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Sample records for secondary standard radionuclide

  1. Bases for secondary standards for residual radionuclides in soil and some recommendations for cost-effective operational implementation.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, L R; Daniels, J I

    1996-05-01

    The future use of land contaminated with radionuclides depends upon scientifically defensible bases for setting limits for radionuclides in soil. The purpose of this work is to develop such bases for establishing "posting criteria" to protect nonradiological workers at the Nevada Test Site and to provide a rationale for cost-effective measurements to readily determine the boundary conditions. The analysis begins with a mandated limit on total effective dose equivalent (1 mSv y(-1)) via all pathways. The possible pathways of exposure are external gamma exposure, inhalation of resuspended material, and incidental soil ingestion. These pathways are evaluated for each radionuclide of interest on the Nevada Test Site, and the results are used to define for each radionuclide the deposition-density limits for each pathway of exposure. The minimum deposition-density limits are noted to occur via the external gamma-exposure pathway for most radionuclides; exceptions are incidental soil ingestion for 90Sr/90Y and inhalation for 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am. The limiting values of deposition density or average concentration in soil are then determined appropriately by combining all pathways. Procedures are developed for dealing with mixtures of many radionuclides and to apply the principles developed so that even a simple measurement of external gamma-exposure rate may be used to define the boundary conditions in the field, provided that the relative abundance of the radionuclide mixture is known and that the defining level of exposure rate is sufficiently above background. PMID:8690586

  2. Bases for secondary standards for residual radionuclides in soil and some recommendations for cost-effective operational implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Daniels, J.I.

    1996-05-01

    The future use of land contaminated with radionuclides depends upon scientifically defensible bases for setting limits for radionuclides in soil. The purpose of this work is to develop such bases for establishing {open_quotes}posting criteria{close_quotes} to protect nonradiological works at the Nevada Test Site and to provide a rationale for cost-effective measurements to readily determine the boundary conditions. The analysis begins with a mandated limit on total effective dose equivalent (1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}) via all pathways. The possible pathways of exposure are external gamma exposure, inhalation of resuspended material, and incidental soil ingestion. These pathways are evaluated for each radionuclide of interest on the Nevada Test Site, and the results are used to define for each radionuclide the deposition-density limits for each pathway of exposure. The minimum deposition-density limits are noted to occur via the external gamma-exposure pathway for most radionuclides; exceptions are incidental soil ingestion for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and inhalation for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The limiting values of deposition density or average concentration in soil are then determined appropriately by combining all pathways. Procedures are developed for dealing with mixtures of many radionuclides and to apply the principles developed so that even a simple measurement of external gamma-exposure rate may be used to define the boundary conditions in the field, provided that the relative abundance of the radionuclide mixture is known and that the defining level of exposure rate is sufficiently above background. 36 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Sources of secondary radionuclide releases from Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Gydesen, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    This report considers Hanford facilities and operations with the potential to be secondary radionuclide release sources. Facilities that produced radionuclides or processed products of fission reactions and were not covered in previous source term reports are included in this report. The following facilities are described and any potentially significant releases from them are estimated: PUREX (1956--1972, 1983--1988) and REDOX (1952--1967)--campaigns with non-standard feed material (materials other than fuel from single-pass reactors); C PLANT (Hot Semi-Works)--pilot plant and strontium recovery; Z Plant--plutonium finishing; U and UO{sub 3} Plants--uranium recovery; 108 B Plant--tritium extraction; 300 Area Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR); 300 Area Low Power Test Reactors; Criticality Accidents; and 400 Area Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The method of analysis was to examine each facility, give a brief description of its purpose and operations, and describe the types of material the facility processed as an indication of the radionuclides it had the potential to release. Where possible, specific radionuclides are estimated and values from the original documents are reported.

  4. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction... modification of sources subject to the Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  5. Transfer standard for beta decay radionuclides in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Klaus; Beinlich, Uwe; Fritz, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the activity of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals prior to the administration to patients is normally achieved via the use of radionuclide calibrators. An accurate measurement of the activity of pure beta-emitters is complex. Calibration problems can be solved by combining a primary calibration with a 90Y reference solution and a 90Sr/90Y transfer standard with a solid source, simulating geometric effects caused by high energetic beta radiation. The recent development of a 90Sr/90Y transfer standard for this purpose is reported. PMID:14987695

  6. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  7. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  8. The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Samson, Sherry D.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-06-27

    The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site were investigated by reacting quartz and Hanford sediment (Warden Soil) with caustic solution of high ionic strength (2 M NaNO3), high pH (~13), high temperature (~90oC), and dissolved Al(0.01 M Al(NO3)3). Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3-10 days reaction time. The presence of dissolved Al in the simulated tank fluid was found to depress the net Si dissolved concentration. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results, secondary precipitates (cancrinite) at the primary mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides of major concern at the Hanford Site such as 129I, 79Se, 99Tc, and 90Sr.

  9. Secondary Uranium-Phase Paragenesis and Incorporation of Radionuclides into Secondary Phase

    SciTech Connect

    R. Finch

    2001-06-05

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to assess the potential for uranium (U) (VI) compounds, formed during the oxidative corrosion of spent uranium-oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuels, to sequester certain radionuclides and, thereby, limit their release. The ''unsaturated drip tests'' being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provide the basis of this AMR (Table 1). The ANL drip tests on spent fuel are the only experiments on fuel corrosion from which solids have been analyzed for trace levels of radionuclides. Brief summaries are provided of the results from other selected corrosion and dissolution experiments on spent UO{sub 2} fuels, specifically those conducted under nominally oxidizing conditions. Discussions of the current understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U(VI) compounds is provided in order to outline the scientific basis for modeling precipitation and dissolution of potential radionuclide-bearing phases under repository-relevant conditions. Attachment I provides additional information on corrosion mechanisms and behaviors of radionuclides in the tests at ANL. Attachment II reviews occurrence, formation, and alteration (collectively known as paragenesis) of naturally occurring U(VI) minerals because natural mineral occurrences can be used to assess the possible long-term behaviors of U(VI) compounds formed in short-term laboratory experiments and to extrapolate experimental results to repository-relevant time scales. This AMR develops a model for calculating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides that are incorporated into U(VI) compounds, which is an alternative to models currently used in TSPA to calculate dissolved concentration limits for certain radionuclides. In particular, the model developed in this AMR applies to Np (neptunium) concentrations being controlled by solid uranyl oxyhydroxides that are known to contain trace levels of Np. The results of this AMR and the conceptual model developed from it and

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  11. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. Outcome Standards for Secondary Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    A national panel consisting of marketing education advisory committee members, former marketing education students, and marketing education teacher-coordinators reacted to a list of 34 outcome standards developed through a literature review. The 34 standards focused on program quality, program relevance, individual transition to and growth in the…

  16. Standardizing clinical laboratory data for secondary use.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Swapna; Demner-Fushman, Dina; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Clinical databases provide a rich source of data for answering clinical research questions. However, the variables recorded in clinical data systems are often identified by local, idiosyncratic, and sometimes redundant and/or ambiguous names (or codes) rather than unique, well-organized codes from standard code systems. This reality discourages research use of such databases, because researchers must invest considerable time in cleaning up the data before they can ask their first research question. Researchers at MIT developed MIMIC-II, a nearly complete collection of clinical data about intensive care patients. Because its data are drawn from existing clinical systems, it has many of the problems described above. In collaboration with the MIT researchers, we have begun a process of cleaning up the data and mapping the variable names and codes to LOINC codes. Our first step, which we describe here, was to map all of the laboratory test observations to LOINC codes. We were able to map 87% of the unique laboratory tests that cover 94% of the total number of laboratory tests results. Of the 13% of tests that we could not map, nearly 60% were due to test names whose real meaning could not be discerned and 29% represented tests that were not yet included in the LOINC table. These results suggest that LOINC codes cover most of laboratory tests used in critical care. We have delivered this work to the MIMIC-II researchers, who have included it in their standard MIMIC-II database release so that researchers who use this database in the future will not have to do this work. PMID:22561944

  17. Extensions to the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.; Buchholz, G.

    2011-11-01

    Since several years, the irradiation facility for beta radiation, the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2 developed at PTB, has been in worldwide use for the performance of irradiations with calibrated beta sources. Due to recent developments in eye tumor therapy, in eye lens dosimetry, and in soft- and hardware technology, several extensions have been added to the BSS 2. These extensions are described in this paper: 1. The possibility of using a 106Ru/106Rh beta source was added as this radionuclide is often used in tumor therapy. 2. The (small) contribution due to photon radiation was included in the dose (rate) reported by the BSS 2, as this was missing in the past. 3. The quantity personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm, Hp(3), was implemented due to recent findings on the radio sensitivity of the eye lens regarding cataract induction and the subsequent lowering of the dose limit from 150 mSv down to 20 mSv per year; 4. The correction for ambient conditions (air temperature, pressure, and relative humidity) was improved in order to adequately handle the quantity Hp(3) and in order to extend the range of use beyond 25°C. 5. A checksum test was added to the software to secure the calibration data against (un)intended changes. 6. The connection of the PC and the BSS 2 has been changed to a network interface (TCP/IP) in order to be able to use up-to-date computers not containing a parallel and a serial port. 7. A rod phantom was added in order to make sure the mechanical set-up is of high quality. All these extensions have been implemented in the PTB's BSS 2 model. The routine implementation of extension 1 is still under investigation by the manufacturer. The commercially available BSS 2 will contain extensions 2 to 6 starting approximately in 2012, while extension 7 has already been incorporated since 2011. Extensions 2 to 4 will also be available for old BSS 2 versions via a software update, starting approximately at the beginning of 2012. Extension 6 will be

  18. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

    SciTech Connect

    SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

    1998-10-23

    Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

  19. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-09-29

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

  20. Characterization of halogen lamps as secondary standard of luminous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. A. R.; Sanchez, O., Jr.; Ferreira, A. F. G., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a study of lamps characterization concerning its lamp output, current and voltage drift during seasoning and regarding the use of theses lamps as luminous flux secondary standard. The 200W halogen lamps are seasoned for 30 hours and during the seasoning period the relative drift of the lamp illuminance, current and voltage are measured at each 3 minutes. The illuminance is measured using a photometer with detector head, the lamp voltage is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and the current is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and 0.1 Ohms standard resistor. The lamp current is controlled by a calibrated current power source with stability better than 1 mA. To reduce the stray light, baffles are positioned between the lamp and the detector head. The alignment of experimental assembly is made by a He-Ne Laser. Data of illuminance, current and voltage is acquired by software built in Labview database. Among the 5 lamps seasoned, the best result presents the variation of illuminance of 0.04% per hour. This lamp is chosen to become the secondary standard and its luminous flux is measured using an Ulbricht integrating sphere. This method allows the laboratory to create secondary standard of luminous flux for its routine test and measurements and to supply theses standards for Brazilian industry.

  1. An automated secondary standard for calibrating liquid flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary working standard of flow calibration has been developed to be used in place of a primary weight-time standard, and which can thereby effect a 75 percent reduction in calibration time while maintaining acceptable accuracies. The secondary standard uses six previously calibrated turbine-type flowmeters built into two manifold systems containing automatically switched flow valves. The pair of systems is capable of covering the flow range of 0.0004 to 19 l/s (0.007 to 300 gpm) with the uncertainty in volume flow rate not exceeding + or - 0.25 percent over the range of 0.06 to 19 l/s and not exceeding + or - 0.5 percent over the range 0.0004 to 0.06 1/s. Data reduction and plotting of results are by computer.

  2. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described. PMID:11839059

  3. A new absolute method for the standardization of radionuclides emitting low-energy radiation.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, E; de, Marcillac P; Coron, N; Leblanc, J; Loidl, M; Metge, J F; Bouchard, J

    2002-01-01

    Microcalorimeters (or bolometers) operated at temperatures below 100 mK allow individual counting of photons and electrons with a very low energy detection threshold. The physics is based on the pulse temperature increase of the target (or absorber) of the detector due to the complete absorption of both electrons and photons. Since this target can be constructed with a perfect 4-pi geometry, a bolometer offers potentially a new method for absolute activity measurements of radionuclides emitting low-energy radiation. In this paper we present our first results of a feasibility study of activity standardization of a 55Fe solution with a prototype 4-pi bolometer. PMID:11839023

  4. Distribution of radionuclides in an iron calibration standard for a free release measurement facility.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Stroh, Heiko; Marissens, Gerd; Tzika, Faidra; Lutter, Guillaume; Šurán, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Skala, Lukas; Sud, Jaromír

    2016-03-01

    A Europallet-sized calibration standard composed of 12 grey cast iron tubes contaminated with (60)Co and (110m)Ag with a mass of 246kg was developed. As the tubes were produced through centrifugal casting it was of particular concern to study the distribution of radionuclides in the radial direction of the tubes. This was done by removing 72 small samples (swarf) of ~0.3g each on both the inside and outside of the tubes. All of the samples were measured in the underground laboratory HADES. PMID:26597655

  5. Performance demonstration of 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2016-02-01

    A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, a 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision. PMID:26678524

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  11. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  12. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  13. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  14. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  15. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  16. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  17. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  18. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  19. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  20. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  1. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  2. Use of channel electron multipliers as secondary standard detectors at EUV wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Lapson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The procedures available for photometric calibration at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths are outlined and the requirements for a secondary standard EUV photomultiplier defined. The performance of a number of commercially available channel electron multipliers over the 304-1350-A wavelength range is described, and their suitability for use as secondary standards is discussed in detail. Although none of the multipliers evaluated fully met the requirements for a secondary standard, it proved possible to calibrate absolutely a Mullard cone channel over the required wavelength range to an accuracy of plus or minus 9% and to employ it as a secondary standard in the calibration of a series of sounding rocket spectrometers.

  3. Use of Channel Electron Multipliers as Secondary Standard Detectors at EUV Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Timothy, J G; Lapson, L B

    1974-06-01

    The procedures available for photometric calibration at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths are outlined and the requirements for a secondary standard EUV photomultiplier defined. The performance of a number of commercially available channel electron multipliers over the 304-1350-A wavelength range is described and their suitability for use as secondary standards discussed in detail. Although none of the multipliers evaluated fully met the requirements for a secondary standard it proved possible to calibrate absolutely a Mullard cone channel over the required wavelength range to an accuracy of +/-9% and to employ it as a secondary standard in the calibration of a series of sounding rocket spectrometers. PMID:20126208

  4. Secondary standards laboratories for ionizing radiation calibrations: The national laboratory interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, P. I.; Campbell, G. W.

    1984-11-01

    The national laboratories are probable candidates to serve as secondary standards laboratories for the federal sector. Representatives of the major Department of Energy laboratories were polled concerning attitudes toward a secondary laboratory structure. Generally, the need for secondary laboratories was recognized and the development of such a program was encouraged. The secondary laboratories should be reviewed and inspected by the National Bureau of Standards. They should offer all of the essential, and preferably additional, calibration services in the field of radiological health protection. The selection of secondary laboratories should be based on economic and geographic criteria and/or be voluntary.

  5. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter, arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic...

  6. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS §...

  7. State Secondary Career and Technical Education Standards: Creating a Framework from a Patchwork of Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Harrison, Linda; Schneider, Sherrie

    2008-01-01

    Many states are currently working to define secondary career and technical education (CTE) content standards that specify the knowledge and skills students are expected to master in CTE program areas. This study explores the progress and status of states in developing statewide secondary CTE standards systems. An exhaustive online query of CTE…

  8. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... current rule. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032) must be received... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  9. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Time Commitment When Addressing the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William Benedict, III

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were officially released in America for mathematics and English language arts and soon adopted by 45 of the 50 states. However, within the English langue arts domain there were standards intended for secondary social studies teachers under the title, Common Core State Standards for English Language…

  10. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...This proposed rule is being issued as required by a consent decree governing the schedule for completion of this review of the air quality criteria and the secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, EPA proposes to retain the current nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary......

  11. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Experiences Implementing Common Core State Literacy Standards: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Krista Faith Huskey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the experiences of secondary social studies teachers who implemented Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects in social studies courses requiring End of Course Tests at secondary schools in one suburban…

  12. Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

  13. FCS National Standards: Do They Underpin Secondary Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Jones, Karen H.

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the seven standards that are included in a comprehensive (family-oriented) FCS program: (1) Family; (2) Nutrition and Wellness; (3) Human Development; (4) Interpersonal relationships; (5) Career, Community, and Family Connections; (6) Parenting; and (7) Family and Community Services. The study was conducted to better…

  14. Setting the Standard: Role Definition for a Secondary Literacy Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMeglio, Rachele A.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2010-01-01

    This case introduces Karen, a middle school literacy coach attempting to navigate the myriad tasks she performs. As she aims to satisfy everyone's needs Karen struggles to prioritize and focus her work. The accompanying teaching notes utilize the International Reading Association's "Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches" to…

  15. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  17. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the secondary lead smelting source category regulated under national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. These final amendments include revisions to the emissions limits for lead compounds; revisions to the standards for fugitive emissions; the addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions......

  18. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  19. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  20. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  1. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  2. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  3. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  4. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  5. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  6. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  7. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air... national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  8. Environmental standards for primary and secondary containment systems and transfer stations

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Standards for Primary and Secondary Containment Systems and Transfer Stations will supersede all previous requirements for design of dikes, storage tanks, and transfer stations in order to maintain consistency throughout the Y-12 Plant. This document is organized into six distinct sections, each with a specific purpose. Section I outlines the objectives of the document along with its applications and limitations; this section should be of interest to all readers for essential background information. Section II lists all definitions and is consistent with definitions outlined by environmental regulations. Section III discusses primary containment standards. Section IV outlines secondary containment standards; this section contains the actual standards for the diking of storage tanks and storage containers. Section V discusses transfer station standards. Section VI of this document outlines how exemptions may be granted for specific cases.

  9. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  10. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  11. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  12. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  13. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  14. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  15. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  16. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  17. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  18. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  19. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  20. The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faizi, Waqar-un-Nisa; Shakil, Anila Fatima; Lodhi, Farida Azim

    2011-01-01

    The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was both "government and private" schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

  1. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  2. Language Arts Core Curriculum: Secondary Core Curriculum Standards. Levels 7-12, Language Arts (Drama). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This curriculum guide presents the core standards and objectives for level 7-12 language arts instruction in Utah. The curriculum guide begins with a statement of the elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. After a brief statement on the importance of language arts and core curriculum standards…

  3. Applying Standards for Leaders to the Selection of Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Helen; Pepper, Coral; Guanzhong, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report innovative research aimed at ascertaining whether standards for school leaders could be applied to the process of selecting senior secondary school principals for appointment. Specifically, psychometrically robust measures of performance are sought that would sufficiently differentiate performance to…

  4. State Secondary CTE Standards: Developing a Framework out of a Patchwork of Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Harrison, Linda; Schneider, Sherrie

    2007-01-01

    Many state educational administrators are currently working to define secondary career and technical education (CTE) content standards that specify the knowledge and skills students are expected to master in CTE program areas. The two-phase project on which this report is based explored (a) the progress and status of states in developing statewide…

  5. Jordanian Vocational, Secondary Education Teachers and Acquisition of the National Professional Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajeh, Hesham I.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to estimate the level of acquisition of the Jordanian national professional standards by vocational, secondary education teachers. Two hundred teachers participated in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Questionnaire validity was assessed by content validity,…

  6. Standardization of radionuclide by beta(LS)-gamma coincidence counting using the geometry-efficiency variation method.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Han-Yull; Sung, Ki Suk; Lee, K B; Lee, Jong Man; Park, Tae Soon

    2006-01-01

    A liquid scintillation counting method consisting of three photomultiplier tubes for beta counters and a NaI(Tl) gamma counter has been developed for the standardization of radionuclides with the beta-gamma coincidence technique. The beta detection efficiency functions are obtained by means of a geometry-variation method developed in the present work; an array of beta detectors is moved uniformly at the same time from a centrally located counting vial to 50 mm. The method has been applied in the standardization of 60Co and 134Cs. Unquenched liquid scintillation samples with nominal count rates from 1000 to 6000 s-1 were prepared. The observed beta detection efficiencies with this method are from 90 to 45% in the case of 60Co, and from 84 to 50% for 134Cs. The output of each beta channel is summed together and compared with gamma data by the coincidence analyzer. The dead time of each counting channel is adjusted to be 20 micros, sufficiently long to suppress the afterpulses in the beta counting channel. The activity of each sample is determined by using the Cox and Isham formula. The obtained results are in good agreement with KRISS certified values. PMID:16580222

  7. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  8. Use and qualification of primary and secondary standards employed in quantitative ¹H NMR spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; McEwen, Ian; Johansson, Monika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2014-05-01

    Standards are required in quantitative NMR (qNMR) to obtain accurate and precise results. In this study acetanilide was established and used as a primary standard. Six other chemicals were selected as secondary standards: 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethylterephthalate, maleic acid, 3-sulfolene, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The secondary standards were quantified using the primary standard acetanilide. A protocol for qualification and periodic checks of these secondary standards was developed, and used for evaluation of the stability of the compounds. Periodic monitoring of purity was performed for several years. The purity was higher than 99% for all secondary standards. All standards maintained the initial purity during the time period of monitoring, with very small variations in purity (0.3-0.4%). The selected secondary standards were shown to be suitable qNMR standards and that periodic requalification of the standards by qNMR ensures reliable analytical results. These standards have been used in our laboratory for compliance testing of pharmaceutical active substances and approved medicinal products as well as for analysis of suspected illegal medicines. In total more than 1000 samples have been tested using both internal and external standardization and examples are given. PMID:24206940

  9. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  15. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  16. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... a proposal addressing the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) secondary...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  2. Reissue of the American National Standard N42.14-1998: Calibration and use of germanium spectrometers for the measurement of gamma-ray emission rate of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Koskelo, M.; Montgomery, D.M.; Schima, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    The American National Standard entitled, Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides has been reissued as N42-14-1998 and is now available from either the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) or the American National Standards Institute. This performance standard contains the same information and tests of hardware and software as the previous edition but has been updated and reorganized to simplify its use by practitioners of gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, a number of typographical and technical errors were identified and corrected. Not only does this standard find use in testing the performance of germanium gamma-ray spectrometer hardware, it is also used to test spectral analysis programs. In addition, it has been used as an aid in writing specifications in the procurement of germanium detectors and as a monograph in the teaching of gamma-ray spectrometry.

  3. Source geometry factors for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. R.; Sander, T.; Nutbrown, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated 192Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber. Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR 192Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, ksg, is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources. In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000 Plus well chamber with a type 70010 HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR 192Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR 192Ir Flexisource ksg was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper.

  4. Teaching a Standard-Based Communicative English Textbook Series to Secondary School Students in Egypt: Investigating Teachers' Practices and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Since any standards-based reform is made to bring about an improvement in students' learning, it requires changes in teachers' practices as well. This study examined how a standards-based communicative curricular reform in general secondary school English in Egypt has changed teachers' classroom practices, and the factors influencing such…

  5. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the…

  6. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  7. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  8. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  9. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  10. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  11. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  12. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  13. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  14. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  15. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  16. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  18. A Comparison of Secondary Principals' Use of Data Systems to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics as Measured by Standardized Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…

  19. Bypass, Augment, or Integrate: How Secondary Mathematics Teachers Address the Literacy Demands of Standards-Based Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Doerr, Helen M.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Masingila, Joanna O.

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year qualitative study examined how 26 teachers in four U.S. secondary schools addressed the literacy demands of curriculum materials based on standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. It was grounded in sociocultural perspectives that encourage study of language in local contexts, including classrooms, communities,…

  20. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  1. Handbook on Tentative Standards and Procedures for the Registration of Secondary Schools. 1979-80 Field Trial Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This handbook contains the tentative secondary school registration standards and procedures approved by the New York State Board of Regents for the 1979-80 school year. It explains the program providing for the registration (or accreditation) of New York schools and outlines the steps that will make up the registration procedure. Most of the…

  2. Investigation and Development of Competency Standards and Certification Requirements for Secondary-Level Vocational Foodservice Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiewicz, Ronald A.

    An investigation ascertained, analyzed, and documented competency standards and certification requirements for secondary-level vocational food service programs. A literature review produced no instruments used in past studies to measure the attitudes of food service professionals toward task competencies. Six occupations were selected for the…

  3. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  4. Track structure simulation for positron emitters of physical interest. Part III: The case of the non-standard radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Loirec, C.; Champion, C.

    2007-11-01

    With the growth of clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) utilizations, new molecular tracers, able to aid in the assessment, therapy planning and monitoring of cancer patients, are synthesized. As suggested by some works reported in the literature, these newcomers may be positron emitting isotopes of lanthanium, 134La, iodine, 120I, 121I and 124I, arsenic, 72As and 74As, oxygen, 14O, and neon, 19Ne. In this work, we present an inter comparison of these eight radiopharmaceuticals which may be used in PET. To do that we have used a Monte Carlo simulation of positron following-up in water that we have adapted to the beta decay of radionuclides. We have also access to accurate spatial and energetic distributions of the potential PET radiopharmaceuticals under investigation here. The results are given in an analytical way and have been compared, when possible, with theoretical and experimental values available in the literature.

  5. [Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Ruder Bosković Institute, Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Vekić, Branko; Ban, Renata; Miljanić, Saveta

    2006-06-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Ruder Bosković Institute (SSDL), Zagreb, Croatia, was set up over the last few years with a strong support by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Technical Cooperation Project CRO/1/004, Establishing Calibration Services. The SSDL occupies two calibration rooms, each 9.6 m long and 6 m wide and each with proper air conditioning. Their walls are concrete and 1 m thick, and the entrance doors are plated with lead to protect the control rooms and the surroundings against radiation. In the first calibration room in the basement, there are two sealed sources which share the same, 6 m long calibration bench. A 30 TBq 60Co source on one side of the bench is used for calibrating ionising chambers and other high-dose radiation equipment. The irradiation unit on the other side of the bench combines two sealed sources, that is, a 740 MBq 137Cs source and a 185 MBq 60Co source, and is used for radiation protection purposes. It has three attenuators with nominal attenuations of x10, x100, and x1000. The second calibration room, which is just above the first, accommodates an X-ray unit (ISOVOLT 420, 40 kV to 300 kV, 1 mA to 20 mA) with a 5 m long calibration bench, aperture wheel assembly designed to modify the X-ray beam diameter to meet various configuration requirements for calibration instruments, a set of filter assemblies to control beam definition according to ISO 4037-3, and a half-value layer kit. PMID:16832975

  6. Standardization of the radionuclides (60)Co and (59)Fe by digital 4πβ(PC)-γ(NaI) coincidence counting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Yao, Shunhe; Liang, Junchen; Liu, Haoran

    2016-03-01

    The digital coincidence counting (DCC) technique has been developed at NIM, China to replace the classical analog coincidence units in the 4πβ-γ counting system. The detector system comprises two NaI (Tl) γ-ray detectors and a 4πβ proportional counter (PC) operated with a mixture of argon and methane at atmospheric pressure in a gas flow arrangement. To update the activity results of radionuclide (60)Co in the KCDB and contribute to the APMP.RI(II)-K2.Fe-59 comparison, (60)Co and (59)Fe dry sources were prepared and measured using the digital 4πβ(PC)-γ(NaI) coincidence system by applying the efficiency extrapolation method. For (60)Co nuclide, the activity concentration value equal to 290.6kBqg(-1) with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.26%, is consistent with the result given by the calibrated ionization chamber. For the nuclide (59)Fe, the activity concentration value at the reference date was 471.7kBqg(-1) with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.34%. This value is in good agreement with the result obtained with the HPGe γ spectrometry, which was calibrated by using a series of standard point sources from PTB. PMID:26651175

  7. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  12. Estimation of the radionuclide transport by applying the mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Niibori, Y.; Tochiyama, O.; Chida, T.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have investigated the characteristic permeability on the basis of some probability density functions of permeability, applying the Monte Carlo method and FEM. It was found that its value does not depend on type of probability density function of permeability, but on the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability. This paper describes the use of the stochastic values of permeability for estimating the rate of radioactivity release to the accessible environment, applying the advection-dispersion model to two-dimensional, heterogeneous media. When a discrete probability density function (referred to as the Bernoulli trials) and the lognormal distribution have common values for the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability, the calculated transport rates (described as the pseudo impulse responses) show good agreements for Peclet number around 10 and the dimensionless standard deviation around 1. Further, it is found that the transport rates apparently depends not only on the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation, but also on the skewness of permeability. When the value of skewness does not follow the lognormal distribution which has only two independent parameters (the mean and the standard deviation), the authors can replicate the three moments estimated from an observed distribution of permeability, by using the Bernoulli trials having three independent parameters.

  13. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... 1971. These standards were set at a level of 0.053 parts per million (ppm) as an annual average (36 FR... EPA proposed to retain the standards set in 1971 (49 FR 6866). After taking into account public comments, the EPA published the final decision to retain these standards in June 1985 (50 FR 25532)....

  14. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... the proposed rule published February 14, 2012, (77 FR 8576) is being extended for 14 days to April 13... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of...

  15. Addressing the English Language Arts Technology Standard in a Secondary Reading Methodology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkley, Donna J.; Schmidt, Denise A.; Allen, Gayle

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts to integrate technology into a reading methodology course for secondary English majors. Discusses the use of e-mail, multimedia, distance education for videoconferences, online discussion technology, subject-specific software, desktop publishing, a database management system, a concept mapping program, and the use of the World…

  16. Teacher-Reported Use of Empirically Validated and Standards-Based Instructional Approaches in Secondary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Maccini, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A random sample of 167 secondary special and general educators who taught math to students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and learning disabilities (LD) responded to a mail survey. The survey examined teacher perceptions of (a) definition of math; (b) familiarity with course topics; (c) effectiveness of methods courses; (d)…

  17. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  18. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  19. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  20. WATER EXERCISE COMPARED TO LAND EXERCISE OR STANDARD CARE IN FEMALE CANCER SURVIVORS WITH SECONDARY LYMPHEDEMA.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, H; Enblom, A; Dunberger, G; Nyberg, T; Bergmark, K

    2015-06-01

    There are few studies showing that physical exercise can improve secondary lymphedema. We hypothesized that water exercise would be more effective than land exercise in reducing limb volume. Secondary objectives were joint movement, BMI, daily function, well-being, and body image. Limb volume was measured with circumference or was volumetric. Well-being and body image were measured with a study-specific questionnaire and daily function with DASH and HOOS questionnaires. Eighty-eight eligible patients with secondary lymphedema after breast or gynecological cancer participated in this controlled clinical intervention study. There was a higher proportion of women who participated in water exercises who reduced their secondary arm limb volume (p = 0.029), and there were also significant differences for BMI (p = 0.047) and self-reported frequency of swelling (p = 0.031) in the water exercise group after intervention. Women with arm lymphedema in the land exercise group improved DASH scores (p = 0.047) and outer rotation in the shoulder (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that to reduce objective and self-reported swelling, lymphedema patients may be offered water exercise training while to improve daily shoulder function, land exercises are preferred. To guide female cancer survivors with lymphedema to effective exercise resulting in reduced limb volume and improved function, adequate evidenced-based programs are needed. PMID:26714371

  1. Critical Supports for Secondary Educators in Common Core State Standard Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchti, Wendy P.; Jenkins, Susan J.; Agamba, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Teacher professional development (PD) is a complex, ongoing challenge as educational systems attempt to deliver excellent programming in pursuit of increased student achievement (Opfer and Pedder 2011). This article examines Idaho Total Instructional Alignment (TIA), a model for teacher PD that is currently being utilized in secondary schools…

  2. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  3. Quantification of xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 8-prenylnaringenin, and 6-prenylnaringenin in hop extracts and derived capsules using secondary standards.

    PubMed

    Dhooghe, Liene; Naessens, Tania; Heyerick, Arne; De Keukeleire, Denis; Vlietinck, Arnold J; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2010-12-15

    Hop is a well-known and already frequently used estrogenic phytotherapeutic, containing the interesting prenylflavonoids, xanthohumol (XN), isoxanthohumol (IXN), 8- and 6-prenylnaringenin (8-PN and 6-PN). Since the use of secondary standards can form a solution whenever the determination is required of certain components, not commercially available or too expensive, it was decided to develop an accessible HPLC-DAD method for the determination of these prenylflavonoids. The amounts were determined in hop extract and capsules, using quercetin and naringenin as secondary standards. After optimization of the sample preparation and HPLC conditions, the analysis was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The response function of XN, 8-PN, quercetin and naringenin showed a linear relationship. For the determination of XN, a calibration line of at least three concentrations of quercetin has to be constructed. The correction factors for XN (quercetin) and for 8-PN (naringenin) were validated and determined to be 0.583 for XN, and 1.296 for IXN, 8-PN and 6-PN. The intermediate precision was investigated and it could be concluded that the standard deviation of the method was equal considering time and concentration (RSD of 2.5-5%). By means of a recovery experiment, it was proven that the method is accurate (recoveries of 96.1-100.1%). Additionally, by analysing preparations containing hop extracts on the Belgian market, it was shown that the method is suitable for its use, namely the determination of XN, IXN, 8-PN and 6-PN in hop extract and capsules, using quercetin and naringenin as secondary standards. PMID:21111159

  4. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  5. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  6. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 36.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Minimum... content areas: (1) Language arts (communication skills). (2) Sciences. (3) Mathematics. (4) Social...

  7. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 36.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Minimum... content areas: (1) Language arts (communication skills). (2) Sciences. (3) Mathematics. (4) Social...

  8. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  9. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  10. Critical review and rethinking of USEPA secondary standards for maintaining organoleptic quality of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Andrea M; Burlingame, Gary A

    2015-01-20

    Consumers assess their tap water primarily by its taste, odor, and appearance. Starting in 1979, USEPA promulgated Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs) as guidance for contaminants with organoleptic effects and also to maintain consumers’ confidence in tap water. This review assesses the basis for the 15 SMCLs (aluminum, chloride, color, copper, corrosivity, fluoride, foaming agents, iron, manganese, odor, pH, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids, zinc) and summarizes advances in scientific knowledge since their promulgation. SMCLs for aluminum, color, pH, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and zinc are appropriate at current values and remain consistent with sensory science literature. Recent advances in sensory and health sciences indicate that SMCLs for chloride, copper, fluoride, iron, and manganese are too high to minimize organoleptic effects. The SMCLs for corrosivity and foaming agents may be outdated. The SMCL for odor requires rethinking as the test does not correlate with consumer complaints. Since current stresses on source and treated waters include chemical spills, algal blooms, and increased salinization, organoleptic episodes that negatively impact consumer confidence and perception of tap water still occur and may increase. Thus, adherence to SMCLs can help maintain production of palatable water along with consumers’ confidence in their water providers. PMID:25517292

  11. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: The SHARPn project

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A.; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E.; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G.; Haug, Peter J.; Huff, Stanley M.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation’s health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation’s many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or ‘liquidity’ of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. PMID:22326800

  12. Adrenal insufficiency in a woman secondary to standard-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Casey M; Spratt, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 55-year-old woman with asthma presented with adrenal insufficiency of unknown origin. She was referred to our Division of Reproductive Endocrinology to further evaluate an undetectable morning cortisol level discovered during the evaluation of a low serum DHEA-S level. She was asymptomatic other than having mild fatigue and weight gain. Her medication list included 220 μg of inhaled fluticasone propionate twice daily for asthma, which she was taking as prescribed. On presentation, the undetectable morning cortisol level was confirmed. A urinary measurement of fluticasone propionate 17β-carboxylic acid was markedly elevated. Fluticasone therapy was discontinued and salmeterol therapy initiated with supplemental hydrocortisone. Hydrocortisone therapy was discontinued after 2 months. A repeat urinary fluticasone measurement 4 months after the discontinuation of fluticasone therapy was undetectably low and morning cortisol level was normal at 18.0 μg/dl. Inhaled fluticasone is generally considered to be minimally systemically absorbed. This patient's only clinical evidence suggesting adrenal insufficiency was fatigue accompanying a low serum DHEA-S level. This case demonstrates that adrenal insufficiency can be caused by a routine dose of inhaled fluticasone. Missing this diagnosis could potentially result in adrenal crisis upon discontinuation of fluticasone therapy. Learning points Standard-dose inhaled fluticasone can cause adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency should be considered in patients taking, or who have recently discontinued, inhaled fluticasone therapy and present with new onset of nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, depression, myalgia, arthralgia, unexplained weight loss, and nausea that are suggestive of adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency should be considered in postoperative patients who exhibit signs of hypoadrenalism after fluticasone therapy has been withheld in the perioperative setting.Routine screening

  13. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  18. Common Pressures, Same Results? Recent Reforms in Professional Standards and Competences in Teacher Education for Secondary Teachers in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the introduction of professional standards and competences in initial teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany has provided the cornerstone of education reform in all three countries. The precise number and specific content of a measurable set of skills for teachers have offered challenges for…

  19. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  20. SECONDARY STANDARD CALIBRATION, MEASUREMENT AND IRRADIATION CAPABILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICE AT THE HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM MÜNCHEN: ASPECTS OF UNCERTAINTY AND AUTOMATION.

    PubMed

    Greiter, M B; Denk, J; Hoedlmoser, H

    2016-09-01

    The individual monitoring service at the Helmholtz Zentrum München has adopted the recommendations of the ISO 4037 and 6980 standards series as base of its dosimetric systems for X-ray, gamma and beta dosimetry. These standards define technical requirements for radiation spectra and measurement processes, but leave flexibility in the implementation of irradiations as well as in the resulting uncertainty in dose or dose rate. This article provides an example for their practical implementation in the Munich IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. It focusses on two aspects: automation issues and uncertainties in calibration. PMID:26838065

  1. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid wastes when used as fuels or ingredients in...) SOLID WASTES SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion...

  2. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid wastes when used as fuels or ingredients in...) SOLID WASTES SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion...

  3. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid wastes when used as fuels or ingredients in...) SOLID WASTES SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion...

  4. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  5. The Next Generation Science Standards, Common Core State Standards, and English Learners: Using the SSTELLA Framework to Prepare Secondary Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Sara; Stoddart, Trish; Lyon, Edward G.; Solis, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on a critical issue in STEM education: preparing novice secondary school teachers to provide effective science instruction to the rapidly growing population of students from language minority groups who traditionally have been underserved in STEM education and who are underrepresented in STEM degrees and careers (National…

  6. Radionuclide cystogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder. There is a small amount of radiation exposure with any nuclear scan (it comes from the radioisotope, not the scanner). The exposure is less than with standard x-rays. The radiation is very mild. Nearly all the radiation is ...

  7. Investigation of a 0.6 hub-tip radius-ratio transonic turbine designed for secondary-flow study I : design and experimental performance of standard turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlik, Harold E; Wintucky, William T; Scibbe, Herbert W

    1957-01-01

    Detailed design information including overall performance parameters, velocity diagrams, and blade surface velocities is presented. Experimental performance includes maps based on rating as well as total-pressure ratios showing the effect of exit whirl. Also included are results of surveys at the stator exit and downstream of the rotor at design speed and specific work. This information will be used as a standard for comparison with subsequent secondary-flow work.

  8. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  9. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  10. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  11. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  12. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  13. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  14. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  15. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  16. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  17. 75 FR 61486 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft (75 FR 57463, September... an atmospheric chemistry perspective as well as from an environmental effects perspective,...

  18. Bioinformatics in the secondary science classroom: A study of state content standards and students' perceptions of, and performance in, bioinformatics lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wefer, Stephen H.

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern Biology marks a new revolution in science, which promises to influence science education at all levels. This thesis examined state standards for content that articulated bioinformatics, and explored secondary students' affective and cognitive perceptions of, and performance in, a bioinformatics mini-unit. The results are presented as three studies. The first study analyzed secondary science standards of 49 U.S States (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics at the introductory high school biology level. The bionformatics content of each state's Biology standards were categorized into nine areas and the prevalence of each area documented. The nine areas were: The Human Genome Project, Forensics, Evolution, Classification, Nucleotide Variations, Medicine, Computer Use, Agriculture/Food Technology, and Science Technology and Society/Socioscientific Issues (STS/SSI). Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics related content, which varied substantially across the different areas. Recommendations are made for reworking existing standards to incorporate bioinformatics and to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy in this emerging new field among secondary school students. The second study examined thirty-two students' affective responses to, and content mastery of, a two-week bioinformatics mini-unit. The findings indicate that the students generally were positive relative to their interest level, the usefulness of the lessons, the difficulty level of the lessons, likeliness to engage in additional bioinformatics, and were overall successful on the assessments. A discussion of the results and significance is followed by suggestions for future research and implementation for transferability. The third study presents a case study of individual differences among ten secondary school students, whose cognitive and affective percepts were

  19. Secondary analysis of anthropometric data from a South African national food consumption survey, using different growth reference standards.

    PubMed

    Bosman, L; Herselman, M G; Kruger, H S; Labadarios, D

    2011-11-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references were used to analyse anthropometric data from the 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of South Africa. Since then, however, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standards were released. It was anticipated that these reference and standards may lead to differences in the previous estimates of stunting, wasting, underweight and obesity in the study population. The aim was to compare the anthropometric status of children using the 1977 NCHS, the 2000 CDC growth references and the 2006 WHO standards. All children 12-60 months of age with a complete set of anthropometric data were included in the analyses. Data for 1,512 children were analysed with SAS 9.1 for Windows. A Z-score was calculated for each child for weight-for-age (W/A), weight-for-length/height (W/H), length/height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age, using each of the three reference or standards for comparison. The prevalence of stunting, obesity and overweight were significantly higher and the prevalence of underweight and wasting were lower when using the WHO standards compared to the NCHS and the CDC references. The higher than previously established prevalence of stunting at 20.1% and combined overweight/obesity at 30% poses a challenge to South African policy makers to implement nutrition programmes to decrease the prevalence of both stunting and overweight. The 2006 WHO growth standard should be the standard used for assessment of growth of infants and children younger than 5 years in developing countries. PMID:20859760

  20. VALIDATION OF ANSI N42.34 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HAND-HELD INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T.

    2014-09-03

    SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.

  1. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... airport security procedures. After passing through the equipment, all persons must sign in at the guard... the notice of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2011, (76 FR 46084....epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/no2so2sec/cr_fr.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you would...

  2. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  3. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  4. The Impact of Curriculum Changes and Implementation of Secondary Mathematics Georgia Performance Standards on Teacher Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Teachers generally experience a decline in self-efficacy levels during a curriculum change, and Georgia converted from a Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) to Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) the last several years. Middle and high school math teachers experienced an annual tiered rollout of the mathematics curriculum, and this qualitative study was…

  5. 76 FR 59599 - Extension of Comment Period for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ..., 2011, (76 FR 46084) and is available on the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/no2so2sec/cr_fr.html . How can I get copies of this document and other related information? The EPA has... Federal Register on August 1, 2011, (76 FR 46084) for detailed information on accessing...

  6. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  7. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units. To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include 60Co air kerma (NK) and absorbed dose to water (ND,W) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations. The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  8. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  9. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Investigating the impact of course-taking on the standardized test performance of secondary science students in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Bryan Scott

    2007-12-01

    The latest reform efforts in American education have called for the improvement of science education and greater accountability for results. Standardization of schools, curriculum, and testing has emerged as the preferred method of addressing the increasing pressures of accountability systems designed to ensure student achievement. Increasing course-taking requirements has been a popular response intended to maximize student potential. Texas, like other states, has pursued that course. Texas students must take a minimum of two science courses to graduate; most, however, take three. Students must also pass a science assessment in the eleventh grade, which is similar to a test taken in the tenth grade, and measures mastery of objectives covered primarily in the ninth- and tenth-grades, meaning the instruction most students receive in the eleventh grade amounts to enrichment instruction. This study was designed to investigate the impact of completing an extra science course on student achievement in terms of improvement on these tests. The results of the study were derived from descriptive analysis and a one-way ANOVA performed on a random sample of over 16,000 students. Based on the ANOVA, there was a significant effect of increased science instruction on mean pre-test/post-test score change (F(2,16530) = 44.903, p=.000). The descriptive analysis concluded that more students who completed a science class increased their scores than those who did not complete a class. Overall, however, the study points to a need for future research to uncover additional factors that influence student achievement.

  11. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  13. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  14. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  15. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  16. Measurement of nuclear-physical characteristics of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Geidel'man, A.M.; Egorov, Yu.S.; Nedovesov, V.G.; Shchukin, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This article provides the revised data for the nuclear-physical characteristics (NPC) measurements of seven radionuclides: /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 125m/Te, /sup 119m/Sn, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 120/Tm. These radionuclides are widely used in the preparation of various radionuclide products, standard sources of ionizing radiation, and standard solutions. The emission characteristics data for the nuclides may be used for calibration of semiconductor spectrometers with regard to energy and efficiency.

  17. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  18. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  19. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  20. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  1. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  2. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  3. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    PubMed

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time. PMID:22267274

  4. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  5. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  6. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  7. Behavior patterns of radionuclides in floodplain landscapes of the Techa River in the Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.; Pozolotina, V.N.; Yushkov, P.I.; Mikhailovskaya, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors studied peculiarities of the behavior of long-lived radionuclides in floodplain landscapes of the Techa River. The effect of floodplain soil formation and hydrological conditions on the radionuclides` migration in the soil and plant cover was noted. The question of the role of floodplain landscapes as geochemical barriers and sources of secondary contamination of the Ob river system is discussed.

  8. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used to look for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed The health care provider will inject ...

  9. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, R J; James, I R; Jennings, P J; Koeyers, J E

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of radionuclides in the environment, which are usually based on the construction of lines of equal concentrations. The paper focuses on the methodology of quantitatively correlating activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in two groups of minerals. The methodology is widely applicable, but is demonstrated for natural radioactivity in beach sands along the coast of South West Australia. PMID:11214891

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  11. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B. III

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  12. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  13. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  14. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  15. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  16. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  18. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  19. Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  1. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  2. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    the improvement in accuracy and precision of measurement as demanded by the stringent requirements of the user community, such as the correct calibration of nuclear instrumentation. This leads into the need for traceability to national measurement standards maintained by the national metrology institutes. As part of the radioactivity traceability chain, as for all areas of metrology, it is vital that systems are in place to ensure that national standards can be checked for worldwide uniformity and measurement equivalence. Many of the resulting areas are covered by the topics in this special issue, although specifically excluded from the scope of the publication are topics that are widely covered in other publications due to their application in applied metrology—for example, radiochemistry, environmental gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. There are three sections to this issue, starting with papers on how the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement has been implemented for radionuclide metrology, following into the bulk of the publication with articles on the `state of the art' in radionuclide metrology and ending with traceability to national/international standards in nuclear medicine, environmental monitoring, radiation protection and decommissioning. This special issue in essence follows on from earlier BIPM Monographies that were published in order to provide the base information for radionuclide metrology. In many respects they complement the special issue since much of their content is still valid today, particularly those published more recently as an aid to ensuring consistency of method and data. The BIPM Monographies are freely available to download from the BIPM website at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/monographies-ri.html. The papers in the special issue draw on the experience of radionuclide metrologists who have been involved in their area of expertise for many years. The authors give readers an insightful account of the selected topics

  3. Radionuclide bone scanning in subtalar coalitions: differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.B.; Pavlov, H.; Schneider, R.

    1982-03-01

    The radionuclide bone scan is a noninvasive screening procedure which can help in identifying or confirming subtalar coalitions in patients with foot and/or ankle pain of unknown origin in whom routine plain film studies are inconclusive. Five patients (seven symptomatic feet) with clinical and plain film findings suggesting a subtalar coalition are presented. The radionuclide bone scans in four patients (six feet) with documented subtalar coalitions demonstrated augmented uptake in the subtalar joint in all six feet and a secondary area of augmented concentration in the superior aspect of the talus or talonavicular joint in five feet. The radionuclide bone scan was normal in the one patient who was later proved not to have a coalition. The scans of 100 patients with foot pain of other etiologies were reviewed, and in no instance did the scan demonstrate the combination of subtalar and talus or talonavicular uptake observed in the patients with coalitions.

  4. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  5. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain ...

  6. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  7. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  8. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  9. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  11. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  12. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  13. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  14. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  15. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  17. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  18. An Examination of Secondary School Teachers' Technology Integration Recommended by ISTE's National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and School Principal Support for Teacher Technology Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The National Educational Technology Standards for teachers (NETS-T) was adopted by New York State, and was critical to the development of students entering a global society. This study examines teachers' use of digital tools to promote student learning and reflection, promote digital citizenship, communicate and collaborate with parents and…

  19. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  2. 40 CFR 197.30 - What standards must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public... of undisturbed performance after disposal, releases of radionuclides from waste in the Yucca...

  3. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  4. Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gulenchyn, K Y; Yao, X; Asa, S L; Singh, S; Law, C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in patients with different types of advanced neuroendocrine tumour (NETs). A literature search was carried out in MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1998 to November 2010. The Cochrane Library (to Issue 10, 2010) and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence Inventory of Cancer Guidelines, including over 1100 English-language cancer guidelines from January 2003 to June 2010, were also checked. No existing systematic reviews or clinical practice guidelines based on a systematic review or randomised controlled trials focusing on this topic were found. Twenty-four fully published articles were abstracted and summarised: 16 articles focused on five peptide receptor radionuclide therapy ((111)In-DTPAOC, (90)Y-DOTALAN, (90)Y-DOTATOC, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and (177)Lu-DOTATATE) and eight focused on (131)I-MIBG treatment. Limited evidence from a historical comparison of studies in one centre supported that (177)Lu-DOTATATE might be associated with greater clinical outcomes compared with (90)Y-DOTATOC or (111)In-DTPAOC. The severe toxicities for (177)Lu-DOTATATE included hepatic insufficiency in 0.6%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 0.8% and renal insufficiency in 0.4% of patients in this study. Insufficient evidence suggested efficacy of (131)I-MIBG in adult NET patients, but the overall tumour response rate from (131)I-MIBG was 27-75% for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma. Haematological toxicities were the main severe side-effects after (131)I-MIBG and 4% of patients developed secondary malignancies in one study. To date, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy seems to be an acceptable option and is relatively safe in adult advanced NET patients with receptor uptake positive on scintigraphy, but patients' renal function must be monitored. (131)I-MIBG may be effective for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma, but its side-effects need to be

  5. Secondary causes of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Vodnala, Deepthi; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D

    2012-09-15

    The causes of the lipid disorders in patients referred to specialty clinics for difficult-to-treat dyslipidemias are likely multifactorial. However, the importance of evaluating for secondary causes is unclear. The investigators performed a chart review of new patients referred to the University of Michigan Lipid Clinic from January 2004 to June 2011 (n = 824) to evaluate for the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. In addition to lipoproteins, new patients were assessed for secondary dyslipidemias by a standardized protocol consisting of laboratory testing, a nutritional evaluation, and medical history. These data were evaluated to determine the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. A total of 363 separate factors were identified in the 824 patients that were thought to be potential secondary causes of dyslipidemia. Because some patients (n = 83 [10%]) had multiple conditions, there were 230 (28% of the cohort) with ≥1 potential secondary dyslipidemias. The most common conditions were excessive alcohol intake (n = 82 [10%]), uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (n = 68 [8%]), and overt albuminuria. Although other causes occurred less frequently (each individually found in <5% of patients), altogether they were present in a substantial portion of patients (n = 102 [12%]). In conclusion, nearly 1/3 of patients referred to a specialty clinic had identifiable secondary conditions plausibly contributing to their dyslipidemia. Numerous disorders were identified, with diabetes mellitus and excessive alcohol being the most common. PMID:22658245

  6. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  7. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  8. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Müller, E.; Bosbach, D.

    2011-09-01

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO 2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO 2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Jülich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl 2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl x-Al and U 3Si 2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl 2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe 2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH) 3(s) and Eu(OH) 3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot

  9. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2003-06-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  10. Clinical Brain Death with False Positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scans

    PubMed Central

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Bughio, Sara; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Practice guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology for the determination of brain death in adults define brain death as “the irreversible loss of function of the brain, including the brainstem.” Neurological determination of brain death is primarily based on clinical examination; if clinical criteria are met, a definitive confirmatory test is indicated. The apnea test remains the gold standard for confirmation. In patients with factors that confound the clinical determination or when apnea tests cannot safely be performed, an ancillary test is required to confirm brain death. Confirmatory ancillary tests for brain death include (a) tests of electrical activity (electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials) and (b) radiologic examinations of blood flow (contrast angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), and radionuclide methods). Of these, however, radionuclide studies are used most commonly. Here we present data from two patients with a false positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scan (RCPS). PMID:26167307

  11. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  12. Geomorphic control of radionuclide diffusion in desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Harrington, C.D.; Whitney, J.W.; Cline, M.; DeLong, S.B.; Keating, G.; Ebert, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion is a standard model for the vertical migration of radionuclides in soil profiles. Here we show that diffusivity values inferred from fallout 137CS profiles in soils on the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, have a strong inverse correlation with the age of the geomorphic surface. This result suggests that radionuclide-bound particles are predominantly transported by infiltration rather than by bulk-mixing processes such as wetting/ drying, freeze/thaw, and bioturbation. Our results provide a preliminary basis for using soil-geomorphic mapping, point-based calibration data, and the diffusion model to predict radionuclide trans desert soils within a pedotransfer-function approach. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    PubMed

    Selya, Arielle S; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Dierker, Lisa; Stephen, Eric; Rose, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna L; Otis, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act. PMID:27486427

  14. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    PubMed Central

    Selya, Arielle S.; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Dierker, Lisa; Stephen, Eric; Rose, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna L.; Otis, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act. PMID:27486427

  15. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  16. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  18. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Nicholas R.; Lister, Tedd E.; Tranter, Troy J.

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  19. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  20. Radionuclide migration studies on tonalite

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelttae, P.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Hakanen, M.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Migration of water, chloride, sodium, and calcium in tonalite was studied, using dynamic column and static through-diffusion methods. Autoradiography of rocks impregnated with {sup 14}C-methylmethacrylate was introduced in order to determine the spatial porosity distribution, as well as to identify and visualize the migration pathways of non-sorbing radionuclides in tonalite matrix as the mm-cm scale. The migration routes of sorbing radionuclides and the sorptive minerals in tonalite were determined by autoradiographic methods, using {sup 45}Ca as a tracer. Transport of radionuclides was interpreted, using models for hydrodynamic dispersion with diffusion into the rock matrix. In tonalite, porous minerals were distributed homogeneously in matrix and, therefore, retardation capacity of the rock matrix was found to be high.

  1. A new experimental procedure for determination of photoelectric efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector used for nuclear medicine liquid waste monitoring with traceability to a reference standard radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Campanella, F; Ciofetta, G; Marracino, F M; Cannatà, V

    2010-02-01

    To determine photopeak efficiency for (99m)Tc of the NaI(Tl) detector used for liquid waste monitoring at the Nuclear Medicine Unit of IRCCS Paediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù in Rome, a specific experimental procedure, with traceability to primary standards, was developed. Working with the Italian National Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety, two different calibration source geometries were employed and the detector response dependence on geometry was investigated. The large percentage difference (almost 40%) between the two efficiency values obtained showed that geometrical effects cannot be neglected. PMID:19914080

  2. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections. PMID:26590786

  3. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  4. Characterization of the NIST seaweed Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Outola, I; Filliben, J; Inn, K G W; La Rosa, J; McMahon, C A; Peck, G A; Twining, J; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K; Smedley, P; Antón, M P; Gascó, C; Povinec, P; Pham, M K; Raaum, A; Wei, H-J; Krijger, G C; Bouisset, P; Litherland, A E; Kieser, W E; Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Hong, G H; Holm, E; Skipperud, L; Harms, A V; Arinc, A; Youngman, M; Arnold, D; Wershofen, H; Sill, D S; Bohrer, S; Dahlgaard, H; Croudace, I W; Warwick, P E; Ikäheimonen, T K; Klemola, S; Vakulovsky, S M; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) for seaweed was developed through an interlaboratory comparison with 24 participants from 16 countries. After evaluating different techniques to calculate certified values for the radionuclides, the median method was found to be the most representative technique. The certified values were provided for 13 radionuclides and information values were given for 15 more radionuclides. Results for the natural decay series showed disequilibrium in both the uranium and thorium series. PMID:16549359

  5. [Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >30% and symptom control in almost 80% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. PMID:25269725

  6. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Richards, Powell

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  7. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  8. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  9. Purification of radionuclides for nuclear medicine: The multicolumn selectivity inversion generator concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Bond, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    A new radionuclide generator system has been developed and demonstrated for the production of 212Bi from 224Ra/212Pb and for 90Y from 90Sr. The new concept, called a Multicolumn Selectivity Inversion Generator, involves the selective retention of the desired daughter radionuclide from a solution of the parent or parents by a primary separation column followed by stripping the daughter radionuclide from the primary column, and immediately without feed adjustment, passing the daughter through a secondary separation (guard) column that retains the parents while the daughter elutes unrestrained. The new generator system minimises the effects of radiation damage to the support material permiting the reliable production of nuclides of high chemical and radionuclidic purity.

  10. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-06-30

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

  11. RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...

  12. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

  13. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  14. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  15. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  16. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  17. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  18. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  19. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  20. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  1. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  2. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  3. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  4. Heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations in fly ash material

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.; Phagan, C.J.; Gray, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    A study was completed to characterize the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides and their mobility in two fly ash covered parking lots at the US Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant. Six composite samples collected from the parking areas were analyzed by an offsite contract laboratory for arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, uranium 234, and uranium 238. All metal and radionuclide concentrations except mercury and silver exceeded the applicable comparison standards for typical Pantex Plant soil; however, concentrations of mercury and silver were significantly below the Texas Risk Reduction Standards. In view of these results, it was strongly recommended that fly ash not be used for future projects at the Pantex Plant unless specialized engineering controls are used.

  5. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed. PMID:18215644

  6. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  7. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  8. RADIONUCLIDE AIR EMISSIONS REPORT FOR THE HANFORD SITE CY2003

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2004-06-11

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 2003 and the resulting effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities''; Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, ''Radiation Protection-Air Emissions''; 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance; DOE Order 414.1B, Quality Assurance; NQA-1, Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Application; EPA QA/R-2, EPA Requirements for Quality Management Plans; and EPA QA/R-5, Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from DOE facilities and the resulting public dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE is not to be exceeded. The EDE to the MEI due to routine and nonroutine emissions in 2003 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.022 mrem (0.00022 mSv), or 0.22 percent of the federal standard. The portions of the Hanford Site MEI dose attributable to individual point sources as listed in Section 2.0 are appropriate for use in demonstrating the compliance of abated stack emissions with applicable terms of the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and of Notices of Construction. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations, yet further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. WAC 246-247 also requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The EDE from

  9. Secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is -2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  10. Secondary osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is –2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  11. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. PMID:22718415

  12. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  13. Focus & Higher Standards for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Baccalaureate North America, Inc., New York, NY.

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) program, in which students in the last 2 years of high school can earn a diploma recognized for university admission throughout the world and for course credit at colleges and universities in Canada and the United States, is described. Information about the program is provided in the following areas: (1)…

  14. Nuclear Melt Glass Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation at 40 to 200C

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M; Roberts, S; Viani, B; Pawloski, G; Rose, T

    2004-06-14

    Most long-lived radionuclides associated with an underground nuclear test are initially incorporated into melt glass and become part of the hydrologic source term (HST) only upon their release via glass dissolution (Pawloski et al., 2001). As the melt glass dissolves, secondary minerals precipitate. The types of secondary minerals that precipitate influence the water chemistry in and around the melt glass. The secondary minerals also provide a sorption sink to the released radionuclides. The changing water chemistry affects the rate of glass dissolution; it also affects the sorption behavior of the released radionuclides. This complex nature of glass dissolution and its important role in defining the HST requires a thorough understanding of glass dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation. The identity of secondary minerals formed at temperatures from 40 to 200 C are evaluated in this report to assist in that understanding.

  15. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  16. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  17. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  18. Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M

    2009-08-14

    An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the radionuclides of interest is given in Table 1. The distribution coefficient, K{sub d} is defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentration bound on the solid phase to the contaminant concentration remaining in the liquid phase at equilibrium. Some authors report distribution coefficients and other report partition coefficients, the data presented in this work assumes equality between these two terms, and data are presented and summarized in this work as logarithmic distribution coefficient (log K{sub D}). Published literature was searched using two methods. Firstly, the JNC Sorption Database, namely Shubutani et al (1999), and Suyama and Sasamoto (2004) was used to select elements of interest and a number of carbonate minerals. Secondly, on-line literature search tools were used to locate relevant published articles from 1900 to 2009. Over 300 data points covering 16 elements (hydrogen, carbon, calcium, nickel, strontium, technetium, palladium, iodine, cesium, samarium, europium, holmium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium) were used to calculate an average and range of log K{sub d} values for each element. Unfortunately, no data could be found for chlorine, argon, krypton, zirconium, niobium, tin, thorium and curium. A description of the data is given below, together with the average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and number of inputs for radionuclide K{sub d} values for calcite, aragonate, limestone, dolomite and unidentified carbonate rocks in Table 2. Finally, the data are condensed into one group (carbonate minerals) of data for each

  19. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. [CASCADER Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes as they are advected and/or dispersed. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one space dimensional transport and fate model for an m-chain of radionuclides in very dry soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advocation velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The airpumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions and is barometric pressure driven. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions is used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77.

  20. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one-space dimensional transport and fate model for M-chain radionuclides in very dry homogeneous or heterogeneous soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advection velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The air-pumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions, which is driven by barometric pressure. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions are used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77.

  1. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  2. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  3. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  4. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  5. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  6. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  7. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  8. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  9. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  10. Assessment of atmospherically-released radionuclides using the computerized radiological risk investigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.B.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III

    1986-01-01

    For radionuclides, the standards are in terms of an annual dose, and the regulations require assurance that no member of the general public receives a dose in excess of that standard. Thus, spatial variations in the population around an emission source must be considered. Furthermore, for most chemical pollutants the standards are written in terms of an air concentration while for radionuclides other pathways of exposure, e.g., uptake of the airborne emissions by terrestrial food chains must also be considered. The remainder of this paper discusses the computer codes that make up the CRRIS and how they are used to perform an assessment of the health impacts on man of radionuclides released to the atmosphere.

  11. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

  13. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  14. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  15. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  16. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  17. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  18. Calibration of radionuclide calibrators in Canadian hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Santry, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The major user of radioactive isotopes in Canada is the medical profession. Because of this a program has been initiated at the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) to assist the nuclear medicine community to determine more accurately, the rather large amounts of radioactive materials administered to patients either for therapeutic or medical diagnostics. Since radiation exposure to the human body has deleterious effects, it is important for the patient that the correct amount of radioactive material is administered to minimize the induction of a fatal cancer at a later time. Hospitals in many other countries have a legal requirement to have their instruments routinely calibrated and have previously entered into intercomparisons with other hospitals or their national standards laboratories. In Canada, hospitals and clinics can participate on a voluntary basis to have the proper operation of measuring devices (radionuclide calibrators in particular) examined through intercomparisons. The program looks primarily at laboratory performance. This includes not only the instrument's performance but the performance of the individual doing the procedure and the technical procedure or method employed. In an effort to provide personal assistance to those having problems, it is essential that the comparisons should be pertinent to the daily work of the laboratory and that the most capable technologist not be selected to carry out the assay.

  19. Secondary waste form testing : ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ganga, R.; Gaviria, J.; Yusufoglu, Y.

    2011-06-21

    The cleanup activities of the Hanford tank wastes require stabilization and solidification of the secondary waste streams generated from the processing of the tank wastes. The treatment of these tank wastes to produce glass waste forms will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. Liquid wastes may include process condensates and scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids from the thermal waste treatment. The current baseline for solidification of the secondary wastes is a cement-based waste form. However, alternative secondary waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the secondary wastes. The Ceramicrete process has been demonstrated on four secondary waste formulations: baseline, cluster 1, cluster 2, and mixed waste streams. Based on the recipes provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the four waste simulants were prepared in-house. Waste forms were fabricated with three filler materials: Class C fly ash, CaSiO{sub 3}, and Class C fly ash + slag. Optimum waste loadings were as high as 20 wt.% for the fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3}, and 15 wt.% for fly ash + slag filler. Waste forms for physical characterizations were fabricated with no additives, hazardous contaminants, and radionuclide surrogates. Physical property characterizations (density, compressive strength, and 90-day water immersion test) showed that the waste forms were stable and durable. Compressive strengths were >2,500 psi, and the strengths remained high after the 90-day water immersion test. Fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3} filler waste forms appeared to be superior to the waste forms with fly ash + slag as a filler. Waste form weight loss was {approx}5-14 wt.% over the 90-day immersion test. The majority of the weight loss occurred during the initial phase of the immersion test, indicative of washing off of residual unreacted

  20. Minimum Competency in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Landsheere, Viviane

    1987-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the movement toward minimum competency in secondary education. Addresses the problem of defining minimum competency and the dangers of imposed standardization. Identifies three conceptualizations of minimum competency as: (1) the narrowly educational standpoint, (2) the concern with functional literacy, and (3) a more…

  1. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  2. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  3. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  4. Effect of Hanford Tank Waste Leachate on Radionuclide Transport Through Unsaturated Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, K. A.; Serne, J. R.; Um, W.

    2006-12-01

    A series of unsaturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of leaking tank waste on radionuclide transport through sediment from the Hanford site in Washington, USA. Previous studies have shown that the caustic tank leachate solution with high ionic strength (I=2-8 M NaNO3) and high pH (~14) conditions dissolves primary minerals (quartz and clays) and forms secondary precipitates on mineral surfaces. The secondary precipitates include zeolite, cancrinite and sodalite. The dissolution followed by precipitation reaction would alter the sediment pore structure as well as the soil surface properties. Both physical and chemical changes of the sediment were found to have an impact on the flow and mobility of radionuclide in unsaturated columns at varying degrees of saturation.

  5. The medical management of unintentional radionuclide intakes.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, B D

    2003-01-01

    As a general medical problem, radionuclide intakes that may cause significant health effects are uncommon events. In preparing to manage a radionuclide accident, planning is the key. The medical aspects of such an accident are only one part of the management, and a professional team approach is required. Specific priorities and sequencing are necessary in medically managing a radionuclide intake. As soon as is reasonably practical, promptly remove the victim(s) from further radionuclide, radiation field, or chemical exposure. Life and limb-saving medical aid takes precedence over ionising radiation concerns in nearly all cases. Next are the prevention and/or minimisation of internal intake of radionuclides and evaluation and control of external radionuclide contamination, followed by institution of treatment to minimise the retained radionuclide. Communication with the accident victim, and his or her family, and public affairs/media issues are important. Finally, follow-up treatment for internal intakes that may cause delayed health effects is given. PMID:14527016

  6. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  7. Radiochemical separation of zirconium and hafnium from other radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R B

    1972-11-01

    Radiozirconium and radiohafnium may be separated from all other radionuclides except scandium and protactinium by precipitation with mandelic acid from 5-10 M hydrochloric acid, using commercial zirconyl chloride as carrier. Scandium and protactinium are removed by dissolving the precipitate in sodium carbonate, then adding barium nitrate to precipitate barium carbonate which acts as a scavenger. Zirconium mandelate is finally reprecipitated and the sample weighed and counted in this form. The method was checked by analysing commercial zirconyl chloride and standard rock samples for zirconium and hafnium by neutron-activation analysis. PMID:18961201

  8. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    hemisphere. Although the releases from the Fukushima NPP were pronounced, due to significant dilution of the radioactivity in the atmosphere as it was transported across the globe, the concentrations of radionuclides measured outside Japan were extremely low. The activities of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 in air were estimated to have diluted by a factor of 105 to 108 during trans-Pacific transport. This paper will present a compilation of the radionuclide concentrations measured across the northern hemisphere by various national and international monitoring networks. It will focus on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes will be discussed. Spatial and Temporal patterns and differences will be contrasted. The effects from this global radionuclide dispersal are reported and discussed. The activity ratios of ^131I/^137Cs and ^134Cs/^137Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and thus on the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected across the northern hemisphere have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental concern.

  9. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions D Appendix D to Part 61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS Pt. 61, App. D Appendix D to Part 61—Methods for...

  11. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  12. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  13. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  14. Dosimetry and Case Studies for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review and analysis of biokinetic and dosimetric information for those radionuclides most likely to be involved in accidental exposures to workers or members of the public or used in radiological terrorism.

  15. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  16. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  17. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  18. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  19. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  20. (Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1990-12-28

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

  1. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma.

    PubMed

    Lull, R J; Tatum, J L; Sugerman, H J; Hartshorne, M F; Boll, D A; Kaplan, K A

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs. PMID:6226097

  2. Standardization versus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Examines differences between old state-designed norm-referenced tests and new tests aligned with the curriculum. Concludes that new state tests are very similar to old ones. Discusses impact of new high-stakes standardized tests on students and teachers. Argues the new wave of standardized testing is not the answer to improving student…

  3. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y G; Shaw, G

    2000-07-01

    Soils contaminated with radionuclides, particularly 137Cs and 90Sr, pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure via the foodchain and other pathways. Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils has become increasingly important. Removal of the contaminated surface soil (often up to 40 cm) or immobilization of radionuclides in soils by applying mineral and chemical amendments are physically difficult and not likely cost-effective in practicality. Reducing plant uptake of radionuclides, especially 137CS and 90Sr by competitive cations contained in chemical fertilizers has the general advantage in large scale, low-level contamination incidents on arable land, and has been widely practiced in central and Western Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Phytoextraction of radionuclides by specific plant species from contaminated sites has rapidly stimulated interest among industrialists as well as academics, and is considered to be a promising bio-remediation method. This paper examines the existing remediation approaches and discusses phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated soils in detail. PMID:10819188

  4. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  6. Primary calibrations of radionuclide solutions and sources for the EML quality assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Fisenne, I.M.

    1993-12-31

    The quality assurance procedures established for the operation of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Measurements Laboratory (DOE-EML`s) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) are essentially the same as those that are in effect for any EML program involving radiometric measurements. All these programs have at their core the use of radionuclide standards for their instrument calibration. This paper focuses on EML`s approach to the acquisition, calibration and application of a wide range of radionuclide sources that are required to meet its programmatic needs.

  7. Statistics to Identify and quantify Pure Radionuclides by Their Neutron Emission Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Kiffe, J.; Rock, J.C.

    1999-07-27

    Perfect knowledge of emission time for every neutron from a radionuclide allows identification of the material and estimation of the quantity present via nondestructive assay. In practice, the authors lack this perfect knowledge. Detector efficiency is less than unity, thermalized neutron arrival is delayed randomly, and neutron showers triggered by cosmic rays in the atmosphere add noise to the process. They compare two classes of statistical estimators capable of recovering characteristic parameters for radionuclides from this imperfect information: method of moments (the current standard) and maximum likelihood, which holds the advantage as the number of parameters to be estimated simultaneously increases.

  8. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology. PMID:26435739

  9. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. Volume 3: Heterogeneous layered porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one-space dimensional transport and fate model for M-chain radionuclides in very dry homogeneous or heterogeneous soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advection velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The air-pumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions, which is driven by barometric pressure. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions are used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77.

  10. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. Volume 1, Basic physics and mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes as they are advected and/or dispersed. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one space dimensional transport and fate model for an m-chain of radionuclides in very dry soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advocation velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The airpumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions and is barometric pressure driven. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions is used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  12. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-15

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children.

  13. Development document for effluent-limitations guidelines and standards for the nonferrous-metals-manufacturing point source category. Volume 2. Bauxite refining, primary aluminum smelting, secondary aluminum smelting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    Contents include: industry profile; subcategorization; water use and wastewater characteristics; selection of pollutant parameters; control and treatment technologies; costs of waste water treatment and control; best practicable technology currently available; best available technology economically achievable; new source performance standards; pretreatment standards; best conventional pollutant-control technology.

  14. Activity standardization of 131I at CENTIS-DMR and PTB within the scope of a bilateral comparison.

    PubMed

    Oropesa Verdecia, P; Kossert, K

    2009-06-01

    The activity of an (131)I solution was measured at the Cuban Institute, CENTIS-DMR, as well as at the German National Metrology Institute, PTB, within the scope of a bilateral comparison. In particular, the comparison is aimed at an investigation of the measurement capabilities of CENTIS-DMR which provides activity standards in Cuba and organizes national comparisons, placing a particular emphasis on radionuclides for nuclear medicine, such as (131)I. Both institutes applied liquid scintillation counting techniques with efficiency tracing as well as secondary standardization procedures by means of calibrated ionization chambers and gamma-ray spectrometers. The results were checked for consistency and a good agreement was found. Moreover, a virtual link of the Cuban result to the International Reference System (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) is discussed. PMID:19230688

  15. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Carpentry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: carpentry I and II. The seven units in carpentry I are as follows: introduction and orientation; safety; measurement; tools and equipment; basic concepts in carpentry; reading blueprints and working drawings; and foundations.…

  17. Standardized Curriculum for Electrician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: electrician I and II. The 11 units in electrician I are as follows: orientation; safety; tools, equipment, materials/supplies; basic principles and theory; DC circuits; AC circuits; blueprints and load calculations; load centers and…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  19. 14 CFR 23.405 - Secondary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.405 Secondary control system. Secondary controls, such as wheel brakes, spoilers... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary control system. 23.405 Section...

  20. 14 CFR 25.405 - Secondary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.405 Secondary control system. Secondary controls, such as wheel brake, spoiler, and tab controls, must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary control system. 25.405 Section...

  1. 14 CFR 25.405 - Secondary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secondary control system. 25.405 Section 25.405 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.405 Secondary control system. Secondary...

  2. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  3. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  4. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  5. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  7. Bacterially produced calcium phosphate nanobiominerals: sorption capacity, site preferences, and stability of captured radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Handley-Sidhu, S; Hriljac, J A; Cuthbert, M O; Renshaw, J C; Pattrick, R A D; Charnock, J M; Stolpe, B; Lead, J R; Baker, S; Macaskie, L E

    2014-06-17

    A Serratia sp. bacterium manufactures amorphous calcium phosphate nanominerals (BHAP); this material has shown increased sorption capacity for divalent radionuclide capture. When heat-treated (≥450 °C) the cell biomass is removed and the biominerals are transformed to hydroxyapatite (HAP). Using a multimethod approach, we have elucidated both the site preferences and stability of analogue radionuclide incorporation for Sr, Co, Eu, and U. Strontium incorporates within the bulk amorphous inorganic phase of BHAP; however, once temperature modified to crystalline HAP, bonding was consistent with Sr substitution at the Ca(1) and/or Ca(2) sites. Cobalt incorporation occurs within the bulk inorganic amorphous phase of BHAP and within the amorphous grain boundaries of HAP. Europium (an analogue for trivalent actinides) substituted at the Ca(2) and/or the Ca(3) position of tricalcium phosphate, a known component of HAP grain boundaries. Uranium was surface complexed with no secondary minerals detected. With multiple sites for targeted radionuclide incorporation, high loadings, and good stability against remobilization, BHAP is shown to be a potential material for the remediation of aqueous radionuclide in groundwater. PMID:24823240

  8. Reconsidering Current Decorporation Strategies after Incorporation of Radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Rump, A; Stricklin, D; Lamkowski, A; Eder, S; Abend, M; Port, M

    2016-08-01

    In the case of a nuclear accident or a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb," there is a risk of external and internal contamination with radionuclides in addition to external irradiation. Internal irradiation as a consequence of radionuclide incorporation is associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e.g., tumors). Decorporation treatment will enhance the elimination of radionuclides and reduce the committed effective dose as a metric of stochastic health effects. Although treatment efficacy is better when started early, beginning the therapy without knowing the committed effective dose may unnecessarily expose the patient to the side effects of the medication. The question is: Delay the therapy to wait for the results of internal dosimetry or start the therapy promptly on spec? To prove insight into this question, a selective review of the literature was conducted. The importance of the initiation time of treatment in the efficacy of decorporation treatment can be explained with pharmacokinetic laws and first order processes determining the disposition of xenobiotics in the organism. Nevertheless, there is no internationally accepted standard on when to start a decorporation therapy (exception: iodide). The "precautionary approach," emphasizing the importance of the committed effective dose for the indication of treatment, is competing with the "urgent approach" advocating the administration of medication "a priori" within several hours. A review of the literature actually indicates that the most important drugs used for decorporation are well tolerated with few adverse effects. In consideration of the higher efficacy and the low side-effects of a short-term treatment, initiating decorporation therapy as soon as possible after internal contamination, even before the committed effective dose has been assessed, appears to be a reasonable approach. The decision of continuation or discontinuation of the therapy should be taken after internal

  9. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  10. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  11. State of radionuclides in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

  12. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  13. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  14. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  15. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P

    2008-09-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1-R and melanin. The promising therapeutic efficacies of 188Re-(Arg(11))CCMSH (188Re-[Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe(7),Arg(11)]-alpha-MSH(3-13)), 177Lu- and 212Pb-labeled DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[ReO-(Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe(7), Arg(11))]-alpha-MSH(3-13)) and 188Re-HYNIC-4B4 (188Re-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr-Glu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Trp-His-Gly-Arg-His) in preclinical melanoma-bearing models demonstrate an optimistic outlook for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma will likely contribute in an adjuvant setting, once the primary tumor has been surgically removed, to treat metastatic deposits and for treatment of end-stage disease. The lack of effective treatments for metastatic melanoma and end-stage disease underscores the necessity to develop and implement new treatment strategies, such as peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:18387816

  16. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  17. Radionuclide scanning in children with rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, M.E.; Miller, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy was performed in 46 children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Of the 63 radiologically confirmed sites of bone disease, 76% were detected by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate uptake. All 15 sites of hepatic involvement and eight of the nine cranial sites of disease exhibited isotope accumulation. Gallium 67 scans showed 57% of the 43 proven sites of disease, including four previously unsuspected areas. Twelve false-positive sites were obtained with gallium. Radionuclide scanning is a valuable aid in the diagnostic evaluation and management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  18. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  19. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  20. On the lognormality of radionuclide deposition.

    PubMed

    Grubich, Andry

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the variation of soil density and the uncertainty of activity measurements on the statistical distribution of radionuclide concentrations on a site is considered. It is demonstrated that the influence of these factors adequately explains the observed deviation of radionuclide empirical probability distribution functions (empirical PDFs) from lognormal. In all probability lognormality of activity density distributions is the consequence of the atmospheric fallout process, as observed for deposition from Chernobyl and Fukushima. The results obtained are in no way specific to radioactive contaminants, and are consequently applicable for depositions of non-radioactive pollutants as well. PMID:25725453

  1. [Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].

    PubMed

    Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

  2. Theranostic Applications of Lutetium-177 in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 has been widely discussed as a radioisotope of choice for targeted radionuclide therapy. The simultaneous emission of imageable gamma photons [208 keV (11%) and 113 keV (6.4%)] along with particulate β(-) emission [β(max) = 497 keV] makes it a theranostically desirable radioisotope. In the present article, the possibility of using two 177Lu-based agents viz. 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-DOTATATE for theranostic applications in metastatic bone pain palliation (MBPP) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), have been explored. In the case of 177Lu-EDTMP, the whole-body images obtained are compared with those recorded using 99mTc-MDP in the same patient. On the other hand, pre-therapy images acquired with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE are compared with similar images obtained with standard agents, such as 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (SPECT) and 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (PET) in the same patient. The advantage of the long physical half-life (T1/2) of 177Lu has been utilized in mapping the pharmacokinetics of two additional agents, 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in radiation synovectomy of knee joints and 177Lu-HA for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of these multiple studies conclusively document the potential of 177Lu as a theranostic radioisotope. PMID:25771364

  3. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000700.htm Neuropathy secondary to drugs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation ...

  4. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  5. Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R.S.; Leonard, M.T.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Kelly, R.F.; Jordan, H.; Schumacher, P.M.; Curtis, L.A. )

    1990-08-01

    This report provides the results of source term calculations that were performed in support of the NUREG-1150 study. Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants.'' This is the sixth volume of a series of reports. It supplements results presented in the earlier volumes. Analyses were performed for three of the NUREG-1150 plants: Peach Bottom, a Mark I, boiling water reactor; Surry, a subatmospheric containment, pressurized water reactor; and Sequoyah, an ice condenser containment, pressurized water reactor. Complete source term results are presented for the following sequences: short term station blackout with failure of the ADS system in the Peach Bottom plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA for the Surry plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA in the Sequoyah plant; and a very small break with loss of ECC and spray recirculation in the Sequoyah plant. In addition, some partial analyses were performed which did not require running all of the modules of the Source Term Code Package. A series of MARCH3 analyses were performed for the Surry and Sequoyah plants to evaluate the effects of alternative emergency operating procedures involving primary and secondary depressurization on the progress of the accident. Only thermal-hydraulic results are provided for these analyses. In addition, three accident sequences were analyzed for the Surry plant for accident-induced failure of steam generator tubes. In these analyses, only the transport of radionuclides within the primary system and failed steam generator were examined. The release of radionuclides to the environment is presented for the phase of the accident preceding vessel meltthrough. 17 refs., 176 figs., 113 tabs.

  6. Teaching with Secondary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Jeff

    1981-01-01

    Presents a general overview of the use of secondary data in teaching sociology on the college level. Topics discussed include potential for additional applications, sources which constitute secondary data, reasons for using secondary data in the classroom, information about computing, and potential problems. (Author/DB)

  7. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company standard and teflonated negative electrode 20.0 ampere-hour, nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The standard plate cells exhibited higher average end-of-charge (EOC) voltages than the cells with teflonated negative plates; they also delivered a higher capacity output in ampere hours following these charges. All the cells reached a pressure of 20 psia before reaching the voltage limit of 1.550 volts during the pressure versus capacity test. The average ampere hours in and voltages at this pressure were 33.6 and 1.505 volts respectively for the teflonated negative plate cells and 35.5 and 1.523 volts for the standard plate cells. All cells exhibited pressure decay in the range of 1 to 7 psia during the last 30 minutes of the 1-hour open circuit stand. Average capacity out for the teflonated and standard negative plate cells was 29.4 and 29.9 ampere hours respectively.

  8. Automated Extraction of Secondary Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne M.; Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become standard practice in the design and development of the major components used for air and space propulsion. To aid in the post-processing and analysis phase of CFD many researchers now use automated feature extraction utilities. These tools can be used to detect the existence of such features as shocks, vortex cores and separation and re-attachment lines. The existence of secondary flow is another feature of significant importance to CFD engineers. Although the concept of secondary flow is relatively understood there is no commonly accepted mathematical definition for secondary flow. This paper will present a definition for secondary flow and one approach for automatically detecting and visualizing secondary flow.

  9. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  10. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  11. PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

  12. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  13. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  14. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  15. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  16. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  17. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  18. Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-09-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors. PMID:24059327

  19. Elementary and Secondary Education Property Accounting. A Handbook of Standard Terminology and a Guide for Classifying Information About Education Property. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook III, Revised 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis (Robert) Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    The purposes of this handbook are to provide a comprehensive guide to standard terminology relating to property (sites, buildings, and equipment) used in education, a list of suggested data items useful in describing property, general data items useful in describing property, and general guidelines that can assist the reader in understanding and…

  20. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

    2013-08-01

    During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 μm, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 μm. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other. PMID:23542231

  1. Secondary power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

  2. Radionuclide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Zabel, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past years, Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TAMS) has become established as an important method for radionuclide analysis. In the Arizona system the accelerator is operated at a thermal voltage of 1.8MV for C-14 analysis, and 1.6 to 2MV for Be-10. Samples are inserted into a cesium sputter ion source in solid form. Negative ions sputtered from the target are accelerated to about 25kV, and the injection magnet selects ions of a particular mass. Ions of the 3+ charge state, having an energy of about 9MeV are selected by an electrostatic deflector, surviving ions pass through two magnets, where only ions of the desired mass-energy product are selected. The final detector is a combination ionization chamber to measure energy loss (and hence, Z), and a silicon surface-barrier detector which measures residual energy. After counting the trace iosotope for a fixed time, the injected ions are switched to the major isotope used for normalization. These ions are deflected into a Faraday cup after the first high-energy magnet. Repeated measurements of the isotope ratio of both sample and standards results in a measurement of the concentration of the radionuclide. Recent improvements in sample preparation for C-14 make preparation of high-beam current graphite targets directly from CO2 feasible. Except for some measurements of standards and backgrounds for Be-10 measurements to date have been on C-14. Although most results have been in archaeology and quaternary geology, studies have been expanded to include cosmogenic C-14 in meteorites. The data obtained so far tend to confirm the antiquity of Antarctic meteorites from the Allan Hills site. Data on three samples of Yamato meteorites gave terrestrial ages of between about 3 and 22 thousand years.

  3. Facilitated Strontium Transport by Remobilization of Strontium-Containing Secondary Precipitates in Hanford Site Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2013-03-15

    Significantly enhanced immobilization of radionuclides (such as 90Sr and 137Cs) due to adsorption and coprecipitation with neo-formed colloid-sized secondary precipitates has been reported at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. However, the stability of these secondary precipitates containing radionuclides in the subsurface under changeable field conditions is not clear. Here, the authors tested the remobilization possibility of Sr containing secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite) in the subsurface using saturated column experiments under different geochemical and flow conditions. The columns were packed with quartz sand that contained secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite containing Sr), and leached using colloid-free solutions under different flow rates, varying pH, and ionic strength conditions. The results indicate remobilization of the neo-formed secondary precipitates could be possible given a change of background conditions. The remobility of the neo formed precipitates increased with the rise in the leaching solution flow rate and pH (in a range of pH 4 to 11), as well as with decreasing solution ionic strength. The increased mobility of Sr-containing secondary precipitates with changing background conditions can be a potential source for additional radionuclide transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

  4. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  5. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event

  6. Varices of inferior epigastric veins caused by chronic inferior vena cava obstruction: mimicking normal venous flow pattern on radionuclide venography.

    PubMed

    Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Sonmez, Alper; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Soylu, Kenan; Emer, Ozdes; Ozguven, Mehmet

    2005-05-01

    A 21-year-old patient with long-standing inferior vena cava obstruction secondary to idiopathic thrombosis extending from the external iliac veins underwent a radionuclide venography with Tc-99m pertechnetate labeled erythrocytes. The blood pool phase of the study revealed bilaterally distorted inferior epigastric veins mimicking normal venous flow pattern. The authors present this case to discuss the possible alternative routes and the underlying physiopathologic mechanism of this unusual flow pattern in chronic inferior vena cava obstruction. PMID:15981678

  7. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  8. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer mortality in 40,761 employees of three UK nuclear industry facilities who had been monitored for external radiation exposure was examined according to whether they had also been monitored for possible internal exposure to tritium, plutonium or other radionuclides (uranium, polonium, actinium or other unspecified). Death rates from cancer were compared both with national rates and with rates in radiation workers not monitored for exposure to any radionuclides. Among workers monitored for tritium exposure, overall cancer mortality was significantly below national rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 83, 165 deaths; 2P = 0.02] and none of the cancer-specific death rates was significantly above either the national average or rates in non-monitored workers. Although the overall death rate from cancer in workers monitored for plutonium exposure was also significantly low relative to national rates (SMR = 89, 581 deaths; 2P = 0.005), mortality from pleural cancer was significantly raised (SMR = 357, nine deaths; 2P = 0.002); none of the rates differed significantly from those of non-monitored workers. Workers monitored for radionuclides other than tritium or plutonium also had a death rate from all cancers combined that was below the national average (SMR = 86, 418 deaths; 2P = 0.002) but prostatic cancer mortality was raised both in relation to death rates in the general population (SMR = 153, 37 deaths; 2P = 0.02) and to death rates in radiation workers who had not been monitored for exposure to any radionuclide [rate ratio (RR) = 1.65; 2P = 0.03]. Mortality from cancer of the lung was also significantly increased in workers monitored for other radionuclides compared with those of radiation workers not monitored for exposure to radionuclides (RR = 1.31, 164 deaths; 2P = 0.01). For cancers of the lung, prostate and all cancers combined, death rates in monitored workers were examined according to the timing and duration of monitoring for radionuclide

  9. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  10. New ANSI standard for thyroid phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael W.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Fulmer, Philip C.; Jue, Tracy M.; McCurdy, David E.; Pillay, Mike; Xu, X. George

    2015-08-01

    Here, a new ANSI standard titled “Thyroid Phantom Used in Occupational Monitoring” (Health Physics Society 2014) has been published. The standard establishes the criteria for acceptable design, fabrication, or modeling of a phantom suitable for calibrating in vivo monitoring systems to measure photon-emitting radionuclides deposited in the thyroid. The current thyroid phantom standard was drafted in 1973 (ANSI N44.3-1973), last reviewed in 1984, and a revision of the standard to cover a more modern approach was deemed warranted.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...

  16. Radionuclide analysis of the forearm venous pressure-volume relationship: response to nitroglycerin

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, H.C.; Slutsky, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    By means of equilibrium radionuclide forearm venous occlusion plethysmography, we studied 12 adult men without heart failure. By using stepwise increases in venous occlusion pressure (0, 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg), we found that the relationship between venous cuff pressure and forearm radionuclide volume was consistently linear (r greater than 0.985). When sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) was administered (0.8 mg), the venous pressure-volume relationship was consistently shifted rightward (reducing the slope and increasing the intercept). This resulted in large increases in venous capacitance, as shown by other workers using alternative techniques. Increased venous distensibility due to NTG was caused by an entire shift of the venous pressure-volume relationship rather than increased capacitance at one occlusion pressure. Equilibrium radionuclide venous occlusion plethysmography is a sensitive way to characterize venous pressure-volume relations. In addition, by using radionuclide blood pool component imaging to evaluate venous compliance, concern over fluid transudation seen with standard strain gauge venous plethysmographic techniques can be ignored, particularly at higher occlusion pressures.

  17. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  18. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  19. Air kerma rate constants for radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, H; Groenewald, W

    1988-01-01

    Conversion to SI units requires that the exposure rate constant which was usually quoted in R.h-1.mCi-1.cm2 be replaced by the air kerma rate constant with units m2.Gy.Bq-1.s-1. The conversion factor is derived and air kerma rate constants for 30 radionuclides used in nuclear medicine and brachytherapy are listed. A table for calculation of air kerma rates for other radionuclides is also given. To calculate absorbed dose to tissue, the air kerma rate has to be multiplied by approximately 1.1. A dose equivalent rate constant is thus listed which allows direct calculation of dose equivalent rate to soft tissue without resorting to exposure rate constants tabulated in the special units R.m2.mCi-1.h-1 which should no longer be used. PMID:3208786

  20. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  1. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  2. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  3. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  4. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  5. Skin dose from radionuclide contamination on clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.C.; Hussein, E.M.A.; Yuen, P.S.

    1997-06-01

    Skin dose due to radio nuclide contamination on clothing is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of electron and photon radiation transport. Contamination due to a hot particle on some selected clothing geometries of cotton garment is simulated. The effect of backscattering in the surrounding air is taken into account. For each combination of source-clothing geometry, the dose distribution function in the skin, including the dose at tissue depths of 7 mg cm{sup -2} and 1,000 Mg cm{sup -2}, is calculated by simulating monoenergetic photon and electron sources. Skin dose due to contamination by a radionuclide is then determined by proper weighting of & monoenergetic dose distribution functions. The results are compared with the VARSKIN point-kernel code for some radionuclides, indicating that the latter code tends to under-estimate the dose for gamma and high energy beta sources while it overestimates skin dose for low energy beta sources. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M

    2009-01-09

    In 2004, a borehole was drilled into the 1983 Chancellor underground nuclear test cavity to investigate the distribution of radionuclides within the cavity. Sidewall core samples were collected from a range of depths within the re-entry hole and two sidetrack holes. Upon completion of drilling, casing was installed and a submersible pump was used to collect groundwater samples. Test debris and groundwater samples were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides including the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 155}Eu, the activation products {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu, and the actinides U, Pu, and Am. In addition, the physical and bulk chemical properties of the test debris were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Microprobe measurements. Analytical results were used to evaluate the partitioning of radionuclides between the melt glass, rubble, and groundwater phases in the Chancellor test cavity. Three comparative approaches were used to calculate partitioning values, though each method could not be applied to every nuclide. These approaches are based on: (1) the average Area 19 inventory from Bowen et al. (2001); (2) melt glass, rubble, and groundwater mass estimates from Zhao et al. (2008); and (3) fission product mass yield data from England and Rider (1994). The U and Pu analyses of the test debris are classified and partitioning estimates for these elements were calculated directly from the classified Miller et al. (2002) inventory for the Chancellor test. The partitioning results from this study were compared to partitioning data that were previously published by the IAEA (1998). Predictions of radionuclide distributions from the two studies are in agreement for a majority of the nuclides under consideration. Substantial differences were noted in the partitioning values for {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, and uranium. These differences are attributable to two factors

  7. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  8. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  9. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  10. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  11. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  12. Sedimentation rate determination by radionuclides mass balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazala, C.; Reyss, J. L.; Decossas, J. L.; Royer, A.

    2003-04-01

    In the past, uranium mining activity took place in the area around Limoges, France. Even nowadays, this activity results in an increase in the input and availability of radionuclides in aquifer reservoirs, making of this area a suitable site to better understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the surficial environment. Water was sampled monthly over the entire year 2001 in a brook that collects mine water and in a lake fed by this brook. Samples were filtered through 0.45μm filters to remove particles. Activities of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Th and 228Ra were measured on particulate (>0.45μm), dissolved (<0.45μm) and total (unfiltered) fractions by gamma spectrometry in the well of a high efficiency, low background, germanium detector settled in an underground laboratory, protected from cosmic rays by 1700 m of rocks (LSM, CNRS-CEA, French Alps). Activities measured in particulate and dissolved fractions were summed and compared to the one measured in unfiltered water to test the filtration yield. No significant loss or contamination were detected. In the brook water, 70% of 238U, 60% of 226Ra and 80% of 210Pb are associated with particles. Activities associated with particles decrease drastically along with the velocity of current when the stream enters the lake. An annual mass balance of radionuclides carried by particles from the stream to the lake was used to determine the sedimentation rate in the lake. The flux of particles deduced from mass balance calculations based on five isotopes corresponds to the thickness of sediment accumulated since the creation of this artificial lake (that is, 1976). This study emphasises the usefulness of radionuclides as tracers for environmental investigations.

  13. Radionuclide transport in fractured granite interface zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. H.; Möri, A.

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study migration paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, a micro-scale mapping technique was applied by interfacing laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to detect the small scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides in the interface zones between fractures and the granitic rock matrix. Long-lived 234U, 235U, and 237Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the diffusion accessible rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA-ICP-MS technique. The retarded actinides are mainly located at the fracture walls and in the fine grained fracture filling material as well as within the immediately adjacent wallrock. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. Actinides studied in this work did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as into the granite matrix, most likely due to the lower porosity, the enhanced sorption capacity and the disturbed diffusion paths of the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for 237Np and uranium isotopes over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modelling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results.

  14. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  15. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  16. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. PMID:26875849

  17. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  18. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  19. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  20. Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Bull, J.; Goss, D.

    1994-05-01

    Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SCC and CEBAF sites. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte-Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were {sup 3}H and {sup 22}Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, {sup 134}Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples and {sup 7}Be and {sup 54}Mn were present at higher concentrations in a CEBAF sample. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study in conjunction with the SSC ground-water model show that adequate ground-water protection would result for loss of the entire proton beam in the SSC Collider tunnel.

  1. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Da Silva, R; Gravekamp, C; Libutti, S K; Abraham, T; Dadachova, E

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a 5-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides, which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. Although a lot of progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled (90)Y and (177)Lu somatostatin peptide analogs, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PMID:26227823

  2. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, M.; Da Silva, R.; Gravekamp, C.; Libutti, S. K.; Abraham, T.; Dadachova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the 4th leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a five-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. While a lot progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled with 90Y and 177Lu somatostatin peptide analogues, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PMID:26227823

  3. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-12-31

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.

  4. Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-04-01

    The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

  5. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    conclude that the volumetric activities of radionuclides in the near-the-ground atmospheric layer were by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude below the permissible volume activity set by Radiation Safety Standards of Russia Federation.

  6. Evaluation of Subsurface Radionuclide Transport at Commercial Nuclear Power Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T. C.; Bollinger, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    An American Nuclear Society (ANS) working group was recently established to revise ANSI/ANS-2.17, a standard for evaluating radionuclide transport in ground water at commercial nuclear power production (NPP) facilities. The working group consists of technical experts from the nuclear industry, Federal and State regulatory agencies, universities, DOE National Laboratories, and hydrogeologic consulting firms. ANS 2.17 was originally adopted in 1980, reaffirmed in 1990, but subsequently withdrawn in 2000 due to a lapse in the decadal concurrence process. The working group charge is to re-visit the lapsed standard, review the state-of-the-science and -practice, and develop a performance-based standard that provides guidelines for demonstrating the ability to detect, characterize, diagnose, quantify, and effectively mitigate accidental and routine subsurface releases of radionuclides from NPP facilities. The resulting consensus standard focuses on subsurface site characterization, monitoring, and modeling issues at NPP sites that will guide the siting and evaluation of radionuclide transport at both existing and proposed new NPP facilities. This presentation provides the technical background for developing the standard along with a description of its current status. Performance Assessment is the proposed framework for designing characterization, monitoring, and modeling programs that quantitatively evaluate release scenarios. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are proposed for the archival and retrieval of spatially-explicit data, and will include real-time designators. New monitoring technologies are identified that may aid in the detection and characterization of releases. Remediation activities in response to detected releases should reflect, in part, the expected risk as defined using response thresholds. The presenters are actively soliciting technical documents and field application experiences which may contribute to the standard's technical bases and

  7. Outlook for new energies. Secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    New energies are defined as all kinds of energies which can be expected to be put to practical use as the result of future technological development. Among new energies, secondary batteries are very much desired to be developed for use with electric vehicles, electric load leveling, output stabilization of solar power and wind power generation, etc. Secondary batteries are outlined, and the development situation and problems of various new batteries expected to be used in the field of energy are introduced. Standard specifications, performance, and applications of secondary batteries are briefly introduced. The research and development activities in Japan, U.S.A. and Europe are reported. Descriptions are made on the redox flow battery, nickel-iron battery, zinc-bromine battery, zinc-chrome battery, metal-air battery, and other new type batteries. Lastly, the future outlook in the field of secondary batteries is reported.

  8. Humanizing the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Norman K., Ed.; Saylor, J. Galen, Ed.

    These papers, presented during ASCD-sponsored conference, confront educators with issues in and alternatives for making secondary schools a more humanizing experience for students. The contributors and their articles are: Norman K. Hamilton, "Alternatives in Secondary Education"; Thornton B. Monez and Norman L. Bussiere, "The High School in Human…

  9. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  10. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  11. Middle Management in Secondary Schools: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    The five papers in this special section explore basic middle-management issues at the secondary level in various countries, including subject leader/department heads' range of responsibilities and effects of school cultures. New training standards demand a blending of line management, accountability, leadership, followership, and collegial…

  12. Planning "Lessons for Everybody" in Secondary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathryn; Luttenegger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores issues that secondary general education teachers face in planning lessons that include students with disabilities. We briefly explain the concepts of inclusive education and inclusive pedagogy and then identify six tenets of inclusive instructional planning: high standards for everybody in the class, multiple entry and exit…

  13. A count rate based contamination control standard for electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    May, R.T.; Schwahn, S.O.

    1996-12-31

    Accelerators of sufficient energy and particle fluence can produce radioactivity as an unwanted byproduct. The radioactivity is typically imbedded in structural materials but may also be removable from surfaces. Many of these radionuclides decay by positron emission or electron capture; they often have long half lives and produce photons of low energy and yield making detection by standard devices difficult. The contamination control limit used throughout the US nuclear industry and the Department of Energy is 1,000 disintegrations per minute. This limit is based on the detection threshold of pancake type Geiger-Mueller probes for radionuclides of relatively high radiotoxicity, such as cobalt-60. Several radionuclides of concern at a high energy electron accelerator are compared in terms of radiotoxicity with radionuclides commonly found in the nuclear industry. Based on this comparison, a count-rate based contamination control limit and associated measurement strategy is proposed which provides adequate detection of contamination at accelerators without an increase in risk.

  14. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as{sup 99m}Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of{sup 99m}Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using {sup 99m}Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for{sup 99m}Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides.

  15. 40 CFR 421.260 - Applicability: Description of the secondary precious metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary precious metals subcategory. 421.260 Section 421.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory § 421.260 Applicability: Description of the...

  16. 40 CFR 421.260 - Applicability: Description of the secondary precious metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary precious metals subcategory. 421.260 Section 421.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory § 421.260 Applicability: Description of the...

  17. 40 CFR 421.260 - Applicability: Description of the secondary precious metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary precious metals subcategory. 421.260 Section 421.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory § 421.260 Applicability: Description of the...

  18. 40 CFR 421.260 - Applicability: Description of the secondary precious metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary precious metals subcategory. 421.260 Section 421.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory § 421.260 Applicability: Description of the...

  19. Investigation of basalt-radionuclide distribution coefficients: fiscal year 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.; McGarrah, J.E.

    1980-12-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (Rockwell Hanford Operations) is conducting a safety assessment of nuclear waste storage in a repository on the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in support of the assessment effort, is generating radionuclide distribution coefficient data between simulated groundwaters and basalts and their secondary mineral products under the range of physicochemical conditions expected in a repository in basalt. Experimental radionuclide distribution coefficients were determined for crushed Pomona, Flow E, and Umtanum basalts at 23/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/, 150/sup 0/, and 300/sup 0/C at both normal oxygen partial pressure (approx. 0.2 atm) and lower oxygen partial pressure (approx. 10/sup -7/ atm), using a static technique. Little or no changes in distribution coefficients were noted for selenium, uranium, technetium, neptunium, or plutonium over the oxygen partial pressure range noted above. Sodium dithionite and hydrazine are now under study as system additives to lower Eh to -0.3 to -0.5 V, the conditions expected to prevail in the closed repository in basalt. Temperature change effects on most radionuclide distribution coefficient (Kd) values over the 23/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C range were major with the exception of iodine and technetium, neither of which were appreciably sorbed at normal to approx. 10/sup -7/ atm oxygen partial pressure. The effect of radionuclide concentration on the Kd value was shown graphically for cesium and strontium over a range of from 1 x 10/sup -10/ or 10/sup -12/ to 1 x 10/sup -4/M. Initial work was begun on Kd values obtained under controlled Eh and pH conditions to simulate specific oxygen partial pressure and pH conditions expected to occur in the repository environment.

  20. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  1. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  2. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1982-11-01

    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

  3. Movement of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems by physical processes.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Lynn R; Simon, Steven L; Gordeev, Konstantin I; Likhtarev, Ilya A; Maxwell, Reed M; Shinkarev, Sergei M

    2002-05-01

    Physical processes that effect the movement of radionuclides in the temperate environments post-deposition are considered in this paper. The physical processes considered include the interception of radionuclides by vegetation, resuspension, and vertical migration in soil. United States and Russian results on the interception of radionuclides are reviewed and defined in terms of models that are currently undergoing evaluation and revision. New results on resuspension are evaluated, and a preliminary new model for the time-dependent resuspension factor is proposed. Chernobyl-related results on the movement of radionuclides into the soil column are presented, as is a revised model for this process based upon recent results from Ukraine. PMID:12003017

  4. Radionuclide and radiation protection data handbook 2nd edition (2002).

    PubMed

    Delacroix, D; Guerre, J P; Leblanc, P; Hickman, C

    2002-01-01

    This handbook is a reference source of radionuclide and radiation protection information. Its purpose is to provide users of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry with consolidated and appropriate information and data to handle and transport radioactive substances safely. It is mainly intended for users in low and intermediate activity laboratories. Individual data sheets are provided for a wide range of commonly used radionuclides (144 in total). These radionuclides are classified into five different groups as a function of risk level, represented by colours red, orange, yellow, green and blue, in descending order of risk. PMID:11916063

  5. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  6. Nevada Academic Standards in the Arts: Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Nevada's nine academic standards in music education call for specific educational outcomes in grades 3 and 5, as well as in middle school and secondary school. Nevada's standards relate to singing, playing instruments, listening to music, writing and reading music, and cultural and historical connections in music. The standards present performance…

  7. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

  8. Technology Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards for technology education programs in Florida. Standards are provided for a total of 32 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and pretechnical programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level. Each program course standard consists of a curriculum framework and…

  9. A Probabilistic Approach to Obtaining Limiting Estimates of Radionuclide Concentrations in Biota

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Domotor, S L.; Antonio, Ernest J. )

    2003-06-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a graded approach fo assessing compliance with radiation standards for protection of biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment were derived for twenty-three radionuclides. Four organisms types (aquatic animals, rparian animals, terrestrial animals, and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for methods development. While data are available for aquatic animals and terrestrial plants, less information is available for terrestrial and riparian organisms. Two methods were examined for their ability to provide estimates of organism:soil and organism:water concentration factors in lieu of measured data. The kinetic/allometric approach combined with an uncertainty analysis apprach was able to estimate concentration factors across multiple species with limited input data.

  10. Radionuclide analyses taken during primary coolant decontamination at Three Mile Island indicate general circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Baston, V.F.; Hitz, C.G.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1983-12-01

    Radionuclide concentration data taken during decontamination of the primary reactor coolant system at Three Mile Island by a feed-and-bleed process have provided information on future defueling operations. Analysis of the radiocesium concentrations in samples taken at the letdown point indicates general circulation within the primary system, including the reactor vessel and both steam generators. A standard dilution model with parameters consistent with engineering estimates (volume, flow rate, etc.) accurately predicts the radiocesium decontamination rates. Unlike cesium, the behavior of other principal soluble radionuclides (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 3/H) cannot be readily described by dilution theory. A significant appearance rate is observed for /sup 90/Sr suggesting a chemical solubility mechanism. The use of processed water containing high /sup 3/H for makeup causes uncertainty in the interpretation of the /sup 3/H analysis.

  11. Use of the radionuclide washout test in evaluation of suspected upper urinary tract obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, K.H.; Lewis, S.

    1981-03-01

    THe use of the computerized quantitative renal scan associated with the standard renogram obtained during furosemide-induced diuresis provides useful information in the assessment of suspected upper tract obstruction. With the use of 99m technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid or 131 iodine hippuran quantitative renal scans were obtained and renograms were generated before and after intravenous furosemide injection. Rapidity of diuretic-induced radionuclide washout, as well as determination of glomerular filtration rate or effective renal plasma flow on the affected side, provides objective information with regard to renal parenchymal loss as well as upper tract emptying. We herein report our experience with 19 such patients. The radionuclide washout test is obtained easily, informative and may replace more invasive diagnostic measures.

  12. Cross-bridged Macrocyclic Chelators for Stable Complexation of Copper Radionuclides for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Wong, Edward H.; Weisman, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Copper-64 (t1/2 = 12.7 h, β+: 17.4%, Eβ+max = 656 keV; β−: 39%, Eβ-max = 573 keV) has emerged as an important non-standard positron-emitting radionuclide for PET imaging of diseased tissues. A significant challenge of working with copper radionuclides is that they must be delivered to the living system as a stable complex that is attached to a biological targeting molecule for effective imaging and therapy. Significant research has been devoted to the development of ligands that can stably chelate 64Cu, in particular, the cross-bridged macrocyclic chelators. This review describes the coordination chemistry and biological behavior of 64Cu-labeled cross-bridged complexes. PMID:18043536

  13. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-03-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a site-directed targeted therapeutic strategy that specifically uses radiolabeled peptides as biological targeting vectors designed to deliver cytotoxic levels of radiation dose to cancer cells, which overexpress specific receptors. Interest in PRRT has steadily grown because of the advantages of targeting cellular receptors in vivo with high sensitivity as well as specificity and treatment at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have not only stimulated advances in PRRT in a sustainable manner but have also pushed the field significantly forward to several unexplored possibilities. Recent decades have witnessed unprecedented endeavors for developing radiolabeled receptor-binding somatostatin analogs for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, which have played an important role in the evolution of PRRT and paved the way for the development of other receptor-targeting peptides. Several peptides targeting a variety of receptors have been identified, demonstrating their potential to catalyze breakthroughs in PRRT. In this review, the authors discuss several of these peptides and their analogs with regard to their applications and potential in radionuclide therapy. The advancement in the availability of combinatorial peptide libraries for peptide designing and screening provides the capability of regulating immunogenicity and chemical manipulability. Moreover, the availability of a wide range of bifunctional chelating agents opens up the scope of convenient radiolabeling. For these reasons, it would be possible to envision a future where the scope of PRRT can be tailored for patient-specific application. While PRRT lies at the interface between many disciplines, this technology is inextricably linked to the availability of the therapeutic radionuclides of required quality and activity levels and hence their production is also reviewed. PMID:25710506

  14. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  15. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  16. International Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havard-Williams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Discussion of standardization on an international scale for resource sharing--cooperation, coordination, interlibrary loans, cooperative acquisition and cataloging--focuses on a definition of standards; the development of standards for cataloging; public, school, and university libraries; and library education. A 60-item bibliography is included.…

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  18. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  19. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  20. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  1. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  2. Code System for Radionuclide Migration Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1988-02-26

    Version: 00 IONMIG is used to calculate the far-field transport of decaying radionuclides through a porous medium by diffusion and convection. It was specifically developed in support of the U. S. Subseabed Disposal program. For user specified velocity and temperature fields the convection-diffusion equation is solved in a sorbing porous medium. The sorption may be a function of species type, concentration, vertical position and local temperature. The formulation used is applicable to two-dimensional planar ormore » axisymmetric geometries. Zero flux conditions are assumed at all but the upper boundaries.« less

  3. Research remote laser methods for radionuclides monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, Valentin V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Laser sensing can serve as a highly effective method of searching and monitoring of radioactive contamination. The first method is essence consists in definition the Sr90 and Сs137 concentration by excitation and registration of fluorescence at wavelength of λ = 0.347÷7.0 μm at laser sounding. The second method experiments were carried out under the Raman-scattering circuit. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 108÷109 сm-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  4. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  5. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  6. [Secondary chondrosarcoma: radiopathological correlation].

    PubMed

    Lozano Martínez, G A; Llauger Rosselló, J

    2015-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors originating in cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is the third most common malignant bone tumor after multiple myeloma and osteosarcoma. About 75% of chondrosarcomas are primary lesions. The remaining 25% belong to special categories such as histologic variants and secondary forms. A secondary chondrosarcoma is one that appears in a pre-existing benign chondral lesion; the different types of secondary chondrosarcomas include solitary osteochondroma, multiple osteochondromatosis, enchondroma, the different types of enchondromatosis, and primary synovial chondromatosis. The incidence of this malignant transformation varies widely in function of the type of lesion. In this article, we discuss and illustrate the different types of secondary chondrosarcomas, placing special emphasis on the imaging findings that should alert to these lesions and give radiologists a key role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of these patients. PMID:25002353

  7. Secondary extinctions of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Aslan, Clare E; Rogers, Haldre S; Redford, Kent H; Maron, John L; Bronstein, Judith L; Groves, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    Extinctions beget further extinctions when species lose obligate mutualists, predators, prey, or hosts. Here, we develop a conceptual model of species and community attributes affecting secondary extinction likelihood, incorporating mechanisms that buffer organisms against partner loss. Specialized interactors, including 'cryptic specialists' with diverse but nonredundant partner assemblages, incur elevated risk. Risk is also higher for species that cannot either evolve new traits following partner loss or obtain novel partners in communities reorganizing under changing environmental conditions. Partner loss occurs alongside other anthropogenic impacts; multiple stressors can circumvent ecological buffers, enhancing secondary extinction risk. Stressors can also offset each other, reducing secondary extinction risk, a hitherto unappreciated phenomenon. This synthesis suggests improved conservation planning tactics and critical directions for research on secondary extinctions. PMID:25445878

  8. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation or movement in a part of the body ... weakness. Many medicines may affect the development of neuropathy, including: Heart or blood pressure drugs: Amiodarone Hydralazine ...

  9. Survival Skills: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed are five programs (textbooks, audiovisual materials, workbooks, video-cassettes) designed to improve academic survival skills in secondary students. Content emphasis, reading level, rationale, objectives, organization, instructional method, student evaluation, physical features, and recommendations are listed for each. (KC)

  10. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  11. Secondary psychoses: an update

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S; Kaneko, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic disorders due to a known medical illness or substance use are collectively termed secondary psychoses. In this paper, we first review the historic evolution of the concept of secondary versus primary psychosis and how this distinction supplanted the earlier misleading classification of psychoses into organic and functional. We then outline the clinical features and approach to the diagnosis of secondary psychotic disorders. Features such as atypical presentation, temporal relation to detectable medical cause, evidence of direct physiological causal relationship to the etiological agent, and the absence of evidence of a primary psychotic illness that may better explain the presentation suggest consideration of a secondary psychosis. Finally, we discuss how careful studies of secondary psychotic disorders can help elucidate the pathophysiology of primary, or idiopathic, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. We illustrate this issue through a discussion of three secondary psychotic disorders — psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, velocardiofacial syndrome, and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis — that can, respectively, provide neuroanatomical, genetic, and neurochemical models of schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:23471787

  12. Secondary pool boiling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C.; Tsubaki, A.; Zuhlke, C.; Anderson, T.; Alexander, D.; Gogos, G.; Ndao, S.

    2016-02-01

    A pool boiling phenomenon referred to as secondary boiling effects is discussed. Based on the experimental trends, a mechanism is proposed that identifies the parameters that lead to this phenomenon. Secondary boiling effects refer to a distinct decrease in the wall superheat temperature near the critical heat flux due to a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Recent pool boiling heat transfer experiments using femtosecond laser processed Inconel, stainless steel, and copper multiscale surfaces consistently displayed secondary boiling effects, which were found to be a result of both temperature drop along the microstructures and nucleation characteristic length scales. The temperature drop is a function of microstructure height and thermal conductivity. An increased microstructure height and a decreased thermal conductivity result in a significant temperature drop along the microstructures. This temperature drop becomes more pronounced at higher heat fluxes and along with the right nucleation characteristic length scales results in a change of the boiling dynamics. Nucleation spreads from the bottom of the microstructure valleys to the top of the microstructures, resulting in a decreased surface superheat with an increasing heat flux. This decrease in the wall superheat at higher heat fluxes is reflected by a "hook back" of the traditional boiling curve and is thus referred to as secondary boiling effects. In addition, a boiling hysteresis during increasing and decreasing heat flux develops due to the secondary boiling effects. This hysteresis further validates the existence of secondary boiling effects.

  13. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  14. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, D.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots of aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amono acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1989-05-01

    Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

  16. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  17. Treatment planning for molecular targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Vetter, Kai; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J

    2002-06-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide therapy promises to expand the usefulness of radiation to successfully treat widespread cancer. The unique properties of radioactive tags make it possible to plan treatments by predicting the radiation absorbed dose to both tumors and normal organs, using a pre-treatment test dose of radiopharmaceutical. This requires a combination of quantitative, high-resolution, radiation-detection hardware and computerized dose-estimation software, and would ideally include biological dose-response data in order to translate radiation absorbed dose into biological effects. Data derived from conventional (external beam) radiation therapy suggests that accurate assessment of the radiation absorbed dose in dose-limiting normal organs could substantially improve the observed clinical response for current agents used in a myeloablative regimen, enabling higher levels of tumor control at lower tumor-to-normal tissue therapeutic indices. Treatment planning based on current radiation detection and simulations technology is sufficient to impact on clinical response. The incorporation of new imaging methods, combined with patient-specific radiation transport simulations, promises to provide unprecedented levels of resolution and quantitative accuracy, which are likely to increase the impact of treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:12136519

  18. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    SciTech Connect

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J.

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive

  19. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  20. Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P.; Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.