Science.gov

Sample records for secondary standard radionuclide

  1. Bases for secondary standards for residual radionuclides in soil and some recommendations for cost-effective operational implementation.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, L R; Daniels, J I

    1996-05-01

    The future use of land contaminated with radionuclides depends upon scientifically defensible bases for setting limits for radionuclides in soil. The purpose of this work is to develop such bases for establishing "posting criteria" to protect nonradiological workers at the Nevada Test Site and to provide a rationale for cost-effective measurements to readily determine the boundary conditions. The analysis begins with a mandated limit on total effective dose equivalent (1 mSv y(-1)) via all pathways. The possible pathways of exposure are external gamma exposure, inhalation of resuspended material, and incidental soil ingestion. These pathways are evaluated for each radionuclide of interest on the Nevada Test Site, and the results are used to define for each radionuclide the deposition-density limits for each pathway of exposure. The minimum deposition-density limits are noted to occur via the external gamma-exposure pathway for most radionuclides; exceptions are incidental soil ingestion for 90Sr/90Y and inhalation for 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am. The limiting values of deposition density or average concentration in soil are then determined appropriately by combining all pathways. Procedures are developed for dealing with mixtures of many radionuclides and to apply the principles developed so that even a simple measurement of external gamma-exposure rate may be used to define the boundary conditions in the field, provided that the relative abundance of the radionuclide mixture is known and that the defining level of exposure rate is sufficiently above background. PMID:8690586

  2. Bases for secondary standards for residual radionuclides in soil and some recommendations for cost-effective operational implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Daniels, J.I.

    1996-05-01

    The future use of land contaminated with radionuclides depends upon scientifically defensible bases for setting limits for radionuclides in soil. The purpose of this work is to develop such bases for establishing {open_quotes}posting criteria{close_quotes} to protect nonradiological works at the Nevada Test Site and to provide a rationale for cost-effective measurements to readily determine the boundary conditions. The analysis begins with a mandated limit on total effective dose equivalent (1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}) via all pathways. The possible pathways of exposure are external gamma exposure, inhalation of resuspended material, and incidental soil ingestion. These pathways are evaluated for each radionuclide of interest on the Nevada Test Site, and the results are used to define for each radionuclide the deposition-density limits for each pathway of exposure. The minimum deposition-density limits are noted to occur via the external gamma-exposure pathway for most radionuclides; exceptions are incidental soil ingestion for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and inhalation for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The limiting values of deposition density or average concentration in soil are then determined appropriately by combining all pathways. Procedures are developed for dealing with mixtures of many radionuclides and to apply the principles developed so that even a simple measurement of external gamma-exposure rate may be used to define the boundary conditions in the field, provided that the relative abundance of the radionuclide mixture is known and that the defining level of exposure rate is sufficiently above background. 36 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Sources of secondary radionuclide releases from Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Gydesen, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    This report considers Hanford facilities and operations with the potential to be secondary radionuclide release sources. Facilities that produced radionuclides or processed products of fission reactions and were not covered in previous source term reports are included in this report. The following facilities are described and any potentially significant releases from them are estimated: PUREX (1956--1972, 1983--1988) and REDOX (1952--1967)--campaigns with non-standard feed material (materials other than fuel from single-pass reactors); C PLANT (Hot Semi-Works)--pilot plant and strontium recovery; Z Plant--plutonium finishing; U and UO{sub 3} Plants--uranium recovery; 108 B Plant--tritium extraction; 300 Area Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR); 300 Area Low Power Test Reactors; Criticality Accidents; and 400 Area Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The method of analysis was to examine each facility, give a brief description of its purpose and operations, and describe the types of material the facility processed as an indication of the radionuclides it had the potential to release. Where possible, specific radionuclides are estimated and values from the original documents are reported.

  4. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction... modification of sources subject to the Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  5. Transfer standard for beta decay radionuclides in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Klaus; Beinlich, Uwe; Fritz, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the activity of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals prior to the administration to patients is normally achieved via the use of radionuclide calibrators. An accurate measurement of the activity of pure beta-emitters is complex. Calibration problems can be solved by combining a primary calibration with a 90Y reference solution and a 90Sr/90Y transfer standard with a solid source, simulating geometric effects caused by high energetic beta radiation. The recent development of a 90Sr/90Y transfer standard for this purpose is reported. PMID:14987695

  6. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  7. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  8. The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Samson, Sherry D.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-06-27

    The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site were investigated by reacting quartz and Hanford sediment (Warden Soil) with caustic solution of high ionic strength (2 M NaNO3), high pH (~13), high temperature (~90oC), and dissolved Al(0.01 M Al(NO3)3). Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3-10 days reaction time. The presence of dissolved Al in the simulated tank fluid was found to depress the net Si dissolved concentration. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results, secondary precipitates (cancrinite) at the primary mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides of major concern at the Hanford Site such as 129I, 79Se, 99Tc, and 90Sr.

  9. Secondary Uranium-Phase Paragenesis and Incorporation of Radionuclides into Secondary Phase

    SciTech Connect

    R. Finch

    2001-06-05

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to assess the potential for uranium (U) (VI) compounds, formed during the oxidative corrosion of spent uranium-oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuels, to sequester certain radionuclides and, thereby, limit their release. The ''unsaturated drip tests'' being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provide the basis of this AMR (Table 1). The ANL drip tests on spent fuel are the only experiments on fuel corrosion from which solids have been analyzed for trace levels of radionuclides. Brief summaries are provided of the results from other selected corrosion and dissolution experiments on spent UO{sub 2} fuels, specifically those conducted under nominally oxidizing conditions. Discussions of the current understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U(VI) compounds is provided in order to outline the scientific basis for modeling precipitation and dissolution of potential radionuclide-bearing phases under repository-relevant conditions. Attachment I provides additional information on corrosion mechanisms and behaviors of radionuclides in the tests at ANL. Attachment II reviews occurrence, formation, and alteration (collectively known as paragenesis) of naturally occurring U(VI) minerals because natural mineral occurrences can be used to assess the possible long-term behaviors of U(VI) compounds formed in short-term laboratory experiments and to extrapolate experimental results to repository-relevant time scales. This AMR develops a model for calculating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides that are incorporated into U(VI) compounds, which is an alternative to models currently used in TSPA to calculate dissolved concentration limits for certain radionuclides. In particular, the model developed in this AMR applies to Np (neptunium) concentrations being controlled by solid uranyl oxyhydroxides that are known to contain trace levels of Np. The results of this AMR and the conceptual model developed from it and

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  11. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. Outcome Standards for Secondary Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    A national panel consisting of marketing education advisory committee members, former marketing education students, and marketing education teacher-coordinators reacted to a list of 34 outcome standards developed through a literature review. The 34 standards focused on program quality, program relevance, individual transition to and growth in the…

  16. Standardizing clinical laboratory data for secondary use.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Swapna; Demner-Fushman, Dina; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Clinical databases provide a rich source of data for answering clinical research questions. However, the variables recorded in clinical data systems are often identified by local, idiosyncratic, and sometimes redundant and/or ambiguous names (or codes) rather than unique, well-organized codes from standard code systems. This reality discourages research use of such databases, because researchers must invest considerable time in cleaning up the data before they can ask their first research question. Researchers at MIT developed MIMIC-II, a nearly complete collection of clinical data about intensive care patients. Because its data are drawn from existing clinical systems, it has many of the problems described above. In collaboration with the MIT researchers, we have begun a process of cleaning up the data and mapping the variable names and codes to LOINC codes. Our first step, which we describe here, was to map all of the laboratory test observations to LOINC codes. We were able to map 87% of the unique laboratory tests that cover 94% of the total number of laboratory tests results. Of the 13% of tests that we could not map, nearly 60% were due to test names whose real meaning could not be discerned and 29% represented tests that were not yet included in the LOINC table. These results suggest that LOINC codes cover most of laboratory tests used in critical care. We have delivered this work to the MIMIC-II researchers, who have included it in their standard MIMIC-II database release so that researchers who use this database in the future will not have to do this work. PMID:22561944

  17. Extensions to the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.; Buchholz, G.

    2011-11-01

    Since several years, the irradiation facility for beta radiation, the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2 developed at PTB, has been in worldwide use for the performance of irradiations with calibrated beta sources. Due to recent developments in eye tumor therapy, in eye lens dosimetry, and in soft- and hardware technology, several extensions have been added to the BSS 2. These extensions are described in this paper: 1. The possibility of using a 106Ru/106Rh beta source was added as this radionuclide is often used in tumor therapy. 2. The (small) contribution due to photon radiation was included in the dose (rate) reported by the BSS 2, as this was missing in the past. 3. The quantity personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm, Hp(3), was implemented due to recent findings on the radio sensitivity of the eye lens regarding cataract induction and the subsequent lowering of the dose limit from 150 mSv down to 20 mSv per year; 4. The correction for ambient conditions (air temperature, pressure, and relative humidity) was improved in order to adequately handle the quantity Hp(3) and in order to extend the range of use beyond 25°C. 5. A checksum test was added to the software to secure the calibration data against (un)intended changes. 6. The connection of the PC and the BSS 2 has been changed to a network interface (TCP/IP) in order to be able to use up-to-date computers not containing a parallel and a serial port. 7. A rod phantom was added in order to make sure the mechanical set-up is of high quality. All these extensions have been implemented in the PTB's BSS 2 model. The routine implementation of extension 1 is still under investigation by the manufacturer. The commercially available BSS 2 will contain extensions 2 to 6 starting approximately in 2012, while extension 7 has already been incorporated since 2011. Extensions 2 to 4 will also be available for old BSS 2 versions via a software update, starting approximately at the beginning of 2012. Extension 6 will be

  18. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

    SciTech Connect

    SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

    1998-10-23

    Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

  19. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-09-29

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

  20. Characterization of halogen lamps as secondary standard of luminous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. A. R.; Sanchez, O., Jr.; Ferreira, A. F. G., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a study of lamps characterization concerning its lamp output, current and voltage drift during seasoning and regarding the use of theses lamps as luminous flux secondary standard. The 200W halogen lamps are seasoned for 30 hours and during the seasoning period the relative drift of the lamp illuminance, current and voltage are measured at each 3 minutes. The illuminance is measured using a photometer with detector head, the lamp voltage is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and the current is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and 0.1 Ohms standard resistor. The lamp current is controlled by a calibrated current power source with stability better than 1 mA. To reduce the stray light, baffles are positioned between the lamp and the detector head. The alignment of experimental assembly is made by a He-Ne Laser. Data of illuminance, current and voltage is acquired by software built in Labview database. Among the 5 lamps seasoned, the best result presents the variation of illuminance of 0.04% per hour. This lamp is chosen to become the secondary standard and its luminous flux is measured using an Ulbricht integrating sphere. This method allows the laboratory to create secondary standard of luminous flux for its routine test and measurements and to supply theses standards for Brazilian industry.

  1. An automated secondary standard for calibrating liquid flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary working standard of flow calibration has been developed to be used in place of a primary weight-time standard, and which can thereby effect a 75 percent reduction in calibration time while maintaining acceptable accuracies. The secondary standard uses six previously calibrated turbine-type flowmeters built into two manifold systems containing automatically switched flow valves. The pair of systems is capable of covering the flow range of 0.0004 to 19 l/s (0.007 to 300 gpm) with the uncertainty in volume flow rate not exceeding + or - 0.25 percent over the range of 0.06 to 19 l/s and not exceeding + or - 0.5 percent over the range 0.0004 to 0.06 1/s. Data reduction and plotting of results are by computer.

  2. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described. PMID:11839059

  3. Distribution of radionuclides in an iron calibration standard for a free release measurement facility.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Stroh, Heiko; Marissens, Gerd; Tzika, Faidra; Lutter, Guillaume; Šurán, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Skala, Lukas; Sud, Jaromír

    2016-03-01

    A Europallet-sized calibration standard composed of 12 grey cast iron tubes contaminated with (60)Co and (110m)Ag with a mass of 246kg was developed. As the tubes were produced through centrifugal casting it was of particular concern to study the distribution of radionuclides in the radial direction of the tubes. This was done by removing 72 small samples (swarf) of ~0.3g each on both the inside and outside of the tubes. All of the samples were measured in the underground laboratory HADES. PMID:26597655

  4. A new absolute method for the standardization of radionuclides emitting low-energy radiation.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, E; de, Marcillac P; Coron, N; Leblanc, J; Loidl, M; Metge, J F; Bouchard, J

    2002-01-01

    Microcalorimeters (or bolometers) operated at temperatures below 100 mK allow individual counting of photons and electrons with a very low energy detection threshold. The physics is based on the pulse temperature increase of the target (or absorber) of the detector due to the complete absorption of both electrons and photons. Since this target can be constructed with a perfect 4-pi geometry, a bolometer offers potentially a new method for absolute activity measurements of radionuclides emitting low-energy radiation. In this paper we present our first results of a feasibility study of activity standardization of a 55Fe solution with a prototype 4-pi bolometer. PMID:11839023

  5. Performance demonstration of 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2016-02-01

    A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, a 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision. PMID:26678524

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  11. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  12. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  13. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  14. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  15. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  16. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  17. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  18. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  19. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  20. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  1. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  2. Use of channel electron multipliers as secondary standard detectors at EUV wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Lapson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The procedures available for photometric calibration at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths are outlined and the requirements for a secondary standard EUV photomultiplier defined. The performance of a number of commercially available channel electron multipliers over the 304-1350-A wavelength range is described, and their suitability for use as secondary standards is discussed in detail. Although none of the multipliers evaluated fully met the requirements for a secondary standard, it proved possible to calibrate absolutely a Mullard cone channel over the required wavelength range to an accuracy of plus or minus 9% and to employ it as a secondary standard in the calibration of a series of sounding rocket spectrometers.

  3. Use of Channel Electron Multipliers as Secondary Standard Detectors at EUV Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Timothy, J G; Lapson, L B

    1974-06-01

    The procedures available for photometric calibration at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths are outlined and the requirements for a secondary standard EUV photomultiplier defined. The performance of a number of commercially available channel electron multipliers over the 304-1350-A wavelength range is described and their suitability for use as secondary standards discussed in detail. Although none of the multipliers evaluated fully met the requirements for a secondary standard it proved possible to calibrate absolutely a Mullard cone channel over the required wavelength range to an accuracy of +/-9% and to employ it as a secondary standard in the calibration of a series of sounding rocket spectrometers. PMID:20126208

  4. Secondary standards laboratories for ionizing radiation calibrations: The national laboratory interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, P. I.; Campbell, G. W.

    1984-11-01

    The national laboratories are probable candidates to serve as secondary standards laboratories for the federal sector. Representatives of the major Department of Energy laboratories were polled concerning attitudes toward a secondary laboratory structure. Generally, the need for secondary laboratories was recognized and the development of such a program was encouraged. The secondary laboratories should be reviewed and inspected by the National Bureau of Standards. They should offer all of the essential, and preferably additional, calibration services in the field of radiological health protection. The selection of secondary laboratories should be based on economic and geographic criteria and/or be voluntary.

  5. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter, arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic...

  6. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS §...

  7. State Secondary Career and Technical Education Standards: Creating a Framework from a Patchwork of Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Harrison, Linda; Schneider, Sherrie

    2008-01-01

    Many states are currently working to define secondary career and technical education (CTE) content standards that specify the knowledge and skills students are expected to master in CTE program areas. This study explores the progress and status of states in developing statewide secondary CTE standards systems. An exhaustive online query of CTE…

  8. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... current rule. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032) must be received... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  9. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Time Commitment When Addressing the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William Benedict, III

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were officially released in America for mathematics and English language arts and soon adopted by 45 of the 50 states. However, within the English langue arts domain there were standards intended for secondary social studies teachers under the title, Common Core State Standards for English Language…

  10. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Experiences Implementing Common Core State Literacy Standards: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Krista Faith Huskey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the experiences of secondary social studies teachers who implemented Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects in social studies courses requiring End of Course Tests at secondary schools in one suburban…

  11. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...This proposed rule is being issued as required by a consent decree governing the schedule for completion of this review of the air quality criteria and the secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, EPA proposes to retain the current nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary......

  12. Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

  13. FCS National Standards: Do They Underpin Secondary Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Jones, Karen H.

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the seven standards that are included in a comprehensive (family-oriented) FCS program: (1) Family; (2) Nutrition and Wellness; (3) Human Development; (4) Interpersonal relationships; (5) Career, Community, and Family Connections; (6) Parenting; and (7) Family and Community Services. The study was conducted to better…

  14. Setting the Standard: Role Definition for a Secondary Literacy Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMeglio, Rachele A.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2010-01-01

    This case introduces Karen, a middle school literacy coach attempting to navigate the myriad tasks she performs. As she aims to satisfy everyone's needs Karen struggles to prioritize and focus her work. The accompanying teaching notes utilize the International Reading Association's "Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches" to…

  15. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  17. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  18. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  19. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  20. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  1. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the secondary lead smelting source category regulated under national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. These final amendments include revisions to the emissions limits for lead compounds; revisions to the standards for fugitive emissions; the addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions......

  2. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  4. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  5. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  6. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  7. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air... national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  8. Environmental standards for primary and secondary containment systems and transfer stations

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Standards for Primary and Secondary Containment Systems and Transfer Stations will supersede all previous requirements for design of dikes, storage tanks, and transfer stations in order to maintain consistency throughout the Y-12 Plant. This document is organized into six distinct sections, each with a specific purpose. Section I outlines the objectives of the document along with its applications and limitations; this section should be of interest to all readers for essential background information. Section II lists all definitions and is consistent with definitions outlined by environmental regulations. Section III discusses primary containment standards. Section IV outlines secondary containment standards; this section contains the actual standards for the diking of storage tanks and storage containers. Section V discusses transfer station standards. Section VI of this document outlines how exemptions may be granted for specific cases.

  9. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  10. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  11. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  12. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  13. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  14. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  15. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  16. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  17. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  18. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  19. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  20. State Secondary CTE Standards: Developing a Framework out of a Patchwork of Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Harrison, Linda; Schneider, Sherrie

    2007-01-01

    Many state educational administrators are currently working to define secondary career and technical education (CTE) content standards that specify the knowledge and skills students are expected to master in CTE program areas. The two-phase project on which this report is based explored (a) the progress and status of states in developing statewide…

  1. Jordanian Vocational, Secondary Education Teachers and Acquisition of the National Professional Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajeh, Hesham I.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to estimate the level of acquisition of the Jordanian national professional standards by vocational, secondary education teachers. Two hundred teachers participated in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Questionnaire validity was assessed by content validity,…

  2. The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faizi, Waqar-un-Nisa; Shakil, Anila Fatima; Lodhi, Farida Azim

    2011-01-01

    The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was both "government and private" schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

  3. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  4. Language Arts Core Curriculum: Secondary Core Curriculum Standards. Levels 7-12, Language Arts (Drama). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This curriculum guide presents the core standards and objectives for level 7-12 language arts instruction in Utah. The curriculum guide begins with a statement of the elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. After a brief statement on the importance of language arts and core curriculum standards…

  5. Applying Standards for Leaders to the Selection of Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Helen; Pepper, Coral; Guanzhong, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report innovative research aimed at ascertaining whether standards for school leaders could be applied to the process of selecting senior secondary school principals for appointment. Specifically, psychometrically robust measures of performance are sought that would sufficiently differentiate performance to…

  6. Standardization of radionuclide by beta(LS)-gamma coincidence counting using the geometry-efficiency variation method.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Han-Yull; Sung, Ki Suk; Lee, K B; Lee, Jong Man; Park, Tae Soon

    2006-01-01

    A liquid scintillation counting method consisting of three photomultiplier tubes for beta counters and a NaI(Tl) gamma counter has been developed for the standardization of radionuclides with the beta-gamma coincidence technique. The beta detection efficiency functions are obtained by means of a geometry-variation method developed in the present work; an array of beta detectors is moved uniformly at the same time from a centrally located counting vial to 50 mm. The method has been applied in the standardization of 60Co and 134Cs. Unquenched liquid scintillation samples with nominal count rates from 1000 to 6000 s-1 were prepared. The observed beta detection efficiencies with this method are from 90 to 45% in the case of 60Co, and from 84 to 50% for 134Cs. The output of each beta channel is summed together and compared with gamma data by the coincidence analyzer. The dead time of each counting channel is adjusted to be 20 micros, sufficiently long to suppress the afterpulses in the beta counting channel. The activity of each sample is determined by using the Cox and Isham formula. The obtained results are in good agreement with KRISS certified values. PMID:16580222

  7. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  8. Use and qualification of primary and secondary standards employed in quantitative ¹H NMR spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; McEwen, Ian; Johansson, Monika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2014-05-01

    Standards are required in quantitative NMR (qNMR) to obtain accurate and precise results. In this study acetanilide was established and used as a primary standard. Six other chemicals were selected as secondary standards: 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethylterephthalate, maleic acid, 3-sulfolene, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The secondary standards were quantified using the primary standard acetanilide. A protocol for qualification and periodic checks of these secondary standards was developed, and used for evaluation of the stability of the compounds. Periodic monitoring of purity was performed for several years. The purity was higher than 99% for all secondary standards. All standards maintained the initial purity during the time period of monitoring, with very small variations in purity (0.3-0.4%). The selected secondary standards were shown to be suitable qNMR standards and that periodic requalification of the standards by qNMR ensures reliable analytical results. These standards have been used in our laboratory for compliance testing of pharmaceutical active substances and approved medicinal products as well as for analysis of suspected illegal medicines. In total more than 1000 samples have been tested using both internal and external standardization and examples are given. PMID:24206940

  9. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  15. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... a proposal addressing the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) secondary...

  16. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  2. Reissue of the American National Standard N42.14-1998: Calibration and use of germanium spectrometers for the measurement of gamma-ray emission rate of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Koskelo, M.; Montgomery, D.M.; Schima, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    The American National Standard entitled, Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides has been reissued as N42-14-1998 and is now available from either the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) or the American National Standards Institute. This performance standard contains the same information and tests of hardware and software as the previous edition but has been updated and reorganized to simplify its use by practitioners of gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, a number of typographical and technical errors were identified and corrected. Not only does this standard find use in testing the performance of germanium gamma-ray spectrometer hardware, it is also used to test spectral analysis programs. In addition, it has been used as an aid in writing specifications in the procurement of germanium detectors and as a monograph in the teaching of gamma-ray spectrometry.

  3. Source geometry factors for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. R.; Sander, T.; Nutbrown, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated 192Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber. Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR 192Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, ksg, is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources. In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000 Plus well chamber with a type 70010 HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR 192Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR 192Ir Flexisource ksg was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper.

  4. Teaching a Standard-Based Communicative English Textbook Series to Secondary School Students in Egypt: Investigating Teachers' Practices and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Since any standards-based reform is made to bring about an improvement in students' learning, it requires changes in teachers' practices as well. This study examined how a standards-based communicative curricular reform in general secondary school English in Egypt has changed teachers' classroom practices, and the factors influencing such…

  5. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  6. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  7. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  8. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  9. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  10. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  11. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  12. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  13. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  14. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  15. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the…

  16. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  18. Handbook on Tentative Standards and Procedures for the Registration of Secondary Schools. 1979-80 Field Trial Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This handbook contains the tentative secondary school registration standards and procedures approved by the New York State Board of Regents for the 1979-80 school year. It explains the program providing for the registration (or accreditation) of New York schools and outlines the steps that will make up the registration procedure. Most of the…

  19. A Comparison of Secondary Principals' Use of Data Systems to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics as Measured by Standardized Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…

  20. Bypass, Augment, or Integrate: How Secondary Mathematics Teachers Address the Literacy Demands of Standards-Based Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Doerr, Helen M.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Masingila, Joanna O.

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year qualitative study examined how 26 teachers in four U.S. secondary schools addressed the literacy demands of curriculum materials based on standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. It was grounded in sociocultural perspectives that encourage study of language in local contexts, including classrooms, communities,…

  1. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  2. Investigation and Development of Competency Standards and Certification Requirements for Secondary-Level Vocational Foodservice Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiewicz, Ronald A.

    An investigation ascertained, analyzed, and documented competency standards and certification requirements for secondary-level vocational food service programs. A literature review produced no instruments used in past studies to measure the attitudes of food service professionals toward task competencies. Six occupations were selected for the…

  3. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  4. Track structure simulation for positron emitters of physical interest. Part III: The case of the non-standard radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Loirec, C.; Champion, C.

    2007-11-01

    With the growth of clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) utilizations, new molecular tracers, able to aid in the assessment, therapy planning and monitoring of cancer patients, are synthesized. As suggested by some works reported in the literature, these newcomers may be positron emitting isotopes of lanthanium, 134La, iodine, 120I, 121I and 124I, arsenic, 72As and 74As, oxygen, 14O, and neon, 19Ne. In this work, we present an inter comparison of these eight radiopharmaceuticals which may be used in PET. To do that we have used a Monte Carlo simulation of positron following-up in water that we have adapted to the beta decay of radionuclides. We have also access to accurate spatial and energetic distributions of the potential PET radiopharmaceuticals under investigation here. The results are given in an analytical way and have been compared, when possible, with theoretical and experimental values available in the literature.

  5. [Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Ruder Bosković Institute, Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Vekić, Branko; Ban, Renata; Miljanić, Saveta

    2006-06-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Ruder Bosković Institute (SSDL), Zagreb, Croatia, was set up over the last few years with a strong support by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Technical Cooperation Project CRO/1/004, Establishing Calibration Services. The SSDL occupies two calibration rooms, each 9.6 m long and 6 m wide and each with proper air conditioning. Their walls are concrete and 1 m thick, and the entrance doors are plated with lead to protect the control rooms and the surroundings against radiation. In the first calibration room in the basement, there are two sealed sources which share the same, 6 m long calibration bench. A 30 TBq 60Co source on one side of the bench is used for calibrating ionising chambers and other high-dose radiation equipment. The irradiation unit on the other side of the bench combines two sealed sources, that is, a 740 MBq 137Cs source and a 185 MBq 60Co source, and is used for radiation protection purposes. It has three attenuators with nominal attenuations of x10, x100, and x1000. The second calibration room, which is just above the first, accommodates an X-ray unit (ISOVOLT 420, 40 kV to 300 kV, 1 mA to 20 mA) with a 5 m long calibration bench, aperture wheel assembly designed to modify the X-ray beam diameter to meet various configuration requirements for calibration instruments, a set of filter assemblies to control beam definition according to ISO 4037-3, and a half-value layer kit. PMID:16832975

  6. Standardization of the radionuclides (60)Co and (59)Fe by digital 4πβ(PC)-γ(NaI) coincidence counting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Yao, Shunhe; Liang, Junchen; Liu, Haoran

    2016-03-01

    The digital coincidence counting (DCC) technique has been developed at NIM, China to replace the classical analog coincidence units in the 4πβ-γ counting system. The detector system comprises two NaI (Tl) γ-ray detectors and a 4πβ proportional counter (PC) operated with a mixture of argon and methane at atmospheric pressure in a gas flow arrangement. To update the activity results of radionuclide (60)Co in the KCDB and contribute to the APMP.RI(II)-K2.Fe-59 comparison, (60)Co and (59)Fe dry sources were prepared and measured using the digital 4πβ(PC)-γ(NaI) coincidence system by applying the efficiency extrapolation method. For (60)Co nuclide, the activity concentration value equal to 290.6kBqg(-1) with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.26%, is consistent with the result given by the calibrated ionization chamber. For the nuclide (59)Fe, the activity concentration value at the reference date was 471.7kBqg(-1) with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.34%. This value is in good agreement with the result obtained with the HPGe γ spectrometry, which was calibrated by using a series of standard point sources from PTB. PMID:26651175

  7. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  12. Estimation of the radionuclide transport by applying the mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Niibori, Y.; Tochiyama, O.; Chida, T.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have investigated the characteristic permeability on the basis of some probability density functions of permeability, applying the Monte Carlo method and FEM. It was found that its value does not depend on type of probability density function of permeability, but on the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability. This paper describes the use of the stochastic values of permeability for estimating the rate of radioactivity release to the accessible environment, applying the advection-dispersion model to two-dimensional, heterogeneous media. When a discrete probability density function (referred to as the Bernoulli trials) and the lognormal distribution have common values for the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability, the calculated transport rates (described as the pseudo impulse responses) show good agreements for Peclet number around 10 and the dimensionless standard deviation around 1. Further, it is found that the transport rates apparently depends not only on the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation, but also on the skewness of permeability. When the value of skewness does not follow the lognormal distribution which has only two independent parameters (the mean and the standard deviation), the authors can replicate the three moments estimated from an observed distribution of permeability, by using the Bernoulli trials having three independent parameters.

  13. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... 1971. These standards were set at a level of 0.053 parts per million (ppm) as an annual average (36 FR... EPA proposed to retain the standards set in 1971 (49 FR 6866). After taking into account public comments, the EPA published the final decision to retain these standards in June 1985 (50 FR 25532)....

  14. Addressing the English Language Arts Technology Standard in a Secondary Reading Methodology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkley, Donna J.; Schmidt, Denise A.; Allen, Gayle

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts to integrate technology into a reading methodology course for secondary English majors. Discusses the use of e-mail, multimedia, distance education for videoconferences, online discussion technology, subject-specific software, desktop publishing, a database management system, a concept mapping program, and the use of the World…

  15. Teacher-Reported Use of Empirically Validated and Standards-Based Instructional Approaches in Secondary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Maccini, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A random sample of 167 secondary special and general educators who taught math to students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and learning disabilities (LD) responded to a mail survey. The survey examined teacher perceptions of (a) definition of math; (b) familiarity with course topics; (c) effectiveness of methods courses; (d)…

  16. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... the proposed rule published February 14, 2012, (77 FR 8576) is being extended for 14 days to April 13... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of...

  17. WATER EXERCISE COMPARED TO LAND EXERCISE OR STANDARD CARE IN FEMALE CANCER SURVIVORS WITH SECONDARY LYMPHEDEMA.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, H; Enblom, A; Dunberger, G; Nyberg, T; Bergmark, K

    2015-06-01

    There are few studies showing that physical exercise can improve secondary lymphedema. We hypothesized that water exercise would be more effective than land exercise in reducing limb volume. Secondary objectives were joint movement, BMI, daily function, well-being, and body image. Limb volume was measured with circumference or was volumetric. Well-being and body image were measured with a study-specific questionnaire and daily function with DASH and HOOS questionnaires. Eighty-eight eligible patients with secondary lymphedema after breast or gynecological cancer participated in this controlled clinical intervention study. There was a higher proportion of women who participated in water exercises who reduced their secondary arm limb volume (p = 0.029), and there were also significant differences for BMI (p = 0.047) and self-reported frequency of swelling (p = 0.031) in the water exercise group after intervention. Women with arm lymphedema in the land exercise group improved DASH scores (p = 0.047) and outer rotation in the shoulder (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that to reduce objective and self-reported swelling, lymphedema patients may be offered water exercise training while to improve daily shoulder function, land exercises are preferred. To guide female cancer survivors with lymphedema to effective exercise resulting in reduced limb volume and improved function, adequate evidenced-based programs are needed. PMID:26714371

  18. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  19. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  20. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  1. Critical Supports for Secondary Educators in Common Core State Standard Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchti, Wendy P.; Jenkins, Susan J.; Agamba, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Teacher professional development (PD) is a complex, ongoing challenge as educational systems attempt to deliver excellent programming in pursuit of increased student achievement (Opfer and Pedder 2011). This article examines Idaho Total Instructional Alignment (TIA), a model for teacher PD that is currently being utilized in secondary schools…

  2. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  3. Quantification of xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 8-prenylnaringenin, and 6-prenylnaringenin in hop extracts and derived capsules using secondary standards.

    PubMed

    Dhooghe, Liene; Naessens, Tania; Heyerick, Arne; De Keukeleire, Denis; Vlietinck, Arnold J; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2010-12-15

    Hop is a well-known and already frequently used estrogenic phytotherapeutic, containing the interesting prenylflavonoids, xanthohumol (XN), isoxanthohumol (IXN), 8- and 6-prenylnaringenin (8-PN and 6-PN). Since the use of secondary standards can form a solution whenever the determination is required of certain components, not commercially available or too expensive, it was decided to develop an accessible HPLC-DAD method for the determination of these prenylflavonoids. The amounts were determined in hop extract and capsules, using quercetin and naringenin as secondary standards. After optimization of the sample preparation and HPLC conditions, the analysis was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The response function of XN, 8-PN, quercetin and naringenin showed a linear relationship. For the determination of XN, a calibration line of at least three concentrations of quercetin has to be constructed. The correction factors for XN (quercetin) and for 8-PN (naringenin) were validated and determined to be 0.583 for XN, and 1.296 for IXN, 8-PN and 6-PN. The intermediate precision was investigated and it could be concluded that the standard deviation of the method was equal considering time and concentration (RSD of 2.5-5%). By means of a recovery experiment, it was proven that the method is accurate (recoveries of 96.1-100.1%). Additionally, by analysing preparations containing hop extracts on the Belgian market, it was shown that the method is suitable for its use, namely the determination of XN, IXN, 8-PN and 6-PN in hop extract and capsules, using quercetin and naringenin as secondary standards. PMID:21111159

  4. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  5. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  6. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  7. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 36.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Minimum... content areas: (1) Language arts (communication skills). (2) Sciences. (3) Mathematics. (4) Social...

  8. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 36.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Minimum... content areas: (1) Language arts (communication skills). (2) Sciences. (3) Mathematics. (4) Social...

  9. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  10. Critical review and rethinking of USEPA secondary standards for maintaining organoleptic quality of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Andrea M; Burlingame, Gary A

    2015-01-20

    Consumers assess their tap water primarily by its taste, odor, and appearance. Starting in 1979, USEPA promulgated Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs) as guidance for contaminants with organoleptic effects and also to maintain consumers’ confidence in tap water. This review assesses the basis for the 15 SMCLs (aluminum, chloride, color, copper, corrosivity, fluoride, foaming agents, iron, manganese, odor, pH, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids, zinc) and summarizes advances in scientific knowledge since their promulgation. SMCLs for aluminum, color, pH, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and zinc are appropriate at current values and remain consistent with sensory science literature. Recent advances in sensory and health sciences indicate that SMCLs for chloride, copper, fluoride, iron, and manganese are too high to minimize organoleptic effects. The SMCLs for corrosivity and foaming agents may be outdated. The SMCL for odor requires rethinking as the test does not correlate with consumer complaints. Since current stresses on source and treated waters include chemical spills, algal blooms, and increased salinization, organoleptic episodes that negatively impact consumer confidence and perception of tap water still occur and may increase. Thus, adherence to SMCLs can help maintain production of palatable water along with consumers’ confidence in their water providers. PMID:25517292

  11. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: The SHARPn project

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A.; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E.; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G.; Haug, Peter J.; Huff, Stanley M.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation’s health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation’s many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or ‘liquidity’ of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. PMID:22326800

  12. Adrenal insufficiency in a woman secondary to standard-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Casey M; Spratt, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 55-year-old woman with asthma presented with adrenal insufficiency of unknown origin. She was referred to our Division of Reproductive Endocrinology to further evaluate an undetectable morning cortisol level discovered during the evaluation of a low serum DHEA-S level. She was asymptomatic other than having mild fatigue and weight gain. Her medication list included 220 μg of inhaled fluticasone propionate twice daily for asthma, which she was taking as prescribed. On presentation, the undetectable morning cortisol level was confirmed. A urinary measurement of fluticasone propionate 17β-carboxylic acid was markedly elevated. Fluticasone therapy was discontinued and salmeterol therapy initiated with supplemental hydrocortisone. Hydrocortisone therapy was discontinued after 2 months. A repeat urinary fluticasone measurement 4 months after the discontinuation of fluticasone therapy was undetectably low and morning cortisol level was normal at 18.0 μg/dl. Inhaled fluticasone is generally considered to be minimally systemically absorbed. This patient's only clinical evidence suggesting adrenal insufficiency was fatigue accompanying a low serum DHEA-S level. This case demonstrates that adrenal insufficiency can be caused by a routine dose of inhaled fluticasone. Missing this diagnosis could potentially result in adrenal crisis upon discontinuation of fluticasone therapy. Learning points Standard-dose inhaled fluticasone can cause adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency should be considered in patients taking, or who have recently discontinued, inhaled fluticasone therapy and present with new onset of nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, depression, myalgia, arthralgia, unexplained weight loss, and nausea that are suggestive of adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency should be considered in postoperative patients who exhibit signs of hypoadrenalism after fluticasone therapy has been withheld in the perioperative setting.Routine screening

  13. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  17. Common Pressures, Same Results? Recent Reforms in Professional Standards and Competences in Teacher Education for Secondary Teachers in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the introduction of professional standards and competences in initial teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany has provided the cornerstone of education reform in all three countries. The precise number and specific content of a measurable set of skills for teachers have offered challenges for…

  18. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  20. SECONDARY STANDARD CALIBRATION, MEASUREMENT AND IRRADIATION CAPABILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICE AT THE HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM MÜNCHEN: ASPECTS OF UNCERTAINTY AND AUTOMATION.

    PubMed

    Greiter, M B; Denk, J; Hoedlmoser, H

    2016-09-01

    The individual monitoring service at the Helmholtz Zentrum München has adopted the recommendations of the ISO 4037 and 6980 standards series as base of its dosimetric systems for X-ray, gamma and beta dosimetry. These standards define technical requirements for radiation spectra and measurement processes, but leave flexibility in the implementation of irradiations as well as in the resulting uncertainty in dose or dose rate. This article provides an example for their practical implementation in the Munich IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. It focusses on two aspects: automation issues and uncertainties in calibration. PMID:26838065

  1. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid wastes when used as fuels or ingredients in...) SOLID WASTES SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion...

  2. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid wastes when used as fuels or ingredients in...) SOLID WASTES SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion...

  3. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid wastes when used as fuels or ingredients in...) SOLID WASTES SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion...

  4. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  5. Radionuclide cystogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder. There is a small amount of radiation exposure with any nuclear scan (it comes from the radioisotope, not the scanner). The exposure is less than with standard x-rays. The radiation is very mild. Nearly all the radiation is ...

  6. The Next Generation Science Standards, Common Core State Standards, and English Learners: Using the SSTELLA Framework to Prepare Secondary Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Sara; Stoddart, Trish; Lyon, Edward G.; Solis, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on a critical issue in STEM education: preparing novice secondary school teachers to provide effective science instruction to the rapidly growing population of students from language minority groups who traditionally have been underserved in STEM education and who are underrepresented in STEM degrees and careers (National…

  7. Investigation of a 0.6 hub-tip radius-ratio transonic turbine designed for secondary-flow study I : design and experimental performance of standard turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlik, Harold E; Wintucky, William T; Scibbe, Herbert W

    1957-01-01

    Detailed design information including overall performance parameters, velocity diagrams, and blade surface velocities is presented. Experimental performance includes maps based on rating as well as total-pressure ratios showing the effect of exit whirl. Also included are results of surveys at the stator exit and downstream of the rotor at design speed and specific work. This information will be used as a standard for comparison with subsequent secondary-flow work.

  8. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  9. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  10. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  11. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  12. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  13. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  14. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  15. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  16. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  17. 75 FR 61486 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft (75 FR 57463, September... an atmospheric chemistry perspective as well as from an environmental effects perspective,...

  18. Bioinformatics in the secondary science classroom: A study of state content standards and students' perceptions of, and performance in, bioinformatics lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wefer, Stephen H.

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern Biology marks a new revolution in science, which promises to influence science education at all levels. This thesis examined state standards for content that articulated bioinformatics, and explored secondary students' affective and cognitive perceptions of, and performance in, a bioinformatics mini-unit. The results are presented as three studies. The first study analyzed secondary science standards of 49 U.S States (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics at the introductory high school biology level. The bionformatics content of each state's Biology standards were categorized into nine areas and the prevalence of each area documented. The nine areas were: The Human Genome Project, Forensics, Evolution, Classification, Nucleotide Variations, Medicine, Computer Use, Agriculture/Food Technology, and Science Technology and Society/Socioscientific Issues (STS/SSI). Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics related content, which varied substantially across the different areas. Recommendations are made for reworking existing standards to incorporate bioinformatics and to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy in this emerging new field among secondary school students. The second study examined thirty-two students' affective responses to, and content mastery of, a two-week bioinformatics mini-unit. The findings indicate that the students generally were positive relative to their interest level, the usefulness of the lessons, the difficulty level of the lessons, likeliness to engage in additional bioinformatics, and were overall successful on the assessments. A discussion of the results and significance is followed by suggestions for future research and implementation for transferability. The third study presents a case study of individual differences among ten secondary school students, whose cognitive and affective percepts were

  19. Secondary analysis of anthropometric data from a South African national food consumption survey, using different growth reference standards.

    PubMed

    Bosman, L; Herselman, M G; Kruger, H S; Labadarios, D

    2011-11-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references were used to analyse anthropometric data from the 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of South Africa. Since then, however, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standards were released. It was anticipated that these reference and standards may lead to differences in the previous estimates of stunting, wasting, underweight and obesity in the study population. The aim was to compare the anthropometric status of children using the 1977 NCHS, the 2000 CDC growth references and the 2006 WHO standards. All children 12-60 months of age with a complete set of anthropometric data were included in the analyses. Data for 1,512 children were analysed with SAS 9.1 for Windows. A Z-score was calculated for each child for weight-for-age (W/A), weight-for-length/height (W/H), length/height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age, using each of the three reference or standards for comparison. The prevalence of stunting, obesity and overweight were significantly higher and the prevalence of underweight and wasting were lower when using the WHO standards compared to the NCHS and the CDC references. The higher than previously established prevalence of stunting at 20.1% and combined overweight/obesity at 30% poses a challenge to South African policy makers to implement nutrition programmes to decrease the prevalence of both stunting and overweight. The 2006 WHO growth standard should be the standard used for assessment of growth of infants and children younger than 5 years in developing countries. PMID:20859760

  20. VALIDATION OF ANSI N42.34 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HAND-HELD INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T.

    2014-09-03

    SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.

  1. 76 FR 59599 - Extension of Comment Period for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ..., 2011, (76 FR 46084) and is available on the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/no2so2sec/cr_fr.html . How can I get copies of this document and other related information? The EPA has... Federal Register on August 1, 2011, (76 FR 46084) for detailed information on accessing...

  2. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... airport security procedures. After passing through the equipment, all persons must sign in at the guard... the notice of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2011, (76 FR 46084....epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/no2so2sec/cr_fr.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you would...

  3. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  4. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  5. The Impact of Curriculum Changes and Implementation of Secondary Mathematics Georgia Performance Standards on Teacher Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Teachers generally experience a decline in self-efficacy levels during a curriculum change, and Georgia converted from a Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) to Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) the last several years. Middle and high school math teachers experienced an annual tiered rollout of the mathematics curriculum, and this qualitative study was…

  6. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  7. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units. To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include 60Co air kerma (NK) and absorbed dose to water (ND,W) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations. The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  8. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  9. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Investigating the impact of course-taking on the standardized test performance of secondary science students in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Bryan Scott

    2007-12-01

    The latest reform efforts in American education have called for the improvement of science education and greater accountability for results. Standardization of schools, curriculum, and testing has emerged as the preferred method of addressing the increasing pressures of accountability systems designed to ensure student achievement. Increasing course-taking requirements has been a popular response intended to maximize student potential. Texas, like other states, has pursued that course. Texas students must take a minimum of two science courses to graduate; most, however, take three. Students must also pass a science assessment in the eleventh grade, which is similar to a test taken in the tenth grade, and measures mastery of objectives covered primarily in the ninth- and tenth-grades, meaning the instruction most students receive in the eleventh grade amounts to enrichment instruction. This study was designed to investigate the impact of completing an extra science course on student achievement in terms of improvement on these tests. The results of the study were derived from descriptive analysis and a one-way ANOVA performed on a random sample of over 16,000 students. Based on the ANOVA, there was a significant effect of increased science instruction on mean pre-test/post-test score change (F(2,16530) = 44.903, p=.000). The descriptive analysis concluded that more students who completed a science class increased their scores than those who did not complete a class. Overall, however, the study points to a need for future research to uncover additional factors that influence student achievement.

  12. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  13. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  14. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  15. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  16. Measurement of nuclear-physical characteristics of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Geidel'man, A.M.; Egorov, Yu.S.; Nedovesov, V.G.; Shchukin, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This article provides the revised data for the nuclear-physical characteristics (NPC) measurements of seven radionuclides: /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 125m/Te, /sup 119m/Sn, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 120/Tm. These radionuclides are widely used in the preparation of various radionuclide products, standard sources of ionizing radiation, and standard solutions. The emission characteristics data for the nuclides may be used for calibration of semiconductor spectrometers with regard to energy and efficiency.

  17. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  18. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  19. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  20. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  1. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  2. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  3. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    PubMed

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time. PMID:22267274

  4. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  5. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  6. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  7. Behavior patterns of radionuclides in floodplain landscapes of the Techa River in the Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.; Pozolotina, V.N.; Yushkov, P.I.; Mikhailovskaya, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors studied peculiarities of the behavior of long-lived radionuclides in floodplain landscapes of the Techa River. The effect of floodplain soil formation and hydrological conditions on the radionuclides` migration in the soil and plant cover was noted. The question of the role of floodplain landscapes as geochemical barriers and sources of secondary contamination of the Ob river system is discussed.

  8. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used to look for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed The health care provider will inject ...

  9. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, R J; James, I R; Jennings, P J; Koeyers, J E

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of radionuclides in the environment, which are usually based on the construction of lines of equal concentrations. The paper focuses on the methodology of quantitatively correlating activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in two groups of minerals. The methodology is widely applicable, but is demonstrated for natural radioactivity in beach sands along the coast of South West Australia. PMID:11214891

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  11. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B. III

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  12. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  13. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  14. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  15. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  16. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  18. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  19. Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  1. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  2. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    the improvement in accuracy and precision of measurement as demanded by the stringent requirements of the user community, such as the correct calibration of nuclear instrumentation. This leads into the need for traceability to national measurement standards maintained by the national metrology institutes. As part of the radioactivity traceability chain, as for all areas of metrology, it is vital that systems are in place to ensure that national standards can be checked for worldwide uniformity and measurement equivalence. Many of the resulting areas are covered by the topics in this special issue, although specifically excluded from the scope of the publication are topics that are widely covered in other publications due to their application in applied metrology—for example, radiochemistry, environmental gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. There are three sections to this issue, starting with papers on how the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement has been implemented for radionuclide metrology, following into the bulk of the publication with articles on the `state of the art' in radionuclide metrology and ending with traceability to national/international standards in nuclear medicine, environmental monitoring, radiation protection and decommissioning. This special issue in essence follows on from earlier BIPM Monographies that were published in order to provide the base information for radionuclide metrology. In many respects they complement the special issue since much of their content is still valid today, particularly those published more recently as an aid to ensuring consistency of method and data. The BIPM Monographies are freely available to download from the BIPM website at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/monographies-ri.html. The papers in the special issue draw on the experience of radionuclide metrologists who have been involved in their area of expertise for many years. The authors give readers an insightful account of the selected topics

  3. Radionuclide bone scanning in subtalar coalitions: differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.B.; Pavlov, H.; Schneider, R.

    1982-03-01

    The radionuclide bone scan is a noninvasive screening procedure which can help in identifying or confirming subtalar coalitions in patients with foot and/or ankle pain of unknown origin in whom routine plain film studies are inconclusive. Five patients (seven symptomatic feet) with clinical and plain film findings suggesting a subtalar coalition are presented. The radionuclide bone scans in four patients (six feet) with documented subtalar coalitions demonstrated augmented uptake in the subtalar joint in all six feet and a secondary area of augmented concentration in the superior aspect of the talus or talonavicular joint in five feet. The radionuclide bone scan was normal in the one patient who was later proved not to have a coalition. The scans of 100 patients with foot pain of other etiologies were reviewed, and in no instance did the scan demonstrate the combination of subtalar and talus or talonavicular uptake observed in the patients with coalitions.

  4. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain ...

  5. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  6. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  7. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  8. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  9. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  11. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  12. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  13. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  14. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  15. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  17. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  18. An Examination of Secondary School Teachers' Technology Integration Recommended by ISTE's National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and School Principal Support for Teacher Technology Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The National Educational Technology Standards for teachers (NETS-T) was adopted by New York State, and was critical to the development of students entering a global society. This study examines teachers' use of digital tools to promote student learning and reflection, promote digital citizenship, communicate and collaborate with parents and…

  19. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  2. 40 CFR 197.30 - What standards must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public... of undisturbed performance after disposal, releases of radionuclides from waste in the Yucca...

  3. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  4. Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gulenchyn, K Y; Yao, X; Asa, S L; Singh, S; Law, C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in patients with different types of advanced neuroendocrine tumour (NETs). A literature search was carried out in MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1998 to November 2010. The Cochrane Library (to Issue 10, 2010) and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence Inventory of Cancer Guidelines, including over 1100 English-language cancer guidelines from January 2003 to June 2010, were also checked. No existing systematic reviews or clinical practice guidelines based on a systematic review or randomised controlled trials focusing on this topic were found. Twenty-four fully published articles were abstracted and summarised: 16 articles focused on five peptide receptor radionuclide therapy ((111)In-DTPAOC, (90)Y-DOTALAN, (90)Y-DOTATOC, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and (177)Lu-DOTATATE) and eight focused on (131)I-MIBG treatment. Limited evidence from a historical comparison of studies in one centre supported that (177)Lu-DOTATATE might be associated with greater clinical outcomes compared with (90)Y-DOTATOC or (111)In-DTPAOC. The severe toxicities for (177)Lu-DOTATATE included hepatic insufficiency in 0.6%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 0.8% and renal insufficiency in 0.4% of patients in this study. Insufficient evidence suggested efficacy of (131)I-MIBG in adult NET patients, but the overall tumour response rate from (131)I-MIBG was 27-75% for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma. Haematological toxicities were the main severe side-effects after (131)I-MIBG and 4% of patients developed secondary malignancies in one study. To date, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy seems to be an acceptable option and is relatively safe in adult advanced NET patients with receptor uptake positive on scintigraphy, but patients' renal function must be monitored. (131)I-MIBG may be effective for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma, but its side-effects need to be

  5. Secondary causes of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Vodnala, Deepthi; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D

    2012-09-15

    The causes of the lipid disorders in patients referred to specialty clinics for difficult-to-treat dyslipidemias are likely multifactorial. However, the importance of evaluating for secondary causes is unclear. The investigators performed a chart review of new patients referred to the University of Michigan Lipid Clinic from January 2004 to June 2011 (n = 824) to evaluate for the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. In addition to lipoproteins, new patients were assessed for secondary dyslipidemias by a standardized protocol consisting of laboratory testing, a nutritional evaluation, and medical history. These data were evaluated to determine the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. A total of 363 separate factors were identified in the 824 patients that were thought to be potential secondary causes of dyslipidemia. Because some patients (n = 83 [10%]) had multiple conditions, there were 230 (28% of the cohort) with ≥1 potential secondary dyslipidemias. The most common conditions were excessive alcohol intake (n = 82 [10%]), uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (n = 68 [8%]), and overt albuminuria. Although other causes occurred less frequently (each individually found in <5% of patients), altogether they were present in a substantial portion of patients (n = 102 [12%]). In conclusion, nearly 1/3 of patients referred to a specialty clinic had identifiable secondary conditions plausibly contributing to their dyslipidemia. Numerous disorders were identified, with diabetes mellitus and excessive alcohol being the most common. PMID:22658245

  6. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  7. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  8. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Müller, E.; Bosbach, D.

    2011-09-01

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO 2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO 2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Jülich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl 2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl x-Al and U 3Si 2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl 2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe 2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH) 3(s) and Eu(OH) 3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot

  9. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2003-06-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  10. Clinical Brain Death with False Positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scans

    PubMed Central

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Bughio, Sara; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Practice guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology for the determination of brain death in adults define brain death as “the irreversible loss of function of the brain, including the brainstem.” Neurological determination of brain death is primarily based on clinical examination; if clinical criteria are met, a definitive confirmatory test is indicated. The apnea test remains the gold standard for confirmation. In patients with factors that confound the clinical determination or when apnea tests cannot safely be performed, an ancillary test is required to confirm brain death. Confirmatory ancillary tests for brain death include (a) tests of electrical activity (electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials) and (b) radiologic examinations of blood flow (contrast angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), and radionuclide methods). Of these, however, radionuclide studies are used most commonly. Here we present data from two patients with a false positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scan (RCPS). PMID:26167307