.p.m.) and nebulized prostaglandin I2 (10 microgram/ml). Changes in effective pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were measured using respiratory mass spectrometry. Bicycle ergometry was used to increase effective pulmonary blood flow as a positive control.3. Exercise produced significant increases in both effective pulmonary blood flow and TLCO, but neither nitric oxide nor prostaglandin I2 produced significant changes in either parameter.4.No significant change in pulmonary haemodynamics was demonstrated in response to inhaled nitric oxide or nebulized prostaglandin I2, using doses known to be effective in patients with acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension. These data suggest that the normal pulmonary vascular bed is not amenable to vasodilatation by inhaled drugs. The study further suggests that the normal pulmonary vasodilatation seen on exercise is not mediated pharmacologically, but is a secondary consequence to the mechanical effects of a rise in pulmonary blood flow. This study thus supports the view that there is no resting vasoconstrictor tone in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:9791049

  13. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  14. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  15. Pulmonary schistosomiasis - imaging features.

    PubMed

    T, Niemann; Marti, Hp; Duhnsen, Sh; G, Bongartz

    2010-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a helminthic infection that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Pulmonary involvement can be divided into two categories: acute or chronic compromise. Chronic and recurrent infection develops in persons living or travelling in endemic areas. In the lungs, granuloma formation and fibrosis around the schistosome eggs retained in the pulmonary vasculature may result in obliterative arteriolitis and pulmonary hypertension leading to cor pulmonale. Acute schistosomiasis is associated with primary exposure and is commonly seen in nonimmune travelers. The common CT findings in acute pulmonary schistosomiasis are small pulmonary nodules ranging from 2 to 15 mm and larger nodules with ground glass-opacity halo. Katayama fever is a severe clinical manifestation of acute involvement. We present a case of pulmonary involvement in schistosomiasis and provide a discussion about typical imaging findings in the acute and chronic form. PMID:22470757

  16. Leiomyosarcoma of pulmonary truncus.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, I; Iwase, H; Horie, H; Ide, G; Saito, T; Furukawa, Y

    1984-07-01

    Insidious and progressive right heart failure of obscure origin warrants differential diagnosis of primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery in patients of both sexes and 20 years of age and older. We report a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary truncus in a 67 years old woman. She had been well in general until when she started having fluctuating and progressive right heart failure three years ago. Clinical data included systolic murmurs in the pulmonary valve area, right ventricular hypertrophy, diminished x-ray density of the pulmonary vasculature, moderate elevation of serum LDH, alkaline phosphatase, and uric acid, and prolonged or unobtainable circulation time from the arm to lungs. The immediate cause of death was attributable to right heart failure due to pulmonary arterial stenosis caused by a locally invasive leiomyosarcoma apparently arising in the pulmonary truncus. Contributing to this right heart failure were 280 ml of serosanguinous pericardial effusion and fibrinous pericarditis. PMID:6485801

  17. Pulmonary valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia-restrictive ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Reshmi, Liza Jose; Gadhinglajkar, Shrinivas; Mathew, Thomas; Venkateshwaran, Subramanian; Sreedhar, Rupa; Dharan, Baiju

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary atresia with restrictive ventricular septal defect is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. A Blalock-Taussig shunt and surgical perforation of the atretic pulmonary valve is often performed as the initial palliation. We present our experience of utilizing both transesophageal and epicardial echocardiography during surgical pulmonary valvuloplasty in a 22-day-old neonate with pulmonary atresia with restrictive ventricular septal defect. The atretic pulmonary valve was perforated using a sheath introduced through the pulmonary artery. PMID:25293418

  18. Renal Angiomyolipoma With Caval Extension and Pulmonary Fat Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Suleyman Utku; Kocaay, Akin Firat; Sevim, Yusuf; Cetinkaya, Omer Arda; Atman, Ebru Dusunceli; Alacayir, Iskender

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare benign tumor of the kidney. Occasionally, it may extend into the renal vein or the inferior vena cava (IVC), but so far of pulmonary embolism in patients with renal AML was rarely reported. Here, a case of symptomatic pulmonary embolism secondary to AML that was placed IVC filter before the operation and then treated with radical nephrectomy is reported. This case highlights the rare possibility of renal vein and IVC involvement with symptomatic pulmonary fat embolism in renal AML, which may potentially result in fatal complications if not appropriately and cautiously managed with surgical intervention. PMID:26252271

  19. Hemolysis and Pulmonary Insufficiency following Right Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sarah A; Soleimani, Behzad; Pae, Walter E

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of severe hemolysis and pulmonary valve insufficiency (PI) following right ventricular support using a paracorporeal pneumatic pump (Abiomed, Danvers, MA, USA). We speculate that the high velocity jet of blood emanating from the outflow cannula caused turbulence above the pulmonary valve, leading to PI and hemolysis. Despite the growing number of implanted ventricular assist devices, we could find no report in the literature describing pulmonary valve insufficiency secondary to right ventricular assist device (RVAD) placement. Fortunately, in this case, right ventricular function recovered sufficiently after seven days of support, allowing explantation of the device and resolution of PI and hemolysis. PMID:23213613

  20. The current treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Kenneth Scott

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular hypertension in general is a progressive, nearly always fatal condition that until recently has had very few treatment options. Our understanding of the pulmonary vascular disease process has opened the window to earlier screening techniques, diagnosis, and treatment options. However, all current treatment options are complex and expensive and therefore require clinical support strategies often necessitating specialized pulmonary hypertension treatment centers. Whether idiopathic or secondary, pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by the deregulated proliferation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells and intimal smooth muscle cells, both resistant to cellular apoptosis. Early recognition of such disregulation may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment and thus alteration in the disease process. Screening of high-risk populations such as those with connective tissue disorders, HIV disease, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, and those exposed to certain drugs and toxins such as methamphetamines and the diet drugs Dexfenfluramine and Fenfluramine is of utmost importance. Similarly, early symptom recognition in these high-risk groups is essential to earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20073161

  1. Neostigmine and pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Bijapur, Mubina Begum; Shreyavathi, Shreyavathi; Rao, Raghavendra R S

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old child with no pre-existing cardiac or respiratory disease developed frank pulmonary oedema after administration of a neostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture to reverse neuromuscular blockade during general anaesthesia. Possible cardiac and extra-cardiac factors that could cause pulmonary oedema in this child were ruled out by appropriate investigations. As the pulmonary oedema manifested shortly after administration of the neostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture, we concluded that neostigmine was the most probable cause. This article briefly reports the occurrence of events and successful management of perioperative pulmonary oedema. PMID:25199191

  2. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... Tests To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  3. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no cure. However, ... healthy organs from a deceased donor. Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension Conditions that affect the left side of the ...

  4. Pulmonary artery aneurysm in an adult patient with idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Betkier-Lipi?ska, Katarzyna; Czarkowski, Sebastian; Hendzel, Piotr; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery (IDPA) is a rare congenital heart disease. It has been described for almost one hundred years, and numerous definitions have been proposed. The IDPA diagnostic criteria have not been updated for years. Secondary to primary disease, pulmonary artery aneurism was recognised as a lethal defect; however, long-term follow-up of patients with IDPA has not been well researched. Thus, indications to medical or surgical treatment are not evidence based. Here, we present a rare case of a 54-year-old patient with IDPA, who remained under observation for 36 years without surgical intervention. PMID:26855651

  5. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  6. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Sometimes doctors can find out what is causing pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring). For example, exposure to environmental pollutants ...

  7. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L?1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L?1 over 46 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 2025 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 4050 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  8. The Critical Role of Pulmonary Arterial Compliance in Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thenappan, Thenappan; Prins, Kurt W; Pritzker, Marc R; Scandurra, John; Volmers, Karl; Weir, E Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-compliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload and eventually right ventricular failure. Evidence suggests that decreased pulmonary arterial compliance is a cause rather than a consequence of distal small vessel proliferative vasculopathy. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases early in the disease process even when pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are normal, potentially enabling early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in high-risk populations. With the recognition of the prognostic importance of pulmonary arterial compliance, its impact on right ventricular function, and its contributory role in the development and progression of distal small-vessel proliferative vasculopathy, pulmonary arterial compliance is an attractive target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26848601

  9. Pulmonary Vasodilator Responses to Nitroprusside and Nitroglycerin in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Kadowitz, Philip J.; Nandiwada, Premanand; Gruetter, Carl A.; Ignarro, Louis J.; Hyman, Albert L.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the direct actions of nitroprusside and nitroglycerin on the pulmonary vascular bed in the intactchest dog. These widely used nitrogen oxide-containing vasodilator agents decreased pulmonary arterial pressure and increased cardiac output without altering left atrial pressure. Reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were small under resting conditions, but were enhanced when pulmonary vascular tone was elevated by infusion of a stable prostaglandin analog that increases pulmonary vascular resistance by constricting intrapulmonary veins and upstream segments. In studies in which pulmonary blood flow to the left lower lobe was maintained constant, nitroprusside and nitroglycerin caused small but significant reductions in lobar arterial and small-vein pressures without significantly affecting left atrial pressure. With constant blood flow, lobar vascular pressures that were reduced in response to the vasodilators were more greatly reduced when lobar vascular resistance was increased by infusion of the prostaglandin analog or serotonin. However, when lobar vascular pressures were elevated by passive obstruction of lobar venous outflow, vasodilator responses to nitroprusside and nitroglycerin were not enhanced. These data suggest that nitroprusside and nitroglycerin decrease pulmonary vascular resistance by dilating intrapulmonary veins and upstream segments. These responses were minimal under control conditions but were enhanced when vascular tone was increased. This vasodilator action is independent of passive factors such as changes in pulmonary blood flow or left atrial pressure and is not secondary to an effect of these agents on the systemic circulation. Pulmonary vasodilator responses to nitroprusside and nitroglycerin were, however, found to be dependent on the existing level of vasomotor tone in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:6782123

  10. Ultrasonic Estimation of Mechanical Properties of Pulmonary Arterial Wall Under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kendall R.; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2005-04-01

    Secondary pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a disease that could benefit from improved ultrasonic diagnostic techniques. We perform high-frequency in vitro ultrasound measurements (25 MHz to 100 MHz) on fresh and fixed pulmonary arterial walls excised from normoxic and hypoxic Long-Evans rat models. Estimates of the elastic stiffness coefficients are determined from measurements of the speed of sound. Preliminary results indicate that hypoxia leads to up to increase of 20 % in stiffening of the pulmonary arterial wall.

  11. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  12. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  13. Acute Pulmonary Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Baharoon, SA; Al-Jahdali, HH; Bamefleh, HS; Elkeir, AM; Yamani, NM

    2011-01-01

    Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis affects non-immune individuals returning from endemic areas. Pathogenesis is not well understood. We report a case of acute pulmonary schistosomiasis in which lung biopsy was done 10 weeks after exposure and it identified the presence of schistosomal ovum surrounded by granuloma. PMID:21887064

  14. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also decrease the amount of oxygen getting to your brain. What are the Symptoms of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension? ... hypertension are treated differently, it is important that your health care provider takes the time and orders the necessary tests to nd out what kind of pulmonary ...

  15. Platelets in Pulmonary Hypertension: a Causative Role or a Simple Association?

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Keyhan Sayadpour

    2012-01-01

    Pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on three basic mechanisms: thrombotic pulmonary vascular lesions, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Platelets are related to all of these mechanisms by their aggregation, production, storage and release of several mediators. The role of platelets is more prominent in some types of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including those which are secondary to inflammatory and infectious diseases, hemoglobinopathies, essential thrombocythemia, drugs, thromboembolism, and cardiac surgery. Most pulmonary antihypertensive drugs have a negative effect on platelets. In this review, the mechanisms of platelets association with pulmonary arterial hypertension, those types of pulmonary arterial hypertension with greatest platelet contribution to their pathophysiology, and the effects of pulmonary antihypertensive drugs on platelets are summarized. PMID:23056879

  16. The pulmonary extracellular lining.

    PubMed Central

    George, G; Hook, G E

    1984-01-01

    The extracellular lining of the lungs is reviewed. The pulmonary extracellular lining is a complex mixture of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates which is absolutely essential for the maintenance of normal pulmonary functions such as gas exchange. Without the lining the lungs would collapse. Alterations in the pulmonary extracellular lining may underlie some disease conditions induced by toxic agents, especially those which interfere with the formation of pulmonary surfactant. The extracellular lining could be used to detect and monitor damage and disease caused by agents toxic to the lungs. The lining contains many hydrolytic enzymes which may act to detoxify certain toxic agents such as those which contain ester groups. The pulmonary extracellular lining could play a significant role mediating the toxic action of inhaled agents as well as the removal of those agents from the lungs. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6376100

  17. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  18. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control...

  20. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control...

  1. Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...

  2. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection is a complication associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This complication is described as acute in onset and is frequently fatal without intervention. We describe a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chest pain found to have an unsuspected chronic pulmonary artery dissection on postmortem examination. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection should be considered in patients with chest pain and worsening dyspnea, as the frequency this condition may be underestimated. PMID:24618553

  3. Pulmonary Silicosis Presents with Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Mohsin; Aljarod, Tarake; Ayan, Mohamed; Jeffrey, Melnick; Shah, Bobby H.

    2015-01-01

    Silica and silicate mineral dust inhalation can cause a variety of histopathological changes in the lungs and pleura. These include pulmonary silicotic nodules, interstitial infiltrate, fibrosis, and pleural thickening. Pleural effusion is an extremely rare presentation of silicosis. To our best knowledge, there have been only 2 cases of silicosis with pleural effusion reported in medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of a 77-year-old male with almost 50 years' history of occupational silica exposure. He presented with a 4-week history of exertional shortness of breath. He is a lifetime nonsmoker, with no known other significant pulmonary disease. He had chest X-ray which showed a right lung infiltrate and bilateral pleural thickening and effusion. Chest CT showed moderate-sized bilateral pleural effusion and thickening with multiple bilateral intrapulmonary nodules seen. He had undergone extensive workup and was diagnosed with silicosis. PMID:26435716

  4. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-03-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

  5. Low thoracic epidural anaesthesia for elective cholecystectomy in a patient with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, S R

    1983-01-01

    A 52-year-old male with pulmonary hypertension secondary to partial anomalous pulmonary venous return unassociated with atrial septal defect was given thoracic epidural anaesthesia for elective cholecystectomy. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by increased pulmonary blood flow which in severe cases results in pulmonary hypertension subjecting the right ventricle to strain. An epidural catheter was placed at the T11-T12 interspace and anaesthesia was established to the T4 dermatomal level with bupivacaine (180 mg) and lidocaine (100 mg). Central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, radial artery pressure, and cardiac output were monitored. There was minimal change in pulmonary arterial pressure, although there was a significant drop in systemic arterial pressure. Thoracic epidural block is recommended for upper abdominal surgery in clinical situations with pulmonary hypertension. PMID:6824989

  6. Pulmonary vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dongmei; Hickey, Anthony J

    2007-04-01

    This review will discuss developments in the field of pulmonary vaccine delivery. The possibilities of adopting aerosol-generation technology and specific pharmaceutical formulations for the purpose of pulmonary immunization are described. Aerosol-generation systems might offer advantages with respect to vaccine stability and antigenicity. Adjuvants and their inclusion in vaccine-delivery systems are described. Other formulation components, such as surfactants, particulate systems and dispersion of the aerosols are detailed in this paper. The noninvasive, relatively safe and low-cost nature of pulmonary delivery may provide great benefits to the public health vaccination campaign. PMID:17408371

  7. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristopher W; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary vascular diseases encompass a large and diverse group of underlying pathologies ranging from venous thromboembolism to congenital malformations to inflammatory vasculitides. As a result, patients can present either acutely with dyspnea and chest pain or chronically with dyspnea on exertion, hypoxia, and right heart failure. Imaging, particularly with multidetector CT, plays a key role in the evaluation and management of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease and, given the widespread routine use of high-quality CT pulmonary angiography, it is imperative that radiologists be familiar these pathologies. PMID:26024602

  8. Acute pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jessica; Graham, David; O'Reilly, Sarah; Punton, Gillian

    2016-02-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema is a distressing and life-threatening illness that is associated with a sudden onset of symptoms. For the best possible patient outcomes, it is essential that nurses in all clinical areas are equipped to accurately recognise, assess and manage patients with acute pulmonary oedema. This article outlines the pathophysiology of acute cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and suggests a systematic approach to the recognition and management of its most serious manifestations. Long-term care and symptom recognition are discussed and suggestions for ongoing patient self-management are provided. PMID:26838657

  9. Pulmonary hydatidosis in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Rajpal Singh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha; Handa, Uma; Mohan, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus. Liver is the most commonly involved organ followed by the lungs. Pulmonary hydatidosis can be primary or secondary. The disease may be asymptomatic for several years. Cause of concern is the fatal anaphylaxis, which may be life threatening. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study is over a period of ten years (2003-2012). The demographic data including the clinical features, radiological findings, other organ involvement, surgical and medical management done and histopathological findings were compiled from the records. Results: During the study period a total of eight cases, five male and three female, with age ranging from eight to 43 years were diagnosed as pulmonary hydatid disease. Five patients had presented with complicated cysts. Six patients had solitary cysts involving the lung while bilateral lung involvement was seen in two cases. One patient had multiple pulmonary cysts. Three patients had associated cysts in liver and two in spleen. Surgical lobectomy was done in four cases. Histopathology showed acellular laminated ectocysts in all the cases, whereas endocyst with brood capsules was seen in five cases. Conclusions: Pulmonary hydatidosis is not uncommon. Anaphylaxis, although rarely seen, may be a disastrous event. High index of clinical suspicion and mass awareness for interruption of transmission of parasite can lead to proper treatment and possible eradication. PMID:25983410

  10. Mineral revenues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    GAO examined the effect that the Department of the Interiors March 1988 oil and gas product valuation regulations have had on royalties form Indian and federal onshore and offshore leases. During the development of the regulatory changes, the states and Indian tribes voiced concern that their share of royalties would drop because of the proposed revisions. The Minerals Management Service, however, believed that the regulations would be revenue neutral, with royalties staying about the same. Service reports show that from March 1988 to February 1990, overall royalties, after adjusting for volume and price difference, have neither consistently increased nor decreased. This paper concludes that the methodology used by the Service to analyze the effect of the revised revisions on royalties was reasonable and accounts for the two measurable factors-volume and price-that could be expected to affect royalties.

  11. A Case of Stroke due to Pulmonary Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Belok, Samuel; Parikh, Leslie; Robertson, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but potentially lethal disease. It most commonly occurs as a complication of malignancy, post-lung surgery or atrial fibrillation. Thrombi are typically detected using a variety of imaging modalities including transesophageal echo, CT-scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or pulmonary angiography. Treatment consists of anticoagulation. Here we report a case of a middle-aged male with systolic left ventricular dysfunction who presented with a stroke due to embolization from a pulmonary vein thrombus diagnosed on CT scan. Etiology of the thrombosis was felt to be secondary to severe systolic dysfunction. Based upon this case report, we believe that pulmonary venous embolism should be considered as a cause of cryptogenic stroke in patients with a significantly reduced cardiac systolic function. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-02.asp, free with no login]. PMID:26827087

  12. Primary pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, R.; Fernandez-Infante, B.; Fernandez-Rozas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Several cardiorespiratory diseases can complicate human immunodeficiency virus infection. Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare clinical disorder which carries a bad prognosis. More than 90 cases of HIV-associated primary pulmonary hypertension have been reported to date. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, some evidence suggests a possible role for the virus itself in its development. Genetic susceptibility may also be implicated. The clinical and histopathologic features of this entity do not differ from those of classic primary pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and a careful evaluation to rule out causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. In addition to supportive measures, anticoagulation and vasodilators have been used to treat this disorder, although sufficient data regarding long-term results with these therapies are lacking. PMID:9799910

  13. [Hydatic pulmonary embolism: a rare complication of hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Serraj, M; Smahi, M; Kamaoui, I; El Houari, A; Sahnoune, F; Ouadnouni, Y; Amara, B; El Biaze, M; Tizniti, S; Benjelloun, M C

    2013-03-01

    Hepato-pulmonary hydatidosis is a parasitic disease common in Mediterranean countries. Hydatid pulmonary embolism is extremely rare and is due to rupture of a cardiac hydatid cyst or, more rarely, rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst. We report three cases of hydatid pulmonary embolism secondary to rupture of a hydatid cyst into the inferior vena cava. Thoracic imaging, mainly CT angiography and MRI, was important for both the diagnosis and decisions on treatment. The prognosis of intra-arterial pulmonary hydatid cyst is poor because of the risk of acute fatal complications such as anaphylactic shock and vascular rupture and also of chronic progression to cor pulmonale and respiratory failure. The therapeutic management is difficult and often only partially effective hence the importance of focusing on preventative treatment. PMID:23497931

  14. Nominal Group Technique consultation of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Hayley A; Rapport, Frances L; Wright, Sarah; Doel, Marcus A; Clement, Clare; Lewis, Keir E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine what patients, professionals and significant others regarded as the most important positive- and challenging aspects of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and to gain insight into how such programmes could be developed and improved. Method: A modified Nominal Group Technique method was used in three consultation workshops (one with COPD patients who had recently undertaken a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme; one with significant others of the same patients; one with secondary care professionals who deliver the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme). Results: Each of three workshops resulted in the production of approximately ten positive- and ten challenging aspects related to Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes. These were further developed by a process of thematisation into seven broad themes. The most important was the patient, followed by physical health; jointly ranked as third were: mental health and knowledge and education. The programme and professional characteristics were jointly ranked as fifth, with the future being ranked as the least important theme. Conclusions: The modified Nominal Group Technique method allowed the development of a ranked thematic list that illustrated the important positive- and challenging aspects of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes for patients with COPD. These themes should be core to planning future Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programmes, particularly if patients and carer views are to be considered. PMID:25075286

  15. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that they press on the tubes that bring air to the lungs (bronchi) and cause breathing problems. Other heart defects that can occur with absent pulmonary valve include: Abnormal tricuspid valve Atrial septal defect Double ...

  16. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Righini, Marc; Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Le Gal, Grgoire

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is the third cause of mortality by cardiovascular disease after coronary artery disease and stroke, and its incidence is around 1/1000 per year. During the last two decades, many different non-invasive diagnostic tests have been developed and validated. For hemodynamically stable outpatients, the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism mainly rests on the sequential use of clinical assessment, D-dimer measurement and multidetector CT. In patients with a contraindication to CT, lower limb venous ultrasonography and ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy remain valid options. Massive pulmonary embolism is a distinct clinical entity with a specific diagnostic approach. In unstable patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, echocardiography should be the initial test. PMID:26585743

  17. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Reesink, H.J.; Kloek, J.J.; Bresser, P.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rapidly progressive and deadly disease, resulting from incomplete resolution of acute pulmonary embolism. Historically, the incidence of CTEPH was significantly underestimated but it may be as high as 3.8% following acute pulmonary embolism. Although the medical management of CTEPH may be supportive, the only curative treatment is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). However, a careful screening programme is mandatory to select CTEPH patients who are likely to benefit from PEA. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic pitfalls, surgical treatment, outcome after surgery, and the potential benefit of medical treatment in inoperable CTEPH patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696637

  18. Acute massive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G. A. H.; Sutton, G. C.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-three patients are reported in whom a diagnosis of acute massive pulmonary embolism was confirmed by pulmonary arteriography. All patients had a history of less than 48 hours' duration and only two had previous cardiorespiratory disease. In such patients the haemodynamic abnormalities determined at catheterization are due to pulmonary embolism as an isolated disturbance. These abnormalities include an only moderate degree of pulmonary hypertension (PA systolic pressure 38.46.8 mm. Hg), right ventricular `failure' (RVED 11.54.9 mm. Hg), arterial oxygen desaturation (86.411.2%) and a wide arteriovenous oxygen difference (8.11.8 ml./100 ml.), and low cardiac output. These haemodynamic abnormalities find their expression in the presentation and the clinical, electrocardiographic, and radiological findings which are described. Images PMID:5433313

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the mouth or fingernails due to low oxygen (with advanced disease) Enlargement of the fingernail bases, ... scan Chest x-ray Echocardiogram Measurements of blood oxygen level (arterial blood gases) Pulmonary function tests Six- ...

  20. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, J.M.; Paterson, I.S.; Mannick, J.A.; Valeri, C.R.; Shepro, D.; Hechtman, H.B. )

    1989-02-17

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B{sub 4} and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability.

  1. Novel Pulmonary Artery Reduction Plasty for Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Ju; Suh, Young Joo

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old female with pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) associated with an atrial septal defect and pulmonary arterial hypertension. There is no standard therapeutic approach for PAA at the present time. We performed a novel surgical repair of a 67-mm PAA consisting of internal plication of the pulmonary artery to reduce the diameter and approximation of remnant unfolding pulmonary artery to reinforce the stability of the pulmonary artery and prevent bleeding. PMID:26715001

  2. Recurrent amiodarone pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chendrasekhar, A; Barke, R A; Druck, P

    1996-01-01

    Amiodarone, a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, is associated with pulmonary toxicity, with an estimated mortality of 1% to 33%. Standard treatment for amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) has been discontinuance of the drug and steroid therapy. We report a case of APT that recurred after withdrawal of steroids and failed to respond to reinstatement of steroid therapy. Recurrent APT is a rare clinical entity that has been reported only twice in recent literature. PMID:8545700

  3. The pulmonary artery catheter.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) has been widely used for monitoring of critically ill patients over the years, but with advances in less invasive monitoring techniques, notably echocardiography, there are fewer indications for PAC insertion. Nevertheless, the PAC provides simultaneous monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures, cardiac filling, cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation, and still has an important role in complex cases. Adequate and continued training are required to ensure that PAC-derived data are correctly interpreted and applied. PMID:22886686

  4. Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ramakant; George, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. PMID:22345920

  5. Secondary Headaches

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migraine and Other Headaches Headache Journal - Public Site Art Gallery Art Gallery Support the AMF American Migraine Foundation The ... but there are usually clues in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can ...

  6. [Secondary dressings].

    PubMed

    Philippe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Wound management imposes a defined approach to each phase of healing and thereby the need for in-depth knowledge of the various medical devices available: primary and secondary dressings. Secondary dressings are essential as they have an impact on the efficacy of the primary dressing. Their role is to protect, reinforce and cover the primary dressing. In practice, it is usually nurses who have the responsibility of selecting and prescribing the most suitable dressing for the wound. PMID:26763570

  7. Perioperative pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertensive crisis during congenital heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertensive crisis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) who require cardiac surgery. At present, prevention and management of perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis is aimed at optimizing cardiopulmonary interactions by targeting prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide signaling pathways within the pulmonary circulation with various pharmacological agents. This review is aimed at familiarizing the practitioner with the current pharmacological treatment for dealing with perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis in PAH-CHD patients. Given the life-threatening complications associated with pulmonary hypertensive crisis, proper perioperative planning can help anticipate cardiopulmonary complications and optimize surgical outcomes in this patient population. PMID:25006417

  8. Lung scan perfusion defects limited to matching pleural effusions: low probability of pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Bedont, R.A.; Datz, F.L.

    1985-12-01

    Patients with a new pleural effusion are often sent for a ventilation-perfusion scan to exclude a pulmonary embolism. This retrospective study assessed the probability of pulmonary embolism when a pleural effusion and a perfusion defect of similar size are the only significant imaging abnormalities. In 451 reports of patients who were scanned for suspected pulmonary embolism, 53 had perfusion defects secondary to pleural effusion without other significant perfusion defects. Using pulmonary angiography, venography, analysis of pleural fluid, clinical course, and other radiographic and laboratory studies to establish the final diagnosis, only two patients had documented venous thrombotic disease: one had pulmonary emboli, the other thrombophlebitis. Lung scans having significant perfusion defects limited to pleural effusions and matching them in size have a low probability for pulmonary embolism.

  9. Minerals yearbook vol. I: metals and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    0000-01-01

    This volume, covering metals and minerals, contains chapters on approximately 90 commodities. In addition, this volume has chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on statistical surveying methods used by Minerals Information, plus a statistical summary.

  10. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction.

    PubMed

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-10-01

    In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function.The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities.The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction.The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P?pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  11. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function. The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities. The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction. The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P?pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  12. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  13. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  14. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  15. Peripheral pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule

    PubMed Central

    Tamagno, Mauro Federico Luis; Bibas, Benoit Jacques; Minamoto, Helio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient who was evaluated due to a solitary pulmonary nodule. The final diagnosis was a solitary peripheral pulmonary artery saccular aneurysm. The patient was submitted to a pulmonary lobectomy with excellent recovery. Peripheral pulmonary artery aneurysms that arise from segmental or intrapulmonary branches are extremely rare, and their management is still controversial. PMID:26484335

  16. Pulmonary artery CTA.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, U Joseph

    2006-12-01

    The latest with the introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), CT has been firmly established as the modality of choice for imaging the pulmonary arteries, particularly as the de facto first line test for imaging patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Before the introduction of MDCT, remaining concerns regarding CTs accuracy for diagnosis of isolated peripheral emboli had prevented the unanimous acceptance of this test as the reference standard for imaging PE. After a decade of uncertainty, there is now conclusive evidence that CT, if positive, provides reliable confirmation of the presence of PE and, more importantly, if negative effectively rules out clinically significant PE. Current endeavors to streamline and facilitate workflow for CT diagnosis of PE will further improve the acceptance, utility, and importance of this test. Examples include improvements in workflow, CT derivation of right ventricular function parameters for triage and prognostication of patients with acute PE and the comprehensive assessment of patients with acute chest pain for PE, coronary disease, aortic disease, and pulmonary disease by means of a single, contrast enhanced, ECG-synchronized CT scan. Although the diagnosis or exclusion of acute PE is the most common and important application of CT pulmonary angiography, the ease of scan acquisition and the high spatial resolution of modern CT techniques make this test ideally suited for the greatest majority of congenital and acquired, acute and chronic disorders of the pulmonary arteries. PMID:17709083

  17. [Secondary dyslipidemias].

    PubMed

    Vargov, V; Pytliak, M; Mechrov, V

    2012-03-01

    Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice. PMID:22486289

  18. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided. PMID:26412723

  19. Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Methamphetamine Use Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have used methamphetamines you are at risk for Pulmonary Hypertension? www. ... are made every year. PH in Association with Methamphetamine Use My doctor recently told me that I ...

  20. Unusual cause of pulmonary emboli.

    PubMed

    Vitums, V C

    1984-10-01

    Pulmonary emboli resulted due to intravasation of iophendylate during myelography the previous day. Findings consistent with pulmonary emboli in nonambulatory patients after myelography should not always be diagnosed as thromboembolic disease from blood clots. PMID:6478908

  1. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficulty breathing Pulmonary hypertension Right-sided heart failure (cor pulmonale) Coughing up blood ... Channick RN, Rubin LJ. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Mason RJ, ... Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. [Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].

    PubMed

    Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles. PMID:24461445

  3. Gestational pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Matthew; Payne, Julie G.; Tukey, Melissa H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease marked by the irreversible pulmonary vascular changes of vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The untreated clinical course is characterized by progressive dyspnea and a median survival of less than 3 years. Many of these patients are of child-bearing age; however, pregnancy leads to physiologic changes that are particularly poorly tolerated in PAH, conferring a 30%56% mortality. We present a case of PAH that spontaneously resolved after termination of pregnancy and recurred during each of two subsequent pregnancies. To our knowledge, this case is unique, because no cases of spontaneous resolution of idiopathic PAH have been reported in adults, nor have there been any reports of pulmonary hypertension that is isolated to the gestational period. PMID:26697182

  4. Pulmonary air embolism.

    PubMed

    Souders, J E

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary air embolism is a well-known consequence of surgery, trauma, diving, and aviation. This article reviews the physiological effects, means of detection and methods of prevention and treatment of pulmonary air embolism. The primary physiological effects are elevated pulmonary artery pressures, increased ventilation-perfusion inhomogeneity, and right ventricular failure. The degree of physiological impairment depends on the volume of gas entrained, the rate of entrainment, the type of gas entrained, and the position of the patient when the embolism occurs. Transesophageal echocardiography is the most sensitive method of detection, but it is invasive. Precordial Doppler ultrasound is almost as sensitive and poses no risk to the patient. End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring is used on all patients and is a moderately sensitive method of detection, which is useful during surgeries that have a low incidence of air embolism. For high-risk procedures, precordial Doppler ultrasound and a multi-orifice right heart catheter should be used to detect and treat pulmonary air embolism. Prevention measures include volume expansion, careful positioning, positive end-expiratory pressure, military anti-shock trousers, and jugular venous compression. Treatment of pulmonary air embolism includes flooding the surgical site with saline, controlling sites of air entry, repositioning the patient with the surgical site below the right atrium, aspiration of air from a central venous catheter, cessation of inhaled nitrous oxide, and resuscitation with oxygen, intravenous fluids, and inotropic agents. Some hypotheses on the effects of air in the pulmonary vasculature and investigational treatment options are discussed. PMID:12580220

  5. Pulmonary function of herdsmen.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Mcclung, Keith D.; Kassam, Hussein A.; Harkins, Michelle S.; Glew, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the pulmonary function deficit documented previously in Fulani children is also present in adult Fulani herdsmen in northern Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects for this study consisted of adult Fulani men from the hamlet of Magama Gumau and adult non-Fulani men from the city of Jos. Age, height, weight, mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver (FEF25-75%), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and FEV1/FVC were calculated for all subjects. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify correlations between pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric variables. RESULTS: The 44 Fulani subjects and 28 urban subjects were well-matched for age and height. The Fulani men weighed significantly less than the urban men (58.5+/-9.4 versus 67.4+/-11.3 kg, p <0.001) and consequently had significantly lower BMI, MAC, and triceps skin-fold thickness. The only significant difference in pulmonary function parameters between the two groups was in FEV1/FVC (0.93+/-0.1 versus 0.85+/-0.1, p <0.001). Small but significant correlations were found between pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric variables for both study populations. CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary function deficits documented previously in Fulani children and adolescents were not present in adult Fulani men. However, the observed elevation in FEV1/FVC in the rural Fulani men as compared to their urban counterparts, which is often seen in restrictive pulmonary patterns, deserves further study. PMID:15101676

  6. Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Varkki, Sneha; Tergestina, Mintoo; Bhonsle, Vaishali Sharad; Moses, Prabhakar D; Mathai, John; Korula, Sophy

    2013-08-01

    Isolated pulmonary involvement in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is rare in childhood. The authors report a 6-y- old boy presenting with recurrent pneumothorax, whose CT thorax showed diffuse pulmonary cystic lucencies bilaterally. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed pulmonary LCH with Cd1a and S 100 positivity. PMID:23001923

  7. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staitieh, Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

  8. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  9. Science: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews and compares five recent secondary science texts: Addison-Wesley Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Prentice-Hall Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Scott Foresman Biology (Gr. 9-12); Biology: Living Systems (Gr. 10-12); and Biology: The Science of Life (Gr. 10-12). (SJL)

  10. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  11. Lymphadenectomy During Pulmonary Metastasectomy.

    PubMed

    Reinersman, James Matthew; Wigle, Dennis A

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastasectomy continues to be an effective approach to prolong survival in appropriately selected patients. The incidence of lymphatic spread is more common than previously recognized, with an estimate of 20% to 25% across multiple tumor types. The presence of metastatically involved lymph nodes adversely affects survival. What remains unclear is whether N1 vs N2, or the number of stations involved affects survival differently. The role of surgery for pulmonary metastasectomy in the patient with nodal metastases will likely expand with ongoing improvements in targeted and immunotherapies. PMID:26611508

  12. [Intralobar pulmonary sequestration as the cause of neonatal respiratory distress].

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Santonja, C; Caldern, J A; Ruiz-Lpez, M J; Mnguez, A

    1996-01-01

    A male infant 15 hours old with congenital intralobar pulmonary sequestration is described. The boy was born with tachypnea and cyanosis. A chest film revealed mediastinal displacement secondary to a cystic lesions in the lower left lobe. During surgery the lesion was found to be irrigated by an artery coming from the thoracic aorta and venous drainage was into the inferior vena cava. The lesion was spongiform and microscopic examination revealed alveolar parenchyma with irregular, dilated bronchiolar structures. Intralobar sequestrations have seldom been described in infants. Our case suggests that this malformation is congenital. We discuss the diagnostic possibilities of pulmonary cystic lesions that cause respiratory distress in neonates. PMID:8814826

  13. Adenosine A2B receptor and hyaluronan modulate pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Weng, Tingting; Garcia-Morales, Luis J; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Pedroza, Mesias; Zhong, Hongyan; Molina, Jose G; Bunge, Raquel; Bruckner, Brian A; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A; Loebe, Matthias; Zeng, Dewan; Seethamraju, Harish; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with COPD is strongly associated with increased mortality. Chronic inflammation and changes to the lung extracellular matrix (ECM) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, yet the mechanisms that lead to PH secondary to COPD remain unknown. Our experiments using human lung tissue show increased expression levels of the adenosine A2B receptor (ADORA2B) and a heightened deposition of hyaluronan (HA; a component of the ECM) in remodeled vessels of patients with PH associated with COPD. We also demonstrate that the expression of HA synthase 2 correlates with mean pulmonary arterial pressures in patients with COPD, with and without a secondary diagnosis of PH. Using an animal model of airspace enlargement and PH, we show that the blockade of ADORA2B is able to attenuate the development of a PH phenotype that correlates with reduced levels of HA deposition in the vessels and the down-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of HA. PMID:23855769

  14. Interfacial properties of pulmonary surfactant layers.

    PubMed

    Wstneck, R; Perez-Gil, J; Wstneck, N; Cruz, A; Fainerman, V B; Pison, U

    2005-12-14

    The composition of the pulmonary surfactant and the border conditions of normal human breathing are relevant to characterize the interfacial behavior of pulmonary layers. Based on experimental data methods are reviewed to investigate interfacial properties of artificial pulmonary layers and to explain the behavior and interfacial structures of the main components during compression and expansion of the layers observed by epifluorescence and scanning force microscopy. Terms like over-compression, collapse, and formation of the surfactant reservoir are discussed. Consequences for the viscoelastic surface rheological behavior of such layers are elucidated by surface pressure relaxation and harmonic oscillation experiments. Based on a generalized Volmer isotherm the interfacial phase transition is discussed for the hydrophobic surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, as well as for the mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with these proteins. The behavior of the layers depends on both the oligomerisation state and the secondary structure of the hydrophobic surfactant proteins, which are controlled by the preparation of the proteins. An example for the surface properties of bronchoalveolar porcine lung washings of uninjured, injured, and Curosurf treated lavage is discussed in the light of surface behavior. An outlook summarizes the present knowledge and the main future development in this field of surface science. PMID:16120435

  15. The metabolic theory of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Roxane; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2014-06-20

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), complicating the translation of candidate therapies to patients because, typically, 1 treatment addresses only 1 abnormality. The realization that in addition to pulmonary artery vascular cells, other tissues and cells are involved in the syndrome of PAH (eg, immune cells, right ventricular cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle) further complicates the identification of optimal therapeutic targets. Here, we describe a metabolic theory that proposes that many apparently unrelated molecular abnormalities in PAH do have a common denominator; they either cause or promote a mitochondrial suppression (inhibition of glucose oxidation) in pulmonary vascular cells; in turn, the signaling downstream from this mitochondrial suppression can also explain numerous molecular events previously not connected. This integration of signals upstream and downstream of mitochondria has similarities to cancer and can explain many features of the PAH vascular phenotype, including proliferation and apoptosis resistance. This suppression of glucose oxidation (with secondary upregulation of glycolysis) also underlies the abnormalities in extrapulmonary tissues, suggesting a global metabolic disturbance. The metabolic theory places mitochondria at the center stage for our understanding of PAH pathogenesis and for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Current PAH therapies are each addressing 1 abnormality (eg, upregulation of endothelin-1) and were not developed specifically for PAH but for systemic vascular diseases. Compared with the available therapies, mitochondria-targeting therapies have the advantage of addressing multiple molecular abnormalities simultaneously (thus being potentially more effective) and achieving higher specificity because they address PAH-specific biology. PMID:24951764

  16. Schwannoma of the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Elstner, Kristen; Granger, Emily; Wilson, Stephanie; Kumaradevan, Nirmala; Chew, Melvin; Harris, Craig

    2013-03-01

    Schwannoma (neurilemmoma) originating from the pulmonary artery has not before been described. A 65 year-old male presented with dyspnoea on exertion. CT scan was negative for pulmonary thromboembolism, but showed a well circumscribed, heterogeneous mass, 52 mm 45 mm 41 mm, straddling the left pulmonary artery and compressing the left atrium. The mass was found at surgery to be originating from the lateral wall of the left pulmonary artery. The tumour was completely resected, and the pulmonary artery reconstructed. The mass was found to be a benign schwannoma on histopathology. PMID:22883626

  17. Pulmonary hypertension and hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Téllez Villajos, L; Martínez González, J; Moreira Vicente, V; Albillos Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common phenomenon in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can appear through various mechanisms. The most characteristic scenario that binds portal and pulmonary hypertension is portopulmonary syndrome. However, hyperdynamic circulation, TIPS placement and heart failure can raise the mean pulmonary artery pressure without increasing the resistances. These conditions are not candidates for treatment with pulmonary vasodilators and require a specific therapy. A correct assessment of hemodynamic, ultrasound and clinical variables enables the differential diagnosis of each situation that produces pulmonary hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25862424

  18. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Shumaila; El Damati, Ahmed; El Baz, Ayman; Alsayyah, Ahmed; ElSharkawy, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is a rare disease. Herein, we report a case of PPHL with diagnostic concerns encountered during initial evaluation which is of paramount importance to keep the differential diagnosis in cases with high index of suspicion for this rare entity. PMID:26788271

  19. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Shumaila; El Damati, Ahmed; El Baz, Ayman; Alsayyah, Ahmed; ElSharkawy, Tarek; Regal, Mohamed

    2015-12-29

    Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is a rare disease. Herein, we report a case of PPHL with diagnostic concerns encountered during initial evaluation which is of paramount importance to keep the differential diagnosis in cases with high index of suspicion for this rare entity. PMID:26788271

  20. Cavitation of pulmonary metastases.

    PubMed

    Wolpowitz, A

    1975-02-01

    Although cavitation of pulmonary metastases is not as frequent as that of primary involvement, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple cavitary lesions. The most frequent cause is squamous cell carcinoma, but it is by no means confined to this type of pathology. PMID:1124450

  1. An unexpected pulmonary bystander.

    PubMed

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M; Vorm, P A; Koning, K J; van der Werf, T S

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old man from Eritrea was admitted with a pulmonary bacterial abscess. Unexpectedly, histopathology of the resected lobe also revealed an infection with Schistosoma mansoni with surrounding granulomatous tissue and fibrosis. Patients from endemic areas are often asymptomatic with blood eosinophilia being the only diagnostic clue. Early recognition is important as ongoing fibrosing inflammation may result in organ damage. PMID:26819361

  2. [Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Valds, Gloria; Matthei, Robert; Fernndez, Mara Soledad; Schacht, Carmen; Corthorn, Jenny; German, Alfredo M

    2002-02-01

    A 36 year old woman, with an 18 year history of syncope, became pregnant shortly after a cardiac catheterization demonstrated a high pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance and a low cardiac output. During pregnancy she remained stable at NYHA FC III, on nifedipine, apresoline, isosorbide, aspirin and bed rest. At 28 weeks, catheterization showed a decreased pulmonary pressure and an increased cardiac output. At 38 weeks, she was submitted to an elective caesarean section, and delivered a healthy newborn of 2820 g. After 5 months, her catheterization showed a pulmonary artery pressure similar to the pre-pregnancy study. Her condition deteriorated, leading to death 10 months later. Urinary 6-keto-PGF1[symbol: see text], nitrates/nitrites, kallikrein and angiotensin-(1-7) were increased from 13 to 33 weeks, to drop in week 35 of pregnancy. The safe maternal and fetal outcome, and the intragestational hemodynamic improvement are attributed to a close multidisciplinary surveillance, and to the effects of the endogenous vasodilators of pregnancy on the reversible component of the pulmonary hypertension. Reports in the literature show a decrease in maternal mortality rate, from 56% for the period previous to 1963, to 34 and 30% for those spanning between 1978-1996 y 1997-2001 respectively. PMID:11974533

  3. [Pulmonary embolism diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Castaño, João; Alpendre, João; Pisco, João Martins

    2003-01-01

    Pulmonary Embolism is often considered a difficult diagnosis to establish. It is important to recognise clinical situations that leads to it. There are a few laboratory and imaging tests, that should be tailored to the available facilities in each institution. PMID:14685638

  4. Computed tomography correlates with cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine whether computed tomography angiography (CTA) measurements of pulmonary artery size can noninvasively assess hemodynamics and diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). Twenty SCD patients with confirmed PH were compared with 20 matched controls. Diameters of the pulmonary artery trunk and branches were measured with CTA and a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm. Measurements were normalized by body size and correlated (Spearman rank) with hemodynamic markers from right-heart catheterization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to investigate the role of pulmonary artery sizes in diagnosing PH. Analysis of pulmonary artery sizes adjusted for body surface area (BSA) resulted in the most significant discrimination between subjects with PH secondary to SCD and controls (P < 0.001); PH was diagnosed accurately with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. There was significant correlation between pulmonary artery sizes and body mass index (BMI) and BSA only in controls (r = 0.460.68, P < 0.04 for all). The most significant correlations with hemodynamic markers were found between BMI-adjusted pulmonary artery sizes and high systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, high pulmonary vascular resistance, high systemic vascular resistance, and low cardiac output (r = 0.47, 0.62, 0.61, and 0.66, respectively; P < 0.04 for all). BMI-adjusted CTA measures of the pulmonary artery relate to high pulmonary vascular resistance and reduced cardiac output in patients with SCD and PH. CTA with quantitative image analysis is a powerful noninvasive diagnostic tool for PH in SCD and shows promise as estimator of hemodynamic markers. PMID:25006451

  5. Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1991-01-01

    Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction. PMID:1954926

  6. Spontaneous fibrinolysis in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, James E.; Frenkel, Eugene P.; Pierce, Alan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Winga, Edward R.; Curry, George C.; Mierzwiak, Donald S.

    1971-01-01

    This study correlated levels of activated fibrinolysis with the presence, extent, and rate of resolution of angiographically documented pulmonary emboli. Pulmonary emboli demonstrable by angiography were associated with detectable fibrin split products in the serum of 24 of 25 patients. In the absence of increased fibrin split products, pulmonary emboli large enough to be demonstrated by angiography were found in only 2 of 25 positive pulmonary angiograms. Spontaneous resolution of pulmonary emboli could not be correlated with the the concentration or persistence of fibrin split products but did correlate well with the presence of a reversible precipitating cause. Thrombophlebitis in the absence of clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism was not associated with increased concentrations of fibrin split products in eight of nine patients. The one patient with increased fibrin split product concentration had evidence on lung scan of silent pulmonary embolism. PMID:5101775

  7. Pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Jane; Casaburi, Richard; Morgan, Michael; Nici, Linda; Rochester, Carolyn

    2005-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapeutic process, which entails taking a holistic approach to the welfare of the patient with chronic respiratory illness--most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary rehabilitation is considered essential throughout the lifetime management of patients with symptomatic chronic respiratory disease. It requires the coordinated action of a multidisciplinary healthcare team in order to deliver an individualised rehabilitation programme to best effect--incorporating multiple modalities, such as advice on smoking cessation, exercise training and patient self-management education, among others. As core components of pulmonary rehabilitation, exercise training and self-management education have been shown to be beneficial in improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. Physical training can help to reduce the muscle de-conditioning that occurs when the activity of patients is restricted by their breathlessness and fatigue, and is often associated with an increase in patient HRQoL. HRQoL can also be improved by the use of self-management education, which is designed to provide the patient with the skills to manage the health consequences of their disease. In doing so, patients are better able to cope with disease symptoms, potentially leading to reduced healthcare costs. A great deal of research has been conducted to try and fully define which patients will benefit most from pulmonary rehabilitation. Although progress has been made, many questions remain as to the best means of delivering rehabilitation, particularly with respect to the optimum programme of physical training and patient self-management education. PMID:16253495

  8. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  9. Pulmonary banding complicated by low origin of right pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Galinanes, M; Stanley, P; Gurin, R; Kratz, C; Chartrand, C

    1993-01-01

    In our attempt to band the main pulmonary artery above the valve in a 4-month-old prematurely born infant, we erroneously banded only the left pulmonary artery, owing to the unusually low origin of the right pulmonary artery (which arose partially in the sinus of Valsalva). When severe cardiac failure recurred, the anomaly was noted upon reoperation and the band was repositioned at the level of the pulmonary valve. Since this revision, the postoperative course has been good. Low origin of the right pulmonary artery is normal in premature infants. However, origin of the right pulmonary artery from the sinus of Valsalva is a sufficiently extreme variant to constitute a surgically important anomaly. Our postmortem studies of the pulmonary arteries of 25 premature infants born without cardiac malformation showed that while the right pulmonary artery was lower than the left, it never originated from the sinus of Valsalva. This anomalous configuration of the pulmonary arteries has, to our knowledge, never been found in an infant as old as 4 months; yet we believe it should be taken into account when banding pulmonary arteries in infants. Images PMID:8219829

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Gnther, Sven; Dorfmller, Peter; Perros, Frdric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jas, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Grald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ? 25mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ? 15mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2-3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  12. A rare nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism after vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Bansal, Ojas; Townley, Theresa A

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is used to treat osteoporotic compression fractures and bone loss due to malignancy. The cement used can serve as a potential nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). An 87-year-old woman with recent L2 vertebroplasty presented with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Thoracoabdominal CT scan revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli associated with a 9 cm cement fragment in the inferior vena cava (IVC) extending proximally from the level of the right superior renal vein, likely secondary to cement leak from the vertebral plexus into the IVC. She refused catheter extraction was managed conservatively. There are 51 reported cases of cement pulmonary embolism. IVC foreign bodies serving as a nidus for PTE have been reported with IVC filters with an incidence of 6.2%. This is the second reported case of vertebroplasty cement serving as a nidus for PTE. Treatment depends on time interval between the procedure and the symptom onset. PMID:24154998

  13. IREB2 and GALC are associated with pulmonary artery enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ? 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 10(-8); versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 10(-9)). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 10(-8)). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  14. IREB2 and GALC Are Associated with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Wells, J. Michael; Dransfield, Mark T.; Bowler, Russell P.; Lynch, David A.; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10−8; versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10−9). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10−8). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  15. Lowering Pulmonary Wedge Pressure after Heart Transplant: Pulmonary Compliance and Resistance Effect

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ndia; Baptista, Rui; Costa, Susana; Franco, Ftima; Pgo, Mariano; Antunes, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) afterload is an important risk factor for post-heart transplantation (HTx) mortality, and it results from the interaction between pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary compliance (CPA). Their product, the RC time, is believed to be constant. An exception is observed in pulmonary hypertension because of elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures. Objective Using HTx as a model for chronic lowering of LV filling pressures, our aim was to assess the variations in RV afterload components after transplantation. Methods We retrospectively studied 159 patients with right heart catheterization before and after HTx. The effect of Htx on hemodynamic variables was assessed. Results Most of the patients were male (76%), and the mean age was 53 12 years. HTx had a significant effect on the hemodynamics, with normalization of the LV and RV filling pressures and a significant increase in cardiac output and heart rate (HR). The PVR decreased by 56% and CPA increased by 86%. The RC time did not change significantly, instead of increasing secondary to pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP) normalization after HTx as expected. The expected increase in RC time with PWP lowering was offset by the increase in HR (because of autonomic denervation of the heart). This effect was independent from the decrease of PWP. Conclusions The RC time remained unchanged after HTx, notwithstanding the fact that pulmonary capillary wedge pressure significantly decreased. An increased HR may have an important effect on RC time and RV afterload. Studying these interactions may be of value to the assessment of HTx candidates and explaining early RV failure after HTx. PMID:26247246

  16. When a pulmonary embolism is not a pulmonary embolism: a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Muganlinskaya, Nargiz; Guzman, Amanda; Dahagam, Chanukya; Selinger, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial leiomyosarcomas account for up to 21% of vascular leiomyosarcomas, with 56% of arterial leiomyosarcomas occurring in the pulmonary artery. While isolated cases of primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma document survival up to 36 months after treatment, these uncommon, aggressive tumors are highly lethal, with 1-year survival estimated at 20% from the onset of symptoms. We discuss a rare case of a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma that was originally diagnosed as a pulmonary embolism (PE). A 72-year-old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with saddle pulmonary embolism based on computerized tomographic angiography of the chest 2 months prior to admission and placed on anticoagulation. Dyspnea escalated, and serial computed tomography scans showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary emboli involving the right and left main pulmonary arteries with extension into the right and left upper and lower lobe branches. An echocardiogram on admission showed severe pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 82.9 mm Hg, and a severely enlarged right ventricle. Respiratory distress and multiorgan failure developed and, unfortunately, the patient expired. Autopsy showed a lobulated, yellow mass throughout the main pulmonary arteries measuring 13 cm in diameter. The mass extended into the parenchyma of the right upper lobe. On microscopy, the mass was consistent with a high-grade primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Median survival of patients with primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma without surgery is one and a half months, and mortality is usually due to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease commonly mistaken for PE. Thus, we recommend clinicians to suspect this malignancy when anticoagulation fails to relieve initial symptoms. In conclusion, early detection and suspicion of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma should be considered in patients refractory to anticoagulation, prompting initiation of early intervention. PMID:26653696

  17. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

  18. Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

  19. Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

    2011-02-01

    The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

  20. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  1. Thoracic Vertebral Actinomycosis Secondary to a Pulmonary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Thango, Nqobile S; Ben Husein, Mohamed; Welsh, David

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria from the species Actinomycesand causes a chronic colliquative inflammatory reaction known as actinomycotic granuloma, which is characterized macroscopically by suppuration, sinus tract formation, and purulent discharge containing yellowish sulfur granules. It can invade any part of the human body. This is a case report of a 40-year-old male patient known to the cardiothoracic team due to a sarcoma of the left lung. He presented with progressive thoracic myelopathy. Initially, the diagnosis was thought to be a spinal metastasis from the lung lesion. Further investigation revealed a thoracic actinomycosis with epidural granuloma tissue causing a spinal compression. PMID:26719834

  2. Pulmonary cytotoxicity of secondary metabolites of Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb.) Hughes.

    PubMed

    Pieckova, Elena; Hurbankova, Marta; Cerna, Silvia; Pivovarova, Zuzana; Kovacikova, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Damp dwellings represent suitable conditions for extended indoor moulds. A cellulolytic micromycete Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb.) Hughes is considered to be a tertiary colonizer of surfaces in affected buildings. Known adverse health effects of S. chartarum result from its toxins--trichothecenes or atranones, as well as spirolactams. Mechanism of their potential pathological effects on the respiratory tract has not yet been sufficiently clarified. The cytotoxic effects of complex chloroform-extractable endo- (in biomass) and exometabolites (in cultivation medium) of an indoor S. chartarum isolate of an atranone chemotype, grown on a liquid medium with yeast extract and sucrose at 25 degrees C for 14 d, on lung tissue were evaluated in the 3-day experiment. For the purpose, 4 mg of toxicants were intratracheally instilled in 200 g Wistar male rats. A trichothecene mycotoxin diacetoxyscirpenol was used as the positive control. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) parameters--viability and phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (AM), activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and cathepsin D in cell-free BAL fluid (BALF), as well as in BAL cells, were measured. Acute exposure to the metabolites caused statistically significant changes, indicating lung tissue injury in the experimental animals. Decreased AM viability and increased activity of lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D in BAL cells after fungal exometabolite exposure were the most impressive. As toxic principles were found predominantly in the growth medium, toxins were more likely responsible for lung cell damage than e.g. fungal cell wall components. S. chartarum toxic metabolites can contribute to the ill health of occupants of mouldy building after inhalation of contaminated aerosol. PMID:17195998

  3. [Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Popper, H H

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is regarded as a reactive proliferation of the dendritic Langerhans cell population stimulated by chronic tobacco-derived plant proteins due to incomplete combustion but can also occur in childhood as a tumor-like systemic disease. Currently, both these forms cannot be morphologically distinguished. In the lungs a nodular proliferation of Langerhans cells occurs in the bronchial mucosa and also peripherally in the alveolar septa with an accompanying infiltration by eosinophilic granulocytes and destruction of the bronchial wall. Langerhans cells can be selectively detected with antibodies against CD1a and langerin. In the reactive isolated pulmonary form, abstinence from tobacco smoking in most patients leads to regression of infiltration and improvement of symptoms. In high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) the small star-like scars can still be detected even after complete cessation of tobacco smoking. PMID:26289803

  4. An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.

    1983-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

  5. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; OConnor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Yousef; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Balaan, Marvin; Lega, Mark; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic smoking-related lung disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. It carries an enormous economic burden on the health care system. This results in a significant social impact on affected patients and their families. In this article, we review COPD in general, critical care management of patients presenting with acute exacerbation of COPD, and methods of prevention. PMID:26919673

  7. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Margaret M; Odell, John A

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection. PMID:24624285

  8. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Wu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed. PMID:20054434

  9. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Christine Kim

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic disease of the lungs that increases in prevalence with advanced age. Recent evidence indicates that mutations in genes of two different biologic pathways lead to the common phenotype of familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF) and sporadic IPF. Mutations in the genes encoding the lung surfactant proteins C and A2 (SFTPC and SFTPA2, respectively) cause increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in type II alveolar epithelial cells. Mutations in the genes encoding telomerase (TERT and TERC) cause IPF through shortening of telomere lengths and probable exhaustion of lung stem cells. All of the mutations are individually rare, but, collectively, TERT mutations are the most common genetic defect found in FPF. The overall penetrance of pulmonary fibrosis in TERT mutation carriers is 40% in subjects with a mean age of 51 years. Penetrance increases with advanced age, is greater in males than in females, and is positively associated with fibrogenic environmental exposures. Short telomere lengths are found in patients with FPF and sporadic IPF without mutations in telomerase, suggesting that the biologic pathway of telomerase dysfunction provides a biologic explanation for the age-related prevalence of IPF. The molecular data of two seemingly unrelated biologic pathwaysalveolar epithelial endoplasmic reticulum stress and telomerase dysfunctionare beginning to elucidate the pathogenesis of IPF. These results have potentially predictive and therapeutic value. PMID:21543794

  10. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Odell, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection PMID:24624285

  11. Pulmonary trichomoniasis and Trichomonas tenax.

    PubMed

    Hersh, S M

    1985-08-01

    Pulmonary trichomoniasis is usually caused by aspirated Trichomonas tenax. Adult men with chronic purulent or necrotic pulmonary disease are usually affected. Sixty-eight patients were previously described. A Russian study demonstrated pulmonary trichomoniasis in 19 of 112 patients (17%), mostly in patients with lung cancer, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis. Rarely, pulmonary trichomoniasis may be caused by an intra-abdominal (T. hominis) or genitourinary (T. vaginalis) infection. T. tenax is usually regarded as a harmless commensal of the human mouth. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 53% and may exceed that of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis in adult females. It is frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene. Cultural identification is superior to microscopic examination of wet-smear, gram-stained and Papanicolaou-stained preparations. Aspirated pulmonary trichomoniasis is an opportunistic infection. Until the question of possible pathogenicity is resolved, metronidazole should be given. The underlying pulmonary disease should be vigorously treated. PMID:3894667

  12. Experimental modeling of pulmonary barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Siermontowski, Piotr; Koz?owski, Wojciech; Pedrycz, Agnieszka; Krefft, Karolina; Kaczerska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of pulmonary barotrauma include loss of consciousness or panic attack of a diver and emergence from underwater with a constricted glottis. However, numerous publications and our observations indicate that the majority of fully symptomatic cases of pulmonary barotrauma develop without any evident errors in the ascending technique. Therefore, an attempt was made to examine such cases using the experimental model of pulmonary barotrauma designed by the authors. The experiment was conducted on 32 rabbits divided into three groups: Group C--not subjected to any treatment; Group E--with induced pulmonary barotrauma; and Group CT--subjected only to compression followed by quick decompression. In Groups E and CT, the same morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were detected in the lungs, although their severity varied. Morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were observed both in the group where the tube was not ob-structed (E) and in animals exposed only to rapid decompression (CT) PMID:26094289

  13. Inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is an “umbrella term” used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24739042

  14. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  15. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. The model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  16. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ... A), selenium, Vitamin E (Tocopherol), and Vitamin C Magnesium , Selenium, Calcium and Zinc WHAT ABOUT OTHER SUPPLEMENTS? ...

  17. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  18. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics during hemorrhagic shock in baboons.

    PubMed Central

    Bredenberg, C E; Nomoto, S; Webb, W R

    1980-01-01

    The pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic response to four hours of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation has been studied in 17 baboons using both open and closed chest models. No pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension occurred during shock or resuscitation except for an increase in lft ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) secondary to intravascular volumee overload with Dextran. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased during shock but returned to control levels with reinfusion of shed blood and correction of acidosis. PVR was moderately elevated following reinfusion of shed blood if acidosis was not corrected or if volum resuscitation was inadequate. No increase in gradients occurred between PA pressure and left atrial (LA) pressure or LVEDP and there was no gradients between small pulmonary vein and LA pressure. Arterial PO2 uniformly increased during shock and remained at or above control levels of reinfusion. Gross or histologic evidence of "congestive atelectasis" or "shock lung" was not observed. These observations suggest that in the subhuman primate, hemorrhage alone does not produce significant injury to the lung during shock or the immediate postresuscitation interval. Hemorrhage alone did not produce changes in the lung which would result in increased pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure following appropriate resuscitation. PMID:6773481

  19. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D.; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A.; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A2BR or treatment with the A2BR antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A2BR attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A2BR activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A2BR antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease.Karmouty-Quintana, H., Zhong, H., Acero, L., Weng, T., Melicoff, E., West, J. D., Hemnes, A., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackwell, T. S., Xia, Y., Johnston, R. A., Zeng, D., Belardinelli, L., Blackburn, M. R. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease. PMID:22415303

  20. Pulmonary function studies in rowers.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, C; Sanil, R; Nair, R H; Rauf, A A; Shashidhar, S

    1997-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the pulmonary functions of snake boat rowers before and after rowing. This is made on 12 healthy traditional snake boat rowers ranging from age 16-23 years of Kavanattinkara boat race, Kottayam, Kerala, India. The pulmonary function tests were carried out with vitallograph compact-II spirometer. The results show a decrease in pulmonary functions "lung volumes" and "flow rates" after rowing in comparison to basal condition. PMID:10225029

  1. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases. PMID:26611507

  2. Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Corrin, B.; Liebow, A. A.; Friedman, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Anatomic and clinical observations of 28 cases, including 23 previously unpublished, of pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis are recorded and discussed. This brings the total reported to 57. All patients were women in the reproductive age group with the major complaint of breathlessness. This was usually progressive, and death from pulmonary insufficiency resulted within 10 years. Functional changes were obstructive or restrictive, or both. Pneumothorax, chylous effusions and hemoptysis were frequent complications. Radiographically the lesions initially appear as fine, linear and nodular, predominantly basal densities, and progress to a pattern of bullous change, or honeycombing, involving all portions of the lungs not sparing the region of the costophrenic sinuses as is typical of eosinophilic granuloma. There may be associated pleural effusions. A progressively increasing lung volume is characteristic. The lesions consist of an irregular, nodular or laminar "irrational" proliferation of smooth muscle within all portions of the lung, with loss of parenchyma leading to honeycombing. Proliferated muscle can obstruct bronchioles (with air trapping and formation of bullae often complicated by pneumothorax), venules (with pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis accompanied clinically by hemoptysis) and lymphatics (with chylothorax or chyloperitoneum). Both thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the thoracic duct can also be involved in the myoproliferative process with formation of subsidiary minute channels and obstruction. Renal or perirenal angiomyolipomas can also occur, as exemplified by 2 patients in the present series. Identical pulmonary lesions occasionally occur in tuberous sclerosis. Especially since these patients usually have no neurologic disturbances and are almost women, the possibility of a relationship between tuberous sclerosis and lymphangiomyomatosis must be considered. One feature of note in pulmonary lesions of tuberous sclerosis is the presence of adenomatoid proliferations of epithelium. Such changes were also observed in 2 patients of the present series, and it is remarkable that both of these women had "retarded"children. At present the question of whether by lymphangiomyomatosis is a forme fruste of tuberous sclerosis must be considered as unresolved. It may yield to further investigation, possibility including chromosomal studies. Images Fig 34 Fig 35 Fig 36 Fig 37 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Figs 38-39 Fig 40 Fig 41 Fig 42 Figs 10-14 Fig 43 Fig 44 Fig 45 p[373]-a Fig 46 Fig 47 Fig 48 Fig 49 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 28 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-6 Fig 29 Fig 30 Figs 31-32 Fig 33 PMID:1146965

  3. Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

  4. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management.

  5. Pulmonary capillary pressure. A review.

    PubMed

    Ganter, C C; Ganter, C G; Jakob, S M; Takala, J

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap) is the predominant force that drives fluid out of the pulmonary capillaries into the interstitium. Increasing hydrostatic capillary pressure is directly proportional to the lung's transvascular filtration rate, and in the extreme leads to pulmonary edema. In the pulmonary circulation, blood flow arises from the transpulmonary pressure gradient, defined as the difference between pulmonary artery (diastolic) pressure and left atrial pressure. The resistance across the pulmonary vasculature consists of arterial and venous components, which interact with the capacitance of the compliant pulmonary capillaries. In pathological states such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and high altitude or neurogenic lung edema, the longitudinal distribution of the precapillary arterial and the postcapillary venous resistance varies. Subsequently, the relationship between Pcap and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) is greatly variable and Pcap can no longer be predicted from PAOP. In clinical practice, PAOP is commonly used to guide fluid therapy, and Pcap as a hemodynamic target is rarely assessed. This approach is potentially misleading. In the presence of a normal PAOP and an increased pressure gradient between Pcap and PAOP, the tendency for fluid leakage in the capillaries and subsequent edema development may substantially be underestimated. Tho-roughly validated methods have been developed to assess Pcap in humans. At the bedside, measurement of Pcap can easily be determined by analyzing a pressure transient after an acute pulmonary artery occlusion with the balloon of a Swan-Ganz catheter. PMID:16407804

  6. Chronic idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Magdi H.; Thompson, Vernon C.

    1971-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis is a condition related to mediastinal fibrosis, characterized by localization of the fibrosing process to one or both pulmonary hila. This results in pulmonary hypertension and bronchial narrowing. Three patients suffering from this disease, in whom the diagnosis has been confirmed by thoracotomy, are reported. The clinical and pathological features are described and previously reported cases are reviewed. The syndrome is classified into two types, according to whether the obstruction affects mainly the pulmonary artery or veins. The disease is a self-limiting one but may lead to organic changes in the lungs causing severe disability. Images PMID:5565782

  7. Severe calcified saccular pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xing-Hai; Liu, Jian-Hua; Bao, Chuan-Ming; Yang, Jun; Lai, Yong-Qiang

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm is a very rare entity. Severe calcified saccular pulmonary artery aneurysm is not reported in the literature. A 19-year-old man with a severe calcified saccular pulmonary artery aneurysm is described. PMID:19379914

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed April 2015 What is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive lung ...

  9. Exercise Appears Safe, Helpful for Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154487.html Exercise Appears Safe, Helpful for Pulmonary Hypertension Research review might reassure concerned cardiologists To use ... be beneficial and safe for people with pulmonary hypertension, researchers report. Pulmonary hypertension is a type of ...

  10. Minerals leasing for landowners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report delineates the provisions of the legal codes of the 13 Southeastern states relating to minerals leasing. The introduction explains land ownership and land leasing in terms of mineral rights, and describes the basic elements which a lease conveyance must contain to be valid. A checklist gives the terms which must be included in all mineral leases.

  11. Secondary Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    7 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cluster of craters in far western Arabia Terra. The crater cluster is oriented along a line that runs nearly east-west (left-right) across the scene. Clusters of craters positioned along a line like this are secondary craters -- that is, they formed as the result of a much larger meteor, asteroid, or cometary impact somewhere else in the region. These craters do not form from the object that impacted Mars to form the larger, primary crater; these are the product of the impact of the rocks and debris thrown out by the larger impact.

    Location near: 14.9oN, 19.3oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  12. Pulmonary Thromboembolism: Evaluation By Intravenous Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Gerald D.; Cook, Glenn C.; Woolfenden, James M.; Dodge, Russell R.

    1981-11-01

    Using perfusion lung scans as a guide, digital video subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries was performed in human subjects suspected of having pulmonary embolism. Dogs were employed as a pulmonary embolism model and both routine pulmonary angiography and intravenous pulmonary angiograms were obtained for comparison purposes. We have shown by our preliminary results that the technique is extremely promising as a safe and accurate alternative to routine pulmonary angiography in selected patients.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Olgunturk, Rana; Cevik, Ayhan; Terlemez, Semiha; Kacar, Emre; Oner, Yusuf Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficacy and reliability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension in children. This is a retrospective comparison of 25 children with pulmonary hypertension and a control group comprising 19 healthy children. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was made when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was ?25 mmHg by catheter angiography. The children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower body mass indices than did the healthy children (P=0.048). In addition, the children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main pulmonary artery diameters and ascending aortic diameters (both P=0.001) but statistically similar ratios of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aortic diameter. If the main pulmonary artery diameter was ?25 mm, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In the event that the ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aorta diameter was ?1, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity and 53% specificity. When compared with children who had New York Heart Association functional class II pulmonary hypertension, the children with functional class III pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main (P=0.046), right (P=0.036), and left (P=0.003) pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity when the main pulmonary artery diameter measures ?25 mm. PMID:26175631

  14. Unexplained childhood anaemia: idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    PubMed

    Siu, K K; Li, Rever; Lam, S Y

    2015-04-01

    This report demonstrates pulmonary haemorrhage as a differential cause of anaemia. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disease in children; it is classically described as a triad of haemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and iron-deficiency anaemia. However, anaemia may be the only presenting feature of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in children due to occult pulmonary haemorrhage. In addition, the serum ferritin is falsely high in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis which increases the diagnostic difficulty. We recommend that pulmonary haemorrhage be suspected in any child presenting with iron-deficiency anaemia and persistent bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. PMID:25904566

  15. Pulmonary embolism presenting as high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Shlim, D R; Papenfus, K

    1995-05-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a recognized risk of rapid ascent to high altitude. Since the recognition of this entity more than 30 years ago, most pulmonary deaths at high altitude have been attributed to HAPE. However, as the bodies can almost never be recovered for postmortem examination, rare diagnoses that appear clinically similar to HAPE will not be recognized. A 33-year-old woman climbing on Mt. Everest, and taking oral contraceptive pills, developed what seemed to be severe HAPE. Examination after she was evacuated from the mountain revealed a deep venous thrombosis in her left leg and multiple pulmonary emboli. We propose that multiple pulmonary emboli at high altitude can mimic HAPE, and fatal pulmonary embolism may be an explanation for some alleged victims of HAPE who died despite what should have been adequate descent. PMID:11995910

  16. Angioscopy Is Useful In The Evaluation Of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shure, Deborah; Gregoratos, Gabriel; Moser, Kenneth M.

    1984-10-01

    We have previously described a fiberoptic angioscope for diagnostic use in the right heart and pulmonary arteries. The instrument has a 4 mm 0.D., a proximal flexion control lever, and a 0.8 mm inner channel used to inflate a polyurethane balloon attached to the distal end of the instrument. A conventional xenon light source provides illumination. The instrument is inserted through a right jugular venotomy and passed into the right heart and pulmonary arteries using direct vision and fluoroscopic guidance. The procedure has been performed in 4 patients with pulmonary hypertension suspected to be caused by chronic pulmonary emboli. Chronic emboli were found in two patients and central (resectable) emboli could be distinguished from peripheral ones. The third patient had normal pulmonary arterial intima and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension was made. The fourth patient had extrinsic compression of pulmonary arteries by enlarged mediastinal nodes secondary to fibrosing mediastinitis. No complications occurred. We conclude that angioscopy appears to be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  18. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  19. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ∼1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  20. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  2. Incidentally proven pulmonary "ALKoma".

    PubMed

    Osoegawa, Atsushi; Nosaki, Kaname; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Kometani, Takuro; Hirai, Fumihiko; Ondo, Kaoru; Seto, Takashi; Sugio, Kenji; Choi, Young Lim; Soda, Manabu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Ichinose, Yukito

    2010-01-01

    Genetic alterations of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inversion were recently found in lung cancer. A 39-year-old woman with multiple brain metastases and bulky mediastinal lymph node metastases was admitted. Biopsy from her supraclavicular lymph nodes was performed to differentiate the diagnosis between lymphoma and lung cancer. Pathologically, the lymph nodes had a feature of adenocarcinoma. On the other hand, the commercially available chromosomal fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed split signals of ALK, which was confirmed to be the EML4-ALK inversion. The commercial-based ALK FISH is useful for screening pulmonary ALKoma. PMID:20228600

  3. [Metastatic pulmonary angiosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Garca Clemente, M; Gonzlez Budio, T; Escobar Stein, J; Seco Garca, A J; Celorio Peinado, C; Rodrguez Rodrguez, J

    2004-01-01

    Angiosarcoma involving the lung, usually a result of metastatic disease, is a rare disorder. Primary angiosarcoma of the lung is an extremely rare tumor. The lung is one of the most common sites of metastatic involvement, along with liver and lymph nodes. Hemoptysis is the most frequent presenting symptom even with diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Chest radiography may reveal a spectrum of findings ranging form normal to bilateral nodular lesions. Early diagnosis is not common because of the rarity of angiosarcoma in the lung and hence, low index of suspicion. The prognosis is generally poor, with a median survival of 9 months after diagnosis. PMID:15195483

  4. Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gadkowski, L. Beth; Stout, Jason E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host. PMID:18400799

  5. [Hepato-pulmonary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bozomitu, Laura; Moraru, Evelina; Stana, B; Burlea, M; Aprodu, G; Moraru, D

    2010-01-01

    The hepato-pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare complication of liver cirrhosis, with poor outcome; the term includes liver disease, increased alveolo-arterial gradient and intrapulmonary vascular dilations, described by Fluckiger, Kennedy and Knudson. HPS impairs survival in cirrhotic patients and the posttransplant outcome is altered in correlation with severity of HPS. Combined determination of SaO2 in clino- and orthostatic position by a pulsoximeter is a simple test for HPS identification in patients with chronic liver disease or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. PMID:21243785

  6. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Allameh, Seyyed Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a case of primary cryptococcal pneumonia in a 25-year-old woman who presented with several weeks’ history of cough, dyspnoea and night sweating. These symptoms started in the third trimester of her pregnancy. She was being treated for infertility and got pregnant with in vitro fertilisation. On chest imaging, there were bilateral air space consolidation and cavitary lesions. Fungal pulmonary infection was diagnosed after surgical lung biopsy. She received fluconazole 400 mg per day orally for 6 months and recovered completely. PMID:24692384

  7. Idiopathic pulmonary ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Schwarz, J.; Lukin, R.R.; Hawkins, H.H.

    1984-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary ossification is an uncommon and asymptomatic disorder of unknown etiology in which trabeculated bone is found in the lung. It is usually mistaken for more serious entities radiographically, most commonly appearing as branching linear shadows of calcific density involving a limited area of the lung and exhibiting very slow progression; however, the shadows may be round or irregular and bulky. Sometimes the trabeculae are recognizable, and occasionally the lungs demonstrate widespread involvement. The authors describe 8 proven cases, including one in which a bone scan revealed uptake by heterotopic bone in the lung.

  8. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis: 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.; Mittman, C. )

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the topic of pulmonary emphysema. Included are the following chapters: Abnormality of secretion of Z Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Proteases, antiproteases, and oxidants in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, Alveolar Leukocytes and protease responses with continuous vs. intermittent exposures to NO{sub 2}.

  9. Prostacyclins in pulmonary hypertension treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereszlenyi, A; Harustiak, S; Klepetko, W

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a rare, treacherous disease affecting the lungs and heart. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure (above 2.67 kPa) and pathologically high pulmonary vascular resistance are characteristic for this disease. This disease is insidiously progressive and often leads to sudden death mainly in middle and younger middle ages. Exhausting the traditional conservative means of treatment, lung/heart-lung transplantation offers the only possibility to improve the quality of patient's life. Nowadays more and more reports about the successful application of intravenous prostacyclin for treatment of this disease appear in specialized literature. Epoprostenol (prostacyclin PGI2) represents a new, potent drug for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this paper is to introduce prostacyclin PGI2 to experts and demonstrate new possibilities, procedures, trends in treatment of pulmonary hypertension. (Tab. 1, Ref. 30.). PMID:12413209

  10. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  11. Scientists observe fungi-dissolving minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) live in moist dark recesses and never see daylight. They cling to the roots of trees in boreal forests, break down soil minerals and supply essential elements and nutrients to the trees. Along the way, they play a distinct but not yet well-understood role in bioweathering, a process in which water, air, and organisms interact to break down soil minerals within the first few meters of Earth's surface. In a synthetically designed and controlled laboratory environment, Gazzè et al. cultured EMF; the researchers monitored the process as the fungi colonized a soil mineral on a petri dish over a period of 7 months. The authors then extracted individual grains of chlorite, a common soil-forming clay mineral, and cleaned the mineral surfaces to look at how the fungi had affected the mineral surfaces they came in contact with. Using atomic force microscopy, a specialized process that allows observations of three-dimensional features at nanometer (10-9 meter) scales, the authors found numerous primary channels, of the order of a micron (10-6 meters) in width and up to 50 nanometers in depth, from which smaller secondary channels extended outward. The network of channels resembled a herringbone-like pattern—evidence of dissolution by EMF.

  12. Virtual Pulmonary Valve Replacement Interventions with a Personalised Cardiac Electromechanical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansi, Tommaso; André, Barbara; Lynch, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Delingette, Hervé; Boudjemline, Younes; Ayache, Nicholas

    Pulmonary valve replacement Heart <Secondary>pulmonary valve replacementSecondary> (PVR) is a pivotal treatment for patients who suffer from chronic pulmonary valve Heart <Secondary>valve> regurgitation Heart <Secondary>regurgitation> s. Two PVR techniques are becoming prevalent: a minimally invasive approach and an open-heart surgery Heart <Secondary>surgery> with direct right ventricle volume reduction. However, there is no common agreement about the postoperative outcomes of these PVR techniques and choosing the right therapy for a specific patient remains a clinical challenge. We explore in this chapter how image processing algorithms, electromechanical Modelling <Secondary>cardiac> models of the heart and real-time surgical simulation Simulation <Secondary>surgery> platforms can be adapted and combined together to perform patient-specific simulations of these two PVR therapies. We propose a framework where (1) an electromechanical model of the heart is personalised from clinical MR images and used to simulate the effects of PVR upon the cardiac function and (2) volume reduction surgery is simulated in real time by interactively cutting, moving and joining parts of the anatomical model. The framework is tested on a young patient. The results are promising and suggest that such advanced biomedical technologies may help in decision support and surgery planning for PVR.

  13. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Ong, R K; Doyle, R L

    1998-06-01

    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) usually affects people living in the tropics, especially those in Southeast Asia, India, and certain parts of China and Africa. However, owing to the rising frequency of world-wide travel and the migration between continents, this disease is increasingly seen in the West, where the diagnosis can be easily missed since it is rarely encountered and can mimic many other conditions. Cases of TPE have typically been reported to masquerade as acute or refractory bronchial asthma. TPE results from a hypersensitivity reaction to lymphatic filarial parasites found in endemic regions. There is evidence that it is more likely to occur in nonimmune individuals, ie, visitors to endemic regions, than in individuals of endemic populations who have developed immunity to filarial infections. Clinical features include paroxysmal cough, wheezing and dyspnea, and systemic manifestations such as fever and weight loss. A history of residence in a filarial endemic region and a finding of peripheral eosinophilia >3,000/mm3 should initiate a consideration of this disease. Other criteria for the diagnosis of TPE include absence of microfilariae in the blood, high titers of antifilarial antibodies, raised serum total IgE >1,000 U/mL, and a favorable response to the antifilarial, diethylcarbamazine, which is the recommended treatment. This disease, if left untreated or treated late, may lead to long-term sequelae of pulmonary fibrosis or chronic bronchitis with chronic respiratory failure. Herein lies the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of TPE. PMID:9631810

  14. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Ccile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. PMID:26778815

  15. [Pulmonary paragonimiasis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hadi, Salha; Daz-Bello, Zoraida; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Rangel-Lujano, Marieli; Gmez, Erika; Figueira, Ivonne; Alarcn-Noya, Belkisyol

    2008-06-01

    Paragonimiasis is a zoonosis affecting wild and domestic animals and human beings, caused by species of trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. Humans become infected after ingestion of raw or poorly cooked fresh water crustaceans. The aim of the present work is the description of a case of a 3-years old child, coming from Gurico State in Venezuela with a year of residence in the seashore of the Provincia Manab in Ecuador, where he ate crabs in "ceviche". During hospitalization, he presented respiratory distress, hepatomegaly and nodules in the back. The thorax cat scan showed heavy infiltrate in both pulmonary bases and pleural compromise. Based on clinic, radiological images, an eosinophilia of 47% (Eosinophils absolute count (EAC) 6.682/mm3) and the antecedent of raw crabs ingestion, pulmonary paragonimiasis was diagnosed. Paragonimus eggs were not found in sputum and feces. ELISA with crude Paragonimus antigen was positive and Western blot revealed recognition of specific molecules. After treatment for three days with Praziquantel at a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight divided into three intakes, the sintomatology disappeared and radiological images and number of eosinophils diminished considerably. PMID:18717271

  16. Pulmonary arteriole gene expression signature in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nina M.; Kawut, Steven M.; Jelic, Sanja; Arcasoy, Selim M.; Lederer, David J.; Borczuk, Alain C.

    2015-01-01

    A third of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop pulmonary hypertension (PH-IPF), which is associated with increased mortality. Whether an altered gene expression profile in the pulmonary vasculature precedes the clinical onset of PH-IPF is unknown. We compared gene expression in the pulmonary vasculature of IPF patients with and without PH with controls. Pulmonary arterioles were isolated using laser capture microdissection from 16 IPF patients: eight with PH (PH-IPF) and eight with no PH (NPH-IPF), and seven controls. Probe was prepared from extracted RNA, and hybridised to Affymetrix Hu133 2.0 Plus genechips. Biometric Research Branch array tools and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software were used for analysis of the microarray data. Univariate analysis revealed 255 genes that distinguished IPF arterioles from controls (p<0.001). Mediators of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation, Wnt signalling and apoptosis were differentially expressed in IPF arterioles. Unsupervised and supervised clustering analyses revealed similar gene expression in PH-IPF and NPH-IPF arterioles. The pulmonary arteriolar gene expression profile is similar in IPF patients with and without coexistent PH. Pathways involved in vascular proliferation and aberrant apoptosis, which may contribute to pulmonary vascular remodelling, are activated in IPF patients. PMID:23728404

  17. American Strategic Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mangone, G.

    1984-01-01

    American Strategic Minerals brings together seven contributors in the fields of marine studies, mining engineering, earth sciences, and economics to discuss and analyze strategic minerals. The future demands of the United States upon limited sources of supply are examined and there is an analysis of alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed, including copper, nickel, manganese, and cobalt. The book contains an examination of the investments that the United States has made in developing countries that could affect both the national security and national economy of America in the years ahead. After a review of minerals policy in the United States, the conflicting interests that influence the President and Congress in making decisions about strategic minerals, and other dimensions of strategic minerals, are exposed to clarify both the facts and myths about supply and demand, security and danger, and high and low prices.

  18. HIV protease inhibitors in pulmonary hypertension: rationale and design of a pilot trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-hui; Yu, Zai-xin; Cai, Jing-jing; Billiar, Timothy R.; Chen, Alex F.; Lv, Ben; Chen, Zi-ying; Huang, Zhi-jun; Yang, Guo-ping; Song, Jie; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We propose an exploratory clinical study, the first of its kind to our knowledge, to determine the safety and potential clinical benefit of the combination of the HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs) saquinavir and ritonavir (SQV+RIT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). This study is based on evidence that (1) HIV-PIs can improve pulmonary hemodynamics in experimental models; (2) both Toll-like receptor 4 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) participate in the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary hypertension; and (3) a high-throughput screen for inhibitors of HMGB1-induced macrophage activation yielded HIV-PIs as potent inhibitors of HMGB1-induced cytokine production. In this proposed open-label, pre-post study, micro, low, and standard doses of SQV+RIT will be given to IPAH patients for 14 days. Patients will receive follow-up for the next 14 days. The primary outcome to be evaluated is change in HMGB1 level from baseline at 14 days. The secondary outcome is changes in tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, pulmonary arterial pressure based on echocardiography parameters and New York Heart Association/World Health Organization functional class, and Brog dyspnea scale index from baseline at 14 days. Other secondary measurements will include N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, atrial natriuretic peptide, and 6-minute walk distance. We propose that SQV+RIT treatment will improve inflammatory disorders and pulmonary hemodynamics in IPAH patients. If the data support a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest that SQV+RIT is safe in IPAH patients, the study will warrant further investigation. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02023450.) PMID:26401255

  19. Rocks, minerals, and a dusty world

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.

    1993-12-31

    The Earth`s troposphere and hydrosphere contain abundant naturally generated dust. The ultimate source materials from which the terrestrially produced dust is generated are the various rock types exposed at the Earth`s surface. Natural dust is a composite of (1) lithic, primary mineral grains; (2) mineral grains formed by secondary chemical reactions; (3) volcanic ash and dust; (4) salts from sea sprays; (5) extra-terrestrial dust; and (6) biologic materials. In this paper the various pathways to the natural generation of dust (via the hydrologic cycle) will be discussed, and two geologically well-known natural dust sources will be described, paying particular attention to quantitative measurements of the dusts from these areas. General dust studies that provide data on possibly global background levels will be presented as well.. A few general aspects of the mineralogical characterization of dust particles and a discussion of some of the mineralogy of several mineral groups are first presented. 89 refs., 39 figs.

  20. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

  1. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1984-01-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

  2. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  3. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  4. Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Daisy J A; McCormick, James R

    2014-06-01

    Numerous barriers exist to the timely introduction of palliative care in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The complex needs of patients with advanced COPD require the integration of curative-restorative care and palliative care. Palliative care and pulmonary rehabilitation are both important components of integrated care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Pulmonary rehabilitation provides the opportunity to introduce palliative care by implementing education about advance care planning. Education about advance care planning addresses the information needs of patients and can be an effective strategy to promote patient-physician discussion about these issues. PMID:24874135

  5. Pulmonary vascular dysfunction in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donal; Frohlich, Stephen; McLoughlin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterised by diffuse alveolar damage and is frequently complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH). Multiple factors may contribute to the development of PH in this setting. In this review, we report the results of a systematic search of the available peer-reviewed literature for papers that measured indices of pulmonary haemodynamics in patients with ARDS and reported on mortality in the period 1977 to 2010. There were marked differences between studies, with some reporting strong associations between elevated pulmonary arterial pressure or elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and mortality, whereas others found no such association. In order to discuss the potential reasons for these discrepancies, we review the physiological concepts underlying the measurement of pulmonary haemodynamics and highlight key differences between the concepts of resistance in the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We consider the factors that influence pulmonary arterial pressure, both in normal lungs and in the presence of ARDS, including the important effects of mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and transpulmonary gradient (TPG) depend not alone on the intrinsic properties of the pulmonary vascular bed but are also strongly influenced by cardiac output, airway pressures and lung volumes. The great variability in management strategies within and between studies means that no unified analysis of these papers was possible. Uniquely, Bull et al. (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1123-1128, 2010) have recently reported that elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and TPG were independently associated with increased mortality in ARDS, in a large trial with protocol-defined management strategies and using lung-protective ventilation. We then considered the existing literature to determine whether the relationship between PVR/TPG and outcome might be causal. Although we could identify potential mechanisms for such a link, the existing evidence does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. Nonetheless, abnormally elevated PVR/TPG may provide a useful index of disease severity and progression. Further studies are required to understand the role and importance of pulmonary vascular dysfunction in ARDS in the era of lung-protective ventilation. PMID:25593744

  6. Thoracoscopic Management of Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Servais, Elliot; Swanson, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    In appropriately selected patients, resection of pulmonary metastases from various primary tumors can lead to improved survival. Metastasectomy has traditionally been performed by open thoracotomy; however, thoracoscopic resection offers the important benefits of a less invasive approach with more expeditious recovery. Concerns regarding missed lesions during thoracoscopy have not been realized in analyses of survival and may be offset by a policy of repeat metastasectomy for pulmonary recurrences. Despite the relative paucity of prospective trials, the preponderance of data supports the use of video-assisted thoracic surgery for pulmonary metastasectomy, which represents our preferred strategy for these patients. PMID:26611514

  7. [Travel and pulmonary thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Ursava?, Ahmet; Ozyardimci, Nihat

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is common cause of morbidity and mortality in immobile patients. Approximately 100 years ago,Virchow described a classical triad of local trauma to the vessel wall, hypercoagulability and stasis as cause of venous thromboembolism. Also prolonged travel is a risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease. The sitting position is caused by venous stasis and increased blood viscosity in the legs. The vessel lesions due to compression by the seat have been suggested as a cause of thrombosis. Addition in air travel relative hypoxia in the cabin of airplane reduces fibrinolytic activity and may lead to release of vein wall relaxin factors. Protective measures should include general advice to all passengers to avoid excess alcohol and caffeine, drink plenty of water and perform leg stretching exercises. Those with risk factors for deep vein thrombosis should carried out additional protective measures such as aspirin or low molecular weight heparin. PMID:15143381

  8. Pulmonary mechanics during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gee, J B; Packer, B S; Millen, J E; Robin, E D

    1967-06-01

    Previously reported changes in static lung volumes during pregnancy have been confirmed. Measurements of lung compliance (C(L)) and total pulmonary resistance (R(L)) were made in 10 women in the last trimester of pregnancy and 2 months postpartum, employing an esophageal balloon and recording spirometer. C(L) was unaffected by pregnancy, but R(L) was 50% below normal during pregnancy. Measurements of airway conductance (C(A)) were made, employing the constant pressure body plethysmograph on 14 nonpregnant and 13 pregnant women. Specific airway conductance was increased during pregnancy. Serial measurements of C(A) indicated a progressive increase beginning at about 6 months of gestation and a return to normal by 2 months postpartum. The mechanism of the increased C(A) during pregnancy is not known. It may be related to changes in bronchial smooth muscle tone and conceivably explains the tolerance of certain patients with lung resections to pregnancy. PMID:6026099

  9. Pulmonary hypertension topics.

    PubMed

    Mathai, Stephen C; Girgis, Reda E

    2012-11-01

    The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, 32nd Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions Prague, Czech Republic, 18-21 April 2012 Interest in pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to grow within the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). The PH program at the 32nd annual meeting held on 18-21 April 2012 in Prague, Czech Republic, was particularly strong, with 56 accepted abstracts and five symposia dealing with PH and right ventricular function. In this report, we will summarize selected oral abstract presentations dealing with a broad array of topics on PH and right ventricular function. These include original research on registries, prognosis, disease management, clinical trials, novel therapies, echocardiographic assessments and exercise hemodynamics. PMID:23134243

  10. Secondary systemic amyloidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Amyloidosis - secondary systemic ... is unknown. You are more likely to develop secondary systemic amyloidosis if you have a long-term ... Symptoms of secondary systemic amyloidosis depend on which body ... by the protein deposits. These deposits damage normal tissues, ...

  11. Pulmonary scintigraphy and the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.F.; McNeil, B.J.

    1984-09-01

    The authors attempt to demonstrate those circumstances for which perfusion scintigraphy, by itself, or in combination with ventilation scintiscanning, offers the best adjunctive information in excluding or confirming the presence of pulmonary embolism. They then identify those circumstances in which scintiscanning does not or cannot contribute significantly to the medical decision-making process. In these cases, the use of pulmonary angiography or possibly peripheral venography is not only recommended but, if warranted clinically, is absolutely necessary.

  12. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  13. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  14. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  15. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  16. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  17. Doppler echocardiograph evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tarrass, Faissal; Benjelloun, Meryem; Medkouri, Ghislaine; Hachim, Khadija; Benghanem, Mohamed Gharbi; Ramdani, Benyounes

    2006-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been reported in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but data regarding its incidence and mechanisms are scarce. The aims of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of unexplained PH in long-term HD patients, and to examine some possible etiologic factors for its occurrence. The prevalence of PH was estimated by Doppler echocardiography in a cohort of 86 stable patients on HD via arteriovenous access for more than 12 months. All the patients underwent full clinical evaluation, chest radiography, and a standard 12-lead echocardiograph. Laboratory investigation included a mean of 12 months (serum calcium, phosphorus, parathormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase, lipids, and hemoglobin). Pulmonary hypertension was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure >35 mmHg as determined by Doppler echocardiography using the modified Bernoulli equation. Pulmonary hypertension was detected in 23 patients (26.74%). Of those with PH, left ventricular hypertrophy was seen in 13 patients (56.52%), and valvular calcifications in 6 patients (26.08%). There were no significant differences between both groups with regard to age, sex, duration of dialysis, shunt location, and all the biological parameters of the study. The presence of PH was not related to the level of PTH, or the severity of other metabolic abnormalities. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD receiving long-term HD via surgical arteriovenous access. The role of the vascular access, anemia, or secondary hyperparathyroidism as the etiology of PH in HD patients did not hold in this study. PMID:17014511

  18. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  19. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  20. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like

  1. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  2. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  3. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable

  4. Extrinsic Compression of the Left Coronary Ostium by the Pulmonary Trunk

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Kothandam; Rajan, Maruthanayagam; Francis, Gnanapragasam; Murali, Krishnaswami; Bashi, Velayudhan

    2010-01-01

    Extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by a massively dilated pulmonary artery in patients who have severe pulmonary hypertension can lead to significant myocardial ischemia. A 58-year-old man with a large patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger syndrome presented with angina at rest and worsening heart failure of 3 months' duration. The new symptoms were recognized to be secondary to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery ostium by a dilated main pulmonary artery and were successfully relieved by the placement of a metallic stent in the affected segment of the left main coronary artery. Multislice computed tomographic imaging after 6 months showed stent patency and the intimate relation of the stented vessel to the dilated main pulmonary trunk. We discuss diagnostic and management issues pertaining to this uncommon clinical entity. PMID:20200637

  5. Total parenteral nutrition associated crystalline precipitates resulting in pulmonary artery occlusions and alveolar granulomas.

    PubMed

    McNearney, Terry; Bajaj, Christopher; Boyars, Michael; Cottingham, John; Haque, Abida

    2003-07-01

    This case report describes total parenteral nutrition (TPN) -associated crystalline precipitates occluding the pulmonary artery branches in a Crohn's disease patient who survived. These precipitates caused focal vascular disruptions and alveolar granulomas. High-resolution CT (HRCT) scan demonstrated a diffuse ground-glass appearance. Pulmonary function tests showed severe ventilatory defects, arterial hypoxemia, and decreased oxygen saturations. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) of the patient's lung biopsy and expectorant demonstrated similar patterns, supporting crystal migration into the alveoli. Treatment included broad-spectrum antibiotics, anticoagulation, corticosteroids, and daily pulmonary toilet. The patient required continuous supplemental oxygen for two months and then was able to use it intermittently. This patient survived widespread pulmonary vascular occlusions secondary to precipitation and crystallization of TPN solution, with moderately severe residual deficits in exercise tolerance and chest x-ray abnormalities. This case underscores the importance of surveillance and recognition and of TPN-associated complications by health care workers. PMID:12870794

  6. Paricalcitol for secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trillini, Matias; Cortinovis, Monica; Ruggenenti, Piero; Reyes Loaeza, Jorge; Courville, Karen; Ferrer-Siles, Claudia; Prandini, Silvia; Gaspari, Flavio; Cannata, Antonio; Villa, Alessandro; Perna, Annalisa; Gotti, Eliana; Caruso, Maria Rosa; Martinetti, Davide; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto

    2015-05-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 ?g/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 g/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (P<0.001) but not on nonparicalcitol therapy. At 6 months, levels significantly differed between treatments (P<0.001 by analysis of covariance). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased on paricalcitol therapy only and significantly differed between treatments at 6 months (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 6 months, urinary deoxypyridinoline-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria level decreased only on paricalcitol (P<0.05). L3 and L4 vertebral mineral bone density, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorption, significantly improved with paricalcitol at 6 months (P<0.05 for both densities). Paricalcitol was well tolerated. Overall, 6-month paricalcitol supplementation reduced parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria, attenuated bone remodeling and mineral loss, and reduced eGFR in renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25194004

  7. Biological impact on mineral dissolution: Application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Jillian F.; Barker, William W.; Welch, Susan A.; Taunton, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Microorganisms modify rates and mechanisms of chemical and physical weathering and clay growth, thus playing fundamental roles in soil and sediment formation. Because processes in soils are inherently complex and difficult to study, we employ a model based on the lichenmineral system to identify the fundamental interactions. Fixed carbon released by the photosynthetic symbiont stimulates growth of fungi and other microorganisms. These microorganisms directly or indirectly induce mineral disaggregation, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral formation. Model polysaccharides were used to investigate direct mediation of mineral surface reactions by extracellular polymers. Polysaccharides can suppress or enhance rates of chemical weathering by up to three orders of magnitude, depending on the pH, mineral surface structure and composition, and organic functional groups. Mg, Mn, Fe, Al, and Si are redistributed into clays that strongly adsorb ions. Microbes contribute to dissolution of insoluble secondary phosphates, possibly via release of organic acids. These reactions significantly impact soil fertility. Below fungimineral interfaces, mineral surfaces are exposed to dissolved metabolic byproducts. Through this indirect process, microorganisms can accelerate mineral dissolution, leading to enhanced porosity and permeability and colonization by microbial communities. PMID:10097050

  8. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  9. The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Elske; Bem, Reinout A.; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and received TIP or saline (control group) by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration) or day seven (late administration) after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. Results TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. Conclusion In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease. PMID:25047452

  10. Postoperative Massive Pulmonary Embolism Due to Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Limb.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation. PMID:26985256

  11. Postoperative Massive Pulmonary Embolism Due to Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation. PMID:26985256

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension: Types and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jones, Lisa J; Mclaughlin, Vallerie V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a panvasculopathy that affects the distal pulmonary arteries and leads to restricted blood flow. This increased afterload leads to adaptive mechanisms of the right ventricle, with eventual failure once it can no longer compensate. Pulmonary hypertension from associated conditions, most importantly left heart disease, i.e. heart failure, can also lead to the same sequela. Patients often experience early vague symptoms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance, and thus PH can elude clinicians until right heart failure symptoms predominate. Evidence-based treatment options with pulmo-nary vasodilators are available for those with PAH and should be employed early. It is essential that patients be accurately categorized by their etiology of PH, as treatment strategies differ, and can potentially be dangerous if employed in the wrong clinical scenario. PMID:24251459

  13. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mediastinitis ) Abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs ( pulmonary edema ) Buildup of fluid between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity ( pleural effusion ) Many ... as bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate Illegal drugs

  14. Elevated Pulmonary Artery Pressure Is a Risk Factor for Primary Graft Dysfunction Following Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Adam; Studer, Sean; Kawut, Steven M.; Ahya, Vivek N.; Lee, James; Wille, Keith; Lama, Vibha; Ware, Lorraine; Orens, Jonathan; Weinacker, Ann; Palmer, Scott M.; Crespo, Maria; Lederer, David J.; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Demissie, Ejigayehu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often associated with elevations in pulmonary artery pressures. Although primary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been associated with primary graft dysfunction (PGD), the role of secondary PAH in mediating PGD risk in patients with IPF is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and PGD among patients with IPF. Methods: We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study of 126 lung transplant procedures performed for IPF between March 2002 and August 2007. The primary outcome was grade 3 PGD at 72 h after lung transplant. The mPAP was measured as the initial reading following insertion of the right-sided heart catheter during lung transplant. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding variables. Results: The mPAP for patients with PGD was 38.5 16.3 mm Hg vs 29.6 11.5 mm Hg for patients without PGD (mean difference, 8.9 mm Hg [95% CI, 3.6-14.2]; P = .001). The increase in odds of PGD associated with each 10-mm Hg increase in mPAP was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.18-2.26; P = .003). In multivariable models, this relationship was independent of confounding by other clinical variables, although the use of cardiopulmonary bypass partially attenuated the relationship. Conclusions: Higher mPAP in patients with IPF is associated with the development of PGD. PMID:20864607

  15. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earths atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energys Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  17. Pulmonary Edema in Myasthenic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Uttara Swati; Arulneyam, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration. PMID:24829832

  18. Pulmonary hydatidosis from Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Arias, Liliana Eugenia; Puzzio, Carla Pia; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Even though different measures are taken including the use of a vaccine in livestock to stop transmission, the continuous diagnoses of cases, mainly of liver and pulmonary hydatidosis, show the failure of the control programs for hydatidosis in our country. A clinical case of pulmonary hydatidosis in a patient from a rural endemic area in Southern Argentina is described. PMID:26629454

  19. Repeated pulmonary thromboembolism in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E G

    1975-03-01

    Ten rabbits received 24 to 76 intravenous injections of finely divided thrombi prepared by a modification of Chandler's apparatus. Eight rabbits were killed soon after the last injection (group A) and two rabbits were allowed to survive for 4 months after the last introduction of thrombi (group B). Ten rabbits received repeated saline injections only, and six animals underwent no manipulation whatever. Six test rabbits and six control rabbits underwent catheterization of the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary arteries of each lung received injections of radiopaque material and were x-rayed; multiple blocks were selected from each lobe of each lung, cut, and stained with Weigert's elastic Van Gieson's stain, which permitted measurement of arterial medial thickness. Sections were also stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Martius scarlet blue. The results of catheterization showed that only mild pulmonary hypertension had been induced. Histologically, thromboemboli had become incorporated into the wall of the arteries. Concentric intimal thickening included an "onionskin" arrangement and was more prevalent than eccentric configuration. Medial hypertrophy of almost all vessels was found. The onionskin arrangement in an occasional precapillary vessel was also encountered. More severe histologic grades of pulmonary hypertension were not seen. The two group B animals showed recent thrombi, which suggested that once intimal thickening had occurred the process of fresh thrombotic superimposition continues, resulting in progression of the lesions. The experimental findings were compared with 13 patients (thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (eight) and primary pulmonary hypertension (five)) and with 181 patients reported in the literature. Features such as the onionskin type of intimal thickening in muscular arteries and precapillary vessels have been suggested as points of distinction between these two conditions. These features have been reproduced in these experiments. Despite the fact that more severe histologic grades of pulmonary hypertension were not produced, it is suggested that these experiments lend support to the concept that primary pulmonary hypertension may have a thromboembolic etiology in at least some patients. PMID:123612

  20. A 33-year-old man with multiple bilateral pulmonary pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rokadia, Haala K; Heresi, Gustavo A; Tan, Carmela D; Raymond, Daniel P; Budd, George Thomas; Farver, Carol

    2015-10-01

    A 33-year-old man, never smoker, presented with acute-onset dyspnea secondary to bilateral pulmonary emboli. Echocardiography at the time revealed a right atrial myxoma, for which he underwent resection, followed by anticipated lifelong therapeutic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26437818

  1. Massive Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm Causing Left Main Coronary Artery Compression in the Absence of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshhajra, Brian; Inglessis-Azuaje, Ignacio; MacGillivray, Thomas; Liberthson, Richard; Bhatt, Ami B.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with classic symptoms of stable angina. Cardiac images and catheterization results revealed absent pulmonary valve syndrome and compression of the left main coronary artery by a massively dilated pulmonary artery aneurysm. The patient's anginal symptoms were relieved after pulmonary arterioplasty. Others have described proximal left main coronary artery compression in the presence of a dilated and hypertensive pulmonary artery. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a pulmonary artery aneurysm caused left main coronary insufficiency in the absence of pulmonary hypertensiona clinically important complication of congenital pulmonary valve-related pulmonary arteriopathy. PMID:26504443

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  3. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  4. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. [The current view on pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Cisowska, Marta; Lewczuk, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    The article refers to actual data on pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PAH is a group of diseases characterized by a progressive increase of resistance and pressure in pulmonary vascular bed, leading to systolic overload and failure of the right heart ventricle, and in consequence - to premature death. The latest classification of PAH, basing on pathophysiology of the disease, was proposed in 2003 in Venice. The genetic background, including genetic mutations disturbing intracellular TGF-beta-like ligands signaling pathway, is essential for the development of PAH. In some cases secondary risk factors (e.g.: portal hypertension, congenital heart defects, HIV infection, connective tissue disorders, intoxications, myeloproliferative and storage diseases) are also important. In all types of PAH the same four pathological processes are reported: vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis and remodelling. The growing knowledge of pathophysiology of PAH has enabled its better diagnosing and treatment, which has improved both symptoms and survival in the patients suffering from the disease. PMID:17684928

  6. [Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: ultrastructural study of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Garrido, L; Gledhill, T; Martin, M; Caleiras, E; Parada, D; Garca Tamayo, J

    1997-03-01

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare and diffuse lung disease characterized by the abnormal deposition of PAS positive, lipoproteinaceous material in the alveolar spaces. It has been related, mainly, to alterations in the immune state and to secondary infections. We studied four cases of PAP diagnosed by light microscopy. In two cases we were able to demonstrate disseminated Histoplasmosis related to immunodeficiency states (AIDS and malnutrition), one case with Pneumocystis carinii infection and AIDS, and one case with no related pathology. Granular and electron dense material, concentric myelin figures, and variable-sized osmiophilic bodies were observed by electron microscopy. We found yeast-like structures, trophozoites and cysts in the alveolar spaces, in the Histoplasmosis and Pneumocystic carinii infection cases, respectively. In one of our cases, the circulating neutrophils showed crystalloid inclusions in the nucleus. PAP should be considered in the differential diagnoses of patients with pulmonary infiltrates. PMID:9235071

  7. Unusual presentations and pitfalls of secondary syphilis: osteitis, pneumonia and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Crouzy, Frederike; Alvarez, Veronica; Gex, Grégoire; Troillet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis can show unexpected clinical characteristics rendering its diagnosis difficult. We report on two cases of secondary syphilis presenting with atypical histories of knee or cervical pain and cough. Both had bone involvement and one, pulmonary involvement, documented by MRI, CT scan and PCR. Both responded well to therapy with intravenous aqueous penicillin G followed by intramuscular benzathine penicillin G, but a pulmonary adenocarcinoma was diagnosed during follow-up in one case. PMID:26504092

  8. Biological Control on Mineral Transformation in Soils ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, K.; Hsieh, J. C.; Chadwick, O. A.; Kelly, E. F.

    2001-12-01

    Weathering of primary minerals is commonly linked to biological processes through the production of carbonic and organic acids. Plants can also play a role in weathering by removing soluble constituents and enhancing diffusion gradients within the soil. Here we investigate the synthesis of secondary minerals and the role of plants in removing elements that act as building blocks for these minerals. In order to minimize losses from leaching, we have sampled a chronosequence of soils forming on lava flows on Hawaii Island that receive about 200 mm of rain annually and have never been subjected to high levels of rainfall. The P concentration in the soils drops from almost 3000 mg/kg on a 1.5 ky lava flow to around 1000 mg/kg on a 350 ky lava flow. This loss of P can only be ascribed to P-uptake by plants with subsequent removal through the loss of above ground biomass through fire and/or wind removal. Over the same time frame the amount of plagioclase in the soils drops from around 22% of the <2 mm soil fraction on the youngest lava flow to virtually 0% on the 350 ky flow, suggesting a substantial release of Si. Elevated silicon in arid, basaltic soil environments often leads to formation of smectite, a feature not observed along the chronosequence. In fact, plagioclase is replaced by the kaolin mineral halloysite with allophane as an apparent precursor. Kaolin minerals are associated with moderate to intense leaching environments rather than the mild leaching conditions that influence these soils. We selected an intermediate age soil profile (170 ky lava flow) to conduct an in-depth investigation of the soil mineral composition. We detected a strong dominance of halloysite, the presence of gibbsite, but no smectite. Secondary halloysite formation is preferred over smectite formation when Si activities are relatively low, and the pH is acidic rather than alkaline. Although this mineral assemblage seems to imply formation under a wetter climatic regime, the oxygen isotopic composition of the halloysite suggests formation under soil environmental conditions similar to the present. The Si concentration in grass and tree leaves in the vicinity of the soil contain between 3 and 8% Si. Loss of these leaves to the nearby ocean (either as dried or burned residue) could be responsible for considerable Si removal in a manner similar to the P-removal. The resulting Si-deficient soil-water favors the formation of halloysite over smectite as is demonstrated by construction of mineral stability diagrams using the soil-water data from the soils along the chronosequence.

  9. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Nihat; Peker, Erdal; Ece, İbrahim; Kaba, Sultan; Ağengin, Kemal; Tuncer, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil. PMID:26078906

  10. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Demir, Nihat; Peker, Erdal; Ece, ?brahim; Kaba, Sultan; A?engin, Kemal; Tuncer, O?uz

    2015-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil. PMID:26078906

  11. Successful two-stage correction of ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus in a patient with fixed pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pac, Aysenur; Polat, Tugcin Bora; Vural, Kerem; Pac, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with fixed severe pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to a ventricular septal defect (VSD) together with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). As a preliminary step, PDA embolization was performed following therapy with inhaled prostacyclin over a period of 6 months. Further, the patient underwent successful surgical VSD closure. We postulate that a staged procedure with long-term prostaglandin therapy might be capable of reducing pulmonary artery resistance and permitting total correction in a patient once considered to have inoperable pulmonary arteriopathy. PMID:19812882

  12. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries.

  13. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  14. Mineralogy and genesis of secondary uranium deposits, Um Ara area, south eastern desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood, Y. H.; Abd El-Naby, H. H.

    2001-02-01

    Secondary U mineralisation is found in the oxidised zone pervading fractured albitised and alkali-feldspar granites emplaced at the northern boundary of Um Ara Pluton. It occurs as stains along crevices and fracture surfaces and as acicular crystals filling cavities. X-ray diffraction and SEM were used to identify secondary U minerals and the associated alteration products. Uranophane and β-uranophane are the most abundant U minerals, whereas Ca-montmorillonite and illite represent low temperature alteration products of the host granitic rocks. The genesis of secondary U minerals is mainly attributed to the action of oxic groundwater on previously corroded primary U minerals. These secondary U minerals were deposited near the surface from the circulating groundwater by evaporation.

  15. [Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Polewczyk, Anna; Sadowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is very rarely observed during pregnancy and postpartum period. The frequency of PE in pregnant women is relatively difficult to assess because the existing data estimate all venous-thromboembolic (VTE) complications including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and PE. The incidence of PE itself has been evaluated on 3 cases per 10000 deliveries. Diagnostics of PE during pregnancy is very difficult and requires unequivocal confirmation or exclusion because of exposure of fetus to potential complications of antithrombic therapy. Very important is to assess the clinical probability of PE with note of potential risk factors (including Well's score using), precision medical history and physical examination. Noninvasive examinations: ECG, echocardiography, venous compression USG and laboratory tests: arterial blood gas analysis and level of dimer D. According to the current ESC guidelines CT angiography should be considered if the chest X-ray is abnormal or if lung scintigraphy is not readily available (class IIa). Perfusion scintigraphy may be considered to rule out suspected PE in pregnant women with normal chest X-ray. (Class IIb). A weight-adjusted dose of LMWH is recommended therapy during pregnancy in patients without shock or hypotension. In high-risk patients thrombolytic therapy is justified. Anticoagulant treatment should be administered for at least 6 weeks after delivery and with a minimum overall treatment duration of 3 months. PMID:26455025

  16. Treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Dcousus, Herv; Mismetti, Patrick; Couturaud, Francis; Ageno, Walter; Bauersachs, Rupert

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of pulmonary embolism is going to be deeply modified by the development of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs). There are currently three anti-Xa factors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) and one anti-IIa factor (dabigatran) labeled by the FDA and the EMA. All these drugs are direct anticoagulant, orally effective, without the need for adaptation to hemostasis test. As kidney excretion is involved for all of them, they are contra-indicated in patients with severe renal failure (creatinine clearance<30mL/min according to Cockcroft & Gault formula). All the anti-Xa factor drugs are metabolized by liver cytochromes and then contra-indicated in case of liver insufficiency. Of note, the four DOACS have been evaluated in non-inferiority trials, including one open-label trial (the EINSTEIN program with the rivaroxaban). Moreover, two of them (rivaroxaban and apixaban) were evaluated in a single drug approach (provided initial increased doses: 15mg bid during 21days for rivaroxaban and 10mg bid during 7days for apixaban) whereas the two others (edoxaban and dabigatran) were evaluated after at least 5days of parenteral heparin. They were found to be non-inferior to the conventional treatment, but also seem to be associated with a decreased risk of major bleeding, in a quite young and without significant comorbidities population. The risk/benefit ratio of DOACs in specific subgroups deserves prospective validations. PMID:26547678

  17. Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

  18. [Multiple pulmonary emboli complicating infective endocarditis in a child with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Ajdakar, S; Elbouderkaoui, M; Rada, N; Drais, G; Bouskraoui, M

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare condition, associated with high mortality. Clinical presentation is nonspecific. Pulmonary embolism may present initially similar to bacterial endocarditis of the right heart, septic thrombophlebitis, or osteomyelitis. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who had dyspnea over the four months before consultation, complicated three months later by hemoptysis. She was diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis secondary to group D Streptococcus, developed upon a ventricular septal defect. Two weeks later, the child had sudden chest pain and tachypnea. Lung scintigraphy showed multiple pulmonary embolisms. The therapeutic approach was to continue antibiotics without anticoagulant treatment. The outcome was favorable with apyrexia and stabilization on the respiratory level. Pulmonary embolism is a rare disease in children with an incidence of 3.7%. Classically, it presents with fever, hemoptysis, and nonspecific infiltrates on chest X-ray. These signs were noted in our patient, although the infiltrates on the chest X-ray were hidden by the pulmonary edema associated with heart failure. The persistence of these left basal opacities after antidiuretic treatment suggested an infectious origin. Subsequently, lung scintigraphy showed that it was a pulmonary infarct. The therapy of septic pulmonary embolism is the same as that for infective endocarditis. Antibiotic treatment alone was maintained without anticoagulants because of the high risk of bleeding at the seat of the pulmonary embolism and the insubstantial significant benefit of this therapy. Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare disease, but its incidence is underestimated. Better knowledge on its actual impact and etiologies in children is necessary. Multicenter studies are needed to establish recommendations. PMID:25725970

  19. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R. |

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

  20. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  1. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

  2. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine, compound, or metal, depending upon the end use. Most lithium compounds were consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum.

  3. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  4. Minerals: the resource gap

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1980-10-01

    US imports of important non-fuel minerals may have contributed to a false sense of security that could have serious economic and defense consequences. Imports account for over 90 percent of the chromite, manganese ore, and cobalt, and 90 percent of the platinum group metals. The primary sources for many of these minerals are the Soviet Union and Africa, a price and supply vulnerability which rivals Middle East oil and of which the American public is unaware. The Soviet shift to a net minerals importer will intensify competition for minerals and could lead to confrontation. The decline in US mineral production is blamed on escalating costs, largely from regulations, that prevent plant and equipment modernization and land withdrawal policies. A strategic stockpile planned for over 90 materials was established in 1939 for defense purposes, but eratic goals and planning as well as economic changes have kept the plan from being implemented. The first steps of an appropriate policy would promote domestic minerals production and open up Federal lands for exploration and development. (DCK)

  5. [Management of Pulmonary Blood Flow for a Patient with Congenital Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Undergoing Pulmonary Venous Obstruction Release and Pulmonary Artery Banding].

    PubMed

    Ideno, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Oda, Fujiko; Wakamiya, Rie; Ozawa, Kana; Kaneko, Haruka; Matsuoka, Taku; Shinto, Atsushi; Mikasa, Hiromi; Miyazawa, Noriko

    2015-02-01

    Congenital pulmonary vein stenosis (CPVS) is a rare fetal congenital heart disease with a prevalence of 1.7 per 100,000 children younger than two years of age. Because of the difficulty of maintaining the pulmonary blood flow, CPVS is associated with a 50% survival rate within five years of diagnosis. We describe a successful management of pulmonary blood flow for a 4-month-old-girl with CPVS, combined with atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect, undergoing pulmonary vein obstruction release (PVOR). In this case, CPVS was the only cause for pulmonary hypertension because there was no significant pressure gradient between each pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and the paired pulmonary vein pressure, indicating the normal pulmonary vascular structure prior to pulmonary vein stenosis. As pulmonary blood flow was estimated to be high after PVOR, pulmonary artery banding was also performed. Management of pulmonary blood flow is the most important issue for anesthesia of this surgery, especially in postcardiopulmonary bypass period, when the pulmonary vasoconstriction is induced by endothelial dysfuncion. PMID:26121811

  6. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  7. [Pulmonary hypertension in liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Savale, Laurent; Sattler, Caroline; Sitbon, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined by the combination of portal hypertension and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mPAP ? 25 mmHg, PCWP < 15 mmHg and PVR > 3 Wood units). PoPH is characterised by pathobiological mechanisms that are similar to other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prevalence of PoPH is estimated at 0.5-5% among patients with portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. Treatment strategies most commonly employed for PoPH patients are based on recommendations for idiopathic PAH management. Indeed, the choice of specific PAH treatment must take account the severity of the underlying liver disease. Prognosis of PoPH patients is dependent on both the severity of PAH and of the underlying liver disease. PoPH may be a contraindication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) if mean pulmonary arterial pressure is > 35 mmHg associated with severe right ventricular dysfunction or high level of pulmonary vascular resistance (> 3-4 Wood units). Bridge therapy with specific PAH therapies should be considered in those patients in an attempt to improve pulmonary hemodynamic and thereby allow OLT with acceptable risk. Recent data suggest that stabilize, improve or cure PoPH seems to be possible by combining specific PAH therapies and liver transplantation in selected patients. Clinical and experimental evidences suggest that IFN therapy may be a possible risk factor for PAH. PMID:25148949

  8. Pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Elwing, Jean; Panos, Ralph J

    2008-01-01

    Although the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not known precisely, approximately 10%–30% of patients with moderate to severe COPD have elevated pulmonary pressures. The vast majority of PH associated with COPD is mild to moderate and severe PH occurs in <5% of patients. When COPD is associated with PH, both mortality and morbidity are increased. There are no clinical or physical examination findings that accurately identify patients with underlying PH. Radiographic imaging findings are specific but not sensitive indicators of PH. Echocardiography is the principle noninvasive diagnostic test but may be technically limited in a significant proportion of patients with COPD. Right heart catheterization is required for accurate measurement of pulmonary pressures. The combined effects of inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, and angiogenesis appear to contribute to the development of PH associated with COPD. Systemic vasodilators have not been found to be effective therapy. Selective pulmonary vasodilators including inhaled nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase inhibitors are promising treatments for patients with COPD associated PH but further evaluation of these medications is needed prior to their routine use. PMID:18488429

  9. Pulmonary Vascular Angioscopy - Current Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shure, Deborah; Buchbinder, Maurice; Peterson, Kirk

    1988-06-01

    We performed angioscopy on 31 patients with suspected chronic pulmonary arterial ob-struction using three prototype angioscopes. The instruments varied in length (80, 90, and 120 cm), outside diameter (3.2 and 4 mm), and distal tip deflection (70, 90, and 180 degrees). All had a distal viewing balloon. Conventional diagnostic studies were performed and decisions about diagnosis and operability were made prior to angioscopy. An independent assessment of diagnosis and operability was then made based on the results of angioscopy. Surgical confirmation was obtained in most cases and clinical or autopsy data were obtained in the remainder. Angioscopy led to a change in the diagnosis of 6 patients (19%). Four of 25 patients with chronic pulmonary emboli were felt to be inoperable based on the angioscopic findings. Two of these 4 underwent surgery and were found to be inoperable. 21 of the remaining 25 patients were felt to have operable disease and 19 underwent surgery. In 14 of these 19 (74%), the conventional studies were either negative or equivocal with respect to operability and the decision to operate was based on angioscopic data. We conclude that good visualization of the central pulmonary arteries can be achieved with the optical balloon technique; that the procedure can be performed safely in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension; and that the information obtained by angioscopy can significantly affect clinical decisions in patients with chronic pulmonary artery obstruction.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  12. Arginine metabolic endotypes in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wedes, Samuel H.; Hsu, Jean W.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Jahoor, Farook; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Decreased synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases (NOS) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Multiple factors may contribute to decreased NO bioavailability, including increased activity of arginase, the enzyme that converts arginine to ornithine and urea, which may compete with NOS for arginine; inadequate de novo arginine production from citrulline; and increased concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NOS. We hypothesized that PAH patients with the lowest arginine availability secondary to increased arginase activity and/or inadequate de novo arginine synthesis might have a slower rate of NO synthesis and greater pulmonary vascular resistance. Nine patients with group 1 PAH and 10 healthy controls were given primed, constant intravenous infusions of 15N2-arginine, 13C,2H4-citrulline, 15N2-ornithine, and 13C-urea in the postabsorptive state. The results showed that, compared with healthy controls, PAH patients had a tendency toward increased arginine clearance and ornithine flux but no difference in arginine and citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis, or NO synthesis. Arginine-to-ADMA ratio was increased in PAH patients. Two endotypes of patients with low and high arginase activity were identified; compared with the low-arginase group, the patients with high arginase had increased arginine flux, slower NO synthesis, and lower plasma concentrations of ADMA. These results demonstrate that increased breakdown of arginine by arginase occurs in PAH and affects NO synthesis. Furthermore, there is no compensatory increase in de novo arginine synthesis to overcome this increased utilization of arginine by arginase. PMID:25992277

  13. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease as a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Al-Bayati, Ihsan; Porres-Muoz, Mateo; Padilla, Osvaldo; Syed, Saad H; Lowder, Kevin; Azimova, Komola; Fan, Jerry; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) represents a rare form of precapillary pulmonary arterial hypertension. We present a young patient hospitalized with progressive dyspnea, with initial workup suggestive of pulmonary hypertension and unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. His subsequent clinical course was consistent with the diagnosis of PVOD. PMID:26130886

  14. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease as a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Ihsan; Porres-Muoz, Mateo; Padilla, Osvaldo; Syed, Saad H.; Lowder, Kevin; Azimova, Komola; Fan, Jerry; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) represents a rare form of precapillary pulmonary arterial hypertension. We present a young patient hospitalized with progressive dyspnea, with initial workup suggestive of pulmonary hypertension and unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. His subsequent clinical course was consistent with the diagnosis of PVOD. PMID:26130886

  15. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and stent implantation. For peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in Alagille syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, A S; Kovalchin, J P; Fisher, D J; Ferry, G D; Grifka, R G

    1998-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Alagille syndrome and severe pulmonary valve and bilateral pulmonary artery branch stenosis. In this patient, transcatheter balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty combined with bilateral pulmonary artery angioplasty and stent placement provided excellent immediate results and long-term improvement. Images PMID:9566070

  16. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  17. Primary Pulmonary Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2015-11-01

    Primary lung lymphoma (PLL) is a rare disease that comprises <0.5% of all primary lung tumors. It is defined as lymphoma confined to the lung with or without hilar lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis or up to 3 months thereafter. Patients with PLL may be asymptomatic or manifest nonspecific clinical symptoms, for example, cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. Some individuals may be immunosupressed or have an autoimmune disorder. Radiologically, PLL can mimic pneumonia, lung carcinoma, or metastasis, and therefore, histologic confirmation is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. Primary lung marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type comprises 70% to 80% of cases. Less common B-cell lymphomas include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LyG), plasmacytoma, and other small lymphocytic lymphomas. PLLs of T-cell origin, largely represented by anaplastic large cell lymphoma, are extremely rare. LyG is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphoid neoplastic proliferation rich in T cells that produces vasculitis. The disease may present at different stages of progression. Differential diagnosis of PLL varies according to the lymphoma subtype: pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be distinguished from reactive inflammatory conditions, whereas high-grade lymphomas may resemble poorly differentiated lung carcinoma, metastatic disease, and other lymphomas. LyG can resemble inflammatory, infectious, and other lymphoid neoplastic processes. A panel of immunohistochemical markers, flow cytometry, and molecular methods are necessary to confirm the diagnosis in the majority of cases. In this article we review the clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of several B-cell and T-cell PLLs with exception of Hodgkin lymphoma and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:26452211

  18. Who Is at Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exact number of people who have pulmonary hypertension (PH) isn't known. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension ( ... have group 1 PAH tend to be overweight . PH that occurs with another disease or condition is ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the blood vessels that supply the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Most affected individuals survive 3 to 5 years ... glossary definitions help with understanding idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? acute ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cancer ; cell ; chronic ; cryptogenic ; diagnosis ; ...

  20. Estimation of palaeohydrochemical conditions using carbonate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamiya, H.; Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Yuguchi, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito-Kokubu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term evolution of geochemical environment in deep underground is indispensable research subject for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because the evolution of geochemical environment would impact migration behavior of radionuclides in deep underground. Many researchers have made efforts previously to elucidate the geochemical environment within the groundwater residence time based on the analysis of the actual groundwater. However, it is impossible to estimate the geochemical environment for the longer time scale than the groundwater residence time in this method. In this case, analysis of the chemical properties of secondary minerals are one of useful method to estimate the paleohydrochemical conditions (temperature, salinity, pH and redox potential). In particular, carbonate minerals would be available to infer the long-term evolution of hydrochemical for the following reasons; -it easily reaches chemical equilibrium with groundwater and precipitates in open space of water flowing path -it reflects the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater at the time of crystallization We reviewed the previous studies on carbonate minerals and geochemical conditions in deep underground and estimated the hydrochemical characteristics of past groundwater by using carbonate minerals. As a result, it was found that temperature and salinity of the groundwater during crystallization of carbonate minerals were evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, pH and redox potential can only be understood qualitatively. However, it is suggested that the content of heavy metal elements such as manganese, iron and uranium, and rare earth elements in the carbonate minerals are useful indicators for estimating redox potential. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  1. Hypercalcaemic crisis in an elderly patient with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason Yongsheng; Kanthaya, Mohanaruban

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is an uncommon but recognized cause of hypercalcaemia, though calcium levels are seldom severely elevated and rarely result in symptoms. In the elderly patient however, several competing aetiologies may contribute to hypercalcaemia and the diagnostic evaluation may be confounded by polypharmacy as well as multiple co-existing medical conditions. We present here a case of an elderly man who presented with pulmonary tuberculosis and concomitant delirium secondary to hypercalcaemic crisis. Treatment with anti-tuberculous drugs, together with supportive care, eventually led to resolution of hypercalcaemia and restoration of mental function. PMID:26566450

  2. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  4. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  5. Group B streptococcal phospholipid causes pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jerri; Kim, Geumsoo; Wehr, Nancy B.; Levine, Rodney L.

    2003-04-01

    Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension, which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and identified them as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary hypertension in newborns with Group B streptococcal infection opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Comparison of conventional pulmonary angiography with intravenous digital subtraction angiography for pulmonary embolic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, G.D.; Ovitt, T.W.; Capp, M.P.

    1983-05-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction pulmonary angiography was performed in 33 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. It was performed as the initial examination, followed immediately by conventional film-screen pulmonary angiography performed with selctive right or left main pulmonary injections. Intravenous studies of diagnostic quality were obtained in 31 of 33 patients (93.9%). Of the satisfactory intravenous studies, pulmonary embolism was correctly diagnosed in 12 cases and excluded in 18 cases. Emboli were detected in major and second-order branches as well. There was one false-positive intravenous pulmonary study, but the overall accuracy was 90.9% considering all studies and 96.8% excluding the two inadequate intravenous examinations. It is concluded that intravenous pulmonary angiography is an acceptable substitute for routine pulmonary angiography in most patients with suspected major pulmonary embolism. The technique is less expensive, and is safer, faster, and easier to perform than conventional pulmonary angiography.

  7. Pulmonary Actinomycosis Simulating Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pritzker, H. G.; MacKay, J. S.

    1963-01-01

    During a 2½-year period, in a 360-bed general hospital, three cases of pulmonary actinomycosis were encountered in men aged 38, 47 and 49 years. In each instance the symptoms, signs and radiological and laboratory findings were such as to warrant a presumptive clinical diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. Thoracotomy was performed in each case. This experience suggests that a definitive clinical diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma should not be made without histological evidence. Furthermore, such individuals should have the benefit of exploratory thoracotomy on the off-chance that the pulmonary lesion may be benign and amenable to treatment. Above all it should be remembered that pulmonary actinomycosis can simulate bronchogenic carcinoma to a marked degree. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:13986257

  8. Lung function in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Low, A T; Medford, A R L; Millar, A B; Tulloh, R M R

    2015-10-01

    Breathlessness is a common symptom in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and an important cause of morbidity. Though this has been attributed to the well described pulmonary vascular abnormalities and subsequent cardiac remodelling, changes in the airways of these patients have also been reported and may contribute to symptoms. Our understanding of these airway abnormalities is poor with conflicting findings in many studies. The present review evaluates these studies for the major PH groups. In addition we describe the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by evaluating cardiopulmonary interaction during exercise. As yet, the reasons for the abnormalities in lung function are unclear, but potential causes and the possible role of inflammation are discussed. Future research is required to provide a better understanding of this to help improve the management of these patients. PMID:26033642

  9. Granuloma Formation in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Broos, Caroline E.; van Nimwegen, Menno; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Hendriks, Rudi W.; Kool, Mirjam; van den Blink, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown cause, affecting multiple organs, but mainly the lungs. The exact order of immunological events remains obscure. Reviewing current literature, combined with careful clinical observations, we propose a model for granuloma formation in pulmonary sarcoidosis. A tight collaboration between macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocyte subsets, initiates the first steps toward granuloma formation, orchestrated by cytokines and chemokines. In a substantial part of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients, granuloma formation becomes an on-going process, leading to debilitating disease, and sometimes death. The immunological response, determining granuloma sustainment is not well understood. An impaired immunosuppressive function of regulatory T cells has been suggested to contribute to the exaggerated response. Interestingly, therapeutical agents commonly used in sarcoidosis, such as glucocorticosteroids and anti-TNF agents, interfere with granuloma integrity and restore the immune homeostasis in autoimmune disorders. Increasing insight into their mechanisms of action may contribute to the search for new therapeutical targets in pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:24339826

  10. Pulmonary histoplasmosis: unusual histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Liseloth; Mata-Essayag, Sofa; Hartung de Capriles, Claudia; Eugenia Landaeta, Mara; Pacheco, Italo; Fuentes, Zhenia

    2006-01-01

    Four patients with clinical diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are presented. In these patients, lung biopsies revealed bronchocentric granulomatosis (BG), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and in one biopsy, the clinical manifestations suggested tuberculous primo-infection with systemic dissemination. Three patients died without diagnosis. In all four cases, specific histological stains found Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasmosis may mimic other infectious or non-infectious pulmonary diseases, such as interstitial and granulomatous pulmonary disease. Therefore, the absolute need for identification of the organism by culture or special stains cannot be over-emphasized and may lead to a proper mycological diagnosis. This highlights the importance of differential diagnosis with systemic infectious diseases, especially in areas where deep-seated mycosis are endemic. PMID:16488088

  11. Pulmonary immunostimulation with MALP-2 in influenza virus-infected mice increases survival after pneumococcal superinfection.

    PubMed

    Reppe, Katrin; Radnzel, Peter; Dietert, Kristina; Tschernig, Thomas; Wolff, Thorsten; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Gruber, Achim D; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary infection with influenza virus is frequently complicated by bacterial superinfection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae being the most prevalent causal pathogen and hence often associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Local immunosuppression due to pulmonary influenza virus infection has been identified as a major cause of the pathogenesis of secondary bacterial lung infection. Thus, specific local stimulation of the pulmonary innate immune system in subjects with influenza virus infection might improve the host defense against secondary bacterial pathogens. In the present study, we examined the effect of pulmonary immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2)-stimulating macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected mice on the course of subsequent pneumococcal superinfection. Female C57BL/6N mice infected with IAV were treated with MALP-2 on day 5 and challenged with S. pneumoniae on day 6. Intratracheal MALP-2 application increased proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release and enhanced the recruitment of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, into the alveolar space of IAV-infected mice, without detectable systemic side effects. Local pulmonary instillation of MALP-2 in IAV-infected mice 24 h before transnasal pneumococcal infection considerably reduced the bacterial number in the lung tissue without inducing exaggerated inflammation. The pulmonary viral load was not altered by MALP-2. Clinically, MALP-2 treatment of IAV-infected mice increased survival rates and reduced hypothermia and body weight loss after pneumococcal superinfection compared to those of untreated coinfected mice. In conclusion, local immunostimulation with MALP-2 in influenza virus-infected mice improved pulmonary bacterial elimination and increased survival after subsequent pneumococcal superinfection. PMID:26371127

  12. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  13. Animal...Vegetable...or Mineral?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the problems facing the United States with mineral reserves being depleted, and the consumption of minerals outstripping production. Expresses concern about the deteriorating mineral position, and the ignorance and confusion of the public with respect to mineral production and supply, energy requirements, and environmental consequences.

  14. Optimized imaging of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Tillich, Manfred; Schoellnast, Helmut

    2005-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common disease with considerable mortality. There are no specific signs or symptoms of PE; the diagnosis relies on imaging tests. The development of multi-detector computed tomography has led to an improvement in the diagnosis of PE due to faster scanning and improved spatial resolution along the longitudinal axis of the patient. Apart from fast scanning and thin collimation, optimal arterial attenuation remains one of the most crucial determinants of sufficient depiction of the pulmonary arteries. Arterial attenuation over time is generally determined by iodine flow concentration, which may be increased either by raising the contrast medium flow rate, and/or by using a high iodine concentration contrast medium. The scan duration necessary for imaging the whole thorax ranges from about 20 s with a four-detector row scanner to about 5 s with a 64-detector row detector scanner. The collimation ranges from 0.5 mm to 1 mm depending on the scanner used. This enables the most detailed display of the pulmonary arteries. Bolus triggering devices are a valuable tool for accurate timing of scanning. The administration of the contrast material bolus is performed using a power injector at a flow rate of about 4 mL/s. A saline flush immediately after contrast material administration avoids pooling of the contrast material in the arm veins and in the injection system and reduces perivenous artifacts in the superior vena cava. The use of a high concentration contrast material significantly improves attenuation of the pulmonary arteries leading to better visualisation of sub-segmental and lower order pulmonary arteries in multi-row-detector-CTA. In addition, the higher attenuation may improve the conspicuity of emboli within the pulmonary arteries. PMID:18637232

  15. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE MINERAL MINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a multimedia (air, liquid and solid wastes) environmental assessment of the domestic mineral mining industry. The primary objective of the study was to identify the major pollution problems associated with the industry. A secondary objective was to define res...

  16. Pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging for airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been put forward as a new research and diagnostic tool mainly to overcome the limitations of computed tomography and nuclear medicine studies. However, pulmonary MR imaging has been difficult to use because of inherently low proton density, a multitude of air-tissue interfaces, which create significant magnetic field distortions and are commonly referred to as susceptibility artifacts; diminishing signal in the lung; and respiratory and/or cardiac motion artifacts. To overcome these drawbacks of pulmonary MR imaging, technical advances made during the last decade in sequencing, scanner and coil, adaptation of parallel imaging techniques, and utilization of contrast media have been reported as being useful for functional and morphologic assessment of various pulmonary diseases including airway diseases. This review article covers (1) pulmonary MR techniques for morphologic and functional assessment of airway diseases, and (2) pulmonary MR imaging for cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulmonary MR imaging provides not only morphology-related but also pulmonary function-related information. It has the potential to replace nuclear medicine studies for the identification of regional pulmonary function and may perform a complementary role in airway disease assessment instead of nuclear medicine study. We believe that the findings of further basic studies as well as clinical applications of this new technique will validate the real significance of pulmonary MR imaging for the future of airway disease assessment and its usefulness for diagnostic radiology and pulmonary medicine. PMID:22009083

  17. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis masquerading as pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ragosta, Kevin G; Clayton, Julia A; Cambareri, Carol B; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2004-06-01

    We present an unusual pediatric patient with severe allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis that masqueraded as pulmonary tuberculosis. After antituberculous therapy, the patient's pulmonary disease flared, prompting an aggressive diagnostic evaluation. Radiographic findings included nodular pulmonary densities with superimposed infiltrates. Lung biopsy showed evidence of acute and chronic inflammation with necrotizing granulomas, giant cells, tissue eosinophilia and rare hyphal elements. PMID:15194847

  18. Ventilation abnormalities associated with pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.

    1988-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of 2035 lung images performed over approximately 5 years revealed abnormal ventilation coexisting with pulmonary embolism in 18 patients. Matching ventilation perfusion defects may be associated with pulmonary embolism without infarction. In patients with a high clinical suspicion of acute pulmonary embolism and matching V/Q abnormalities, an angiogram may be necessary to definitely exclude the diagnosis.

  19. Assessment of pulmonary veins after atrio-pericardial anastomosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The atrio-pericardial anastomosis (APA) uses a pericardial pouch to create a large communication between the left atrium and the pulmonary venous contributaries in order to avoid direct suturing of the pulmonary veins during the repair of congenital cardiac malformations. Post-operative imaging is routinely performed by echocardiography but Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) offers excellent anatomical imaging and quantitative information about pulmonary blood flow. We sought to compare the diagnostic value of echocardiography and CMR for assessing pulmonary vein anatomy after the APA. Methods This retrospective study evaluated all consecutive patients between October 1998 and January 2010 after either a primary or secondary APA followed by post-repair CMR. Results Of 103 patients who had an APA, 31 patients had an analyzable CMR study. The average time to CMR was 24.6 32.5 months post-repair. Echocardiographic findings were confirmed by CMR in 12 patients. There was incomplete imaging by echocardiography in 7 patients and underestimation of pulmonary vein restenosis in 12, when compared to CMR. In total, 19/31 patients (61%) from our cohort had significant stenosis following the APA as assessed by CMR. Our data suggest that at least 18% (19/103) of all patients had significant obstruction post-repair. Conclusions Echocardiography incompletely imaged or underestimated the severity of obstruction in patients compared with CMR. Pulmonary vein stenosis remains a sizable complication after repair, even using the APA. PMID:22104689

  20. Angiotensin II prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and vascular changes in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, M.; Mullen, M.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Maruyama, K.; O'Brodovich, H.; Olley, P.M. )

    1988-03-01

    Angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor, has been previously demonstrated to produce a secondary vasodilatation due to release of prostaglandins. Because of this effect, the authors investigated whether infusion of exogenous angiotensin II via miniosmopumps in rats during a 1-wk exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia might prevent pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes. They instrumented the rats with indwelling cardiovascular catheters and compared the hemodynamic and structural response in animals given angiotensin II, indomethacin in addition to angiotensin II (to block prostaglandin production), or saline with or without indomethacin. They then determine whether angiotensin II infusion also prevents acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. They observed that exogenous angiotensin II infusion abolished the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the right ventricular hypertrophy, and the vascular changes induced during chronic hypoxia in control saline-infused rats with or without indomethacin. The protective effects of angiotensin II was lost when indomethacin was given to block prostaglandin synthesis. During acute hypoxia, both antiotensin II and prostacyclin infusion similarly prevented the rise in pulmonary artery pressure observed in saline-infused rats and in rats given indomethacin or saralasin in addition to angiotensin II. Thus exogenous angiotensin II infusion prevents chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, associated right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes and blocks acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and this is likely related to its ability to release vasodilator prostaglandins.