Science.gov

Sample records for secure communication systems

  1. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  2. Secure video communications systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  3. DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) preliminary communication security analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document a technical approach to improve DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) dial-up communications security and the requirements to address them. This document is not intended as a comprehensive analysis of the security aspects of the DISS computer system but rather as an analysis of the dial-up communications security as it pertains to the use of the DISS database in the new DOE Automated Visitors Access Control System (DAVACS) procedures. Current access controls into the DISS will be discussed with emphasis on the DAVACS procedures. Recommendations will be provided for increasing the dial-up communications security into DISS as it relates to the automated visit procedures. Finally a design for an encrypted dial-up communication link to DISS will be given.

  4. Security aspects of RFID communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bîndar, Valericǎ; Popescu, Mircea; Bǎrtuşicǎ, Rǎzvan; Craciunescu, Razvan; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of basic technical elements and security risks of RFID communication systems and to analyze the possible threats arising from the use of RFID systems. A number of measurements are performed on a communication system including RFID transponder and the tag reader, and it has been determined that the uplink signal level is 62 dB larger than the average value of the noise at the distance of 1m from the tag, therefore the shielding effectiveness has to exceed this threshold. Next, the card has been covered with several shielding materials and measurements were carried, under similar conditions to test the recovery of compromising signals. A very simple protection measure to prevent unauthorized reading of the data stored on the card has been proposed, and some electromagnetic shielding materials have been proposed and tested.

  5. Random digital encryption secure communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The design of a secure communication system is described. A product code, formed from two pseudorandom sequences of digital bits, is used to encipher or scramble data prior to transmission. The two pseudorandom sequences are periodically changed at intervals before they have had time to repeat. One of the two sequences is transmitted continuously with the scrambled data for synchronization. In the receiver portion of the system, the incoming signal is compared with one of two locally generated pseudorandom sequences until correspondence between the sequences is obtained. At this time, the two locally generated sequences are formed into a product code which deciphers the data from the incoming signal. Provision is made to ensure synchronization of the transmitting and receiving portions of the system.

  6. Secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.

  7. A protocol for secure communication in large distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. P.; Ferrari, D.; Rangan, P. V.; Sartirana, B.

    1987-01-01

    A mechanism for secure communication in large distributed systems is proposed. The mechanism, called Authenticated Datagram Protocol (ADP), provides message authentication and, optionally, privacy of data. ADP is a host-to-host datagram protocol, positioned below the transport layer; it uses public-key encryption to establish secure channels between hosts and to authenticate owners, and single-key encryption for communication over a channel and to ensure privacy of the messages. ADP is shown to satisfy the main security requirements of large distributed systems, to provide end-to-end security in spite of its relatively low level, and to exhibit several advantages over schemes in which security mechanisms are at a higher level. The results of a trace-driven measurement study of ADP performance show that its throughput and latency are acceptable even within the limitations of today's technology, provided single-key encryption/decryption can be done in hardware.

  8. Security Encryption Scheme for Communication of Web Based Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or systems. The trend in most systems is that they are connected through the Internet. Traditional Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) is connected only in a limited private network Since the internet Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) facility has brought a lot of advantages in terms of control, data viewing and generation. Along with these advantages, are security issues regarding web SCADA, operators are pushed to connect Control Systems through the internet. Because of this, many issues regarding security surfaced. In this paper, we discuss web SCADA and the issues regarding security. As a countermeasure, a web SCADA security solution using crossed-crypto-scheme is proposed to be used in the communication of SCADA components.

  9. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication in Trapped Ion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yeqin; Gao, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    We propose a feasible scheme for implementing quantum secure direct communication in trapped ion systems. According to the results measured by the sender, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.

  10. A method to ensure energy security of satellite communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipiga, A. F.; Senokosova, A. V.

    2009-10-01

    A method is substantiated to ensure energy security for the satellite communication systems (SCS) at a close position of the radio interception receiver. This is done by lowering the carrier frequency down to f 0 = 60…80 MHz and by applying spaced measurements with n ≥ 4 receiving antennas.

  11. Communication Security for Control Systems in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    As an example of Control System, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems can be relatively simple, such as one that monitors environmental conditions of a small office building, or incredibly complex, such as a system that monitors all the activity in a nuclear power plant or the activity of a municipal water system. SCADA systems are basically Process Control Systems, designed to automate systems such as traffic control, power grid management, waste processing etc. Connecting SCADA to the Internet can provide a lot of advantages in terms of control, data viewing and generation. SCADA infrastructures like electricity can also be a part of a Smart Grid. Connecting SCADA to a public network can bring a lot of security issues. To answer the security issues, a SCADA communication security solution is proposed.

  12. On the design of chaos-based secure communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaher, Ashraf A.; Abu-Rezq, Abdulnasser

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses the topic of using chaotic models for constructing secure communication systems. It investigates three different case studies that use encryption/decryption functions with varying degrees of complexity and performance. The first case study explores synchronization of identical chaotic systems, which is considered the most crucial step when developing chaos-based secure communication systems. It proposes a fast mechanism for synchronizing the transmitter and the receiver that is based on the drive-response approach. The superiority and causality of this mechanism is demonstrated via contrasting its performance and practical implementation against that of the traditional method of Pecora and Carroll. The second case study explores the use of an improved cryptography method for improving the scrambling of the transmitted signals. The improvement is based on using both the transmitter states and parameters for performing the encryption. The security analysis of this method is analyzed, highlighting its advantages and limitation, via simulating intruder attacks to the communication channel. Finally, the third case study augments a parameter update law to the previous two designs such that the encryption method is more robust. It uses a decoupling technique for which the synchronization process is completely isolated from the parameter identification algorithm. The Lorenz system was used to exemplify all the suggested techniques, and the transmission of both analog and digital signals was explored, while investigating various techniques to optimize the performance of the proposed systems.

  13. Security model for picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Harding, D B; Gac, R J; Reynolds, C T; Romlein, J; Chacko, A K

    2000-05-01

    The modern information revolution has facilitated a metamorphosis of health care delivery wrought with the challenges of securing patient sensitive data. To accommodate this reality, Congress passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). While final guidance has not fully been resolved at this time, it is up to the health care community to develop and implement comprehensive security strategies founded on procedural, hardware and software solutions in preparation for future controls. The Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) Project, a landmark US Army picture archiving and communications system (PACS) implemented across 10 geographically dispersed medical facilities, has addressed that challenge by planning for the secure transmission of medical images and reports over their local (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) infrastructure. Their model, which is transferable to general PACS implementations, encompasses a strategy of application risk and dataflow identification, data auditing, security policy definition, and procedural controls. When combined with hardware and software solutions that are both non-performance limiting and scalable, the comprehensive approach will not only sufficiently address the current security requirements, but also accommodate the natural evolution of the enterprise security model. PMID:10847401

  14. Fast massive preventive security and information communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, David; Chen, Philip; Miryakar, Susheel; Kumar, Abhinav

    2008-04-01

    We present a fast massive information communication system for data collection from distributive sources such as cell phone users. As a very important application one can mention preventive notification systems when timely notification and evidence communication may help to improve safety and security through wide public involvement by ensuring easy-to-access and easy-to-communicate information systems. The technology significantly simplifies the response to the events and will help e.g. special agencies to gather crucial information in time and respond as quickly as possible. Cellular phones are nowadays affordable for most of the residents and became a common personal accessory. The paper describes several ways to design such systems including existing internet access capabilities of cell phones or downloadable specialized software. We provide examples of such designs. The main idea is in structuring information in predetermined way and communicating data through a centralized gate-server which will automatically process information and forward it to a proper destination. The gate-server eliminates a need in knowing contact data and specific local community infrastructure. All the cell phones will have self-localizing capability according to FCC E911 mandate, thus the communicated information can be further tagged automatically by location and time information.

  15. Chaos-based secure communication system using logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Narendra; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-03-01

    We propose a new opto-electronic secure communication system using logistic map and pulse position modulation. A modified version of the electronic circuit of the logistic map is used to generate the chaotic signal. Pulse position modulation scheme together with the logistic map has been used to encrypt the signal. Optical fiber has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Eye pattern has been used to verify the noise-like nature of the encrypted signal. Opto-electronic implementation of the technique has been carried out. Experimental results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed technique.

  16. A Sensor and Communications System for Containerized-Cargo Security

    SciTech Connect

    Leach Jr., R R

    2005-02-10

    A public/private collaboration between federal, state, provincial, and local U.S. and Canadian governmental organizations, called the Canada - United States Cargo Security Project has been formed, with the goal to improve security of containerized cargo moving from overseas locations into eastern Canadian provinces and the Northeastern United States. The current phase of this project has two technical objectives. These are: (1) to build and test a prototype in-container sensor system able to detect unauthorized entry into the container and the presence of radioactive material, to record geographical location and environmental data, and to transmit this information via satellite communications to a remote monitoring facility, and (2) to develop a secure website where data from the in-container sensors and other information will be displayed in real or near-real time and can be made available to law enforcement and emergency response organizations as appropriate. This paper will describe these activities, currently being undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An additional goal of the project's current phase is to integrate multi-jurisdictional training and first-responder exercises while monitoring and tracking container shipments from overseas to the US via Canadian ports-of-entry into North America. This activity is being undertaken by other project partners, which include the National Infrastructure Institute--Center for Infrastructure Expertise (NI2CIE), Transport Canada, Canadian Provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia, Ports of Halifax and Montreal, U.S. Coast Guard (First Coast Guard District), States of New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, and New York and the Port of Portland.

  17. Secure Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    The first practical application of quantum physics examined in this book is quantum cryptography. Quantum cryptography is a relatively recent invention (it dates back from the mid 1980s) but I chose it because it allows me to illustrate the fundamental principles with a minimum number of intermediate steps. I shall begin with a short summary of classical cryptography, reviewing briefly the two systems which are currently used today: the secret key system and the public key system. Quantum cryptography is not a new method for dissimulating the meaning of a message, but it allows one to be certain that no spy has accessed it. There exist many quantum cryptography protocols and various experimental devices have been proposed for implementing them. The simplest device is based on polarization, a concept which will be introduced first in the case of of light polarization, and then in that of photon polarization. The use of photon polarization gives the simplest implementation of the protocol proposed in 1984 by Bennett and Brassard, which is known by the acronym formed with their initials, the BB84 protocol.

  18. Secure optical communication system utilizing deformable MEMS mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziph-Schatzberg, Leah; Bifano, Thomas; Cornelissen, Steven; Stewart, Jason; Bleier, Zvi

    2009-02-01

    An optical communication system suitable for voice, data retrieval from remote sensors and identification is described. The system design allows operation at ranges of several hundred meters. The heart of the system is a modulated MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated and changes between a flat reflective state and a corrugated diffractive state. A process for mass producing these mirrors at low cost was developed and is described. The mirror was incorporated as a facet in a hollow retro-reflector, allowing temporal modulation of an interrogating beam and the return of the modulated beam to the interrogator. This system thus consists of a low power, small and light communication node with large (about 60°) angular extent. The system's range and pointing are determined by the interrogator /detector/demodulator (Transceiver) unit. The transceiver is comprised of an optical channel to establish line of sight communication, an interrogating laser at 1550nm, an avalanche photo diode to detect the return signal and electronics to drive the laser and demodulate the detected signal and convert it to an audio signal. A functional prototype system was built using a modified compact optical sight as the transceiver. Voice communication in free space was demonstrated. The design and test of major components and the complete system are discussed.

  19. A secure communication using cascade chaotic computing systems on clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Ahmet Sertol; Er, Orhan; Evirgen, Hayrettin; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-06-01

    Clinical decision support systems (C-DSS) provide supportive tools to the expert for the determination of the disease. Today, many of the support systems, which have been developed for a better and more accurate diagnosis, have reached a dynamic structure due to artificial intelligence techniques. However, in cases when important diagnosis studies should be performed in secret, a secure communication system is required. In this study, secure communication of a DSS is examined through a developed double layer chaotic communication system. The developed communication system consists of four main parts: random number generator, cascade chaotic calculation layer, PCM, and logical mixer layers. Thanks to this system, important patient data created by DSS will be conveyed to the center through a secure communication line. PMID:25992507

  20. Practical secure quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Eleni

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.

  1. Asynchronous error-correcting secure communication scheme based on fractional-order shifting chaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Luo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel digital secure communication scheme is firstly proposed. Different from the usual secure communication schemes based on chaotic synchronization, the proposed scheme employs asynchronous communication which avoids the weakness of synchronous systems and is susceptible to environmental interference. Moreover, as to the transmission errors and data loss in the process of communication, the proposed scheme has the ability to be error-checking and error-correcting in real time. In order to guarantee security, the fractional-order complex chaotic system with the shifting of order is utilized to modulate the transmitted signal, which has high nonlinearity and complexity in both frequency and time domains. The corresponding numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the scheme.

  2. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  3. Tools and Methods for Hardening Communication Security of Energy Delivery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Shrirang; Lin, Yow-Jian; Ghosh, Abhrajit; Samtani, Sunil; Kang, Jaewon; Siegell, Bruce; Kaul, Vikram; Unger, John; De Bruet, Andre; Martinez, Catherine; Vermeulen, Gerald; Rasche, Galen; Sternfeld, Scott; Berthier, Robin; Bobba, Rakesh; Campbell, Roy; Sanders, Williams; Lin, Yow-Jian

    2014-06-30

    This document summarizes the research and development work the TT Government Solutions (TTGS), d.b.a. Applied Communication Sciences (ACS), team performed for the Department of Energy Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program. It addresses the challenges in protecting critical grid control and data communication, including the identification of vulnerabilities and deficiencies of communication protocols commonly used in energy delivery systems (e.g., ICCP, DNP3, C37.118, C12.22), as well as the development of effective means to detect and prevent the exploitation of such vulnerabilities and deficiencies. The team consists of • TT Government Solutions (TTGS), a leading provider of communications solutions that has extensive experience in commercializing communications solutions. TTGS also has deep cyber security research and development expertise supporting a variety of customers. • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), a leader in the cyber security research for the power grid. UIUC brings unique experience in designing secure communication protocols to this project. • Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), an independent nonprofit that conducts research and development relating to the generation, delivery and use of electricity for the benefit of the public. EPRI brings to this effort its extensive technical expertise and its utility connections, with members representing more than 90 percent of the electricity generated and delivered in the United States. • DTE Energy, the 10th largest electric utility in the US, which helps ensure that this project focuses on the needs of utilities and is rightly positioned to address the needs of the market place. We designed, developed, and demonstrated a modular and extensible ADEC-G (Agent-based, Distributed, Extensible Cybersecurity for the Grid) system for monitoring/detecting abnormal energy delivery systems (EDS) protocol usage and ensuring security coverage. Our approach consists

  4. Application of Ica-Eemd to Secure Communications in Chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Lin; Tung, Pi-Cheng; Huang, Norden E.

    2012-04-01

    We propose the application of ICA-EEMD to secure communication systems. ICA-EEMD is employed to retrieve the message data encrypted by a mixture of Gaussian white noise and chaotic noise. The results showed that ICA-EEMD can effectively extract the two original message data.

  5. A Generic Approach to Security Assured Net-Centric Communications Network Architecture for C4I Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamdi, Abdullah S.; Quadri, Syed Amanullah; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Al-Nafjan, Khalid

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest security assured data communications architecture in net-centric defense systems based on DoDAF 2.0. This architecture provides a finite security precision of network communication within the defense network like C4I System. In this proposed network communication architecture where security is being prioritized, we propose three security mechanism levels, the authentication level, the Business Rules Repository level & Security Rules Repository level and available techniques facilitating the functionality of the levels. Security can be coerced at every stage of the data transit. By utilization of various data security measures available, each level will substantiate the security of the data in the communication chain from end to end.

  6. High security chaotic multiple access scheme for visible light communication systems with advanced encryption standard interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Junchao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Diyang; Liu, Xingcheng

    2016-06-01

    Chaotic sequences can be applied to realize multiple user access and improve the system security for a visible light communication (VLC) system. However, since the map patterns of chaotic sequences are usually well known, eavesdroppers can possibly derive the key parameters of chaotic sequences and subsequently retrieve the information. We design an advanced encryption standard (AES) interleaving aided multiple user access scheme to enhance the security of a chaotic code division multiple access-based visible light communication (C-CDMA-VLC) system. We propose to spread the information with chaotic sequences, and then the spread information is interleaved by an AES algorithm and transmitted over VLC channels. Since the computation complexity of performing inverse operations to deinterleave the information is high, the eavesdroppers in a high speed VLC system cannot retrieve the information in real time; thus, the system security will be enhanced. Moreover, we build a mathematical model for the AES-aided VLC system and derive the theoretical information leakage to analyze the system security. The simulations are performed over VLC channels, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and high security of our presented AES interleaving aided chaotic CDMA-VLC system.

  7. Installation of secure, always available wireless LAN systems as a component of the hospital communication infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Eisuke; Kudou, Takato; Tsumoto, Shusaku

    2013-06-01

    Wireless technologies as part of the data communication infrastructure of modern hospitals are being rapidly introduced. Even though there are concerns about problems associated with wireless communication security, the demand is remarkably large. In addition, insuring that the network is always available is important. Herein, we discuss security countermeasures and points to insure availability that must be taken to insure safe hospital/business use of wireless LAN systems, referring to the procedures introduced at Shimane University Hospital. Security countermeasures differ according to their purpose, such as for preventing illegal use or insuring availability, both of which are discussed. It is our hope that this information will assist others in their efforts to insure safe implementation of wireless LAN systems, especially in hospitals where they have the potential to greatly improve information sharing and patient safety. PMID:23519703

  8. Multiple channel secure communication using chaotic system encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    fA new method to encrypt signals using chaotic systems has been developed that offers benefits over conventional chaotic encryption methods. The method simultaneously encodes multiple plaintext streams using a chaotic system; a key is required to extract the plaintext from the chaotic cipertext. A working prototype demonstrates feasibility of the method by simultaneously encoding and decoding multiple audio signals using electrical circuits.

  9. Alarm communication and display systems for high security department of energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An Alarm Communication and Display System collects alarm data, presents information to security operators, and enables the operators to enter commands affecting security operations; the ultimate goal of the system is to provide rapid assessment of alarms. This paper presents an overview of the architecture and operating principles used for alarm communication and display systems developed for application at several Department of Energy facilities. Although facilities have unique requirements and procedures, the architecture and operating principles of the ACDS presented in this paper have allowed site-specific implementations at several Department of Energy facilities. In addition, this technology has been transferred to other DOE facilities for adaptation to their requirements. Further efforts to enhance ACDS technology include the use of local area network technology to assist in peripheral switching, a distributed CCTV video switching system, and state-of-the-art hardware changes which improve system performance and effectiveness.

  10. Control and Communication for a Secure and Reconfigurable Power Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomoni, Anthony Michael

    A major transformation is taking place throughout the electric power industry to overlay existing electric infrastructure with advanced sensing, communications, and control system technologies. This transformation to a smart grid promises to enhance system efficiency, increase system reliability, support the electrification of transportation, and provide customers with greater control over their electricity consumption. Upgrading control and communication systems for the end-to-end electric power grid, however, will present many new security challenges that must be dealt with before extensive deployment and implementation of these technologies can begin. In this dissertation, a comprehensive systems approach is taken to minimize and prevent cyber-physical disturbances to electric power distribution systems using sensing, communications, and control system technologies. To accomplish this task, an intelligent distributed secure control (IDSC) architecture is presented and validated in silico for distribution systems to provide greater adaptive protection, with the ability to proactively reconfigure, and rapidly respond to disturbances. Detailed descriptions of functionalities at each layer of the architecture as well as the whole system are provided. To compare the performance of the IDSC architecture with that of other control architectures, an original simulation methodology is developed. The simulation model integrates aspects of cyber-physical security, dynamic price and demand response, sensing, communications, intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs), and dynamic optimization and reconfiguration. Applying this comprehensive systems approach, performance results for the IEEE 123 node test feeder are simulated and analyzed. The results show the trade-offs between system reliability, operational constraints, and costs for several control architectures and optimization algorithms. Additional simulation results are also provided. In particular, the

  11. Hardware implementation of Lorenz circuit systems for secure chaotic communication applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Liau, Ben-Yi; Hou, Yi-You

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the synchronization between the master and slave Lorenz chaotic systems by slide mode controller (SMC)-based technique. A proportional-integral (PI) switching surface is proposed to simplify the task of assigning the performance of the closed-loop error system in sliding mode. Then, extending the concept of equivalent control and using some basic electronic components, a secure communication system is constructed. Experimental results show the feasibility of synchronizing two Lorenz circuits via the proposed SMC.  PMID:23429512

  12. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.

  13. Framework for Flexible Security in Group Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patrick; Prakash, Atul

    2006-01-01

    The Antigone software system defines a framework for the flexible definition and implementation of security policies in group communication systems. Antigone does not dictate the available security policies, but provides high-level mechanisms for implementing them. A central element of the Antigone architecture is a suite of such mechanisms comprising micro-protocols that provide the basic services needed by secure groups.

  14. Synchronization of hyperchaotic harmonics in time-delay systems and its application to secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaowen, Liu; Guangming, Ge; Hong, Zhao; Yinghai, Wang; Liang, Gao

    2000-12-01

    We present a predictor-feedback method for synchronizing chaotic systems in this paper. By using this method, two structurally equivalent or nonequivalent systems can be synchronized very effectively and quickly. Moreover, the feedback perturbation can be switched on even if trajectories of the two systems are far from each other. Therefore, this method is applicable to real-world experimental systems, especially to some fast experimental systems. The validity of this method is demonstrated by synchronizing hyperchaotic harmonics in a time-delay system. As an application, we introduce how messages can be encoded, transmitted, and decoded using this technique. We suggest taking use of the multistability of time-delay systems to improve the performance of the secure communication.

  15. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  16. A Non-symmetric Digital Image Secure Communication Scheme Based on Generalized Chaos Synchronization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Min, Le-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Based on a generalized chaos synchronization system and a discrete Sinai map, a non-symmetric true color (RGB) digital image secure communication scheme is proposed. The scheme first changes an ordinary RGB digital image with 8 bits into unrecognizable disorder codes and then transforms the disorder codes into an RGB digital image with 16 bits for transmitting. A receiver uses a non-symmetric key to verify the authentication of the received data origin, and decrypts the ciphertext. The scheme can encrypt and decrypt most formatted digital RGB images recognized by computers, and recover the plaintext almost without any errors. The scheme is suitable to be applied in network image communications. The analysis of the key space, sensitivity of key parameters, and correlation of encrypted images imply that this scheme has sound security. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 60074034 and 70271068, the Foundation for University Key Teachers, and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20020008004 by the Ministry of Education of China

  17. Secure communications using quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.

    1997-08-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible. We have also constructed a quantum key distribution system for free-space, line-of-sight transmission using single-photon polarization states, which is currently undergoing laboratory testing. 7 figs.

  18. Secure communications using quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Luther, Gabriel G.; Morgan, George L.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1997-07-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as `key' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenburg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single- photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over `open' multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible.

  19. Secure Intra-Body Wireless Communications (SIWiC) System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Doggett, Terrence P.

    2011-01-01

    SIWiC System is a project to investigate, design and implement future wireless networks of implantable sensors in the body. This futuristic project is designed to make use of the emerging and yet-to-emerge technologies, including ultra-wide band (UWB) for wireless communications, smart implantable sensors, ultra low power networking protocols, security and privacy for bandwidth and power deficient devices and quantum computing. Progress in each of these fronts is hindered by the needs of breakthrough. But, as we will see in this paper, these major challenges are being met or will be met in near future. SIWiC system is a network of in-situ wireless devices that are implanted to coordinate sensed data inside the body, such as symptoms monitoring collected internally, or biometric data collected of an outside object from within the intra-body network. One node has the capability of communicating outside the body to send data or alarm to a relevant authority, e.g., a remote physician.

  20. Sliding Mode Approaches for Robust Control, State Estimation, Secure Communication, and Fault Diagnosis in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablay, Gunyaz

    Using traditional control methods for controller design, parameter estimation and fault diagnosis may lead to poor results with nuclear systems in practice because of approximations and uncertainties in the system models used, possibly resulting in unexpected plant unavailability. This experience has led to an interest in development of robust control, estimation and fault diagnosis methods. One particularly robust approach is the sliding mode control methodology. Sliding mode approaches have been of great interest and importance in industry and engineering in the recent decades due to their potential for producing economic, safe and reliable designs. In order to utilize these advantages, sliding mode approaches are implemented for robust control, state estimation, secure communication and fault diagnosis in nuclear plant systems. In addition, a sliding mode output observer is developed for fault diagnosis in dynamical systems. To validate the effectiveness of the methodologies, several nuclear plant system models are considered for applications, including point reactor kinetics, xenon concentration dynamics, an uncertain pressurizer model, a U-tube steam generator model and a coupled nonlinear nuclear reactor model.

  1. 78 FR 46582 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council... Communications Commission's (FCC or Commission) Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability... to ensure the security, reliability, and interoperability of communications systems. On March...

  2. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  3. Communication security in open health care networks.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R

    1999-01-01

    Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation. PMID:10724890

  4. Noise Properties in the Ideal Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Communication System

    PubMed Central

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we determine the noise properties needed for unconditional security for the ideal Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key distribution system using simple statistical analysis. It has already been shown using physical laws that resistors and Johnson-like noise sources provide unconditional security. However real implementations use artificial noise generators, therefore it is a question if other kind of noise sources and resistor values could be used as well. We answer this question and in the same time we provide a theoretical basis to analyze real systems as well. PMID:24755558

  5. 49 CFR 193.2909 - Security communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security communications. 193.2909 Section 193.2909...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2909 Security communications. A means must be provided for: (a) Prompt communications between personnel having supervisory security duties and law enforcement...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2909 - Security communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security communications. 193.2909 Section 193.2909...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2909 Security communications. A means must be provided for: (a) Prompt communications between personnel having supervisory security duties and law enforcement...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2909 - Security communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security communications. 193.2909 Section 193.2909...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2909 Security communications. A means must be provided for: (a) Prompt communications between personnel having supervisory security duties and law enforcement...

  8. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  9. Secure Communication with Network Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhanghua; Tang, Yuansheng; Luo, Jinquan

    In this paper, we consider the problem of secure communication over wiretap multicast networks. Noticing that network coding renders the intermediate nodes to mix information from different data flows, we propose a secure communication scheme based on cryptographic means and network coding. Specifically, we employ a confidential cryptosystem to encrypt the source message packets, then treat the secret key as a message packet and mix the key with the obtained cryptograms. Furthermore, we can prove that, under suitable conditions, the wiretapper is unable to gain the secret key. Meanwhile, the confidential cryptosystem prohibits the wiretapper from extracting meaningful information from the obtained cryptograms. Our scheme doesn't need a private channel to transmit the secret key and enables the utilization of network capacity to reach 1 n n.

  10. Quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gui-Lu; Deng, Fu-Guo; Wang, Chuan; Li, Xi-Han; Wen, Kai; Wang, Wan-Ying

    2007-07-01

    In this review article, we review the recent development of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) which both are used to transmit secret message, including the criteria for QSDC, some interesting QSDC protocols, the DSQC protocols and QSDC network, etc. The difference between these two branches of quantum communication is that DSQC requires the two parties exchange at least one bit of classical information for reading out the message in each qubit, and QSDC does not. They are attractive because they are deterministic, in particular, the QSDC protocol is fully quantum mechanical. With sophisticated quantum technology in the future, the QSDC may become more and more popular. For ensuring the safety of QSDC with single photons and quantum information sharing of single qubit in a noisy channel, a quantum privacy amplification protocol has been proposed. It involves very simple CHC operations and reduces the information leakage to a negligible small level. Moreover, with the one-party quantum error correction, a relation has been established between classical linear codes and quantum one-party codes, hence it is convenient to transfer many good classical error correction codes to the quantum world. The one-party quantum error correction codes are especially designed for quantum dense coding and related QSDC protocols based on dense coding.

  11. Multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu, X.-M. Dong, L.; Gao, Y.-J.; Chi, F.

    2007-12-15

    A theoretical scheme of a multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The supervisor prepares a communication network with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs and auxiliary particles. After passing a security test of the communication network, a supervisor tells the users the network is secure and they can communicate. If the controllers allow the communicators to communicate, the controllers should perform measurements and inform the communicators of the outcomes. The communicators then begin to communicate after they perform a security test of the quantum channel and verify that it is secure. The recipient can decrypt the secret message in a classical message from the sender depending on the protocol. Any two users in the network can communicate through the above processes under the control of the supervisor and the controllers.

  12. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2014-10-28

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  13. Security system signal supervision

    SciTech Connect

    Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.

  14. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power flow classification for static security assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, D.; Germond, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report investigates the classification of power system states using an artificial neural network model, Kohonen's self-organizing feature map. The ultimate goal of this classification is to assess power system static security in real-time. Kohonen's self-organizing feature map is an unsupervised neural network which maps N-dimensional input vectors to an array of M neurons. After learning, the synaptic weight vectors exhibit a topological organization which represents the relationship between the vectors of the training set. This learning is unsupervised, which means that the number and size of the classes are not specified beforehand. In the application developed in this report, the input vectors used as the training set are generated by off-line load-flow simulations. The learning algorithm and the results of the organization are discussed.

  15. 49 CFR 193.2909 - Security communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...) Prompt communications between personnel having supervisory security duties and law enforcement...

  16. Scientific communication and national security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The need for scientists to disseminate widely their research results often conflicts with the United States government's requirement that certain information be withheld from foreign adversaries. The Reagan administration has stepped up its campaign to clamp down on the transfer of scientific and technological information from the United States that might be used by foreign nations to gain military advantages. As a result, some scientists have become alarmed that they will be forced to forfeit essential rights to communicate freely. In light of the growing concern from both sides a panel of 18 senior policymakers and researchers has been assembled by the National Academy of Sciences to examine the relationship between university research and national security. The panel held its first meeting on April 16 and 17; an interim report is expected in September, followed by a final report in March 1983.

  17. Secure communication via quantum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Zhang, Zheshen; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2014-10-01

    In the quantum illumination protocol for secure communication, Alice prepares entangled signal and idler beams via spontaneous parametric downconversion. She sends the signal beam to Bob, while retaining the idler. Bob imposes message modulation on the beam he receives from Alice, amplifies it, and sends it back to her. Alice then decodes Bob's information by making a joint quantum measurement on the light she has retained and the light she has received from him. The basic performance analysis for this protocol—which demonstrates its immunity to passive eavesdropping, in which Eve can only listen to Alice and Bob's transmissions—is reviewed, along with the results of its first proof-of-principle experiment. Further analysis is then presented, showing that secure data rates in excess of 1 Gbps may be possible over 20-km-long fiber links with technology that is available or under development. Finally, an initial scheme for thwarting active eavesdropping, in which Eve injects her own light into Bob's terminal, is proposed and analyzed.

  18. Cryptography in a communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M. R.

    1982-10-01

    Communication system protection by cryptography is reviewed. Privacy and authentication problems are discussed. Conventional cryptographic systems as well as public key systems are complementary. Classical security methods such as signed contracts, physical locks, passwords and keys remain important.

  19. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1033 Communications and security requirements. (a) All wireless... exceeding the security strength required to protect the data as defined in the railroad's PTCSP and...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1033 Communications and security requirements. (a) All wireless... exceeding the security strength required to protect the data as defined in the railroad's PTCSP and...

  1. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1033 Communications and security requirements. (a) All wireless... exceeding the security strength required to protect the data as defined in the railroad's PTCSP and...

  2. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1033 Communications and security requirements. (a) All wireless... exceeding the security strength required to protect the data as defined in the railroad's PTCSP and...

  3. Fiber transmission of antisqueezed light for secure communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaru, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Shinya

    2009-03-01

    Secure communications are a prospective application of the technologies originating from quantum information physics. Antisqueezed light, which is not necessarily in a quantum state, is a candidate for secure optical communications because it is tolerant to loss and amplification. We transmitted antisqueezed light, generated with a reflection-type fiber interferometer, through 100 km dispersion-shifted fibers including two erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for the first time. The coding was pseudo-randomized phase-shift keying, and the combination of the pseudo-randomization and antisqueezed fluctuations increased the bit-error rate of eavesdroppers, suggesting that our system is a technological candidate for future secure optical communications.

  4. Early work on fiber optic gyro technology at McDonnell Douglas and spinoffs leading to acoustic sensing, distributed sensing, and a secure fiber optic communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    2006-08-01

    In the late 1970s the closed loop fiber optic gyro was invented and demonstrated at McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company in Huntington Beach, California. This development was followed by a series of derivative inventions that included the Sagnac acoustic sensor, Sagnac distributed sensors and finally a Sagnac secure fiber optic communication system. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  5. Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Aidong; Zhang Shou; Xia Yan; Fan Qiubo

    2006-02-15

    We propose the schemes of quantum secure direct communication based on a secret transmitting order of particles. In these protocols, the secret transmitting order of particles ensures the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the communication is interrupted for security. This strategy of security for communication is also generalized to a quantum dialogue. It not only ensures the unconditional security but also improves the efficiency of communication.

  6. Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yao-Hsin; Lin, Yu-Ting; Zeng, Guo-Jyun; Lin, Fang-Jhu; Chen, Chi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel protocol for controlled bidirectional quantum secure communication based on a nonlocal swap gate scheme. Our proposed protocol would be applied to a system in which a controller (supervisor/Charlie) controls the bidirectional communication with quantum information or secret messages between legitimate users (Alice and Bob). In this system, the legitimate users must obtain permission from the controller in order to exchange their respective quantum information or secret messages simultaneously; the controller is unable to obtain any quantum information or secret messages from the decoding process. Moreover, the presence of the controller also avoids the problem of one legitimate user receiving the quantum information or secret message before the other, and then refusing to help the other user decode the quantum information or secret message. Our proposed protocol is aimed at protecting against external and participant attacks on such a system, and the cost of transmitting quantum bits using our protocol is less than that achieved in other studies. Based on the nonlocal swap gate scheme, the legitimate users exchange their quantum information or secret messages without transmission in a public channel, thus protecting against eavesdroppers stealing the secret messages. PMID:25006596

  7. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  8. Secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai-Peng; Bai, Chao

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos. At the transmitter end, the state variables of the coupled map lattice system are divided into two groups: one is used as the key to encrypt the plaintext in the N-shift encryption function, and the other is used to mix with the output of the N-shift function to further confuse the information to transmit. At the receiver end, the receiver lattices are driven by the received signal to synchronize with the transmitter lattices and an inverse procedure of the encoding is conducted to decode the information. Numerical simulation and experiment based on the TI TMS320C6713 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) show the feasibility and the validity of the proposed scheme. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61172070) and the Funds from the Science and Technology Innovation Team of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013CKT-04).

  9. Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.

  10. Quantum authencryption: one-step authenticated quantum secure direct communications for off-line communicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping; Yang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Han

    2014-04-01

    This work proposes a new direction in quantum cryptography called quantum authencryption. Quantum authencryption (QA), a new term to distinguish from authenticated quantum secure direct communications, is used to describe the technique of combining quantum encryption and quantum authentication into one process for off-line communicants. QA provides a new way of quantum communications without the presence of a receiver on line, and thus makes many applications depending on secure one-way quantum communications, such as quantum E-mail systems, possible. An example protocol using single photons and one-way hash functions is presented to realize the requirements on QA.

  11. Non-line-of-sight (NLOS), secure, low-probability of intercept (LPI), antijam (AJ), high frequency (HF), real time video communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Lupinetti, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines a video communication system capable of non-line-of-sight (NLOS), secure, low-probability of intercept (LPI), antijam, real time transmission and reception of video information in a tactical enviroment. An introduction to a class of ternary PN sequences is presented to familiarize the reader with yet another avenue for spreading and despreading baseband information. The use of the high frequency (HF) band (1.5 to 30 MHz) for real time video transmission is suggested to allow NLOS communication. The spreading of the baseband information by means of multiple nontrivially different ternary pseudonoise (PN) sequence is used in order to assure encryption of the signal, enhanced security, a good degree of LPI, and good antijam features. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Dirks, David H; Gomes, Diane; Stewart, Corbin J; Fischer, Robert A

    2013-04-30

    Examples of systems described herein include videoconferencing systems having audio/visual components coupled to a codec. The codec may be configured by a control system. Communication networks having different security levels may be alternately coupled to the codec following appropriate configuration by the control system. The control system may also be coupled to the communication networks.

  13. Chaos-based secure communications in a large community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shihong; Kuang, Jinyu; Li, Jinghua; Luo, Yunlun; Lu, Huaping; Hu, Gang

    2002-12-01

    One-way coupled map lattices are used for cryptography in secure communication, based on spatiotemporal chaos synchronization. The sensitivity of synchronization between the encryption and decryption systems can be adjusted by varying the system size. With a suitable parameter combination, the cryptosystem can reach optimal trade-off of security and performance, i.e., it shows high security (resistant against the public-structure and known-plaintext attacks) together with fast encryption (and decryption) speed. An experiment of duplex voice transmission through university network is realized, which confirms the above advantages of our approach.

  14. Chaos-based secure communications in a large community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihong; Kuang, Jinyu; Li, Jinghua; Luo, Yunlun; Lu, Huaping; Hu, Gang

    2002-12-01

    One-way coupled map lattices are used for cryptography in secure communication, based on spatiotemporal chaos synchronization. The sensitivity of synchronization between the encryption and decryption systems can be adjusted by varying the system size. With a suitable parameter combination, the cryptosystem can reach optimal trade-off of security and performance, i.e., it shows high security (resistant against the public-structure and known-plaintext attacks) together with fast encryption (and decryption) speed. An experiment of duplex voice transmission through university network is realized, which confirms the above advantages of our approach. PMID:12513338

  15. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-03-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  16. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  17. Chaos Based Secure IP Communications over Satellite DVB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragata, Daniel; El Assad, Safwan; Tutanescu, Ion; Sofron, Emil

    2010-06-01

    The Digital Video Broadcasting—Satellite (DVB-S) standard was originally conceived for TV and radio broadcasting. Later, it became possible to send IP packets using encapsulation methods such as Multi Protocol Encapsulation, MPE, or Unidirectional Lightweight Encapsulation, ULE. This paper proposes a chaos based security system for IP communications over DVB-S with ULE encapsulation. The proposed security system satisfies all the security requirements while respecting the characteristics of satellite links, such as the importance of efficient bandwidth utilization and high latency time. It uses chaotic functions to generate the keys and to encrypt the data. The key management is realized using a multi-layer architecture. A theoretical analysis of the system and a simulation of FTP and HTTP traffic are presented and discussed to show the cost of the security enhancement and to provide the necessary tools for security parameters setup.

  18. Secure steganographic communication algorithm based on self-organizing patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunoriene, Loreta; Ragulskis, Minvydas

    2011-11-01

    A secure steganographic communication algorithm based on patterns evolving in a Beddington-de Angelis-type predator-prey model with self- and cross-diffusion is proposed in this paper. Small perturbations of initial states of the system around the state of equilibrium result in the evolution of self-organizing patterns. Small differences between initial perturbations result in slight differences also in the evolving patterns. It is shown that the generation of interpretable target patterns cannot be considered as a secure mean of communication because contours of the secret image can be retrieved from the cover image using statistical techniques if only it represents small perturbations of the initial states of the system. An alternative approach when the cover image represents the self-organizing pattern that has evolved from initial states perturbed using the dot-skeleton representation of the secret image can be considered as a safe visual communication technique protecting both the secret image and communicating parties.

  19. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  20. Secure communication zone for white-light LED visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chung-Yen; Lin, Chao-Nan; Hsu, Dar-Zu

    2015-06-01

    As visible light communication (VLC) can be one of the promising wireless communication technologies in the future, improving the transmission security in VLC is highly desirable. We propose and demonstrate a secure VLC system using data superposition of different light emitting diodes (LEDs). The eavesdroppers can receive similar illumination but cannot obtain enough signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for communication. The channel model and simulation parameters are presented. Analysis of the secure VLC zone forming using practical in-home scenarios is also discussed, showing the flexibly control the size and shift of secure VLC zone. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed, and there is a good match in trend between the experimental and simulation results.

  1. Proportional-integral feedback demodulation for secure communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Hector; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2000-11-01

    A novel demodulation strategy for secure communications using chaotic signals is proposed. The approach fits within the general definition of inverse system masking (ISM) methods. In the transmitter, an information signal is encoded using modulation of a parameter in the chaotic system. In the receiver, a synchronous chaotic system is augmented with a proportional-integral (PI) feedback demodulator. The integral feedback action induces certain robustness capabilities into the demodulation loop. Simulations are presented for a class of Lur'e systems.

  2. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  3. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Michael E.

    2009-01-13

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  4. Security infrastructure requirements for electronic health cards communication.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Communication and co-operation processes in the healthcare and welfare domain require a security infrastructure based on services describing status and relation of communicating principals as well as corresponding keys and attributes. Additional services provide trustworthy information on dynamic issues of communication and co-operation such as time and location of processes, workflow relations, integrity of archives and record systems, and system behaviour. To provide this communication and co-operation in a shared care environment, smart cards are widely used. Serving as storage media and portable application systems, patient data cards enable patient-controlled exchange and use of personal health data bound to specific purposes such as prescription and disease management. Additionally, patient status data such as the emergency data set or immunization may be stored in, and communicated by, patient data cards. Another deployment field of smart cards is their token functionality within a security framework, supporting basic security services such as identification, authentication, integrity, confidentiality, or accountability using cryptographic algorithms. In that context, keys, certificates, and card holder's attributes might be stored in the card as well. As an example, the German activity of introducing patient health cards and health professional cards is presented. Specification and enrolment aspects are on-going processes. PMID:16160291

  5. A chaos secure communication scheme based on multiplication modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, Kia; Leung, Henry

    2010-02-01

    A secure spread spectrum communication scheme using multiplication modulation is proposed. The proposed system multiplies the message by chaotic signal. The scheme does not need to know the initial condition of the chaotic signals and the receiver is based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). This signal encryption scheme lends itself to cheap implementation and can therefore be used effectively for ensuring security and privacy in commercial consumer electronics products. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a numerical example based on Genesio-Tesi system and also Chen dynamical system is presented and the results are compared.

  6. Securing the Global Airspace System Via Identity-Based Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Current telecommunications systems have very good security architectures that include authentication and authorization as well as accounting. These three features enable an edge system to obtain access into a radio communication network, request specific Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements and ensure proper billing for service. Furthermore, the links are secure. Widely used telecommunication technologies are Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) This paper provides a system-level view of network-centric operations for the global airspace system and the problems and issues with deploying new technologies into the system. The paper then focuses on applying the basic security architectures of commercial telecommunication systems and deployment of federated Authentication, Authorization and Accounting systems to provide a scalable, evolvable reliable and maintainable solution to enable a globally deployable identity-based secure airspace system.

  7. Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.; Papier, I.I.

    1996-06-20

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

  8. A secure open system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, James A.

    1993-08-01

    The notion of a large distributed computing system in support of a program like EOSDIS, carries with it the requirement that the system provide the user with guarantees about the integrity of the data and certain assurances about the security of the network of computing systems. This paper examines the challenges of providing a `secure' open system and how these challenges may be addressed from both an architectural as well as functional viewpoint. The role of discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and detection and control of computer viruses is discussed. It has often been observed that the role of the security engineer is one of restricting access to data, whereas the role of the system architect, of an open system that is encouraging research, should make data easy to obtain and utilize. This paradox is manifest in a system such a EOSDIS where to be useful, the systems data must be easy to obtain, but to ensure the integrity of the data it must exercise some level of security. This paper address the use and role of the Security Services of the OSF Distributed Computing Environment in support of networked applications, such as those that may be used in the implementation of the EOS Science Network. It further examines the role of mandatory access control mechanisms to provide data integrity guarantees. The paper further discusses how a system like EOSDIS may prevent computer viruses using a system of automated detection mechanisms and configuration control.

  9. Entanglement enhances security in quantum communication

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2009-07-15

    Secret sharing is a protocol in which a 'boss' wants to send a classical message secretly to two 'subordinates', such that none of the subordinates is able to know the message alone, while they can find it if they cooperate. Quantum mechanics is known to allow for such a possibility. We analyze tolerable quantum bit error rates in such secret sharing protocols in the physically relevant case when the eavesdropping is local with respect to the two channels of information transfer from the boss to the two subordinates. We find that using entangled encoding states is advantageous to legitimate users of the protocol. We therefore find that entanglement is useful for secure quantum communication. We also find that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a local eavesdropping resource. Moreover, we provide a criterion for security in secret sharing--a parallel of the Csiszar-Koerner criterion in single-receiver classical cryptography.

  10. Combined peak-to-average power ratio reduction and physical layer security enhancement in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing visible-light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa

    2016-07-01

    A physical encryption scheme for discrete Hartley transform (DHT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible-light communication (VLC) systems using frequency domain chaos scrambling is proposed. In the scheme, the chaos scrambling, which is generated by a modified logistic mapping, is utilized to enhance the physical layer of security, and the DHT precoding is employed to reduce of OFDM signal for OFDM-based VLC. The influence of chaos scrambling on peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and bit error rate (BER) of systems is studied. The experimental simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC systems. Furthermore, the influence of the proposed encryption to the PAPR and BER of systems is evaluated. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC from eavesdroppers, while keeping the good BER performance of DHT-precoded systems. The BER performance of the encrypted and DHT-precoded system is almost the same as that of the conventional DHT-precoded system without encryption.

  11. Security controls in the Stockpoint Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arseneault, D. S.

    1985-03-01

    This thesis examines security controls specified and implemented in the Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE) project. Controls provided by the Defense Data Network and the Tandem operating system are reviewed. Alternatives from current literature in areas of authentication, encryption, and dial-port protection are reviewed for the purpose of suggesting enhancements. Issues discussed apply to most interactive/decentralized systems in operation today and include administrative as well as technical recommendations.

  12. Multiparty Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Through Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng

    A three-party controlled deterministic secure quantum communication scheme through entanglement swapping is proposed firstly. In the scheme, the sender needs to prepare a class of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states which are used as quantum channel. The two communicators may securely communicate under the control of the controller if the quantum channel is safe. The roles of the sender, the receiver, and the controller can be exchanged owing to the symmetry of the quantum channel. Different from other controlled quantum secure communication schemes, the scheme needs lesser additional classical information for transferring secret information. Finally, it is generalized to a multiparty controlled deterministic secure quantum communication scheme.

  13. Internetting tactical security sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Bryan, W. D.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    1998-08-01

    The Multipurpose Surveillance and Security Mission Platform (MSSMP) is a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations, designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of military security operations and other tactical missions. The baseline MSSMP sensor suite consists of a pan/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder. With an additional radio transceiver, MSSMP can also function as a gateway between existing security/surveillance sensor systems such as TASS, TRSS, and IREMBASS, and IP-based networks, to support the timely distribution of both threat detection and threat assessment information. The MSSMP system makes maximum use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components for sensing, processing, and communications, and of both established and emerging standard communications networking protocols and system integration techniques. Its use of IP-based protocols allows it to freely interoperate with the Internet -- providing geographic transparency, facilitating development, and allowing fully distributed demonstration capability -- and prepares it for integration with the IP-based tactical radio networks that will evolve in the next decade. Unfortunately, the Internet's standard Transport layer protocol, TCP, is poorly matched to the requirements of security sensors and other quasi- autonomous systems in being oriented to conveying a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages. Also, its canonical 'socket' interface both conceals short losses of communications connectivity and simply gives up and forces the Application layer software to deal with longer losses. For MSSMP, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to provide a reliable message-based Transport service. In addition, a Session layer protocol is being developed to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple control

  14. Security System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integration Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, has enabled a security systems manufacturer to design a new generation of hardware. C.CURESystem 1 Plus, manufactured by Software House, is a software based system that is used with a variety of access control hardware at installations around the world. Users can manage large amounts of information, solve unique security problems and control entry and time scheduling. CLIPS acts as an information management tool when accessed by C.CURESystem 1 Plus. It asks questions about the hardware and when given the answer, recommends possible quick solutions by non-expert persons.

  15. Variable contour securing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebus, P. P.; Packer, P. N.; Haynie, C. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A variable contour securing system has a retaining structure for a member whose surface contains a variable contour. The retaining mechanism includes a spaced array of adjustable spindles mounted on a housing. Each spindle has a base member support cup at one end. A vacuum source is applied to the cups for seating the member adjacent to the cups. A locking mechanism sets the spindles in a predetermined position once the member has been secured to the spindle support cups.

  16. Security systems engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  17. Security systems engineering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

  18. Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2010-05-01

    This document provides the methods to secure routable control system communication in the electric sector. The approach of this document yields a long-term vision for a future of secure communication, while also providing near term steps and a roadmap. The requirements for the future secure control system environment were spelled out to provide a final target. Additionally a survey and evaluation of current protocols was used to determine if any existing technology could achieve this goal. In the end a four-step path was described that brought about increasing requirement completion and culminates in the realization of the long term vision.

  19. Secure and interoperable communication infrastructures for PPDR organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Wilmuth; Marques, Hugo; Pereira, Luis; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Brouwer, Frank; Bouwers, Bert; Politis, Ilias; Lykourgiotis, Asimakis; Ladas, Alexandros; Adigun, Olayinka; Jelenc, David

    2016-05-01

    The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS&S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on agencies and organisation responsible for PS&S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events, Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) organisations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable. Existing PPDR/PMR technologies such as TETRA, TETRAPOL or P25, do not currently provide broadband capability nor is expected such technologies to be upgraded in the future. This presents a major limitation in supporting new services and information flows. Furthermore, there is no known standard that addresses interoperability of these technologies. In this contribution the design of a next generation communication infrastructure for PPDR organisations which fulfills the requirements of secure and seamless end-to-end communication and interoperable information exchange within the deployed communication networks is presented. Based on Enterprise Architecture of PPDR organisations, a next generation PPDR network that is backward compatible with legacy communication technologies is designed and implemented, capable of providing security, privacy, seamless mobility, QoS and reliability support for mission-critical Private Mobile Radio (PMR) voice and broadband data services. The designed solution provides a robust, reliable, and secure mobile broadband communications system for a wide variety of PMR applications and services on PPDR broadband networks, including the ability of inter-system, interagency and cross-border operations with emphasis on interoperability between users in PMR and LTE.

  20. Public eye security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviv, David G.

    1999-01-01

    The recently patented system is a software engine that is connected to a television camera that is used for security applications. It will detect in near real time any physical criminal acts occurring within the field of view of the camera. It then instantaneously transmits an alarm to law enforcement and turns on a VCR and other crime deterrent systems, without human involvement.

  1. Lightweight and scalable secure communication in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Qiu, Shuwei

    2015-05-01

    To avoid a message to be tempered and forged in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the digital signature method is adopted by IEEE1609.2. However, the costs of the method are excessively high for large-scale networks. The paper efficiently copes with the issue with a secure communication framework by introducing some lightweight cryptography primitives. In our framework, point-to-point and broadcast communications for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) are studied, mainly based on symmetric cryptography. A new issue incurred is symmetric key management. Thus, we develop key distribution and agreement protocols for two-party key and group key under different environments, whether a road side unit (RSU) is deployed or not. The analysis shows that our protocols provide confidentiality, authentication, perfect forward secrecy, forward secrecy and backward secrecy. The proposed group key agreement protocol especially solves the key leak problem caused by members joining or leaving in existing key agreement protocols. Due to aggregated signature and substitution of XOR for point addition, the average computation and communication costs do not significantly increase with the increase in the number of vehicles; hence, our framework provides good scalability.

  2. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2011-06-01

    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  3. An integrated solution for secure group communication in wide-area networks

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Chevassut, Olivier; Thompson, Mary; Tsudik, Gene

    2001-04-01

    Many distributed applications require a secure reliable group communication system to provide coordination among the application components. This paper describes a secure group layer (SGL) which bundles a reliable group communication system, a group authorization and access control mechanism, and a group key agreement protocol to provide a comprehensive and practical secure group communication platform. SGL also encapsulates the standard message security services (i.e, confidentiality, authenticity and integrity). A number of challenging issues encountered in the design of SGL are brought to light and experimental results obtained with a prototype implementation are discussed.

  4. Enhancing Multilateral Security in and by Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecher, Sandra

    With the increasing possibilities for interaction between Internet users exceeding pure communication, in multilateral security the research question arises to rethink and extend classical security requirements. Reputation systems are a possible solution to assist new security requirements. But naturally also reputation systems have to be designed in a multilateral secure way. In this paper we discuss both multilateral security by and in reputation systems. An overview on the possibilities how such systems could be realised is given.

  5. Secure Wireless Communications via Cooperative Transmitting

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovski, Toni Draganov; Marina, Ninoslav

    2014-01-01

    Information-theoretic secrecy is combined with cryptographic secrecy to create a secret-key exchange protocol for wireless networks. A network of transmitters, which already have cryptographically secured channels between them, cooperate to exchange a secret key with a new receiver at a random location, in the presence of passive eavesdroppers at unknown locations. Two spatial point processes, homogeneous Poisson process and independent uniformly distributed points, are used for the spatial distributions of transmitters and eavesdroppers. We analyse the impact of the number of cooperating transmitters and the number of eavesdroppers on the area fraction where secure communication is possible. Upper bounds on the probability of existence of positive secrecy between the cooperating transmitters and the receiver are derived. The closeness of the upper bounds to the real value is then estimated by means of numerical simulations. Simulations also indicate that a deterministic spatial distribution for the transmitters, for example, hexagonal and square lattices, increases the probability of existence of positive secrecy capacity compared to the random spatial distributions. For the same number of friendly nodes, cooperative transmitting provides a dramatically larger secrecy region than cooperative jamming and cooperative relaying. PMID:24711735

  6. Secure wireless communications via cooperative transmitting.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Toni Draganov; Marina, Ninoslav

    2014-01-01

    Information-theoretic secrecy is combined with cryptographic secrecy to create a secret-key exchange protocol for wireless networks. A network of transmitters, which already have cryptographically secured channels between them, cooperate to exchange a secret key with a new receiver at a random location, in the presence of passive eavesdroppers at unknown locations. Two spatial point processes, homogeneous Poisson process and independent uniformly distributed points, are used for the spatial distributions of transmitters and eavesdroppers. We analyse the impact of the number of cooperating transmitters and the number of eavesdroppers on the area fraction where secure communication is possible. Upper bounds on the probability of existence of positive secrecy between the cooperating transmitters and the receiver are derived. The closeness of the upper bounds to the real value is then estimated by means of numerical simulations. Simulations also indicate that a deterministic spatial distribution for the transmitters, for example, hexagonal and square lattices, increases the probability of existence of positive secrecy capacity compared to the random spatial distributions. For the same number of friendly nodes, cooperative transmitting provides a dramatically larger secrecy region than cooperative jamming and cooperative relaying. PMID:24711735

  7. Entanglement enhances security in quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Sen(de), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Secret sharing is a protocol in which a “boss” wants to send a classical message secretly to two “subordinates,” such that none of the subordinates is able to know the message alone, while they can find it if they cooperate. Quantum mechanics is known to allow for such a possibility. We analyze tolerable quantum bit error rates in such secret sharing protocols in the physically relevant case when the eavesdropping is local with respect to the two channels of information transfer from the boss to the two subordinates. We find that using entangled encoding states is advantageous to legitimate users of the protocol. We therefore find that entanglement is useful for secure quantum communication. We also find that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a local eavesdropping resource. Moreover, we provide a criterion for security in secret sharing—a parallel of the Csiszár-Körner criterion in single-receiver classical cryptography.

  8. Building a Secure Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents tips for building a secure library system to guard against threats like hackers, viruses, and theft. Topics include: determining what is at risk; recovering from disasters; developing security policies; developing front-end security; securing menu systems; accessing control programs; protecting against damage from viruses; developing…

  9. System and method for key generation in security tokens

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Philip G.; Humble, Travis S.; Paul, Nathanael R.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Prowell, Stacy J.

    2015-10-27

    Functional randomness in security tokens (FRIST) may achieve improved security in two-factor authentication hardware tokens by improving on the algorithms used to securely generate random data. A system and method in one embodiment according to the present invention may allow for security of a token based on storage cost and computational security. This approach may enable communication where security is no longer based solely on onetime pads (OTPs) generated from a single cryptographic function (e.g., SHA-256).

  10. Security for Telecommuting and Broadband Communications: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, D. R.; Tracy, Miles C.; Frankel, Sheila E.

    2002-08-01

    This document is intended to assist those responsible - users, system administrators, and management - for telecommuting security, by providing introductory information about broadband communication security and policy, security of home office systems, and considerations for system administrators in the central office. It addresses concepts relating to the selection, deployment, and management of broadband communications for a telecommuting user. This document is not intended to provide a mandatory framework for telecommuting or home office broadband communication environments, but rather to present suggested approaches to the topic.

  11. Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time pad

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2004-05-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without first producing a shared secret key. It may be used in some urgent circumstances. Here we propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol using single photons. The protocol uses batches of single photons prepared randomly in one of four different states. These single photons serve as a one-time pad which is used directly to encode the secret messages in one communication process. We also show that it is unconditionally secure. The protocol is feasible with present-day technique.

  12. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  13. A Security Audit Framework to Manage Information System Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Teresa; Santos, Henrique

    The widespread adoption of information and communication technology have promoted an increase dependency of organizations in the performance of their Information Systems. As a result, adequate security procedures to properly manage information security must be established by the organizations, in order to protect their valued or critical resources from accidental or intentional attacks, and ensure their normal activity. A conceptual security framework to manage and audit Information System Security is proposed and discussed. The proposed framework intends to assist organizations firstly to understand what they precisely need to protect assets and what are their weaknesses (vulnerabilities), enabling to perform an adequate security management. Secondly, enabling a security audit framework to support the organization to assess the efficiency of the controls and policy adopted to prevent or mitigate attacks, threats and vulnerabilities, promoted by the advances of new technologies and new Internet-enabled services, that the organizations are subject of. The presented framework is based on a conceptual model approach, which contains the semantic description of the concepts defined in information security domain, based on the ISO/IEC_JCT1 standards.

  14. Communication System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  15. Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication vulnerability for security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, H. Timothy

    2010-07-01

    RF toxicity and Information Warfare (IW) are becoming omnipresent posing threats to the protection of nuclear assets, and within theatres of hostility or combat where tactical operation of wireless communication without detection and interception is important and sometimes critical for survival. As a result, a requirement for deployment of many security systems is a highly secure wireless technology manifesting stealth or covert operation suitable for either permanent or tactical deployment where operation without detection or interruption is important The possible use of ultra wideband (UWB) spectrum technology as an alternative physical medium for wireless network communication offers many advantages over conventional narrowband and spread spectrum wireless communication. UWB also known as fast-frequency chirp is nonsinusoidal and sends information directly by transmitting sub-nanosecond pulses without the use of mixing baseband information upon a sinusoidal carrier. Thus UWB sends information using radar-like impulses by spreading its energy thinly over a vast spectrum and can operate at extremely low-power transmission within the noise floor where other forms of RF find it difficult or impossible to operate. As a result UWB offers low probability of detection (LPD), low probability of interception (LPI) as well as anti-jamming (AJ) properties in signal space. This paper analyzes and compares the vulnerability of UWB to narrowband and spread spectrum wireless network communication.

  16. Cyberspace security system

    DOEpatents

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ferragut, Erik M

    2014-06-24

    A system evaluates reliability, performance and/or safety by automatically assessing the targeted system's requirements. A cost metric quantifies the impact of failures as a function of failure cost per unit of time. The metrics or measurements may render real-time (or near real-time) outcomes by initiating active response against one or more high ranked threats. The system may support or may be executed in many domains including physical domains, cyber security domains, cyber-physical domains, infrastructure domains, etc. or any other domains that are subject to a threat or a loss.

  17. Secure Repayable Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkharobi, T. M.

    This paper proposes a method to create a system that allows data to be stored in several locations in secure and reliable manner. The system should create several shares from the data such that only pre-specified subsets of these shares can be used to retrieve the original data. The shares then will be distributed to shareholders over a local and/or wide area network. The system should allow requesting some/all shares from shareholders and using them to rebuild the data.

  18. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111 Section 127.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The...

  19. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111 Section 127.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The...

  20. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  1. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  2. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  3. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  4. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  5. Information Systems, Security, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    1984-01-01

    Computer security and computer privacy issues are discussed. Among the areas addressed are technical and human security threats, security and privacy issues for information in electronic mail systems, the need for a national commission to examine these issues, and security/privacy issues relevant to colleges and universities. (JN)

  6. A secure and robust information hiding technique for covert communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parah, S. A.; Sheikh, J. A.; Hafiz, A. M.; Bhat, G. M.

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented advancement of multimedia and growth of the internet has made it possible to reproduce and distribute digital media easier and faster. This has given birth to information security issues, especially when the information pertains to national security, e-banking transactions, etc. The disguised form of encrypted data makes an adversary suspicious and increases the chance of attack. Information hiding overcomes this inherent problem of cryptographic systems and is emerging as an effective means of securing sensitive data being transmitted over insecure channels. In this paper, a secure and robust information hiding technique referred to as Intermediate Significant Bit Plane Embedding (ISBPE) is presented. The data to be embedded is scrambled and embedding is carried out using the concept of Pseudorandom Address Vector (PAV) and Complementary Address Vector (CAV) to enhance the security of the embedded data. The proposed ISBPE technique is fully immune to Least Significant Bit (LSB) removal/replacement attack. Experimental investigations reveal that the proposed technique is more robust to various image processing attacks like JPEG compression, Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), low pass filtering, etc. compared to conventional LSB techniques. The various advantages offered by ISBPE technique make it a good candidate for covert communication.

  7. Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Lamoreaux, Steve K.; Luther, Gabriel G.; Morgan, George L.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, C. Glen

    1999-04-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as 'key' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non- orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. We have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of approximately 1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, we examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD.

  8. Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.

    1999-03-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as key material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). The authors have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. The authors have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of {approximately}1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, they examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD.

  9. A secure communications infrastructure for high-performance distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Koenig, G.; Tuecke, S.

    1997-08-01

    Applications that use high-speed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers, databases, and scientific instruments may operate over open networks and access valuable resources. Hence, they can require mechanisms for ensuring integrity and confidentially of communications and for authenticating both users and resources. Security solutions developed for traditional client-server applications do not provide direct support for the program structures, programming tools, and performance requirements encountered in these applications. The authors address these requirements via a security-enhanced version of the Nexus communication library; which they use to provide secure versions of parallel libraries and languages, including the Message Passing Interface. These tools permit a fine degree of control over what, where, and when security mechanisms are applied. In particular, a single application can mix secure and nonsecure communication, allowing the programmer to make fine-grained security/performance tradeoffs. The authors present performance results that quantify the performance of their infrastructure.

  10. 76 FR 72922 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council... Communications Commission's (FCC) third Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council (CSRIC... FCC regarding best practices and actions the FCC can take to ensure the security, reliability,...

  11. DICOM image secure communications with Internet protocols IPv6 and IPv4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Yu, Fenghai; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Chenwen

    2007-01-01

    Image-data transmission from one site to another through public network is usually characterized in term of privacy, authenticity, and integrity. In this paper, we first describe a general scenario about how image is delivered from one site to another through a wide-area network (WAN) with security features of data privacy, integrity, and authenticity. Second, we give the common implementation method of the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) image communication software library with IPv6/IPv4 for high-speed broadband Internet by using open-source software. Third, we discuss two major security-transmission methods, the IP security (IPSec) and the secure-socket layer (SSL) or transport-layer security (TLS), being used currently in medical-image-data communication with privacy support. Fourth, we describe a test schema of multiple-modality DICOM-image communications through TCP/IPv4 and TCP/IPv6 with different security methods, different security algorithms, and operating systems, and evaluate the test results. We found that there are tradeoff factors between choosing the IPsec and the SSL/TLS-based security implementation of IPv6/IPv4 protocols. If the WAN networks only use IPv6 such as in high-speed broadband Internet, the choice is IPsec-based security. If the networks are IPv4 or the combination of IPv6 and IPv4, it is better to use SSL/TLS security. The Linux platform has more security algorithms implemented than the Windows (XP) platform, and can achieve better performance in most experiments of IPv6 and IPv4-based DICOM-image communications. In teleradiology or enterprise-PACS applications, the Linux operating system may be the better choice as peer security gateways for both the IPsec and the SSL/TLS-based secure DICOM communications cross public networks. PMID:17249405

  12. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications.

    PubMed

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system. PMID:26520094

  13. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  14. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-15

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  15. All-optical signal processing technique for secure optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Su, Bing; Ye, Ya-lin; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shao-feng; Duan, Tao; Duan, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Secure optical communication technologies are important means to solve the physical layer security for optical network. We present a scheme of secure optical communication system by all-optical signal processing technique. The scheme consists of three parts, as all-optical signal processing unit, optical key sequence generator, and synchronous control unit. In the paper, all-optical signal processing method is key technology using all-optical exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate based on optical cross-gain modulation effect, has advantages of wide dynamic range of input optical signal, simple structure and so on. All-optical XOR gate composed of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is a symmetrical structure. By controlling injection current, input signal power, delay and filter bandwidth, the extinction ratio of XOR can be greater than 8dB. Finally, some performance parameters are calculated and the results are analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can be achieved over 10Gbps optical signal encryption and decryption, which is simple, easy to implement, and error-free diffusion.

  16. Secure communications in the presence of pervasive deceit

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The functions of secrecy, identification of the transmitter and of authentication of messages, and combinations of these, are in principle all achievable with either symmetric or asymmetric cryptosystems. Since secure communications depend on authenticated data exchanges between and/or authenticated actions by some of the parties to the communication, the fundamentals of authentication using symmetric or asymmetric techniques are developed. The surprising conclusion is that they differ only in the secure exchanges required to achieve further secure communications. The problem of authenticating a public-key directory is discussed in the light of these findings.

  17. Glucoweb: a case study of secure, remote biomonitoring and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Nigrin, D. J.; Kohane, I. S.

    2000-01-01

    As the Internet begins to play a greater role in many healthcare processes, it is inevitable that remote monitoring of patients' physiological parameters over the Internet will become increasingly commonplace. Internet-based communication between patients and their healthcare providers has already become prevalent, and has gained significant attention in terms of confidentiality issues. However, transmission of data directly from patients' physiological biomonitoring devices over the Web has garnered significantly less focus, especially in the area of authentication and security. In this paper, we describe a prototype system called Glucoweb, which allows patients with diabetes mellitus to transmit their self-monitored blood glucose data directly from their personal glucometer device to their diabetes care provider over the Internet. No customized software is necessary on the patient's computer, only a Web browser and active Internet connection. We use this example to highlight key authentication and security measures that should be considered for devices that transmit healthcare data to remote locations. PMID:11079956

  18. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  19. Digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, Peyton Z., Jr.

    The fundamental principles of digital communication and the design of practical digital communication systems are explored in an introductory textbook for senior and graduate students of electrical engineering. Chapters are devoted to sampling principles, baseband digital waveforms, baseband digital systems, bandpass binary digital systems, and M-ary digital systems. Deterministic signals, networks, and random-signal theory are reviewed in extensive appendices, and graphs, flow charts, diagrams, and problems are provided.

  20. 75 FR 74050 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... advises interested persons that the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Communications...

  1. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  2. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  3. Nonverbal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Dale G.

    This book was designed to meet five specific criteria which allow development of a course parallel to the treatment of the book's subject matter, active student involvement in testing and developing their own nonverbal communication capacities, delineation and analysis of the functional capacity of different nonverbal communication systems, an…

  4. Integrated Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ward

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Internet-based information system that has provided effective communications and reporting for the upgrade to K-12 schools in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Website and software applications created valuable communications in the construction process and improved reporting on progress. (SLD)

  5. Hyperchaotic Encryption for Secure E-Mail Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Bustos, A. Y.; Cruz-Hernández, C.; López-Gutiérrez, R. M.; Tlelo-Cuautle, E.; Posadas-Castillo, C.

    In this chapter, secure computer communication based on synchronized hyperchaotic maps is presented. In particular, we appeal to model-matching approach from nonlinear control theory to synchronize the outputs of two coupled hyperchaotic Rössler maps. An application to secure e-mail communication for confidential information is given. By using a hyperchaotic encryption scheme, we show that output synchronization of hyperchaotic Rössler maps is indeed suitable for encryption, transmission, and decryption of information.

  6. Comment on: Supervisory Asymmetric Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Shih-Hung; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, Xiu et al. (Optics Communications 284:2065-2069, 2011) proposed several applications based on a new secure four-site distribution scheme using χ-type entangled states. This paper points out that one of these applications, namely, supervisory asymmetric deterministic secure quantum communication, is subject to an information leakage problem, in which the receiver can extract two bits of a three-bit secret message without the supervisor's permission. An enhanced protocol is proposed to resolve this problem.

  7. Sensor based framework for secure multimedia communication in VANET.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Aneel; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T; Sher, Muhammad; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Secure multimedia communication enhances the safety of passengers by providing visual pictures of accidents and danger situations. In this paper we proposed a framework for secure multimedia communication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). Our proposed framework is mainly divided into four components: redundant information, priority assignment, malicious data verification and malicious node verification. The proposed scheme jhas been validated with the help of the NS-2 network simulator and the Evalvid tool. PMID:22163462

  8. Sensor Based Framework for Secure Multimedia Communication in VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Aneel; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.; Sher, Muhammad; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Secure multimedia communication enhances the safety of passengers by providing visual pictures of accidents and danger situations. In this paper we proposed a framework for secure multimedia communication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). Our proposed framework is mainly divided into four components: redundant information, priority assignment, malicious data verification and malicious node verification. The proposed scheme jhas been validated with the help of the NS-2 network simulator and the Evalvid tool. PMID:22163462

  9. AMPA experimental communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, D.; Fass, S.; Keon, T.; Sielman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The program was conducted to demonstrate the satellite communication advantages of Adaptive Phased Array Technology. A laboratory based experiment was designed and implemented to demonstrate a low earth orbit satellite communications system. Using a 32 element, L-band phased array augmented with 4 sets of weights (2 for reception and 2 for transmission) a high speed digital processing system and operating against multiple user terminals and interferers, the AMPA system demonstrated: communications with austere user terminals, frequency reuse, communications in the face of interference, and geolocation. The program and experiment objectives are described, the system hardware and software/firmware are defined, and the test performed and the resultant test data are presented.

  10. Novel technology for enhanced security and trust in communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanov, Alexander; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit; Jannson, Tomasz

    2011-06-01

    A novel technology that significantly enhances security and trust in wireless and wired communication networks has been developed. It is based on integration of a novel encryption mechanism and novel data packet structure with enhanced security tools. This novel data packet structure results in an unprecedented level of security and trust, while at the same time reducing power consumption and computing/communication overhead in networks. As a result, networks are provided with protection against intrusion, exploitation, and cyber attacks and posses self-building, self-awareness, self-configuring, self-healing, and self-protecting intelligence.

  11. A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead. PMID:23202204

  12. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2012-03-31

    Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use this technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.

  13. Secure satellite communication using multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Punekar, Nikhil; Verma, Pramode K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes the potential of a multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol to secure satellite communication. For securing satellite communication, quantum cryptography is the only known unconditionally secure method. A number of recent experiments have shown feasibility of satellite-aided global quantum key distribution (QKD) using different methods such as: Use of entangled photon pairs, decoy state methods, and entanglement swapping. The use of single photon in these methods restricts the distance and speed over which quantum cryptography can be applied. Contemporary quantum cryptography protocols like the BB84 and its variants suffer from the limitation of reaching the distances of only Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at the data rates of few kilobits per second. This makes it impossible to develop a general satellite-based secure global communication network using the existing protocols. The method proposed in this paper allows secure communication at the heights of the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. The benefits of the proposed method are two-fold: First it enables the realization of a secure global communication network based on satellites and second it provides unconditional security for satellite networks at GEO heights. The multi-photon approach discussed in this paper ameliorates the distance and speed issues associated with quantum cryptography through the use of contemporary laser communication (lasercom) devices. This approach can be seen as a step ahead towards global quantum communication.

  14. Thermal noise informatics: totally secure communication via a wire, zero-power communication, and thermal noise driven computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Mingesz, Robert; Gingl, Zoltan

    2007-06-01

    Very recently, it has been shown that Gaussian thermal noise and its artificial versions (Johnson-like noises) can be utilized as an information carrier with peculiar properties therefore it may be proper to call this topic Thermal Noise Informatics. Zero Power (Stealth) Communication, Thermal Noise Driven Computing, and Totally Secure Classical Communication are relevant examples. In this paper, while we will briefly describe the first and the second subjects, we shall focus on the third subject, the secure classical communication via wire. This way of secure telecommunication utilizes the properties of Johnson(-like) noise and those of a simple Kirchhoff's loop. The communicator is unconditionally secure at the conceptual (circuit theoretical) level and this property is (so far) unique in communication systems based on classical physics. The communicator is superior to quantum alternatives in all known aspects, except the need of using a wire. In the idealized system, the eavesdropper can extract zero bit of information without getting uncovered. The scheme is naturally protected against the man-in-the-middle attack. The communication can take place also via currently used power lines or phone (wire) lines and it is not only a point-to-point communication like quantum channels but network-ready. We report that a pair of Kirchhoff-Loop-Johnson(-like)-Noise communicators, which is able to work over variable ranges, was designed and built. Tests have been carried out on a model-line with ranges beyond the ranges of any known direct quantum communication channel and they indicate unrivalled signal fidelity and security performance. This simple device has single-wire secure key generation/sharing rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 bit/second for copper wires with diameters/ranges of 21 mm / 2000 km, 7 mm / 200 km, 2.3 mm / 20 km, and 0.7 mm / 2 km, respectively and it performs with 0.02% raw-bit error rate (99.98 % fidelity). The raw-bit security of this practical system

  15. Public key suppression and recovery using a PANDA ring resonator for high security communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juleang, Pakorn; Phongsanam, Prapas; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2011-03-01

    An interesting security technique that uses the dark-bright soliton conversion control within the microring resonator is proposed. The obtained outputs for a dark-bright soliton dynamic state can be controlled and used to form the public key suppression for communication security application. However, a good design should be possible to be fabricated; therefore, by using the parameters based on the practical device parameters, the simulation results obtained have shown that the proposed system can indeed be achieved. The public key suppression and public key recovery can be used in a highly secure communication system and has potential applications in optical cryptography.

  16. Three-step semiquantum secure direct communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiangFu; Qiu, DaoWen

    2014-09-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without need for establishing a shared secret key first. In the existing schemes, quantum secure direct communication is possible only when both parties are quantum. In this paper, we construct a three-step semiquantum secure direct communication (SQSDC) protocol based on single photon sources in which the sender Alice is classical. In a semiquantum protocol, a person is termed classical if he (she) can measure, prepare and send quantum states only with the fixed orthogonal quantum basis {|0>, |1>}. The security of the proposed SQSDC protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of semiquantum key distribution protocols and the unconditional security of classical one-time pad encryption. Therefore, the proposed SQSDC protocol is also completely robust. Complete robustness indicates that nonzero information acquired by an eavesdropper Eve on the secret message implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. In the proposed protocol, we suggest a method to check Eves disturbing in the doves returning phase such that Alice does not need to announce publicly any position or their coded bits value after the photons transmission is completed. Moreover, the proposed SQSDC protocol can be implemented with the existing techniques. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication protocols, the proposed SQSDC protocol has two merits: firstly the sender only needs classical capabilities; secondly to check Eves disturbing after the transmission of quantum states, no additional classical information is needed.

  17. Improving Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has many communications systems which are used throughout a typical mission. Given that the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested, the ability to hear extremely weak signals requires greater receiver sensitivity. Dryden Flight Research Center approached Angle Linear, a manufacturer of linear radio frequency products and peripherals for communications, to solve the problem. The solution was a receiving preamplifier specially crafted for NASA. Communications with the Space Shuttle are now more reliable,with Dryden being able to also support local missions without purchasing additional equipment. The work has carried over into the Mir Space Station communication support effort and is under evaluation by other NASA centers. The company's preamplifier line was greatly expanded to cover a broader range of frequencies, providing the same sensational improvement to other areas of communication including business, government, trucking, land mobile, cellular and broadcast.

  18. Secure transmission of shipper/receiver confirmatory measurements. [Gillaroo Encrypted Secure Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Tisinger, R.M.; Brumfield, T.

    1988-01-01

    Shipper/receiver confirmatory measurements will be performed at Y-12 using equipment designed by Y-12 and the Safeguards Assay Group at Los Alamos. Equipment consists of three stationary NaI(Tl) gamma-ray counter arrays and a Digital Equipment Corporation Micro-11 processor for processing data. In the case of outgoing shipments, the counter data will be incorporated in a shipping file with other necessary documentation and transmitted to the intended recipient. In the case of incoming shipments, this station will receive a similar file from the sending organization. Protection of all data at the S/RD level is required. Transmission of the data files can be made point-to-point over telephone lines with proper encryption. Two commercial devices used in conjunction with a personal computer are being evaluated to provide secure communication endorsed by the National Security Agency (NSA). One device is the Gillaroo from P. E. Systems, Inc., and the other is the STU-III, which is available as a PC board or a standalone unit, whereas the STU-III is a Secure Telephone Unit with an RS-232 port for connection to a computer. In both cases, file encryption is performed in hardware using keys supplied by NSA. The prime advantage of this approach is a simplicity. Aside from key management, the whole operation can be automatically controlled by command files on the computer without involving additional interfaces with secure networks or mail systems. Additional benefits are rapid response, immediate confirmation of receipt of message, a communication channel independent of the shipment itself, and low cost.

  19. Parameter adaptation technique for rapid synchronization and secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, A. K.; Dwivedi, A.; Dwivedi, S.

    2014-06-01

    An effort is made here to show how parameter adaptation can be used for achieving rapid synchronization between two chaotic systems in a time much smaller than the time scale of chaotic oscillations. This rapid synchronization can be used for faster and more secure communication of digital messages. Different symbols of the message are coded by assigning different values to a parameter set. At the receiving end the parameter values quickly adapt to the changing transmitter parameters, thereby permitting the messages to be decoded. The technique presented here is significantly more secure compared to other similar schemes because in our scheme the transmitting parameters change so rapidly that an intruder cannot infer any information about the attractors corresponding to the different parameter values. Another feature, which enhances security, is that a subsystem of the transmitter can be changed, without having to convey this information to the bona fide recipient. Thus for the same plaintext and the same key, several different cipher-texts can be generated. Further, the variables, whose evolution equations contain the coding parameters, are not transmitted.

  20. Secure Many-to-One Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Viejo, Alexandre; Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Sebé, Francesc; Castellà-Roca, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are formed by nodes with limited computational and power resources. WSNs are finding an increasing number of applications, both civilian and military, most of which require security for the sensed data being collected by the base station from remote sensor nodes. In addition, when many sensor nodes transmit to the base station, the implosion problem arises. Providing security measures and implosion-resistance in a resource-limited environment is a real challenge. This article reviews the aggregation strategies proposed in the literature to handle the bandwidth and security problems related to many-to-one transmission in WSNs. Recent contributions to secure lossless many-to-one communication developed by the authors in the context of several Spanish-funded projects are surveyed. Ongoing work on the secure lossy many-to-one communication is also sketched. PMID:22346700

  1. Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Chaos with Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dazu; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying; Lee, Moon Ho

    2007-12-01

    A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on chaos is proposed with authentication. It has an advantage over distributing the secret message directly and verifying the communicators’ identities with the assistance of a trusted center. To ensure the security of the secret message and the process of verification, the initial order of the travel particles is disturbed according to a chaotic sequence generated secretly via the general Arnold map. Security analysis demonstrates that the present scheme is secure against several attack strategies, such as the man-in-the-middle attack and Trojan horse attack.

  2. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  3. Digital communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  4. Building a gateway with open source software for secure-DICOM communication over insecure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmel, Dirk; Ricke, Jens; Stohlmann, Lutz; Haderer, Alexander; Felix, Roland

    2002-05-01

    For Teleradiology the exchange of DICOM-images is needed for several purposes. Existing solutions often don't consider about the needs for data security and data privacy. Communication is done without any encryption over insecure networks or with encryption using proprietary solutions, which reduces the data communication possibilities to partners with the same equipment. Our goal was to build a gateway, which offers a transparent solution for secure DICOM-communication in a heterogeneous environment We developed a PC-based gateway system with DICOM-communication to the in-house network and secure DICOM communication for the communication over the insecure network. One gateway installed at each location is responsible for encryption/decryption. The sender just transfers the image data over the DICOM protocol to the local gateway. The gateway forwards the data to the gateway on the destination site using the secure DICOM protocol, which is part of the DICOM standard. The receiving gateway forwards the image data to the final destination again using the DICOM-Protocol. The gateway is based on Open Source software and runs under several operating systems. Our experience shows a reliable solution, which solves security issues for DICOM communication of image data and integrates seamless into a heterogeneous DICOM environment.

  5. The Skylab communications system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Skylab is an experimental manned space station which will be operated by three astronauts intermittently over eight months in 1973. It will be in a 235 nautical mile, 50 degree inclination orbit. The communication system includes an onboard audio distribution hard-line network with 13 stations; a teleprinter for recording messages from the ground; telemetry, voice and television links; an onboard video distribution network. The radio frequencies system also includes radiometer and scatterometer earth-scanning sensors operating at 13.9 GHz and 1.4 GHz. The overall Skylab Program is discussed briefly and the communications system is described in more detail.

  6. Department of Homeland Security Interoperable Communications Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Payne, Donald M., Jr. [D-NJ-10

    2014-03-24

    07/09/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Children’s Security in the Context of Family Instability and Maternal Communications

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Marcia A.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    This multi-method study examined the association between family instability and children’s internal representations of security in the family system within the context of maternal communications about disruptive family events. Participants included 224 kindergarten children (100 boys and 124 girls) and their parents. Parents reported on the frequency of unstable family events, mothers reported their patterns of communication to children following disruptive events, and children completed a story-stem battery to assess their internal representations of family security. Consistent with predictions, heightened family instability was associated with less security in child representations. The implication of these results for notions of children’s security in the family system, including exploratory findings on the protective role of maternal communications for children’s representations, are discussed. PMID:20689722

  8. CORBA security services for health information systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1998-01-01

    The structure of healthcare systems in developed countries is changing to 'shared care', enforced by economic constraints and caused by a change in the basic conditions of care. That development results in co-operative health information systems across the boundaries of organisational, technological, and policy domains. Increasingly, these distributed and, as far as their domains are concerned, heterogeneous systems are based on middleware approaches, such as CORBA. Regarding the sensitivity of personal and medical data, such open, distributed, and heterogeneous health information systems require a high level of data protection and data security, both with respect to patient information and with respect to users. This paper, relying on experience gained through our activities in CORBAmed, describes the possibilities the CORBA middleware provides to achieve application and communication security. On the background of the overall CORBA architecture, it outlines the different security services previewed in the adopted CORBA specifications which are discussed in the context of the security requirements of healthcare information systems. Security services required in the healthcare domain but not available at the moment are mentioned. A solution is proposed, which on the one hand allows to make use of the available CORBA security services and additional ones, on the other hand remains open to other middleware approaches, such as DHE or HL7. PMID:9848400

  9. 75 FR 9899 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications... Division, Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, 445 12th...

  10. 77 FR 70777 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  11. 77 FR 12054 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications... Safety and Homeland Security Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, 445 12th Street SW., Room 7-...

  12. Secure Data Network System (SDNS) network, transport, and message security protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkel, C.

    1990-03-01

    The Secure Data Network System (SDNS) project, implements computer to computer communications security for distributed applications. The internationally accepted Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) computer networking architecture provides the framework for SDNS. SDNS uses the layering principles of OSI to implement secure data transfers between computer nodes of local area and wide area networks. Four security protocol documents developed by the National Security Agency (NSA) as output from the SDNS project are included. SDN.301 provides the framework for security at layer 3 of the OSI Model. Cryptographic techniques to provide data protection for transport connections or for connectionless-mode transmission are described in SDN.401. Specifications for message security service and protocol are contained in SDN.701. Directory System Specifications for Message Security Protocol are covered in SDN.702.

  13. Quantum Communication for the Ultimate Capacity and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masahide; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro

    Quantum info-communication technologies (Q-ICT) will be able to realize quantum communication which attains higher capacity than that of conventional optical communications, and the unconditionally secure communication, known as quantum key distribution (QKD), that cannot be broken by any future technologies. In this article we first review a brief history of Q-ICT, and introduce basic notions and results so far. We then present our recent results on these two technologies, addressing current limitations of the known schemes, and finally discuss future perspectives, especially a challenge to merge the merits of the two.

  14. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  15. Controlled Secure Direct Communication with Six-Qubit Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Li, Xiao-lan; Nie, Li-ping; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-02-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme for implementing controlled quantum secure direct communication by using six-qubit entangled states. According to the results measured by the sender and the controller, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way with unit successful probability. In our scheme, the information-carrying qubits do not need to be transmitted over the public channel. Therefore, the scheme is determinate and secure.

  16. Aviation security: A system's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For many years the aviation industry and airports operated with security methods and equipment common to most other large industrial complexes. At that time, the security systems primarily provided asset and property protection. However, soon after the first aircraft hijacking the focus of security shifted to emphasize the security requirements necessary for protecting the traveling public and the one feature of the aviation industry that makes it unique---the airplane. The airplane and its operation offered attractive opportunities for the homesick refugee, the mentally unstable person and the terrorist wanting to make a political statement. The airport and its aircraft were the prime targets requiring enhanced security against this escalated threat. In response, the FAA, airport operators and air carriers began to develop plans for increasing security and assigning responsibilities for implementation.

  17. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  18. Information security management system planning for CBRN facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lenaeu, Joseph D.; O'Neil, Lori Ross; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lewis, John; Mathers, Gemma; Rodger, Robert; Johnson, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The focus of this document is to provide guidance for the development of information security management system planning documents at chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) facilities. It describes a risk-based approach for planning information security programs based on the sensitivity of the data developed, processed, communicated, and stored on facility information systems.

  19. Secure satellite communications in the ISDN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cristofaro, R.; Bratcher, B. A.

    The single channel per carrier (SCPC) earth station equipment using continuously variable slope delta modulation voice encoding and phase shift keying carrier modulation is examined. The satellite earth station for SCPC consists of: antenna, high power amplifier, low noise amplifier, RF up-converter and down-converter, and the SCPC common equipment and channel unit. The functions and operations of the common equipment and channel unit of the SCPC are described. The data transmission security is achieved using full duplex digital encryption; the crypto synchronizing sequence format is discussed.

  20. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  1. Security for decentralized health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bleumer, G

    1994-02-01

    Health care information systems must reflect at least two basic characteristics of the health care community: the increasing mobility of patients and the personal liability of everyone giving medical treatment. Open distributed information systems bear the potential to reflect these requirements. But the market for open information systems and operating systems hardly provides secure products today. This 'missing link' is approached by the prototype SECURE Talk that provides secure transmission and archiving of files on top of an existing operating system. Its services may be utilized by existing medical applications. SECURE Talk demonstrates secure communication utilizing only standard hardware. Its message is that cryptography (and in particular asymmetric cryptography) is practical for many medical applications even if implemented in software. All mechanisms are software implemented in order to be executable on standard-hardware. One can investigate more or less decentralized forms of public key management and the performance of many different cryptographic mechanisms. That of, e.g. hybrid encryption and decryption (RSA+DES-PCBC) is about 300 kbit/s. That of signing and verifying is approximately the same using RSA with a DES hash function. The internal speed, without disk accesses etc., is about 1.1 Mbit/s. (Apple Quadra 950 (MC 68040, 33 MHz, RAM: 20 MB, 80 ns. Length of RSA modulus is 512 bit). PMID:8188407

  2. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  3. Transitioning from analog to digital communications: An information security perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given of the government's perspective on evolving digital communications as they affect secure voice users and approaches for operating during a transition period to an all digital world. An integrated architecture and a mobile satellite interface are discussed.

  4. Secure communication of medical information using mobile agents.

    PubMed

    Nikooghadam, Morteza; Zakerolhosseini, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Recently several efficient schemes are proposed to provide security of e-medicine systems. Almost all of these schemes have tried to achieve the highest security level in transmission of patients' medical information to medical institutions through a heterogeneous network like Internet. In this paper, we explain the insecurity of these schemes against "man-in-the-middle" attack. Furthermore, a dynamic mobile agent system based on hybrid cryptosystem is proposed that is both secure and also efficient in computation cost. Analyzing the security criteria confirms suitability of the proposed scheme for e-medicine systems. PMID:22569875

  5. Communication in Change - Voice over IP in Safety and Security Critical Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Heimo; Sevcik, Berndt; Turek, Thomas; Zucker, Gerhard

    During the last decade communication technology has changed rapidly. Due to its decreasing costs and rising expansion, IP (Internet Protocol) technology has found its way to areas that have long been the domain of public-switched telephone networks (PSTN). Voice over IP (VoIP) applications are widely used not only for phone calls or common Internet conferences, but also tend to be used for safety critical communication applications. Hence security and safety topics arise, which pose new challenges in this area of research. The authors are convinced that new issues on the network layer as well as on the application layer require detailed analysis. Hence this paper gives an overview on latest developments in this area, and states the authors’ view on this topic. Thereby safety and security issues are faced from different abstraction layers. On the one hand the network layer and on the other hand the application layer focusing on middleware systems in the area of service oriented architectures (SOAs).

  6. Secure and Authenticated Data Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Alfandi, Omar; Bochem, Arne; Kellner, Ansgar; Göge, Christian; Hogrefe, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Securing communications in wireless sensor networks is increasingly important as the diversity of applications increases. However, even today, it is equally important for the measures employed to be energy efficient. For this reason, this publication analyzes the suitability of various cryptographic primitives for use in WSNs according to various criteria and, finally, describes a modular, PKI-based framework for confidential, authenticated, secure communications in which most suitable primitives can be employed. Due to the limited capabilities of common WSN motes, criteria for the selection of primitives are security, power efficiency and memory requirements. The implementation of the framework and the singular components have been tested and benchmarked in our testbed of IRISmotes. PMID:26266413

  7. Secure SCADA communication by using a modified key management scheme.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Abdalhossein; Keshavarzi, Parviz; Moravej, Zahra

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a new cryptographic key management scheme which increases the efficiency and security of the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) communication. In the proposed key management scheme, two key update phases are used: session key update and master key update. In the session key update phase, session keys are generated in the master station. In the master key update phase, the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) protocol is used. The Poisson process is also used to model the Security Index (SI) and Quality of Service (QoS). Our analysis shows that the proposed key management not only supports the required speed in the MODBUS implementation but also has several advantages compared to other key management schemes for secure communication in SCADA networks. PMID:23528753

  8. Secure and Authenticated Data Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alfandi, Omar; Bochem, Arne; Kellner, Ansgar; Göge, Christian; Hogrefe, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Securing communications in wireless sensor networks is increasingly important as the diversity of applications increases. However, even today, it is equally important for the measures employed to be energy efficient. For this reason, this publication analyzes the suitability of various cryptographic primitives for use in WSNs according to various criteria and, finally, describes a modular, PKI-based framework for confidential, authenticated, secure communications in which most suitable primitives can be employed. Due to the limited capabilities of common WSN motes, criteria for the selection of primitives are security, power efficiency and memory requirements. The implementation of the framework and the singular components have been tested and benchmarked in our testbed of IRISmotes. PMID:26266413

  9. Quantum secure direct communication based on supervised teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Liu, Yu

    2008-03-01

    We present a quantum secure direct communication(QSDC) scheme as an extension for a proposed supervised secure entanglement sharing protocol. Starting with a quick review on the supervised entanglement sharing protocol - the "Wuhan" protocol [Y. Li, et al., quant-ph/0709.1449 (2007)], we primarily focus on its further extend using for a QSDC task, in which the communication attendant Alice encodes the secret message directly onto a sequence of 2-level particles which then can be faithfully teleported to Bob using the shared maximal entanglement states obtained by the previous "Wuhan" protocol. We also evaluate the security of the QSDC scheme, where an individual self-attack performed by Alice and Bob - the out of control attack is introduced and the robustness of our scheme on the OCA is documented.

  10. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111 Section 127.1111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111...

  11. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111 Section 127.1111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111 Section 127.1111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111...

  13. Strategic Choices for Data Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Robert G.; Urban, Patricia A.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in determining how to develop a data communications system at colleges and universities are discussed including; technical requirements; cost; implications for coordination and (de)centralization of hardware/software; deciding when to create a data network; data security, information integrity, and organizational development. (Author/MLW)

  14. Wireless Headset Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

    1995-01-01

    System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

  15. Performance evaluation of secured DICOM image communication with next generation internet protocol IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fenghai; Zhang, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaomeng; Huang, H. K.

    2005-04-01

    Next Generation Internet (NGI) technology with new communication protocol IPv6 emerges as a potential solution for low-cost and high-speed networks for image data transmission. IPv6 is designed to solve many of the problems of the current version of IP (known as IPv4) with regard to address depletion, security, autoconfiguration, extensibility, and more. We choose CTN (Central Test Node) DICOM software developed by The Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to implement IPv6/IPv4 enabled DICOM communication software on different operating systems (Windows/Linux), and used this DICOM software to evaluate the performance of the IPv6/IPv4 enabled DICOM image communication with different security setting and environments. We compared the security communications of IPsec with SSL/TLS on different TCP/IP protocols (IPv6/IPv4), and find that there are some trade-offs to choose security solution between IPsec and SSL/TLS in the security implementation of IPv6/IPv4 communication networks.

  16. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation’s cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested – both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  17. Developing a Standard Method for Link-Layer Security of CCSDS Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggerstaff, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Communications security for space systems has been a specialized field generally far removed from considerations of mission interoperability and cross-support in fact, these considerations often have been viewed as intrinsically opposed to security objectives. The space communications protocols defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) have a twenty-five year history of successful use in over 400 missions. While the CCSDS Telemetry, Telecommand, and Advancing Orbiting Systems protocols for use at OSI Layer 2 are operationally mature, there has been no direct support within these protocols for communications security techniques. Link-layer communications security has been successfully implemented in the past using mission-unique methods, but never before with an objective of facilitating cross-support and interoperability. This paper discusses the design of a standard method for cryptographic authentication, encryption, and replay protection at the data link layer that can be integrated into existing CCSDS protocols without disruption to legacy communications services. Integrating cryptographic operations into existing data structures and processing sequences requires a careful assessment of the potential impediments within spacecraft, ground stations, and operations centers. The objective of this work is to provide a sound method for cryptographic encapsulation of frame data that also facilitates Layer 2 virtual channel switching, such that a mission may procure data transport services as needed without involving third parties in the cryptographic processing, or split independent data streams for separate cryptographic processing.

  18. Knowledge-based system for computer security

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid expansion of computer security information and technology has provided little support for the security officer to identify and implement the safeguards needed to secure a computing system. The Department of Energy Center for Computer Security is developing a knowledge-based computer security system to provide expert knowledge to the security officer. The system is policy-based and incorporates a comprehensive list of system attack scenarios and safeguards that implement the required policy while defending against the attacks. 10 figs.

  19. A voice password system for access security

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, M.; Cohen, L.A.; Welsh, F.X.

    1986-09-01

    A voice password system for access security using speaker verification technology has been designed for use over dial-up telephone lines. The voice password system (VPS) can provide secure access to telephone networks, computers, rooms, and buildings. It also has application in office automation systems, electric funds transfer, and ''smart cards'' (interactive computers embedded in credit-card-sized packages). As increasing attention is focused on access security in the public, private, and government sectors, the voice password system can provide a timely solution to the security dilemma. The VPS uses modes of communication available to almost everyone (the human voice and the telephone). A user calls the VPS, enters his or her identification number (ID) by touch-tone telephone, and then speaks a password. This is usually a phrase or a sentence of about seven syllables. On initial calls, the VPS creates a model of the user's voice, called a reference template, and labels it with the caller's unique user ID. To gain access later, the user calls the system, enters the proper user ID, and speaks the password phrase. The VPS compares the user's stored reference template with the spoken password and produces a distance score.

  20. Synchronization of Randomly Multiplexed Chaotic Systems with Application to Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Shyam; Minai, Ali A.

    2000-12-01

    Synchronized chaotic systems have recently been applied to the area of secure communications in a variety of ways. At the same time, there have also been significant advances in deciphering messages masked by chaotic signals. It is important, therefore, to explore more secure approaches to using chaos in communication. We show that multiple chaotic systems can be synchronized through a scalar coupling which carries a stochastic signal generated by random multiplexing of the source systems. This approach, which is a variant of the active-passive decomposition method, promises enhanced security in chaos-based communication.

  1. 76 FR 54234 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications... Goldthorp, Associate Bureau Chief, Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau, Federal...

  2. 75 FR 56533 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications... presenting their proposed recommendations on issues such as public safety consolidation, E911 reliability and... Chief for Cybersecurity and Communications Reliability Public Safety and Homeland Security...

  3. Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat

    2015-10-01

    Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.

  4. Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels

    PubMed Central

    Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat

    2015-01-01

    Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth—that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary—for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation—the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary. PMID:26478089

  5. Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels.

    PubMed

    Bash, Boulat A; Gheorghe, Andrei H; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat

    2015-01-01

    Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary. PMID:26478089

  6. On KLJN-based Secure Key Distribution in Vehicular Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Saez, Y.; Pesti, G.; Kish, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    In a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett. 13 (2014) 1450020] we introduced a vehicular communication system with unconditionally secure key exchange based on the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme. In this paper, we address the secure KLJN key donation to vehicles. This KLJN key donation solution is performed lane-by-lane by using roadside key provider equipment embedded in the pavement. A method to compute the lifetime of the KLJN key is also given. This key lifetime depends on the car density and gives an upper limit of the lifetime of the KLJN key for vehicular communication networks.

  7. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  8. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  9. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  10. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  11. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  12. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Computer and Communications Security Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In his paper, "European Needs and Attitudes towards Information Security," Richard I. Polis notes that the needs for security in computer systems, telecommunications, and media are rather uniform throughout Western Europe, and are seen as being significantly different from the needs in the United States. Recognition of these needs is, however,…

  13. Network security system for health and medical information using smart IC card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yoichi; Yachida, Masuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroharu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1998-07-01

    A new network security protocol that uses smart IC cards has been designed to assure the integrity and privacy of medical information in communication over a non-secure network. Secure communication software has been implemented as a library based on this protocol, which is called the Integrated Secure Communication Layer (ISCL), and has been incorporated into information systems of the National Cancer Center Hospitals and the Health Service Center of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Both systems have succeeded in communicating digital medical information securely.

  14. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel at...) storage capacity must have an emergency communication system that provides for verbal communications... operation of safety equipment in time of emergency. The emergency communication system must be...

  15. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  16. Secure UHF satellite communications for the 1980's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, F. M.

    It is expected that UHF satellite communications will remain the most common medium for small military platforms' secure communications links. Routine, high volume military data will in this case be handled by commercially leased satellites, and the most sensitive information, some of which will be carried by UHF, being handled by the Milstar satellite. Attention is presently given to the means by which the prospective saturation of UHF links as many more thousands of terminals come on line can be efficiently managed through better use of both channel bandwidth and time.

  17. Secure communications with low-orbit spacecraft using quantum cryptography

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Luther, Gabriel G.; Morgan, George L; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles G.; Simmons, Charles M.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for secure communication between an earth station and spacecraft. A laser outputs single pulses that are split into preceding bright pulses and delayed attenuated pulses, and polarized. A Pockels cell changes the polarization of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses according to a string of random numbers, a first polarization representing a "1," and a second polarization representing a "0." At the receiving station, a beamsplitter randomly directs the preceding bright pulses and the polarized delayed attenuated pulses onto longer and shorter paths, both terminating in a beamsplitter which directs the preceding bright pulses and a first portion of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses to a first detector, and a second portion of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses to a second detector to generate a key for secure communication between the earth station and the spacecraft.

  18. Children's Security in the Context of Family Instability and Maternal Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Marcia A.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    This multimethod study examined the association between family instability and children's internal representations of security in the family system within the context of maternal communications about disruptive family events. Participants included 224 kindergarten children (100 boys and 124 girls) and their parents. Parents reported on the…

  19. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  20. Secure thermal infrared communications using engineered blackbody radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Fangjing; Yan, Yuepeng; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2014-01-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands, from 20–40 THz and 60–100 THz, are best known for applications in thermography. This underused and unregulated part of the spectral range offers opportunities for the development of secure communications. The ‘THz Torch' concept was recently presented by the authors. This technology fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation, by partitioning thermally-generated spectral noise power into pre-defined frequency channels; the energy in each channel is then independently pulsed modulated and multiplexing schemes are introduced to create a robust form of short-range secure communications in the far/mid infrared. To date, octave bandwidth (25–50 THz) single-channel links have been demonstrated with 380 bps speeds. Multi-channel ‘THz Torch' frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) schemes have been proposed, but only a slow 40 bps FDM scheme has been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we report a much faster 1,280 bps FDM implementation. In addition, an experimental proof-of-concept FHSS scheme is demonstrated for the first time, having a 320 bps data rate. With both 4-channel multiplexing schemes, measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 10−6 are achieved over a distance of 2.5 cm. Our approach represents a new paradigm in the way niche secure communications can be established over short links. PMID:24912871

  1. Secure thermal infrared communications using engineered blackbody radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Fangjing; Yan, Yuepeng; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2014-06-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands, from 20-40 THz and 60-100 THz, are best known for applications in thermography. This underused and unregulated part of the spectral range offers opportunities for the development of secure communications. The `THz Torch' concept was recently presented by the authors. This technology fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation, by partitioning thermally-generated spectral noise power into pre-defined frequency channels; the energy in each channel is then independently pulsed modulated and multiplexing schemes are introduced to create a robust form of short-range secure communications in the far/mid infrared. To date, octave bandwidth (25-50 THz) single-channel links have been demonstrated with 380 bps speeds. Multi-channel `THz Torch' frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) schemes have been proposed, but only a slow 40 bps FDM scheme has been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we report a much faster 1,280 bps FDM implementation. In addition, an experimental proof-of-concept FHSS scheme is demonstrated for the first time, having a 320 bps data rate. With both 4-channel multiplexing schemes, measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 10-6 are achieved over a distance of 2.5 cm. Our approach represents a new paradigm in the way niche secure communications can be established over short links.

  2. Secure thermal infrared communications using engineered blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Fangjing; Yan, Yuepeng; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2014-01-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands, from 20-40 THz and 60-100 THz, are best known for applications in thermography. This underused and unregulated part of the spectral range offers opportunities for the development of secure communications. The 'THz Torch' concept was recently presented by the authors. This technology fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation, by partitioning thermally-generated spectral noise power into pre-defined frequency channels; the energy in each channel is then independently pulsed modulated and multiplexing schemes are introduced to create a robust form of short-range secure communications in the far/mid infrared. To date, octave bandwidth (25-50 THz) single-channel links have been demonstrated with 380 bps speeds. Multi-channel 'THz Torch' frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) schemes have been proposed, but only a slow 40 bps FDM scheme has been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we report a much faster 1,280 bps FDM implementation. In addition, an experimental proof-of-concept FHSS scheme is demonstrated for the first time, having a 320 bps data rate. With both 4-channel multiplexing schemes, measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 10(-6) are achieved over a distance of 2.5 cm. Our approach represents a new paradigm in the way niche secure communications can be established over short links. PMID:24912871

  3. Inherent secure communications using lattice based waveform design.

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, Matthew Owen

    2013-12-01

    The wireless communications channel is innately insecure due to the broadcast nature of the electromagnetic medium. Many techniques have been developed and implemented in order to combat insecurities and ensure the privacy of transmitted messages. Traditional methods include encrypting the data via cryptographic methods, hiding the data in the noise floor as in wideband communications, or nulling the signal in the spatial direction of the adversary using array processing techniques. This work analyzes the design of signaling constellations, i.e. modulation formats, to combat eavesdroppers from correctly decoding transmitted messages. It has been shown that in certain channel models the ability of an adversary to decode the transmitted messages can be degraded by a clever signaling constellation based on lattice theory. This work attempts to optimize certain lattice parameters in order to maximize the security of the data transmission. These techniques are of interest because they are orthogonal to, and can be used in conjunction with, traditional security techniques to create a more secure communication channel.

  4. It Security and EO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, M.

    2010-12-01

    One topic that is beginning to influence the systems that support these goals is that of Information Technology (IT) Security. Unsecure systems are vulnerable to increasing attacks and other negative consequences; sponsoring agencies are correspondingly responding with more refined policies and more stringent security requirements. These affect how EO systems can meet the goals of data and service interoperability and harmonization through open access, transformation and visualization services. Contemporary systems, including the vision of a system-of-systems (such as GEOSS, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), utilize technologies that support a distributed, global, net-centric environment. These types of systems have a high reliance on the open systems, web services, shared infrastructure and data standards. The broader IT industry has developed and used these technologies in their business and mission critical systems for many years. Unfortunately, the IT industry, and their customers have learned the importance of protecting their assets and resources (computing and information) as they have been forced to respond to an ever increasing number and more complex illegitimate “attackers”. This presentation will offer an overview of work done by the CEOS WGISS organization in summarizing security threats, the challenges to responding to them and capturing the current state of the practice within the EO community.

  5. System and method for secure group transactions

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2006-04-25

    A method and a secure system, processing on one or more computers, provides a way to control a group transaction. The invention uses group consensus access control and multiple distributed secure agents in a network environment. Each secure agent can organize with the other secure agents to form a secure distributed agent collective.

  6. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineroom communication system. 169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication system....

  7. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineroom communication system. 169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication system....

  8. Entanglement-based quantum communication secured by nonlocal dispersion cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Catherine; Zhang, Zheshen; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Zhou, Hongchao; Mower, Jacob; Zhong, Tian; Wang, Ligong; Hu, Xiaolong; Horansky, Robert D.; Verma, Varun B.; Lita, Adriana E.; Mirin, Richard P.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Wornell, Gregory W.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Englund, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables participants to exchange secret information over long distances with unconditional security. However, the performance of today's QKD systems is subject to hardware limitations, such as those of available nonclassical-light sources and single-photon detectors. By encoding photons in high-dimensional states, the rate of generating secure information under these technical constraints can be maximized. Here, we demonstrate a complete time-energy entanglement-based QKD system with proven security against the broad class of arbitrary collective attacks. The security of the system is based on nonlocal dispersion cancellation between two time-energy entangled photons. This resource-efficient QKD system is implemented at telecommunications wavelength, is suitable for optical fiber and free-space links, and is compatible with wavelength-division multiplexing.

  9. Dynamic security assessment processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    The architecture of dynamic security assessment processing system (DSAPS) is proposed to address online dynamic security assessment (DSA) with focus of the dissertation on low-probability, high-consequence events. DSAPS upgrades current online DSA functions and adds new functions to fit into the modern power grid. Trajectory sensitivity analysis is introduced and its applications in power system are reviewed. An index is presented to assess transient voltage dips quantitatively using trajectory sensitivities. Then the framework of anticipatory computing system (ACS) for cascading defense is presented as an important function of DSAPS. ACS addresses various security problems and the uncertainties in cascading outages. Corrective control design is automated to mitigate the system stress in cascading progressions. The corrective controls introduced in the dissertation include corrective security constrained optimal power flow, a two-stage load control for severe under-frequency conditions, and transient stability constrained optimal power flow for cascading outages. With state-of-the-art computing facilities to perform high-speed extended-term time-domain simulation and optimization for large-scale systems, DSAPS/ACS efficiently addresses online DSA for low-probability, high-consequence events, which are not addressed by today's industrial practice. Human interference is reduced in the computationally burdensome analysis.

  10. Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2006-11-01

    We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on the secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang[Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)] and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon, or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.

  11. Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xihan; Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu

    2006-11-15

    We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on the secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang[Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)] and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon, or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.

  12. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Architecture Lab Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; McKim, James H.; Stewart, David H.; Thadhani, Suresh K.; Young, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the FAA and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the current GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The security controls were integrated into a lab test bed mock-up of the Mobile IPv6 architecture currently being used for NASA flight testing, and a series of network tests were conducted to evaluate the security overhead of the controls compared to the baseline CNPC link without any security. The aim of testing was to evaluate the performance impact of the additional security control overhead when added to the Mobile IPv6 architecture in various modes of operation. The statistics collected included packet captures at points along the path to gauge packet size as the sample data traversed the CNPC network, round trip latency, jitter, and throughput. The effort involved a series of tests of the baseline link, a link with Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and without security controls, a link with security controls and without ROHC, and finally a link with both ROHC and security controls enabled. The effort demonstrated that ROHC is both desirable and necessary to offset the additional expected overhead of applying security controls to the CNPC link.

  13. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  14. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption. PMID:19365479

  15. Digital and analog communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  16. Principles of military communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrieri, D. J.

    This book is devoted to an analytical study of those aspects of communication theory which have special relevance to military systems. The book is intended for graduate students and practicing engineers with a background in communication theory. Aspects of communication warfare are considered, taking into account power and propagation, analog communications, digital communications, and pulsed jamming. Pseudonoise spread-spectrum systems are examined, giving attention to principles, pseudonoise sequences, the concealment of pseudonoise waveforms, error probabilities in presence of interference, jamming, code synchronization, pseudonoise networks, and burst-communication systems. Frequency hopping is discussed along with interception, adaptive antenna systems, and cryptographic digital communications. Topics reviewed in an appendix are related to derivations of conditional bit error probabilities for frequency-shift keying, and the noncentral chi-squared distribution.

  17. Survey of Interlibrary Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    The growth and development of library networks increased the need for more rapid interlibrary communication. This survey describes the history, costs and recent developments of various means of interlibrary communication. Extensive references are provided for each area. The communications systems discussed are: surveys, mail, telephone, facsimile,…

  18. Information Systems and Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Raymond W., Ed.; Williams, Alfred B., Ed.

    Intended to provide orientation about the integration of business communication, business systems, and the researching and teaching of business communication, this books offers articles on a variety of topics concerning business communication. Titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Office Technology: Voice Store-and-Forward"…

  19. FACELOCK-Lock Control Security System Using Face Recognition-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Takatsugu; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

    A security system using biometric person authentication technologies is suited to various high-security situations. The technology based on face recognition has advantages such as lower user’s resistance and lower stress. However, facial appearances change according to facial pose, expression, lighting, and age. We have developed the FACELOCK security system based on our face recognition methods. Our methods are robust for various facial appearances except facial pose. Our system consists of clients and a server. The client communicates with the server through our protocol over a LAN. Users of our system do not need to be careful about their facial appearance.

  20. 33 CFR 127.705 - Security systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security systems. 127.705 Section 127.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.705 Security systems. The operator...

  1. 33 CFR 127.705 - Security systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security systems. 127.705 Section 127.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.705 Security systems. The operator...

  2. 33 CFR 127.705 - Security systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security systems. 127.705 Section 127.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.705 Security systems. The operator...

  3. 33 CFR 127.705 - Security systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security systems. 127.705 Section 127.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.705 Security systems. The operator...

  4. SPECS: Secure and Privacy Enhancing Communications Schemes for VANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chim, T. W.; Yiu, S. M.; Hui, L. C. K.; Jiang, Zoe L.; Li, Victor O. K.

    Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an emerging type of networks which facilitates vehicles on roads to communicate for driving safety. The basic idea is to allow arbitrary vehicles to broadcast ad hoc messages (e.g. traffic accidents) to other vehicles. However, this raises the concern of security and privacy. Messages should be signed and verified before they are trusted while the real identity of vehicles should not be revealed, but traceable by authorized party. Existing solutions either rely heavily on a tamper-proof hardware device, or cannot satisfy the privacy requirement and do not have an effective message verification scheme. In this paper, we provide a software-based solution which makes use of only two shared secrets to satisfy the privacy requirement and gives lower message overhead and at least 45% higher successful rate than previous solutions in the message verification phase using the bloom filter and the binary search techniques. We also provide the first group communication protocol to allow vehicles to authenticate and securely communicate with others in a group of known vehicles.

  5. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  6. Communications systems checkout study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginter, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results and conclusions of an engineering study of Space Station communications subsystem checkout are reported. The primary purpose of the study is to recommend specific guidelines and constraints for the design and utilization of the communications subsystem leading to a practical and effective means of onboard checkout implementation. Major study objectives are as follows: (1) identify candidate communications subsystem checkout concepts, (2) determine implementation impacts of feasible concepts, (3) evaluate practicality and effectiveness of alternative concepts, (4) propose baseline modifications to accommodate preferred concepts, and (5) recommend areas for additional investigation. In addition, study results are interpreted, where appropriate, in terms of their applicability to checkout of Shuttle-Orbiter communications subsystem.

  7. Communication Simulations for Power System Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-05-29

    New smart grid technologies and concepts, such as dynamic pricing, demand response, dynamic state estimation, and wide area monitoring, protection, and control, are expected to require considerable communication resources. As the cost of retrofit can be high, future power grids will require the integration of high-speed, secure connections with legacy communication systems, while still providing adequate system control and security. While considerable work has been performed to create co-simulators for the power domain with load models and market operations, limited work has been performed in integrating communications directly into a power domain solver. The simulation of communication and power systems will become more important as the two systems become more inter-related. This paper will discuss ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to create a flexible, high-speed power and communication system co-simulator for smart grid applications. The framework for the software will be described, including architecture considerations for modular, high performance computing and large-scale scalability (serialization, load balancing, partitioning, cross-platform support, etc.). The current simulator supports the ns-3 (telecommunications) and GridLAB-D (distribution systems) simulators. Ongoing and future work will be described, including planned future expansions for a traditional transmission solver. A test case using the co-simulator, utilizing a transactive demand response system created for the Olympic Peninsula and AEP gridSMART demonstrations, requiring two-way communication between distributed and centralized market devices, will be used to demonstrate the value and intended purpose of the co-simulation environment.

  8. Satellite personal communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Smith, J. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Voice channel communication between low power mobile stations dispersed over a large area is provided by a system which includes a geostationary satellite utilizing a large UHF antenna that can receive a transmission from a caller and retransmit it over any one beam of a matrix of narrow beams, so the chosen beam covers an area in which a designated called party is located. A single up-link control channel occupying a narrow frequency band, can be utilized to receive dial up signals from a caller, and another single down link control channel can be utilized to ring up the called party located anywhere within the continental United States. The satellite antenna includes a matrix of feed horns that not only direct the beams in a controlled matrix onto the area of the continental United States, but also permit detection of the region from which the caller's signal is transmitted and the region from which the called party's answer is received, to enable the interconnection of signals received from these two regions. The system is particularly useful for rural areas.

  9. The braided single-stage protocol for quantum secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Verma, Pramode K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation of a Braided Single-stage Protocol for quantum secure communication. The braided single-stage protocol is a multi-photon tolerant secure protocol. This multi-photon tolerant protocol has been implemented in the laboratory using free-space optics technology. The proposed protocol capitalizes on strengths of the three-stage protocol and extends it with a new concept of braiding. This protocol overcomes the limitations associated with the three-stage protocol in the following ways: It uses the transmission channel only once as opposed to three times in the three-stage protocol, and it is invulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. This paper also presents the error analysis resulting from the misalignment of the devices in the implementation. The experimental results validate the efficient use of transmission resources and improvement in the data transfer rate.

  10. Deterministic secure communications using two-mode squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alberto M.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.

    2006-08-15

    We propose a scheme for quantum cryptography that uses the squeezing phase of a two-mode squeezed state to transmit information securely between two parties. The basic principle behind this scheme is the fact that each mode of the squeezed field by itself does not contain any information regarding the squeezing phase. The squeezing phase can only be obtained through a joint measurement of the two modes. This, combined with the fact that it is possible to perform remote squeezing measurements, makes it possible to implement a secure quantum communication scheme in which a deterministic signal can be transmitted directly between two parties while the encryption is done automatically by the quantum correlations present in the two-mode squeezed state.

  11. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  12. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  13. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The proposed security controls were integrated into the GRC flight test system aboard our S-3B Viking surrogate aircraft and several network tests were conducted during a flight on November 15th, 2014 to determine whether the controls were working properly within the flight environment. The flight test was also the first to integrate Robust Header Compression (ROHC) as a means of reducing the additional overhead introduced by the security controls and Mobile IPv6. The effort demonstrated the complete end-to-end secure CNPC link in a relevant flight environment.

  14. Applying New Network Security Technologies to SCADA Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A.; Stamp, Jason E.; Duggan, David P.; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2006-11-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems for automation are very important for critical infrastructure and manufacturing operations. They have been implemented to work in a number of physical environments using a variety of hardware, software, networking protocols, and communications technologies, often before security issues became of paramount concern. To offer solutions to security shortcomings in the short/medium term, this project was to identify technologies used to secure %22traditional%22 IT networks and systems, and then assess their efficacy with respect to SCADA systems. These proposed solutions must be relatively simple to implement, reliable, and acceptable to SCADA owners and operators. 4This page intentionally left blank.

  15. INMARSAT's personal communicator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Nick; Haugli, HANS-C.; Poskett, Peter; Smith, K.

    1993-01-01

    Inmarsat has been providing near global mobile satellite communications since 1982 and Inmarsat terminals are currently being used in more than 130 countries. The terminals have been reduced in size and cost over the years and new technology has enabled the recent introduction of briefcase sized personal telephony terminals (Inmarsat-M). This trend continues and we are likely to see Inmarsat handheld terminals by the end of the decade. These terminals are called Inmarsat-P and this paper focuses on the various elements required to support a high quality service to handheld terminals. The main system elements are: the handheld terminals; the space segment with the associated orbits; and the gateways to terrestrial networks. It is both likely and desirable that personal handheld satellite communications will be offered by more than one system provider and this competition will ensure strong emphasis on service quality and cost of ownership. The handheld terminals also have to be attractive to a large number of potential users, and this means that the terminals must be small enough to fit in a pocket. Battery lifetime is another important consideration, and this coupled with radiation safety requirements limits the maximum radiated EIRP. The terminal G/T is mainly constrained by the gain of the omnidirectional antenna and the noise figure of the RF front end (including input losses). Inmarsat has examined, with the support of industry, a number of Geosynchronous (GSO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite options for the provision of a handheld mobile satellite service. This paper describes the key satellite and orbit parameters and tradeoffs which affect the overall quality of service and the space segment costing. The paper also stresses not only the importance of using and sharing the available mobile frequency band allocations efficiently, but also the key considerations affecting the choice of feeder link bands. The design of the gateways

  16. Secure Communication Application of Josephson Tetrode in THz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahri, Nurliyana Bte Mohd; Yoshimori, Shigeru

    We numerically demonstrate the generation of chaos in a four-terminal superconductive device made of five Jospehson weak-link junctions, Josephson Tetrode. We calculate the dynamics of electrical voltages across the junctions when one of the normal resistances in varied. We confirm the generation of chaos by using temporal waveforms, three-dimensional attractors and Lyapunov exponent of chaotic attractor. We numerically investigated the threshold voltage dependence and sampling time dependence of random bits. Jospehson Tetrode is a promising superconductive device applicable to secure communication in THz region.

  17. Security of direct communication quantum channel with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, Constantin V.

    2015-01-01

    In the direct communication quantum channels, the authorized recipient (Bob) and the non-authorized recipient (Eve) have different abilities for verification of received information. Bob can apply the feedback to commit the sender (Alice) to perform verification. Eve has to use for verification an indirect method based on the measurement of a set of incompatible observables enough for determination of the coding basis used by Alice. In the protocol of direct communication, regular modification of coding basis and masking it with an equilibrium in average information carrier density matrix prevents reconstruction of coding basis by the results of Eve’s measurements of an arbitrary set of observables. This provides unconditional security of the channel.

  18. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  19. Managing secure computer systems and networks.

    PubMed

    Von Solms, B

    1996-10-01

    No computer system or computer network can today be operated without the necessary security measures to secure and protect the electronic assets stored, processed and transmitted using such systems and networks. Very often the effort in managing such security and protection measures are totally underestimated. This paper provides an overview of the security management needed to secure and protect a typical IT system and network. Special reference is made to this management effort in healthcare systems, and the role of the information security officer is also highlighted. PMID:8960921

  20. Implementing Improved Security and Encryption for Balloon Flight Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denney, Andrew; Stilwell, Bryan D.

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility uses a broad array of communication techniques be-tween its balloon-borne flight systems and ground command and control systems. These com-munication mediums vary from commercially available routing such as e-mail and IP based TCP/UDP protocols to military grade proprietary line-of-sight configurations; each with their own unique benefits and shortfalls. While each new advancement in technology improves secu-rity in some capacity, it does not always address the limitation of older, less advanced security or encryption capabilities. As the proliferation of newer, more commercially viable technologies become common place, safeguarding mission critical applications from unauthorized access and improve data integrity in the process becomes ever more necessary. Therefore, this paper will evaluate several security measures and methods of data encryption; including formalizing a standardized security philosophy that improves and addresses the mixture of established and emerging technologies.

  1. Survey of holographic security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.

    1990-04-01

    The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.

  2. 33 CFR 127.705 - Security systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security systems. 127.705 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.705 Security systems. The operator shall... manned television monitoring system is used, to detect— (a) Unauthorized personnel; (b) Fires; and...

  3. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A.

    2006-07-01

    disrupt network communications by entering the system from an attached utility network or utilizing a modem connected to a control system PC that is in turn connected to a publicly accessible phone; 2)Threat from a user connecting an unauthorized computer to the control network; 3)Threat from a security attack when an unauthorized user gains access to a PC connected to the plant network;. 4)Threat from internal disruption (by plant staff, whether, malicious or otherwise) by unauthorized usage of files or file handling media that opens the system to security threat (as typified in current situation in most control rooms). The plant I and C system cyber security design and the plant specific procedures should adequately demonstrate protection from the four pertinent classes of cyber security attacks. The combination of these features should demonstrate that the system is not vulnerable to any analyzed cyber security attacks either from internal sources or through network connections. The authors will provide configurations that will demonstrate the Cyber Security Zone. (authors)

  4. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The ultramicrowave communications system program investigated the feasibility of a solid state system that meets the projected space to space requirements, while using the advantages of the 100 to 200 GHz band. The program successfully demonstrated a laboratory model of a high frequency communications system operating between 100 to 200 GHz. In the process, vendor claims for performance specifications of discrete components were evaluated, and a window was provided into system design and integration problems.

  5. Novel optical cryptography using PANDA ring resonator for highly secured communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putthacharoen, Rattipong; Juleang, Pakorn; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2011-07-01

    We propose a novel method of an optical cryptography using the dark-bright soliton conversion control in a modified add/drop optical filter. By using the control arrangement, the obtained outputs of the dynamic states of dark-bright soliton can be used to form the key suppression for communication security application, in which the key recovery can be obtained by controlling the add/drop filter outputs. The optical cryptography consists of an add/drop filter which is used to generate the encryption and decryption keys from the optical keys (LIP signals). A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for multiplexing and de-multiplexing operations. Simulation results obtained shows, that the proposed system can be used to form a high security communication system.

  6. Threats to financial system security

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The financial system in the United States is slowly migrating from the bricks and mortar of banks on the city square to branch banks, ATM`s, and now direct linkage through computers to the home. Much work has been devoted to the security problems inherent in protecting property and people. The impact of attacks on the information aspects of the financial system has, however, received less attention. Awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milken or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These events, although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. Most of the losses can be traced to the contribution of many small attacks perpetrated against a variety of vulnerable components and systems. This paper explores the magnitude of these financial system losses and identifies new areas for security to be applied to high consequence events.

  7. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  8. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM Paper 110-2004/SC110-STD...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS)....

  9. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM Paper 110-2004/SC110-STD...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS)....

  10. Toddlers' Complex Communication: Playfulness from a Secure Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is presented in this article as involving embodied relational processes within complex relational systems. Two narrative-like "events" are represented to illustrate very young children playfully relating -- connecting and communicating inter- and intrasubjectively. The ethnographic-inspired research methods included…

  11. Experimental realization of a highly secure chaos communication under strong channel noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Weiping; Dai, Qionglin; Wang, Shihong; Lu, Huaping; Kuang, Jinyu; Zhao, Zhenfeng; Zhu, Xiangqing; Tang, Guoning; Huang, Ronghuai; Hu, Gang

    2004-09-01

    A one-way coupled spatiotemporally chaotic map lattice is used to construct cryptosystem. With the combinatorial applications of both chaotic computations and conventional algebraic operations, our system has optimal cryptographic properties much better than the separative applications of known chaotic and conventional methods. We have realized experiments to practice duplex voice secure communications in realistic Wired Public Switched Telephone Network by applying our chaotic system and the system of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), respectively, for cryptography. Our system can work stably against strong channel noise when AES fails to work.

  12. Design and Hardware Implementation of a New Chaotic Secure Communication Technique

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li; Lu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Guo; Gupta, Parag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme for chaotic modulation secure communication is proposed based on chaotic synchronization of an improved Lorenz system. For the first time, the intensity limit and stability of the transmitted signal, the characteristics of broadband and the requirements for accuracy of electronic components are presented by Multisim simulation. In addition, some improvements are made on the measurement method and the proposed experimental circuit in order to facilitate the experiments of chaotic synchronization, chaotic non-synchronization, experiment without signal and experiment with signal. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, some numerical simulations are presented. Then, the proposed chaotic secure communication circuit is implemented through analog electronic circuit, which is characterized by its high accuracy and good robustness. PMID:27548385

  13. Design and Hardware Implementation of a New Chaotic Secure Communication Technique.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Lu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Guo; Gupta, Parag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme for chaotic modulation secure communication is proposed based on chaotic synchronization of an improved Lorenz system. For the first time, the intensity limit and stability of the transmitted signal, the characteristics of broadband and the requirements for accuracy of electronic components are presented by Multisim simulation. In addition, some improvements are made on the measurement method and the proposed experimental circuit in order to facilitate the experiments of chaotic synchronization, chaotic non-synchronization, experiment without signal and experiment with signal. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, some numerical simulations are presented. Then, the proposed chaotic secure communication circuit is implemented through analog electronic circuit, which is characterized by its high accuracy and good robustness. PMID:27548385

  14. 75 FR 3913 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Communications System, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Open Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY... Communications System (Government Industry Planning and Management Branch), Department of Homeland Security,...

  15. Systems security and functional readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    In Protective Programming Planning, it is important that every facility or installation be configured to support the basic functions and mission of the using organization. This paper addresses the process of identifying the key functional operations of our facilities in Europe and providing the security necessary to keep them operating in natural and man-made threat environments. Functional Readiness is important since many of our existing facilities in Europe were not constructed to meet the demands of today's requirements. There are increased requirements for real-time systems with classified terminals and stringent access control, tempest and other electronic protection devices. One must prioritize the operations of these systems so that essential functions are provided even when the facilities are affected by overt or covert hostile activities.

  16. LANSCE radiation security system (RSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) is an engineered safety system which automatically terminates transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to pre-defined abnormal conditions. It is one of the four major mechanisms used to protect people from radiation hazards induced by accelerated pulsed ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The others are shielding, administrative policies and procedures, and qualified, trained personnel. Prompt radiation hazards at the half-mile long LANSCE accelerator exist due to average beam intensities ranging from 1 milli-amp for H{sup +} beam to 100 micro-amps for the high intensity H{sup {minus}} beam. Experimental programs are supplied with variable energy (maximum 800 MeV), pulse-width (maximum 1 msec), and pulse frequency (maximum 120 Hz) ion beams. The RSS includes personnel access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems, and beam current level limiting systems. It is a stand-alone system with redundant logic chains. A fault of the RSS will cause the insertion of fusible beam plugs in the accelerator low energy beam transport. The design philosophy, description, and operation of the RSS are described in this paper.

  17. Optimized ECC Implementation for Secure Communication between Heterogeneous IoT Devices

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Leandro; Piotr Pawlowski, Marcin; Jara, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things is integrating information systems, places, users and billions of constrained devices into one global network. This network requires secure and private means of communications. The building blocks of the Internet of Things are devices manufactured by various producers and are designed to fulfil different needs. There would be no common hardware platform that could be applied in every scenario. In such a heterogeneous environment, there is a strong need for the optimization of interoperable security. We present optimized elliptic curve Cryptography algorithms that address the security issues in the heterogeneous IoT networks. We have combined cryptographic algorithms for the NXP/Jennic 5148- and MSP430-based IoT devices and used them to created novel key negotiation protocol. PMID:26343677

  18. Optimized ECC Implementation for Secure Communication between Heterogeneous IoT Devices.

    PubMed

    Marin, Leandro; Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things is integrating information systems, places, users and billions of constrained devices into one global network. This network requires secure and private means of communications. The building blocks of the Internet of Things are devices manufactured by various producers and are designed to fulfil different needs. There would be no common hardware platform that could be applied in every scenario. In such a heterogeneous environment, there is a strong need for the optimization of interoperable security. We present optimized elliptic curve Cryptography algorithms that address the security issues in the heterogeneous IoT networks. We have combined cryptographic algorithms for the NXP/Jennic 5148- and MSP430-based IoT devices and used them to created novel key negotiation protocol. PMID:26343677

  19. Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-07-27

    Information security continues to evolve in response to disruptive changes with a persistent focus on information-centric controls and a healthy debate about balancing endpoint and network protection, with a goal of improved enterprise/business risk management. Economic uncertainty, intensively collaborative styles of work, virtualization, increased outsourcing and ongoing complance pressures require careful consideration and adaption. The CSES provides a measure (i.e. a quantitative indication) of reliability, performance, and/or safety of a system that accounts for themore » criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders' interests in that requirement. For a given stakeholder, CSES accounts for the variance that may exist among the stakes one attaches to meeting each requirement.« less

  20. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  1. Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-27

    Information security continues to evolve in response to disruptive changes with a persistent focus on information-centric controls and a healthy debate about balancing endpoint and network protection, with a goal of improved enterprise/business risk management. Economic uncertainty, intensively collaborative styles of work, virtualization, increased outsourcing and ongoing complance pressures require careful consideration and adaption. The CSES provides a measure (i.e. a quantitative indication) of reliability, performance, and/or safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders' interests in that requirement. For a given stakeholder, CSES accounts for the variance that may exist among the stakes one attaches to meeting each requirement.

  2. Advantages of redeployable security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A.

    1993-12-31

    Security systems must be proven dependable, cost effective, easily installed and maintained. Further, these technologies should not require skilled technicians to install, align, maintain and/or repair during the project`s life cycle. These new priorities and financial demands have to be addressed utilizing various existing and proven technologies that have been developed and are currently being applied. One of these technologies directly relates to the development and application of rapid deployment and redeployable sensor systems that permit flexible asset protection and smaller perimeters within a given complex, rather than intrusion detection systems for an entire facility. Both Rapid Deployment Intrusion Detection System (RDIDS), and Redeployable Intrusion Detection System (RIDS) technologies can be designed for operation in any weather conditions, impervious to salt air, chemical and most explosive environments, as well as highly resistant to false alarms. These systems utilize photovoltaic power with 12-hour battery backup as their primary source of energy. Sensor systems can be integrated with Radio Frequency (RF) polling transceivers operating in the VHF or UHF frequencies. This enhancement offers extensive flexibility and substantial cash savings Is compared to hard wired installations. RDIDS and RIDS can be deployed for limited areas and be operational in a fraction of the time required for conventional systems. The result affords a fully warranted long life RIDS, modular in design, flexible in application, false alarm free, self-diagnostic, and impervious to most environmental conditions. Further, RIDS can be engineered to interface with fiber optic technology thereby ensuring quality transmission in rural environments. Fiber optic integration proves even more effective when using CCTV cameras. The fiber optic module can be used for monitoring the tamper and alarm circuits as well as video transmission.

  3. Secure digital voice communications in the Defense Data Network (DDN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, M.; Gan, D.; Oesterreicher, C.

    1985-03-01

    This final report has investigated and validated one of the fourteen key features of the future, all-digital World-wide Digital Systems Architecture (WWDSA), namely the enhanced 2.4 Kbps secure voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice (DSN) phase implementation plan in the report, Secure Voice, as provided by the STU-IIs, can be implemented in the DDN in the late 1980s time-frame with no technical and minimum schedule risk. VIUs are proposed to interconnect, the family of secure voice terminals, called STU-IIs, to the DDN. VIUs contain modan, signalling and supervision (S/S), and processor modules and are supported by the implementation model of the protocol architecture that (with the TAC as processor module) was proposed in the report. An optimum system-level architecture employing the VIUs and the proposed in the implementation plan based on an extensive evaluation.

  4. Secure resource management: Specifying and testing secure operating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, M.; Frincke, D.A.; Levitt, K. . Div. of Computer Science)

    1990-04-10

    Much work has been devoted to methods for reasoning about the specifications of operating system specifications, the goal being to develop specifications for an operating system that are verified to be secure. Before the verification should be attempted, the specifications should be tested. This paper presents tools that can assist in the security testing of specifications. The first tool is based on the final Algebra Specification and Execution (FASE) system, and would be used to test specifications with real input values. FASE is an executable specification language which is operational in style, in which entities are represented in terms of their observable behavior. To facilitate the testing of an operating system (and its specification), use FASE we have specified a Secure Resource Manager (SRM), a generic template of an operating system. The SRM specification can be specialized to a specification of a particular operating system; the SRM is quite general and handles most features of modern nondistributed operating systems. The second tool, called the PLANNER, is used to derive a sequence of operations that exhibits a security flaw, most often a covert channel for information flow. The PLANNER is based on classical methods of AI planning, specialized to achieve goals concerned with information flow. The tools are demonstrated with respect to a simple operating system specification develop by Millen.

  5. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  6. Three Corner Sat Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bobby; Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Three Corner Satellite is a constellation of three nanosatellites designed and built by students. New Mexico State University has taken on the design of the communications system for this constellation. The system includes the forward link, return link, and the crosslink. Due to size, mass, power, and financial constraints, we must design a small, light, power efficient, and inexpensive communications system. This thesis presents the design of a radio system to accomplish the data transmission requirements in light of the system constraints. In addition to the hardware design, the operational commands needed by the satellite's on-board computer to control and communicate with the communications hardware will be presented. In order for the hardware to communicate with the ground stations, we will examine the link budgets derived from the radiated power of the transmitters, link distance, data modulation, and data rate for each link. The antenna design for the constellation is analyzed using software and testing the physical antennas on a model satellite. After the analysis and testing, a combination of different systems will meet and exceed the requirements and constraints of the Three Corner Satellite constellation.

  7. Information Data Security Specialists' and Business Leaders' Experiences Regarding Communication Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed was the need to maintain data security in the field of information technology. Specifically, the breakdown of communication between business leaders and data security specialists create risks to data security. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to determine which factors would improve communication…

  8. The picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed. PMID:9857393

  9. Practical Quantum Cryptography for Secure Free-Space Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.

    1999-02-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.

  10. Secure control systems with application to cyber-physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2014-01-01

    Control systems are computer-based systems with networked units consisting of sensors, actuators, control processing units, and communication devices. The role of control system is to interact, monitor, and control physical processes. Reactive power control is a fundamental issue in ensuring the security of the power network. It is claimed that Synchronous Condensers (SC) have been used at both distribution and transmission voltage levels to improve stability and to maintain voltages within desired limits under changing load conditions and contingency situations. Performance of PI controller corresponding to various tripping faults are analyzed for SC systems. Most of the eort in protecting these systems has been in protection against random failures or reliability. However, besides failures these systems are subject to various signal attacks for which new analysis are discussed here. When a breach does occur, it is necessary to react in a time commensurate with the physical dynamics of the system as it responds to the attack. Failure to act swiftly enough may result in undesirable, and possibly irreversible, physical eects. Therefore, it is meaningful to evaluate the security of a cyber-physical system, especially to protect it from cyber-attack. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to the SC systems.

  11. The PLATO IV Communications System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne; Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based educational system contains its own communications hardware and software for operating plasma-panel graphics terminals. Key echoing is performed by the central processing unit: every key pressed at a terminal passes through the entire system before anything appears on the terminal's screen. Each terminal is guaranteed…

  12. Improving Control System Security through the Evaluation of Current Trends in Computer Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rolston

    2005-03-01

    At present, control system security efforts are primarily technical and reactive in nature. What has been overlooked is the need for proactive efforts, focused on the IT security research community from which new threats might emerge. Evaluating cutting edge IT security research and how it is evolving can provide defenders with valuable information regarding what new threats and tools they can anticipate in the future. Only known attack methodologies can be blocked, and there is a gap between what is known to the general security community and what is being done by cutting edge researchers --both those trying to protect systems and those trying to compromise them. The best security researchers communicate with others in their field; they know what cutting edge research is being done; what software can be penetrated via this research; and what new attack techniques and methodologies are being circulated in the black hat community. Standardization of control system applications, operating systems, and networking protocols is occurring at a rapid rate, following a path similar to the standardization of modern IT networks. Many attack methodologies used on IT systems can be ported over to the control system environment with little difficulty. It is extremely important to take advantage of the lag time between new research, its use on traditional IT networks, and the time it takes to port the research over for use on a control system network. Analyzing nascent trends in IT security and determining their applicability to control system networks provides significant information regarding defense mechanisms needed to secure critical infrastructure more effectively. This work provides the critical infrastructure community with a better understanding of how new attacks might be launched, what layers of defense will be needed to deter them, how the attacks could be detected, and how their impact could be limited.

  13. Secure Communication Based on a Hybrid of Chaos and Ica Encryptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei Ching; Yuan, John

    Chaos and independent component analysis (ICA) encryptions are two novel schemes for secure communications. In this paper, a new scheme combining chaos and ICA techniques is proposed to enhance the security level during communication. In this scheme, a master chaotic system is embedded at the transmitter. The message signal is mixed with a chaotic signal and a Gaussian white noise into two mixed signals and then transmitted to the receiver through the public channels. A signal for synchronization is transmitted through another public channel to the receiver where a slave chaotic system is embedded to reproduce the chaotic signal. A modified ICA is used to recover the message signal at the receiver. Since only two of the three transmitted signals contain the information of message signal, a hacker would not be able to retrieve the message signal by using ICA even though all the transmitted signals are intercepted. Spectrum analyses are used to prove that the message signal can be securely hidden under this scheme.

  14. A new image representation for compact and secure communication

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

  15. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency ship-to-shore communication system. (b) Each ship-to-shore communication system must be a dedicated system that allows voice communication between the person in charge of transfer operations on the vessel, the person in charge...

  16. Security-enhanced chaos communication with time-delay signature suppression and phase encryption.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chenpeng; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Yunxin; Wang, Chao; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun

    2016-08-15

    A security-enhanced chaos communication scheme with time delay signature (TDS) suppression and phase-encrypted feedback light is proposed, in virtue of dual-loop feedback with independent high-speed phase modulation. We numerically investigate the property of TDS suppression in the intensity and phase space and quantitatively discuss security of the proposed system by calculating the bit error rate of eavesdroppers who try to crack the system by directly filtering the detected signal or by using a similar semiconductor laser to synchronize the link signal and extract the data. The results show that TDS embedded in the chaotic carrier can be well suppressed by properly setting the modulation frequency, which can keep the time delay a secret from the eavesdropper. Moreover, because the feedback light is encrypted, without the accurate time delay and key, the eavesdropper cannot reconstruct the symmetric operation conditions and decode the correct data. PMID:27519064

  17. Time reversal communication system

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  18. The ORBCOMM data communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, David C.; Locke, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    The ORBCOMM system is designed to provide low-cost, two-way data communications for mobile and remote users. The communications system is ideally configured for low data rate applications where communicating devices are geographically dispersed and two-way communications through terrestrial means is cumbersome and not cost effective. The remote terminals use VHF frequencies which allow for the use of very small, low-cost terminals. ORBCOMM has entered into joint development agreements with several large manufacturers of both consumer and industrial electronics to design and build the remote terminals. Based on prototype work, the estimated retail cost of these units will range from $50 to $400 depending on the complexity of the design. Starting in the fall of 1993, ORBCOMM will begin service with a demonstration network consisting of two operating satellites. By the end of 1994, a full operating network of 26 satellites, four Gateway Earth Stations, and a Network Control Center will be in place. The full constellation will provide full coverage of the entire world with greater than 94 percent communications availability for the continental U.S. This paper describes the ORBCOMM system, the technology used in its implementation, and its applications.

  19. The NASA personnel security processing expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Silberberg, D.; Thomas, R.

    1996-12-31

    The NASA Personnel Security Processing Expert System is a tool that automatically determines the appropriate personnel background investigation required for a civil servant or contractor occupying a position of national security or public trust. It also instructs the personnel security processing staff to perform special checks based on a specific position. The system is implemented using a rule-based expert system and a World Wide Web interface. The system design separates the user interface, knowledge base and control structure to simplify system evolution. When one subsystem is modified, the others are impacted minimally. This system provides many benefits to the NASA Personnel Security Program. First, it frees the agency personnel security specialist from trouble-shooting and correcting all investigative problems. It also provides a learning tool for security processing staff at each installation. The system ensures that each installation security office is in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations and policies. Finally, eliminating overlapping, inappropriate and duplicative efforts to process employees saves many resources. The system was deployed less than a year ago. To date, it saved $1.2 million of the $1.5 million agency-wide personnel security budget.

  20. A Review of the Security of Insulin Pump Infusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klonoff, David C.; Paul, Nathanael R; Kohno, Tadayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Insulin therapy has enabled diabetic patients to maintain blood glucose control to lead healthier lives. Today, rather than manually injecting insulin using syringes, a patient can use a device, such as an insulin pump, to programmatically deliver insulin. This allows for more granular insulin delivery while attaining blood glucose control. The insulin pump system features have increasingly benefited patients, but the complexity of the resulting system has grown in parallel. As a result security breaches that can negatively affect patient health are now possible. Rather than focus on the security of a single device, we concentrate on protecting the security of the entire system. In this paper we describe the security issues as they pertain to an insulin pump system that includes an embedded system of components including the insulin pump, continuous glucose management system, blood glucose monitor, and other associated devices (e.g., a mobile phone or personal computer). We detail not only the growing wireless communication threat in each system component, but we also describe additional threats to the system (e.g., availability and integrity). Our goal is to help create a trustworthy infusion pump system that will ultimately strengthen pump safety, and we describe mitigating solutions to address identified security issues both for now and in the future.

  1. Rapidly deployable emergency communication system

    DOEpatents

    Gladden, Charles A.; Parelman, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A highly versatile, highly portable emergency communication system which permits deployment in a very short time to cover both wide areas and distant isolated areas depending upon mission requirements. The system employs a plurality of lightweight, fully self-contained repeaters which are deployed within the mission area to provide communication between field teams, and between each field team and a mobile communication control center. Each repeater contains a microcomputer controller, the program for which may be changed from the control center by the transmission of digital data within the audible range (300-3,000 Hz). Repeaters are accessed by portable/mobile transceivers, other repeaters, and the control center through the transmission and recognition of digital data code words in the subaudible range.

  2. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  3. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2015-01-06

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  4. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2013-07-09

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  5. Coherent OCDMA communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Coherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique, where encoding and decoding are based on the phase and amplitude of optical field instead of its intensity, is receiving much attention for the overall superior performance over incoherent OCDMA and the development of compact and reliable en/decoders (E/D) such as spatial light phase modulator (SLPM), superstructured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) and multi-port array waveguide grating (AWG)-type E/D. In this paper, we will discuss several recent progresses in coherent OCDMA: a. Novel coding technology such as multi-phase-level SSFBG encoder, 50x50 multiport en/decoder and reconfigurable time domain spectral phase en/decoding; b. New signal modulation formats in OCDMA including DPSK, DQPSK, CSK and M-ary CSK; and c. Field trials of high capacity WDM/OCDMA systems.

  6. Final Report: 03-LW-005 Space-Time Secure Communications for Hostile Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Poggio, A J; Chambers, D H; Guidry, B L; Robbins, C L; Hertzog, C A; Dowla, F; Burke, G; Kane, R

    2005-10-31

    The development of communications for highly reverberative environments is a major concern for both the private and military sectors whether the application is aimed at the securing a stock order or stalking hostile in a tunnel or cave. Other such environments can range from a hostile urban setting populated with a multitude of buildings and vehicles to the simple complexity of a large number of sound sources that are common in the stock exchange, or military operations in an environment with a topographic features hills, valleys, mountains or even a maze of buried water pipes attempting to transmit information about any chemical anomalies in the water system servicing a city or town. These inherent obstructions cause transmitted signals to reflect, refract and disperse in a multitude of directions distorting both their shape and arrival times at network receiver locations. Imagine troops attempting to communicate on missions in underground caves consisting of a maze of chambers causing multiple echoes with the platoon leader trying to issue timely commands to neutralize terrorists. This is the problem with transmitting information in a complex environment. Waves are susceptible to multiple paths and distortions created by a variety of possible obstructions, which may exist in the particular propagation medium. This is precisely the communications problem we solve using the physics of wave propagation to not only mitigate the noxious effects created by the hostile medium, but also to utilize it in a constructive manner enabling a huge benefit in communications. We employ time-reversal (T/R) communications to accomplish this task. This project is concerned with the development of secure communications techniques that can operate even in the most extreme conditions while maintaining a secure link between host and client stations. We developed an approach based on the concept of time-reversal (T/R) signal processing. In fact, the development of T/R communication

  7. Use of LSP in securing wireless LAN communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Richard E.; Bouldin, B.; Broccard, Phillipe; Coscenza, Thomas; Farago, Steve; Hoyt, Mark; Nolan, Keith; Sanders, Mark; Swanson, Tim; Winner, Joe

    2000-11-01

    The Layered Service Provider (LSP) is a mechanism available in Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 to insert a protocol layer between the Winsock library calls and the transport layer of the network protocol stack. This paper discusses the use of encryption at the LSP to provide for security on wireless LANs that is transparent to the applications. Use of the LSP allows similarly transparent cryptographic isolation over any medium that may be accessed by the network protocol stack. Hardware-based cryptography in the form of Fortezza cards was used for this project, but the approach works just as well with software-based cryptography. The system was developed jointly by teams at the University of Florida in its Integrated Process and Product Design (IPPD) course and a liaison engineer at Raytheon Systems Division.

  8. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Communications system design was completed and reviewed. Minor changes were made in order to make it more cost effective and to increase design flexibility. System design activities identified the techniques and procedures to generate and monitor high data rate test signals. Differential bi-phase demodulation is the proposed method for this system. The mockup and packaging designs were performed, and component layout and interconnection constraints were determined, as well as design drawings for dummy parts of the system. The possibility of adding a low cost option to the transceiver system was studied. The communications program has the advantage that new technology signal processing devices can be readily interfaced with the existing radio frequency subsystem to produce a short range radar.

  9. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel...

  10. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  11. Chaotic synchronization based on nonlinear state-observer and its application in secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Jie; Li, Dian-Pu; Zhang, Ai-Jun

    2004-06-01

    Chaotic synchronization is a branch of chaotic control. Nowadays, the research and application of chaotic synchronization have become a hot topic and one of the development directions is for the research on chaos. In this paper, a universal nonlinear state-observer is presented for a class of universal chaotic systems to realize the chaotic synchronization, according to the theory of state-observer in the modern control theory. And theoretic analysis and simulation results have illustrated the validity of the approach. Moreover, the approach of synchronization proposed in this paper is very easy, flexible and universal with high synchronization precision. When the approach is applied to secure communication, the results are satisfying.

  12. Efficient Quantum Secure Direct Communication Using the Orbital Angular Momentum of Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Zhuo-Ru; Jin, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Tie-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is to transmit information directly through quantum channels without generating secret keys. The efficiencies of QSDC rely on the capacity of qubits. Exploiting orbital angular momentum of single photons, we proposed a high-capacity one-time pad QSDC protocol. The information is encoded on the Hermite-Gauss mode and transmitted directly on the Laguerre-Gauss mode of the photon pluses. The proposed system provides a high coding space, and the proposed protocol is robust against collective-dephasing channel noise.

  13. Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced WDM-PON based on chaotic optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongxi; Chen, Xiaolei; Yue, Hehe; Zhao, Qingchun; Hao, Yang; Wu, Chenguang; Zhao, Nan

    2015-08-01

    The message-decryption process of subtracting chaotic synchronization carrier from receiving signal is explained by modeling and numerically solving the rate equations for semiconductor lasers. An experimental system of wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) based on chaotic-light secure communications is first built up. The bidirectional transmissions of downstream and upstream data are experimentally realized with only two lasers and a single wavelength channel in a WDM fiber-optic link. When the data rate is 1.25 Gb/s, the secure transmission distance can be up to 11 km with SSMF of G.652. After sampling and decision, the BER of the recovered messages is calculated to be approximately 1×10-4.

  14. Global services systems - Space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements projected to the year 2000 for space-based global service systems, including both personal communications and innovative services, are developed based on historic trends and anticipated worldwide demographic and economic growth patterns. The growing demands appear to be best satisfied by developing larger, more sophisticated space systems in order to reduce the size, complexity, and expense of ground terminals. The availability of low-cost ground terminals will, in turn, further stimulate the generation of new services and new customers.

  15. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  16. High Assurance Models for Secure Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almohri, Hussain M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in systems and network security, attacks on large enterprise networks consistently impose serious challenges to maintaining data privacy and software service integrity. We identify two main problems that contribute to increasing the security risk in a networked environment: (i) vulnerable servers, workstations, and…

  17. The Intelsat digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phiel, John F., Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Intelsat international communication services resulting from the application of digital technology are summarized. Approximately 40 percent of the 140,000 terrestrial channels from the Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) provided by the Intelsat network are now handled by digital systems. Digital technology for the interconnection of the PSTNs is discussed. Particular attention is paid to modulation and access techniques including the intermediate data rate (IDR) system, and the fixed and satellite switched TDMA systems. Digital compression techniques used with TDMA and IDR, such as digital speech interpolation and digital circuit multiplication, are also discussed. The Intelsat Business Service and the Intelnet Service are described in the framework of digital technology for private networks and business users. Communications for remote areas, international television services, and future opportunities through digital technologies are briefly presented.

  18. An Experimental Realization of a Chaos-Based Secure Communication Using Arduino Microcontrollers

    PubMed Central

    Zapateiro De la Hoz, Mauricio; Acho, Leonardo; Vidal, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Security and secrecy are some of the important concerns in the communications world. In the last years, several encryption techniques have been proposed in order to improve the secrecy of the information transmitted. Chaos-based encryption techniques are being widely studied as part of the problem because of the highly unpredictable and random-look nature of the chaotic signals. In this paper we propose a digital-based communication system that uses the logistic map which is a mathematically simple model that is chaotic under certain conditions. The input message signal is modulated using a simple Delta modulator and encrypted using a logistic map. The key signal is also encrypted using the same logistic map with different initial conditions. In the receiver side, the binary-coded message is decrypted using the encrypted key signal that is sent through one of the communication channels. The proposed scheme is experimentally tested using Arduino shields which are simple yet powerful development kits that allows for the implementation of the communication system for testing purposes. PMID:26413563

  19. An Experimental Realization of a Chaos-Based Secure Communication Using Arduino Microcontrollers.

    PubMed

    Zapateiro De la Hoz, Mauricio; Acho, Leonardo; Vidal, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Security and secrecy are some of the important concerns in the communications world. In the last years, several encryption techniques have been proposed in order to improve the secrecy of the information transmitted. Chaos-based encryption techniques are being widely studied as part of the problem because of the highly unpredictable and random-look nature of the chaotic signals. In this paper we propose a digital-based communication system that uses the logistic map which is a mathematically simple model that is chaotic under certain conditions. The input message signal is modulated using a simple Delta modulator and encrypted using a logistic map. The key signal is also encrypted using the same logistic map with different initial conditions. In the receiver side, the binary-coded message is decrypted using the encrypted key signal that is sent through one of the communication channels. The proposed scheme is experimentally tested using Arduino shields which are simple yet powerful development kits that allows for the implementation of the communication system for testing purposes. PMID:26413563

  20. Recommended Practice for Securing Control System Modems

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson; Jason L. Wright

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked “backdoor” into critical infrastructure control systems created by modem connections. A modem’s connection to the public telephone system is similar to a corporate network connection to the Internet. By tracing typical attack paths into the system, this paper provides the reader with an analysis of the problem and then guides the reader through methods to evaluate existing modem security. Following the analysis, a series of methods for securing modems is provided. These methods are correlated to well-known networking security methods.

  1. A security scheme of SMS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangzhou; Yang, Hong-Wei; Song, Chuck

    2005-02-01

    With the prosperous development and the use of SMS, more and more important information need to be transferred through the wireless and mobile networks by the users. But in the GSM/GPRS network, the SMS messages are transferred in text mode through the signaling channel and there is no integrality for SMS messages. Because of the speciality of the mobile communications, the security of signaling channel is very weak. So we need to improve and enhance the security and integrality of SMS. At present, developed investigation based on SMS security is still incomplete. The key distribution and management is not perfect to meet the usability in a wide area. This paper introduces a high-level security method to solve this problem. We design the Secure SMS of GSM/GPRS in order to improve the security of the important information that need to be transferred by the mobile networks. Using this method, we can improve the usability of E-payment and other mobile electronic commerce.

  2. Situated Usability Testing for Security Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-03-02

    While usability testing is well established, assessing the usability of security software, tools, or methods deserves more careful consideration. It has been argued that dealing with security has become too difficult for individuals or organizations to manage effectively or to use conveniently. As difficult as it is for system administrators and developers to deal with, security is even more challenging for casual users. Indeed, it is much too easy for casual/home users to configure the security of their systems in non-optimal ways that leave their systems inadvertently insecure. This is exacerbated by the fact that casual users are focused on matters other than security, and likely would prefer not even to think about security. This brief report argues that when security and/or privacy are part of the equation, traditional methods for usability testing should be re-considered. The purpose of this brief report is to argue for and outline a method associated with a new approach to usability testing for examining usable security issues.

  3. Security of electronic mental health communication and record-keeping in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Elhai, Jon D; Frueh, B Christopher

    2016-02-01

    The mental health field has seen a trend in recent years of the increased use of information technology, including mobile phones, tablets, and laptop computers, to facilitate clinical treatment delivery to individual patients and for record keeping. However, little attention has been paid to ensuring that electronic communication with patients is private and secure. This is despite potentially deleterious consequences of a data breach, which are reported in the news media very frequently in modern times. In this article, we present typical security concerns associated with using technology in clinical services or research. We also discuss enhancing the privacy and security of electronic communication with clinical patients and research participants. We offer practical, easy-to-use software application solutions for clinicians and researchers to secure patient communication and records. We discuss such issues as using encrypted wireless networks, secure e-mail, encrypted messaging and videoconferencing, privacy on social networks, and others. PMID:26301860

  4. Secure Communications in High Speed Fiber Optical Networks Using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Han, I; Bond, S; Welty, R; Du, Y; Yoo, S; Reinhardt, C; Behymer, E; Sperry, V; Kobayashi, N

    2004-02-12

    This project is focused on the development of advanced components and system technologies for secure data transmission on high-speed fiber optic data systems. This work capitalizes on (1) a strong relationship with outstanding faculty at the University of California-Davis who are experts in high speed fiber-optic networks, (2) the realization that code division multiple access (CDMA) is emerging as a bandwidth enhancing technique for fiber optic networks, (3) the realization that CDMA of sufficient complexity forms the basis for almost unbreakable one-time key transmissions, (4) our concepts for superior components for implementing CDMA, (5) our expertise in semiconductor device processing and (6) our Center for Nano and Microtechnology, which is where the majority of the experimental work was done. Here we present a novel device concept, which will push the limits of current technology, and will simultaneously solve system implementation issues by investigating new state-of-the-art fiber technologies. This will enable the development of secure communication systems for the transmission and reception of messages on deployed commercial fiber optic networks, through the CDMA phase encoding of broad bandwidth pulses. CDMA technology has been developed as a multiplexing technology, much like wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or time division multiplexing (TDM), to increase the potential number of users on a given communication link. A novel application of the techniques created for CDMA is to generate secure communication through physical layer encoding. Physical layer encoding devices are developed which utilize semiconductor waveguides with fast carrier response times to phase encode spectral components of a secure signal. Current commercial technology, most commonly a spatial light modulator, allows phase codes to be changed at rates of only 10's of Hertz ({approx}25ms response). The use of fast (picosecond to nanosecond) carrier dynamics of semiconductors, as

  5. A Multifactor Secure Authentication System for Wireless Payment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Sugata; Tiwari, Ayu; Sanyal, Sudip

    Organizations are deploying wireless based online payment applications to expand their business globally, it increases the growing need of regulatory requirements for the protection of confidential data, and especially in internet based financial areas. Existing internet based authentication systems often use either the Web or the Mobile channel individually to confirm the claimed identity of the remote user. The vulnerability is that access is based on only single factor authentication which is not secure to protect user data, there is a need of multifactor authentication. This paper proposes a new protocol based on multifactor authentication system that is both secure and highly usable. It uses a novel approach based on Transaction Identification Code and SMS to enforce another security level with the traditional Login/password system. The system provides a highly secure environment that is simple to use and deploy with in a limited resources that does not require any change in infrastructure or underline protocol of wireless network. This Protocol for Wireless Payment is extended as a two way authentications system to satisfy the emerging market need of mutual authentication and also supports secure B2B communication which increases faith of the user and business organizations on wireless financial transaction using mobile devices.

  6. Reply to 'Comment on 'Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time-pad''

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2005-07-15

    We reply to the preceding comment which focused on whether there exists a quantum privacy amplification technique for purifying the unknown single-photon states transmitted. In this Reply, we will show that quantum privacy amplification is principally possible, and a specific scheme for direct communication protocol based on single photons has been constructed and will be published elsewhere. Then the secure direct quantum communication is secure against the attack strategy in the preceding comment by using quantum privacy amplification directly.

  7. Eavesdropping on secure deterministic communication with qubits through photon-number-splitting attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Song; Wen Qiaoyan; Gao Fei; Zhu Fuchen

    2009-05-15

    A collective photon-number-splitting attack strategy is proposed, which combines photon-number-splitting attack with an unambiguous set discrimination of quantum state. Verified by this attack strategy, it is shown that a two-way quantum secure direct communication protocol with qubits is insecure in real circumstance. Finally, we present a possible improved version of this kind of quantum secure direct communication protocol.

  8. Low Altitude Space Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Michiyoshi; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Honda, Hideyuki; Toriumi, Michihiko; Kamioka, Eiji; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki; Ohta, Sigeo; Yamagami, Takamasa; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Hirosawa, Haruto; Ohya, Nobuhiko; Takezawa, Fukashi; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    We describe a new Low Altitude Space Communication System (LASCOS), which was completed in 1996 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan. This system consists of a mobile balloon tracking and receiving station and networks which connect them to the Sanriku Balloon Center in Iwate Municipality and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Kanagawa Municipality. This station and the SBC receiving station are connected via telephone lines, i. e. an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or an analog communication network. Balloon trajectory monitoring, telecommand transmission operation and telemetry data acquisition can be done from any computer terminal through the LASCOS. LASCOS has built-in flexibility to adapt to a foreign balloon station. The number of individuals necessary to operate it minimum. LASCOS will be used for long range tracking and balloon expedition. We present the results of its first test with an actual balloon flight

  9. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  10. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  11. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... in charge of transfer for the facility. (b) The communication system required by paragraph (a) of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communication systems....

  12. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  13. China's future domestic satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, G.; Yaokun, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Some ideas about China's future domestic satellite communications system are discussed. The following objectives are considered in the design of the new domestic satellite communications system: (1) the satellite communications system should link the entire country and form a unified national network with the existing ground communications system, (2) based on the geographic situation, the satellite communications system should be primarily small and scattered in the west, and large and concentrated in the east, (3) the Telephone business should be the primary business of the satellite communications system. It should also be capable of transmitting television, telegram, data, facsimile, and broadcasting, (4) the communications system should be primarily designed as a single jump system. It should not exceed two jumps, and (5) the parameters of the communications system should be in agreement with CCIR and CCITT recommendations.

  14. Security for safety critical space borne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station contains safety critical computer software components in systems that can affect life and vital property. These components require a multilevel secure system that provides dynamic access control of the data and processes involved. A study is under way to define requirements for a security model providing access control through level B3 of the Orange Book. The model will be prototyped at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  15. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  16. Computer security in DOE distributed computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The modernization of DOE facilities amid limited funding is creating pressure on DOE facilities to find innovative approaches to their daily activities. Distributed computing systems are becoming cost-effective solutions to improved productivity. This paper defines and describes typical distributed computing systems in the DOE. The special computer security problems present in distributed computing systems are identified and compared with traditional computer systems. The existing DOE computer security policy supports only basic networks and traditional computer systems and does not address distributed computing systems. A review of the existing policy requirements is followed by an analysis of the policy as it applies to distributed computing systems. Suggested changes in the DOE computer security policy are identified and discussed. The long lead time in updating DOE policy will require guidelines for applying the existing policy to distributed systems. Some possible interim approaches are identified and discussed. 2 refs.

  17. Method of Performance-Aware Security of Unicast Communication in Hybrid Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy-Chowdhury, Ayan (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus utilizes Layered IPSEC (LES) protocol as an alternative to IPSEC for network-layer security including a modification to the Internet Key Exchange protocol. For application-level security of web browsing with acceptable end-to-end delay, the Dual-mode SSL protocol (DSSL) is used instead of SSL. The LES and DSSL protocols achieve desired end-to-end communication security while allowing the TCP and HTTP proxy servers to function correctly.

  18. Birds of a Feather: Supporting Secure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell III, H V

    2006-04-24

    Over the past few years Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has begun the process of moving to a diskless environment in the Secure Computer Support realm. This movement has included many moving targets and increasing support complexity. We would like to set up a forum for Security and Support professionals to get together from across the Complex and discuss current deployments, lessons learned, and next steps. This would include what hardware, software, and hard copy based solutions are being used to manage Secure Computing. The topics to be discussed include but are not limited to: Diskless computing, port locking and management, PC, Mac, and Linux/UNIX support and setup, system imaging, security setup documentation and templates, security documentation and management, customer tracking, ticket tracking, software download and management, log management, backup/disaster recovery, and mixed media environments.

  19. Communications Systems for Mobile Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A; Pao, H

    2003-12-08

    Performance Confirmation is the activity by which the Yucca Mountain Project confirms that the engineered and natural containment barriers of this national nuclear waste repository are performing as predicted, so that an eventual decision to close the repository can be made. This activity involves systems that must be inspected and, in some cases, serviced by mobile robots. This paper discusses systems for underground mobile robot communications, including requirements, environments, options, issues, and down-select criteria. We reviewed a variety of systems, including Slotted Waveguide, Powerline Carrier, Leaky Feeder, Photonic Bandgap Fiber, Free-Space Optics, Millimeter Waves, Terahertz Systems, and RF Systems (including IEEE 802.11 a,b, and g, and Ultra-Wideband radio).

  20. 75 FR 76465 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications... complete its work. As a significant amount of the Council's work focuses on public safety issues, it is... solutions and best practices for public safety communications and cybersecurity. Recognizing the...

  1. Robust Networking Architecture and Secure Communication Scheme for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, McKenzie, III.

    2012-01-01

    Current networking architectures and communication protocols used for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been designed to be energy efficient, low latency, and long network lifetime. One major issue that must be addressed is the security in data communication. Due to the limited capabilities of low cost and small sized sensor nodes, designing…

  2. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111 Communication systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication systems....

  3. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  4. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  5. Communications satellite system for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegl, W.; Laufenberg, W.

    1980-09-01

    Earlier established requirement estimations were improved upon by contacting African administrations and organizations. An enormous demand is shown to exist for telephony and teletype services in rural areas. It is shown that educational television broadcasting should be realized in the current African transport and communications decade (1978-1987). Radio broadcasting is proposed in order to overcome illiteracy and to improve educational levels. The technical and commercial feasibility of the system is provided by computer simulations which demonstrate how the required objectives can be fulfilled in conjunction with ground networks.

  6. Quantum Secure Direct Communication in a noisy environment: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gui Lu

    Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely security in secret message transmission. Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important branch of the quantum communication in which secret messages are sent directly over a quantum channel with security[Phys. Rev. A 65 , 032302 (2002)]. QSDC offers higher security and is instantaneous in communication, and is a great improvement to the classical communication mode. It is also a powerful basic quantum communication primitive for constructing many other quantum communication tasks such as quantum bidding, quantum signature and quantum dialogue and so on. Since the first QSDC protocol proposed in 2000, it has become one of the extensive research focuses. In this talk, the basic ideas of QSDC will be reviewed, and major QSDC protocols will be described, such as the efficient-QSDC protocol, the two-step QSDC protocol, the one-time-pad QSDC protocol, the high-dimensional QSDC protocol and so on. Experimental progress is also developing steadily, and will also be reviewed. In particular, the quantum one-time-pad QSDC protocol has recently been successfully demonstrated experimentally[arXiv:1503.00451]. Work supported by China National Natural Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  7. A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication with five-photon entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Li; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Liu, Hui-Wei

    2010-01-01

    A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication protocol using five-photon entangled state is proposed. It amends the security loopholes pointed by Qin et al. in [S.J. Qin, Q.Y. Wen, L.M. Meng, F.C. Zhu, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 2656] in the original protocol proposed by Xiu et al. in [X.M. Xiu, L. Dong, Y.J. Gao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 333]. The security loopholes are solved by using order rearrangement of transmission photons and two-step security test.

  8. Emerging Security Mechanisms for Medical Cyber Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, Ovunc; Soyata, Tolga; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2016-01-01

    The following decade will witness a surge in remote health-monitoring systems that are based on body-worn monitoring devices. These Medical Cyber Physical Systems (MCPS) will be capable of transmitting the acquired data to a private or public cloud for storage and processing. Machine learning algorithms running in the cloud and processing this data can provide decision support to healthcare professionals. There is no doubt that the security and privacy of the medical data is one of the most important concerns in designing an MCPS. In this paper, we depict the general architecture of an MCPS consisting of four layers: data acquisition, data aggregation, cloud processing, and action. Due to the differences in hardware and communication capabilities of each layer, different encryption schemes must be used to guarantee data privacy within that layer. We survey conventional and emerging encryption schemes based on their ability to provide secure storage, data sharing, and secure computation. Our detailed experimental evaluation of each scheme shows that while the emerging encryption schemes enable exciting new features such as secure sharing and secure computation, they introduce several orders-of-magnitude computational and storage overhead. We conclude our paper by outlining future research directions to improve the usability of the emerging encryption schemes in an MCPS. PMID:26812732

  9. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  10. Wireless augmented reality communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  11. T3: Secure, Scalable, Distributed Data Movement and Remote System Control for Enterprise Level Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Gregory S.; Nickless, William K.; Thiede, David R.; Gorton, Ian; Pitre, Bill J.; Christy, Jason E.; Faultersack, Elizabeth M.; Mauth, Jeffery A.

    2009-07-20

    Enterprise level cyber security requires the deployment, operation, and monitoring of many sensors across geographically dispersed sites. Communicating with the sensors to gather data and control behavior is a challenging task when the number of sensors is rapidly growing. This paper describes the system requirements, design, and implementation of T3, the third generation of our transport software that performs this task. T3 relies on open source software and open Internet standards. Data is encoded in MIME format messages and transported via NNTP, which provides scalability. OpenSSL and public key cryptography are used to secure the data. Robustness and ease of development are increased by defining an internal cryptographic API, implemented by modules in C, Perl, and Python. We are currently using T3 in a production environment. It is freely available to download and use for other projects.

  12. Secured Optical Communications Using Quantum Entangled Two-Photon Transparency Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Lekki, John (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and method is disclosed wherein optical signals are coded in a transmitter by tuning or modulating the interbeam delay time (which modulates the fourth-order coherence) between pairs of entangled photons. The photon pairs are either absorbed or not absorbed (transparent) by an atomic or molecular fluorescer in a receiver, depending on the inter-beam delay that is introduced in the entangled photon pairs. Upon the absorption, corresponding fluorescent optical emissions follow at a certain wavelength, which are then detected by a photon detector. The advantage of the disclosed system is that it eliminates a need of a coincidence counter to realize the entanglement-based secure optical communications because the absorber acts as a coincidence counter for entangled photon pairs.

  13. Security system helps utility stay competitive

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Atlantic Electric is saving more than $750,000 annually in security costs by using an innovative closed-circuit television (CCTV) system to guard its remote sites electronically. Today, a single guard in the central security control room at Atlantic Electric`s headquarters electronically surveys and controls some 20 remote sites such as combustion turbine sites, material storage, administrative facilities and operating centers. Protecting these sites are CCTV cameras mounted around each yard, floodlighting, and a motion detection and signal transmission system called Adpro SiteWatch by vsion Systems Inc. The SiteWatch system automatically displays to the central guard any intrusion at a site, and captures and replays the intrusion events similar to an instant replay in a televised sporting event. Over the five year transition, Atlantic Electric saved nearly $2 million in security costs.

  14. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  15. Selecting RMF Controls for National Security Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Witzke, Edward L.

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the United States Department of Defense started tra nsitioning the way it performs risk management and accreditation of informatio n systems to a process entitled Risk Management Framework for DoD Information Technology or RMF for DoD IT. There are many more security and privacy contro ls (and control enhancements) from which to select in RMF, than there w ere in the previous Information Assurance process. This report is an attempt t o clarify the way security controls and enhancements are selected. After a brief overview and comparison of RMF for DoD I T with the previously used process, this report looks at the determination of systems as National Security Systems (NSS). Once deemed to be an NSS, this report addr esses the categorization of the information system with respect to impact level s of the various security objectives and the selection of an initial baseline o f controls. Next, the report describes tailoring the controls through the use of overl ays and scoping considerations. Finally, the report discusses organizatio n-defined values for tuning the security controls to the needs of the information system.

  16. Do Animal Communication Systems Have Phonemes?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Biologists often ask whether animal communication systems make use of conceptual entities from linguistics, such as semantics or syntax. A new study of an Australian bird species argues that their communication system has phonemes, but we argue that imposing linguistic concepts obscures, rather than clarifyies, communicative function. PMID:26346993

  17. Complex Communication System and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Won H.

    The basic question under examination is the underlying force that brings forth changes in cultural and social organizations. By employing general system theory and communication systemic analysis, the author concludes that communication, especially human communication, is the main vehicle of change. Human interchange, it is suggested, is constant…

  18. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  19. ISS Update: High Rate Communications System

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

  20. GSM-PKI solution enabling secure mobile communications.

    PubMed

    Jelekäinen, Pekka

    2004-03-31

    Because of its wide distribution and ease of use, the mobile phone, as a reliable personal communications channel, offers an excellent basis for the provision of reliable electronic communications services. In Finland, ca. 75% of the citizens have a mobile phone and, at present and most likely also in the future, it is the most widely spread service channel allowing reliable electronic communications. Despite the restricted functions of the mobile phone, the citizens can use the phone also as a communications medium. In 2001, the Finns sent over 1 billion SMS messages. In Finland, TeliaSonera Finland Oyi and the Population Register Centre (PRC) have closed a co-operation agreement with the aim of creating a mobile phone service for the electronic identification of a person. The co-operation launched is a significant development project from the perspective of the citizens. As a result, the consumers will have a new alternative for reliable electronic communications and commerce in data networks in addition to the electronic identification card. In the future, it will be possible to use the services of both public administration and the private sector by means of a mobile phone more reliably than before, without a physical visit, e.g. to a health centre or to another provider of healthcare services. The possibility of identification and signature by a mobile phone allows an easier provision of versatile services irrespective of time and place, because, in addition to voice, text message, and WAP functions, the service can be utilised also in communications services through the Internet, in which case, the mobile phone acts like a card reader. From the perspective of reliable personal mobile communications, the healthcare sector is one of the most significant and challenging application areas. PMID:15066565

  1. A Highly Secure Mobile Agent System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okataku, Yasukuni; Okutomi, Hidetoshi; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Ohgishi, Nobuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    We propose a system architecture for mobile agents to improve their security in the environments of insecure networks and non-sophisticated terminals such as PDAs. As mobile agents freely migrate onto their favorite terminals through insecure networks or terminals, it is not appropriate for them to store some secret information for authentication and encryption/decryption. We introduce one and more secure nodes(OASIS NODE) for securely generating and verifying authentication codes. The each agent’s data are encrypted by a pseudo-chaos cipher mechanism which doesn’t need any floating processing co-processor. We’ve constructed a prototype system on a Java mobile agent framework, “Bee-gent" which implements the proposed authentication and cipher mechanisms, and evaluated their performances and their applicability to business fields such as an auction system by mobile agents.

  2. Computation and Communication Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism for Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Goncalo; Moondra, Arul; Dubey, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D

    2016-01-01

    In modern networked control applications, confidentiality and integrity are important features to address in order to prevent against attacks. Moreover, network control systems are a fundamental part of the communication components of current cyber-physical systems (e.g., automotive communications). Many networked control systems employ Time-Triggered (TT) architectures that provide mechanisms enabling the exchange of precise and synchronous messages. TT systems have computation and communication constraints, and with the aim to enable secure communications in the network, it is important to evaluate the computational and communication overhead of implementing secure communication mechanisms. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the effects of adding a Hash-based Message Authentication (HMAC) to TT networked control systems. The contributions of the paper include (1) the analysis and experimental validation of the communication overhead, as well as a scalability analysis that utilizes the experimental result for both wired and wireless platforms and (2) an experimental evaluation of the computational overhead of HMAC based on a kernel-level Linux implementation. An automotive application is used as an example, and the results show that it is feasible to implement a secure communication mechanism without interfering with the existing automotive controller execution times. The methods and results of the paper can be used for evaluating the performance impact of security mechanisms and, thus, for the design of secure wired and wireless TT networked control systems. PMID:27463718

  3. A Survey of Wireless Communications for the Electric Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Akyol, Bora A.; Kirkham, Harold; Clements, Samuel L.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2010-01-27

    A key mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to enhance the security and reliability of the nation’s energy infrastructure. Improving the security of control systems, which enable the automated control of our energy production and distribution, is critical for protecting the energy infrastructure and the integral function that it serves in our lives. The DOE-OE Control Systems Security Program provides research and development to help the energy industry actively pursue advanced security solutions for control systems. The focus of this report is analyzing how, where, and what type of wireless communications are suitable for deployment in the electric power system and to inform implementers of their options in wireless technologies. The discussions in this report are applicable to enhancing both the communications infrastructure of the current electric power system and new smart system deployments. The work described in this report includes a survey of the following wireless technologies: • IEEE 802.16 d and e (WiMAX) • IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) family of a, b, g, n, and s • Wireless sensor protocols that use parts of the IEEE 802.15.4 specification: WirelessHART, International Society of Automation (ISA) 100.11a, and Zigbee • The 2, 3, and 4 generation (G )cellular technologies of GPRS/EDGE/1xRTT, HSPA/EVDO, and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)/HSPA+UMTS.

  4. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  5. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja Syed, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    The 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies (ICSICCST-2013), took place in Karachi, Pakistan, from 24-26 June 2013. It was organized by Indus University, Karachi, in collaboration with HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi. More than 80 abstracts were submitted to the conference and were double blind-reviewed by an international scientific committee. The topics of the Conference were: Video, Image & Voice Sensing Sensing for Industry, Environment, and Health Automation and Controls Laser Sensors and Systems Displays for Innovative Applications Emerging Technologies Unmanned, Robotic, and Layered Systems Sensing for Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement The title of the conference, 'Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies' is very apt in capturing the main issues facing the industry of Pakistan and the world. We believe the sensing industry, particularly in Pakistan, is currently at a critical juncture of its development. The future of the industry will depend on how the industry players choose to respond to the challenge of global competition and opportunities arising from strong growth in the Asian region for which we are pleased to note that the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues with an international perspective. This will certainly assist industry players to make informed decisions in shaping the future of the industry. The conference gathered qualified researchers from developed countries like USA, UK, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, China, South Korea and Malaysia etc whose expertise resulting from the research can be drawn upon to build an exploitable area of new technology that has potential Defense, Homeland Security, and Military applicability. More than 250 researchers/students attended the event and made the event great success as the turnout was 100%. An exceptional line-up of speakers spoke at the occasion. We want

  6. A Reconfigurable Communications System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Kifle, Muli

    2004-01-01

    Two trends of NASA missions are the use of multiple small spacecraft and the development of an integrated space network. To achieve these goals, a robust and agile communications system is needed. Advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology have made it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips; thus this technology has great potential as the basis for a reconfigurable communications system. This report discusses the requirements of future space communications, reviews relevant issues, and proposes a methodology to design and construct a reconfigurable communications system for small scientific spacecraft.

  7. A scheme for secure quantum communication network with authentication using GHZ-like states and cluster states controlled teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Raji, Mehrdad Ahmadzadeh; Hantehzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Farouk, Ahmed; Boochani, Arash; Solaymani, Shahram

    2015-11-01

    We propose a scheme for a secure message communication network with authentication following the idea in controlled teleportation. In this scheme, the servers of the network provide the service to prepare the entangled states as quantum channels. For preventing the eavesdropping, a security checking method is suggested. After the security check, any two users in the network may communicate securely and directly under the control of the servers on the network.

  8. Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.

  9. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  10. Automatic communication signal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

  11. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  12. Space Shuttle communications and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Cravey, Donald N.; Kuo, Yeng S.; Johnson, John H.; Teasdale, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a comprehensive description of the Space Shuttle communications and tracking system design, development, and system operations. Areas of special innovative communications techniques implemented by the Space Shuttle such as source encoding, channel encoding, spread spectrum, and digital modulation are emphasized. In addition, the role of the Electronics Systems Test Laboratory in the development of the system is discussed.

  13. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  14. Considerations for lunar colony communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses system aspects of communications for a lunar colony. Human factors are particularly noted. The practical aspects of communications infrastructure are emphasized rather than specific technologies. Communications needs for mission support and morale are discussed along with potential means of satisfying them. Problem areas are identified and some possible solutions are considered.

  15. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  16. Cryptanalysis of Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Scheme via Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-02-01

    The security of the quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and authentication protocol based on Bell states is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can invalidate the authentication function, and implement a successful man-in-the-middle attack, where he/she can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented.

  17. Comment on "Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Jia, Xin; Xia, Juan; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Hua

    2012-12-01

    The security of the quantum secure direct communication protocol with authentication expansion using single photons is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error by implementing a simple man-in-the-middle attack after the authentication is successfully carried out. Furthermore, a denial-of-service attack is also discussed. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented.

  18. Quantum secure communication using continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    SciTech Connect

    He Guangqiang; Zhu Jun; Zeng Guihua

    2006-01-15

    A quantum secure communication protocol using correlations of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs is proposed. The proposed protocol may implement both quantum key distribution and quantum message encryption by using a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). The general Gaussian-cloner attack strategy is investigated in detail by employing Shannon information theory. Results show that the proposed scheme is secure, which is guaranteed physically by the correlations of the continuous variable EPR entanglement pairs generated by the NOPA.

  19. Augmentation of a commercial satellite system for military communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butte, Eric G.; Thorburn, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Future U.S. MILSATCOM will rely on a complex satellite design to implement the TSAT satellite system that was developed on the Transformational Communication Architecture program. TSAT will deliver secured IP based, on-demand communication system to meet the needs of the military and the warfighter and will demand a very large satellite system, program, and an anticipated lengthy deployment time. An alternate system is proposed that can give IP based communications in a significantly shorter time frame. A constellation of commercial-like satellites, with transponded Ka-, Ku- and X-band, would nicely complement the MILSATCOM fleet. The services provided by these satellites would enable widespread communications services such as IP to the theatre, augmenting the DSCS, Wideband Gapfiller, and protected communications systems of MILSTAR and Advanced EHF. The capacity provided by the dedicated commercial satellites would help provide the capacity demanded by the warfighter as MILSATCOM transitions from today's technology to the TSAT system of tomorrow's Transformational Communications Architecture. This paper will discuss the satellite concept design and how it can augment the MILSATCOM fleet and show a more flexible approach of bandwidth management to support fixed and COTM terminals.

  20. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  1. Novel Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Continuous-variable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Wen, Ru-Hong

    2016-03-01

    A novel multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol combining continuous-variable states with qubit block transmission is proposed. Two legitimate communication parties encode their own secret information into entangled optical modes with translation operations, and the secret information of each counterpart can only be recovered under the permission of all controllers. Due to continuous-variable states and block transmission strategy, the proposed protocol is easy to realize with perfect qubit efficiency. Security analyses show that the proposed protocol is free from common attacks, including the man-in-the-middle attack.

  2. A new device for communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A communication device and modulation capability were developed for the transmission of digital data or voices from point to point. This device is a fast-switching phase coherent frequency synthesizer. When this synthesizer is appropriately incorporated in a communication system it can provide interference resistance, multiple-user capability, user identification, ranging, navigation, Doppler correction, and digitized communication (voice and data). The application of this device to aircraft/airport complex and law enforcement communications is discussed.

  3. Experimental millimeter-wave satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masaaaki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Arimoto, Yoshinori; Inoue, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Okubo, Naofumi

    A 43/38 GHz (mm-wave) bands satellite communications experimental system featuring GEO/LEO and GEO/GEO intersatellite communications and personal communications is discussed in light of detailed performance data on the electrical model of the mm-wave transponder. Attention is given to the state-of-the-art solid-state power amplifiers, low-noise amplifiers, and personal communications terminal employed in these experiments.

  4. Biosensor Systems for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2004-05-30

    The detection of biological agents is important to minimize the effects of pathogens that can harm people, livestock, or plants. In addition to pathogens distributed by man, there is a need to detect natural outbreaks. Recent outbreaks of SARS, mad cow disease, pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella, as well as the discovery of letters filled with anthrax spores have highlighted the need for biosensor systems to aid in prevention, early warning, response, and recovery. Rapid detection can be used to prevent exposure; and detection on a longer timescale can be used to minimize exposure, define treatment, and determine whether contaminated areas are clean enough for reuse. The common types of biological agents of concern include bacteria, spores, and viruses (Figure 1). From a chemist’s point of view, pathogens are essentially complex packages of chemicals that are assembled into organized packages with somewhat predictable physical characteristics such as size and shape. Pathogen detection methods can be divided into three general approaches: selective detection methods for specific identification such as nucleic acid analysis and structural recognition, semi-selective methods for broad-spectrum detection (e.g. physical properties, metabolites, lipids), and function-based methods (e.g. effect of the pathogen on organisms, tissues, or cells). The requirements for biodetection systems depend upon the application. While detect to warn sensors may require rapid detection on the order one minute, detection times of many minutes or hours may be suitable for determining appropriate treatments or for forensic analysis. Of course ideal sensor systems will meet the needs of many applications, and will be sensitive, selective, rapid, and simultaneously detect all agents of concern. They will also be reliable with essentially no false negatives or false positives, small, easy to use, and low cost with minimal consumables.

  5. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  6. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.

  7. Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.; Loveland, R.; Anderson, K.

    1997-09-01

    The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.

  8. A Novel Quantum Covert Channel Protocol Based on Any Quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-05-01

    By analyzing the basic properties of unitary transformations used in a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol, we show the main idea why a covert channel can be established within any QSDC channel which employs unitary transformations to encode information. On the basis of the fact that the unitary transformations used in a QSDC protocol are secret and independent, a novel quantum covert channel protocol is proposed to transfer secret messages with unconditional security. The performance, including the imperceptibility, capacity and security of the proposed protocol are analyzed in detail.

  9. How do communication systems emerge?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Communication involves a pair of behaviours—a signal and a response—that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a theoretical perspective why this should be the case, nor if there are any other routes to communication. Here, we develop an analytical model to examine how communication can emerge. We show that: (i) a state of non-interaction is evolutionarily stable, and so communication will not necessarily emerge even when it is in both parties' interest; (ii) the conditions for sensory manipulation are more stringent than for ritualization, and hence ritualization is likely to be more common; and (iii) communication can arise by a third route, when the intention to communicate can itself be communicated, but this may be limited to humans. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of a functional approach to communication. PMID:22217724

  10. Quantum secure direct communication against the collective noise with polarization-entangled Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Shen, Hong-Zhi; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Gao, Ya-Jun

    2015-12-01

    We propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol via a collective noise channel, exploiting polarization-entangled Bell states and the nondemolition parity analysis based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. The participant Bob, who will receive the secret information, sends one of two photons in a polarization-entangled Bell state exploiting the transmission circuit against the collective noise to the participant Alice, who will send the secret information, by the means of photon block transmission. If the first security check employing the nondemolition parity analysis is passed, the task of securely distributing the quantum channel is fulfilled. Encoding secret information on the photons sent from Bob by performing single-photon unitary transformation operations, Alice resends these photons to Bob through the transmission circuit against the collective noise. Exploiting the nondemolition parity analysis to distinguish Bell states, Bob can obtain the secret information from Alice after the second security check is passed, and the resulting Bell states can be applied to other tasks of quantum information processing. Under the condition of the secure quantum channel being confirmed, the photons that are utilized in the role of the security check can be applied to the function of secure direct communication, thus enhancing the efficiency of transmitting secret information and saving a lot of resources.

  11. Security middleware infrastructure for DICOM images in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Kallepalli, Vijay N V; Ehikioya, Sylvanus A; Camorlinga, Sergio; Rueda, Jose A

    2003-12-01

    In health care, it is mandatory to maintain the privacy and confidentiality of medical data. To achieve this, a fine-grained access control and an access log for accessing medical images are two important aspects that need to be considered in health care systems. Fine-grained access control provides access to medical data only to authorized persons based on priority, location, and content. A log captures each attempt to access medical data. This article describes an overall middleware infrastructure required for secure access to Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) images, with an emphasis on access control and log maintenance. We introduce a hybrid access control model that combines the properties of two existing models. A trust relationship between hospitals is used to make the hybrid access control model scalable across hospitals. We also discuss events that have to be logged and where the log has to be maintained. A prototype of security middleware infrastructure is implemented. PMID:14747934

  12. Security Profile Inspector for UNIX Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-04-01

    SPI/U3.2 consists of five tools used to assess and report the security posture of computers running the UNIX operating system. The tools are: Access Control Test: A rule-based system which identifies sequential dependencies in UNIX access controls. Binary Authentication Tool: Evaluates the release status of system binaries by comparing a crypto-checksum to provide table entries. Change Detection Tool: Maintains and applies a snapshot of critical system files and attributes for purposes of change detection. Configurationmore » Query Language: Accepts CQL-based scripts (provided) to evaluate queries over the status of system files, configuration of services and many other elements of UNIX system security. Password Security Inspector: Tests for weak or aged passwords. The tools are packaged with a forms-based user interface providing on-line context-sensistive help, job scheduling, parameter management and output report management utilities. Tools may be run independent of the UI.« less

  13. Secure communication of static information by electronic means

    DOEpatents

    Gritton, Dale G.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (10) for the secure transmission of static data (16) from a tag (11) to a remote reader (12). Each time the static data (16) is to be transmitted to the reader (12), the 10 bits of static data (16) are combined with 54 bits of binary data (21), which constantly change from one transmission to the next, into a 64-bit number (22). This number is then encrypted and transmitted to the remote reader (12) where it is decrypted (26) to produce the same 64 bit number that was encrypted in the tag (11). With a continual change in the value of the 64 bit number (22) in the tag, the encrypted numbers transmitted to the reader (12) will appear to be dynamic in character rather than being static.

  14. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  15. Man-in-the-middle attack on quantum secure communications with authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu Han; Hwang, Tzonelish

    2014-04-01

    This study points out a man-in-the-middle (MIM) attack on many of quantum secure communication with authentication protocols. The MIM attack is due to a design carelessness on performing public discussions on a nonauthenticated classical channel. A possible solution is proposed to solve the problem.

  16. 76 FR 70164 - Certain Devices With Secure Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Devices with Secure Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, DN 2854; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the...

  17. Comment on 'Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time pad'

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Holger; Bostroem, Kim; Felbinger, Timo

    2005-07-15

    In the paper [Phys. Rev. A 69, 052319 (2004)], a quantum direct communication protocol is proposed which is claimed to be unconditionally secure even for the case of a noisy channel. We show that this is not the case by giving an undetectable attack scheme.

  18. Hacker tracking Security system for HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Conventional Supervisory control and data Acquisition (SCADA) systems use PC, notebook, thin client, and PDA as a Client. Nowadays the Process Industries are following multi shift system that's why multi- client of different category have to work at a single human Machine Interface (HMI). They may hack the HMI Display and change setting of the other client. This paper introduces a Hacker tracking security (HTS) System for HMI. This is developed by using the conventional and Biometric authentication. HTS system is developed by using Numeric passwords, Smart card, biometric, blood flow and Finger temperature. This work is also able to identify the hackers.

  19. Security audit for embedded avionics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. N.

    The design of security audit subsystems for real-time embedded avionics systems is described. The selection criteria of auditable events and the design of the audit functions are described. The data storage requirements and the data compression features of embedded avionics systems are analyzed. Two data compression algorithms applicable to avionics systems are described. Huffman encoding is optimal, but Fibonacci encoding is shown to be nearly optimal and better suited for airborne avionics systems. The memory capacity needed for audit data storage is computed for typical avionics missions.

  20. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  1. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  2. Orthogonal-state-based deterministic secure quantum communication without actual transmission of the message qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-09-01

    Recently, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of direct quantum communication without actual transmission of particles is proposed by Salih et al. (Phys Rev Lett 110:170502, 2013) using chained quantum Zeno effect. The counterfactual condition (claim) of Salih et al. is weakened here to the extent that transmission of particles is allowed, but transmission of the message qubits (the qubits on which the secret information is encoded) is not allowed. Remaining within this weaker (non-counterfactual) condition, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of deterministic secure quantum communication is proposed using entanglement swapping, where actual transmission of the message qubits is not required. Further, it is shown that there exists a large class of quantum states that can be used to implement the proposed protocol. The security of the proposed protocol originates from monogamy of entanglement. As the protocol can be implemented without using conjugate coding, its security is independent of non-commutativity.

  3. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  4. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  5. A secure and easy-to-implement web-based communication framework for caregiving robot teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuna, G.; Daş, R.; Tuna, A.; Örenbaş, H.; Baykara, M.; Gülez, K.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, robots have started to become more commonplace in our lives, from factory floors to museums, festivals and shows. They have started to change how we work and play. With an increase in the population of the elderly, they have also been started to be used for caregiving services, and hence many countries have been investing in the robot development. The advancements in robotics and wireless communications has led to the emergence of autonomous caregiving robot teams which cooperate to accomplish a set of tasks assigned by human operators. Although wireless communications and devices are flexible and convenient, they are vulnerable to many risks compared to traditional wired networks. Since robots with wireless communication capability transmit all data types, including sensory, coordination, and control, through radio frequencies, they are open to intruders and attackers unless protected and their openness may lead to many security issues such as data theft, passive listening, and service interruption. In this paper, a secure web-based communication framework is proposed to address potential security threats due to wireless communication in robot-robot and human-robot interaction. The proposed framework is simple and practical, and can be used by caregiving robot teams in the exchange of sensory data as well as coordination and control data.

  6. Augmentative Communication: Assessment, System Selection, and Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRuyter, Frank; Becker, Mary R.

    1988-01-01

    Augmentative communication systems for the nonspeaking brain-injured should be carefully selected to serve a variety of functions. These include the utilization of systems for communication purposes, assessment of cognitive-linguistic deficits, integration and participation by the individual in the rehabilitation program, and improvement in an…

  7. Organization of Communication in Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datsenko, V. P.; Zaytsev, N. G.

    Organization of communication between the center of an automated system of information exchange and the subscribers to the system is described. The three requirements are: (1) those technical communication means must be chosen which will provide effective and convenient avenues for calls from the subscribers to the center, (2) the required…

  8. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  9. Strengthening the Security of ESA Ground Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc

    2013-08-01

    A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.

  10. Optical Security System with Fourier Plane encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Ahouzi, Esmail

    1998-09-01

    We propose a new technique for security verification of personal documents and other forms of personal identifications such as ID cards, passports, or credit cards. In this technique a primary pattern that might be a phase-encoded image is convolved by a random code. The information is phase encoded on the personal document. Therefore the information cannot be reproduced by an intensity detector such as a CCD camera. An optical processor based on the nonlinear joint transform correlator is used to perform the verification and the validation of documents with this technique. By verification of the biometrics information and the random code simultaneously, the proposed optical system determines whether a card is authentic or is being used by an authorized person. We tested the performance of the optical system for security and validation in the presence of input noise and in the presence of distortion of the information on the card. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by use of a number of metrics. Statistical analysis of the system is performed to investigate the noise tolerance and the discrimination against false inputs for security verification.

  11. Optical Security System with Fourier Plane encoding.

    PubMed

    Javidi, B; Ahouzi, E

    1998-09-10

    We propose a new technique for security verification of personal documents and other forms of personal identifications such as ID cards, passports, or credit cards. In this technique a primary pattern that might be a phase-encoded image is convolved by a random code. The information is phase encoded on the personal document. Therefore the information cannot be reproduced by an intensity detector such as a CCD camera. An optical processor based on the nonlinear joint transform correlator is used to perform the verification and the validation of documents with this technique. By verification of the biometrics information and the random code simultaneously, the proposed optical system determines whether a card is authentic or is being used by an authorized person. We tested the performance of the optical system for security and validation in the presence of input noise and in the presence of distortion of the information on the card. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by use of a number of metrics. Statistical analysis of the system is performed to investigate the noise tolerance and the discrimination against false inputs for security verification. PMID:18286124

  12. ETS-VI multibeam satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Isao

    1989-10-01

    The fixed and mobile satellite communications systems of the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) are described. The system requirements are outlined along with the system configuration. The ETS-VI multibeam system employs three frequency bands. When used for Ka-band fixed communications, it covers the Japanese main islands with thirteen 0.3-degree-wide spot beam. Four of the beams are active for ETS-VI. When used for S-band mobile communications, five beams cover the area within 200 nautical miles from the Japanese coast. The C-band beam for fixed communications covers the central area of the Japanese main islands with a single beam. The onboard antenna system is described along with the transponders and their associated onboard systems. A discussion of the system technology follows, covering the TDMA transmisssion system, the relay function, rainfall compensation, and the antenna and propagation performance.

  13. Economics of satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one

  14. Large-Scale Survey Findings Inform Patients’ Experiences in Using Secure Messaging to Engage in Patient-Provider Communication and Self-Care Management: A Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nitin R; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    -to-use (P≤.001) communication tool, compared with individuals with lower reported health literacy. Many respondents (n=328, 40.0%) reported that they would like to receive education and/or felt other veterans would benefit from education on how to access and use the electronic patient portal and secure messaging (n=652, 79.6%). Conclusions Survey findings validated qualitative findings found in previous research, such that veterans perceive secure email messaging as a useful tool for communicating with health care teams. To maximize sustained utilization of secure email messaging, marketing, education, skill building, and system modifications are needed. These findings can inform ongoing efforts to promote the sustained use of this electronic tool to support for patient-provider communication. PMID:26690761

  15. 46 CFR 185.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests. 185.320 Section 185.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.320 Steering gear, controls, and communication...

  16. An asynchronous communication system based on the hyperchaotic system of 6th-order cellular neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Xu, Bing; Luo, Chao

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel asynchronous communication scheme. Based on this scheme, a model using the hyperchaotic system of 6th-order Cellular Neural Network (CNN) is designed. This scheme enhances the security of asynchronous communication compared to the conventional ones. It is noteworthy that the proposed communication scheme does not depend on synchronization, and almost all chaotic systems can be involved in this scheme. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of this scheme.

  17. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    PubMed

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system. PMID:12320521

  18. Roadside-based communication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A roadside-based communication system providing backup communication between emergency mobile units and emergency command centers. In the event of failure of a primary communication, the mobile units transmit wireless messages to nearby roadside controllers that may take the form of intersection controllers. The intersection controllers receive the wireless messages, convert the messages into standard digital streams, and transmit the digital streams along a citywide network to a destination intersection or command center.

  19. An Online Banking System Based on Quantum Cryptography Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ri-gui; Li, Wei; Huan, Tian-tian; Shen, Chen-yi; Li, Hai-sheng

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, an online banking system has been built. Based on quantum cryptography communication, this system is proved unconditional secure. Two sets of GHZ states are applied, which can ensure the safety of purchase and payment, respectively. In another word, three trading participants in each triplet state group form an interdependent and interactive relationship. In the meantime, trading authorization and blind signature is introduced by means of controllable quantum teleportation. Thus, an effective monitor is practiced on the premise that the privacy of trading partners is guaranteed. If there is a dispute or deceptive behavior, the system will find out the deceiver immediately according to the relationship mentioned above.

  20. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS): The system impact of security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses security issues as they relate to the NASA Electronic Library System which is currently in use as the repository system for AdaNET System Version 3 (ASV3) being operated by MountainNET, Inc. NELS was originally designed to provide for public, development, and secure collections and objects. The secure feature for collections and objects was deferred in the initial system for implementation at a later date. The NELS system is now 9 months old and many lessons have been learned about the use and maintenance of library systems. MountainNET has 9 months of experience in operating the system and gathering feedback from the ASV3 user community. The user community has expressed an interest in seeing security features implemented in the current system. The time has come to take another look at the whole issue of security for the NELS system. Two requirements involving security have been put forth by MountainNET for the ASV3 system. The first is to incorporate at the collection level a security scheme to allow restricted access to collections. This should be invisible to end users and be controlled by librarians. The second is to allow inclusion of applications which can be executed only by a controlled group of users; for example, an application which can be executed by librarians only. The requirements provide a broad framework in which to work. These requirements raise more questions than answers. To explore the impact of these requirements a top down approach will be used.

  1. Evaluating User Experiences of the Secure Messaging Tool on the Veterans Affairs’ Patient Portal System

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Jason D; Shimada, Stephanie L; Martin, Tracey L; Gosline, Robert M; Antinori, Nicole; Stewart, Max; Simon, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Background The United States Department of Veterans Affairs has implemented an electronic asynchronous “Secure Messaging” tool within a Web-based patient portal (ie, My HealtheVet) to support patient-provider communication. This electronic resource promotes continuous and coordinated patient-centered care, but to date little research has evaluated patients’ experiences and preferences for using Secure Messaging. Objective The objectives of this mixed-methods study were to (1) characterize veterans’ experiences using Secure Messaging in the My HealtheVet portal over a 3-month period, including system usability, (2) identify barriers to and facilitators of use, and (3) describe strategies to support veterans’ use of Secure Messaging. Methods We recruited 33 veterans who had access to and had previously used the portal’s Secure Messaging tool. We used a combination of in-depth interviews, face-to-face user-testing, review of transmitted secure messages between veterans and staff, and telephone interviews three months following initial contact. We assessed participants’ computer and health literacy during initial and follow-up interviews. We used a content-analysis approach to identify dominant themes in the qualitative data. We compared inferences from each of the data sources (interviews, user-testing, and message review) to identify convergent and divergent data trends. Results The majority of veterans (27/33, 82%) reported being satisfied with Secure Messaging at initial interview; satisfaction ratings increased to 97% (31/32, 1 missing) during follow-up interviews. Veterans noted Secure Messaging to be useful for communicating with their primary care team to manage health care needs (eg, health-related questions, test requests and results, medication refills and questions, managing appointments). Four domains emerged from interviews: (1) perceived benefits of using Secure Messaging, (2) barriers to using Secure Messaging, (3) facilitators for using

  2. Security issues of quantum cryptographic systems with imperfect detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav

    The laws of quantum physics can be used to secure communications between two distant parties in a scheme called quantum key distribution (QKD), even against a technologically unlimited eavesdropper. While the theoretical security of QKD has been proved rigorously, current implementations of QKD are generally insecure. In particular, mathematical models of devices, such as detectors, do not accurately describe their real-life behaviour. Such seemingly insignificant discrepancies can compromise the security of the entire scheme, especially as novel detector technologies are being developed with little regard for potential vulnerabilities. In this thesis, we study how detector imperfections can impact the security of QKD and how to overcome such technological limitations. We first analyze the security of a high-speed QKD system with finite detector dead time tau. We show that the previously reported sifting approaches are not guaranteed to be secure in this regime. More specifically, Eve can induce a basis-dependent detection efficiency at the receiver's end. Modified key sifting schemes that are basis-independent, and thus secure in the presence of dead time and an active eavesdropper, are discussed and compared. It is shown that the maximum key generation rate is 1/(2tau) for passive basis selection, and 1/tau for active basis selection. The security analysis is also extended to the decoy state BB84 protocol. We then study a relatively new type of single-photon detector called the superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), and discover some unexpected behaviour. We report an afterpulsing effect present when the SNSPD is operated in the high bias current regime. In our standard set-up, the afterpulsing is most likely to occur at around 180 ns following a detection event, for both real counts and dark counts. We characterize the afterpulsing behaviour and speculate that it is not due to the SNSPD itself but rather the associated read-out circuit. We also

  3. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at...

  4. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659... State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at a... equipment, including integration with the safety certification process; (c) Identify controls in place...

  5. 49 CFR 234.211 - Security of warning system apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of warning system apparatus. 234.211... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.211 Security of warning system apparatus. Highway-rail grade crossing warning system apparatus shall be secured against unauthorized entry....

  6. 49 CFR 234.211 - Security of warning system apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security of warning system apparatus. 234.211... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.211 Security of warning system apparatus. Highway-rail grade crossing warning system apparatus shall be secured against unauthorized entry....

  7. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement. PMID:26577473

  8. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication

    PubMed Central

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N − 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN−1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N − 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N − 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement. PMID:26577473

  9. Self-Assembled Resonance Energy Transfer Keys for Secure Communication over Classical Channels.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Vishwa; Xi, Sam; Dwyer, Chris

    2015-12-22

    Modern authentication and communication protocols increasingly use physical keys in lieu of conventional software-based keys for security. This shift is primarily driven by the ability to derive a unique, unforgeable signature from a physical key. The sole demonstration of an unforgeable key, thus far, has been through quantum key distribution, which suffers from limited communication distances and expensive infrastructure requirements. Here, we show a method for creating unclonable keys by molecular self-assembly of resonance energy transfer (RET) devices. It is infeasible to clone the RET-key due to the inability to characterize the key using current technology, the large number of input-output combinations per key, and the variation of the key's response with time. However, the manufacturer can produce multiple identical devices, which enables inexpensive, secure authentication and communication over classical channels, and thus any distance. Through a detailed experimental survey of the nanoscale keys, we demonstrate that legitimate users are successfully authenticated 99.48% of the time and the false-positives are only 0.39%, over two attempts. We estimate that a legitimate user would have a computational advantage of more than 10(340) years over an attacker. Our method enables the discovery of physical key based multiparty authentication and communication schemes that are both practical and possess unprecedented security. PMID:26525314

  10. Market Related System Analysis of Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Panasenkova, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    The report is devoted to the technique of effectiveness analysis of communication space system with satellites in geostationary orbit using market models. The technique is worked out in order to choose the most optimal alternative of communication space system design. The alternative considered optimal and the system effective when the maximum profit from the system with limited system costs is achieved. The key point of the technique is a wide use of market models and application of market related parameters as an integral part of the design technique in order to secure the high commercial output of the communication space system. A range of models for decisive characteristics of communication space system is synthesized in terms of the technique. Flexible market model with detailed insight into the structure of the given market sector and its trends is created. The technique enables to choose the image and key parameters of the future system such as payload and ground sector characteristics so as to make the system most cost-effective and profitable. It is shown that such factors as the choice of launch vehicle can influence the system effectiveness rather dramatically. In particular, it is shown that under certain conditions delivering the small (five hundred kg) satellite to the geostationary orbit with the help of light-weight launch vehicle and the satellite's own electro-rocket thrusters is forty per cent more cost- effective than when the satellite is delivered with the help of the medium-size launch vehicle. The latter case can lead to the significant losses due to high launch costs that are nearly two times higher for the medium size launch vehicle than for the light launce vehicle. The technique is applicable both for designing a wide range of communication space systems and is recommended for those dealing with designing commercial systems. It can also be used to update and improve the systems that are already in operation.

  11. Electronic Subsystems For Laser Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Catherine; Maruschak, John; Patschke, Robert; Powers, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Electronic subsystems of free-space laser communication system carry digital signals at 650 Mb/s over long distances. Applicable to general optical communications involving transfer of great quantities of data, and transmission and reception of video images of high definition.

  12. Strategic Choices for Data Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Robert G.; Urban, Patricia A.

    Issues and strategies for developing a campus data communications system are discussed. It is suggested that individual microcomputer (MC) workstations will occasionally have a need for (1) access, via a data communications network, to a more powerful processor; (2) specialized software; (3) sophisticated output devices; (4) central data sets; or…

  13. How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon

    2013-01-01

    How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified…

  14. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  15. Simulating Rain Fade In A Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Nagy, Lawrence A.; Svoboda, James K.

    1994-01-01

    Automated, computer-controlled assembly of electronic equipment developed for use in simulation testing of downlink portion of Earth/satellite microwave digital communication system. Designed to show effects upon performance of system of rain-induced fading in received signal and increases in transmitted power meant to compensate for rain-induced fading. Design of communication system improved iteratively in response to results of simulations, leading eventually to design ensuring clear, uninterrupted transmission of digital signals.

  16. Preliminary Thoughts on Netted Cable Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Frank; Mason, William

    There are five categories of cable communication systems: Conventional Community Antenna Television (CATV), Pay-TV, Subscriber Response Systems, Electronic Information Handling Systems, and Two-Way Audio/Visual Systems. CATV and Pay-TV systems are designed for the one-way transmission of programs, the former providing for better quality…

  17. Towards a Standard for Highly Secure SCADA Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.

    1998-09-25

    requirements analysis for a highly secure SCADA system. The fi-arnework for the discussion consists of the identification of SCADA security investment areas coupled with the tradeoffs that will force compromises in the solution. For example, computational and bandwidth requirements of a security standard could force the replacement of entire SCADA systems. The requirements for a real-time response in a cascading electric power failure could pose limitations on authentication and encryption mechanisms. The shortest path to the development of a high securi~ SC.ADA standard will be achieved by leveraging existing standards efforts and ensuring that security is being properly addressed in those standards. The Utility Communications Architecture 2.o (UC@, for real-time utili~ decision control, represents one such standard. The development of a SCADA secwiy specification is a complex task that will benefit from a systems engineering approach.

  18. Study and Analysis of the Internet Protocol Security and Its Impact on Interactive Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arshi; Ansari, Seema

    Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is the defacto standard, which offers secured Internet communications, providing traffic integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Besides this, it is assumed that IPSec is not suitable for the protection of realtime audio transmissions as the IPSec related enlargement of packets and the usage of the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode contradict stringent requirements. IPSec overhead of at least 44 bytes for each Internet Protocol (IP)-packet cannot guarantee Quality of Service (QOS) due to a bad wireless link by which the Ethernet flow control intercepts and makes a real time transmission impossible.

  19. Underground communications and tracking systems update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-01-15

    Today, when it comes to having systems to communicate with track and locate underground coal miners, mining companies have many equipment choices, as a direct response to the USA's 2006 MINER Act and the West Virginia Legislative Rule 56-4-8. Coal Age spoke to several companies about their leaky feeder and purely wireless systems which are either approved by the US MSHA or have been submitted for approval. The article gives details of: a UHF leaky feeder system developed by Pillar Innovations, designed to exit a mine at multiple points and then tie the leads back together on the surface; the Venture/Helicomm MineTrader system for tracking, monitoring and emergency messaging for mines; Rajant Corp.'s BreadCrumb wireless system using battery-powered wireless access nodes that enable voice and data communications across a self-healing network; the SubterraCom Wireless Solution's communications systems; a wireless mesh peer-to-peer communications system and an ultra widebade (UWB)-base real-time location tracking system from L-3 Communications; and VHF and UHF leaky feeder amplifiers from Tunnel Radio. MSHA approved communications and tracking systems are tabulated. 11 photos., 1 tab.

  20. Security Management in a Multimedia System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rednic, Emanuil; Toma, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    In database security, the issue of providing a level of security for multimedia information is getting more and more known. For the moment the security of multimedia information is done through the security of the database itself, in the same way, for all classic and multimedia records. So what is the reason for the creation of a security…

  1. SECURES: system for reporting gunshots in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Edward A.; Sharkey, Brian

    1995-05-01

    SECURESTM (System for the Effective Control of Urban Environment Security) is being developed to support local law enforcement in the critical problem of gun-related violence on America's streets. Once deployed, SECURES will instantaneously detect, recognize, and pinpoint the location of gunfire, and transmit this finding to the police dispatcher or directly to scout cars in the vicinity. Local law enforcement and trauma care resourses will be able to respond quickly, thereby dramatically increasing the probability of arrest of the gunman and survival of the victim. SECURES will employ an air-acoustic detection grid composed of small, low-cost, battery powered sensor modules, called Pole Units. These modules will be located on utility poles and buildings primarily at city block intersections, and consists of an acoustic sensor, signal processing electronics, and a transmitter. Development efforts have concentrated on i) developing and testing algorithms capable of identifying gunshots with an extremely low false alarm rate, ii) developing ultra- low power electronics capable of reliable operation for long periods in outdoor environments, and iii) determining the RF communications design. Pole Unit prototype electronics and gunshot identification algorithms have been developed and successfully tested on an extensive database of recorded gunshots and background noises.

  2. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  3. Automobile inspection system based on wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Ye, Chunqing

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to research the Automobile Inspection System based on Wireless Communication, and suggests an overall design scheme which uses GPS for speed detection and Bluetooth and GPRS for communication. The communication between PDA and PC was realized by means of GPRS and TCP/IP; and the hardware circuit and software for detection terminal were devised by means of JINOU-3264 Bluetooth Module after analyzing the Bluetooth and its communication protocol. According to the results of debugging test, this system accomplished GPRS based data communication and management as well as the real-time detection on auto safety performance parameters in crash test via PC, whereby the need for mobility and reliability was met and the efficiency and level of detection was improved.

  4. A Study on the Secure User Profiling Structure and Procedure for Home Healthcare Systems.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hoon; Song, MoonBae

    2016-01-01

    Despite of various benefits such as a convenience and efficiency, home healthcare systems have some inherent security risks that may cause a serious leak on personal health information. This work presents a Secure User Profiling Structure which has the patient information including their health information. A patient and a hospital keep it at that same time, they share the updated data. While they share the data and communicate, the data can be leaked. To solve the security problems, a secure communication channel with a hash function and an One-Time Password between a client and a hospital should be established and to generate an input value to an OTP, it uses a dual hash-function. This work presents a dual hash function-based approach to generate the One-Time Password ensuring a secure communication channel with the secured key. In result, attackers are unable to decrypt the leaked information because of the secured key; in addition, the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in terms of computation cost. PMID:26573639

  5. Security Issues of Quantum Cryptographic Systems with Imperfect Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav

    The laws of quantum physics can be used to secure communications between two distant parties in a scheme called quantum key distribution (QKD), even against a technologically unlimited eavesdropper. While the theoretical security of QKD has been proved rigorously, current implementations of QKD are generally insecure. In particular, mathematical models of devices, such as detectors, do not accurately describe their reallife behaviour. Such seemingly insignificant discrepancies can compromise the security of the entire scheme, especially as novel detector technologies are being developed with little regard for potential vulnerabilities. In this thesis, we study how detector imperfections can impact the security of QKD and how to overcome such technological limitations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  6. Health care communication networks: disseminating employee information for hospital security.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer; Liberman, Aaron; Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Eaglin, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Health care in the United States is a system that, organizationally speaking, is fragmented. Each hospital facility is independently operated and is responsible for the hiring of its own employees. Corrupt individuals can take advantage of this fragmentation and move from hospital to hospital, gaining employment while hiding previous employment history. However, the need to exchange pertinent information regarding employees will become necessary as hospitals seek to fill positions throughout their organizations. One way to promote this information exchange is to develop trusted information sharing networks among hospital units. This study examined the problems surrounding organizational information sharing and the cultural factors necessary to enhance the exchange of employee information. Surveys were disseminated to 2,603 hospital chief executive officers and chief information officers throughout the nation. A sample of 154 respondents provided data into their current hiring practices and on their willingness to engage in the sharing of employee information. Findings indicated that, although fear of defamation and privacy violations do hinder the exchange of information between hospitals during the hiring process, by increasing external trust, linking the sharing process with the organizational goals of the hospital, and developing a "sharing culture" among hospitals, the exchange of employee information could be enhanced. PMID:19910705

  7. System Design for Nano-Network Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ShahMohammadian, Hoda

    The potential applications of nanotechnology in a wide range of areas necessities nano-networking research. Nano-networking is a new type of networking which has emerged by applying nanotechnology to communication theory. Therefore, this dissertation presents a framework for physical layer communications in a nano-network and addresses some of the pressing unsolved challenges in designing a molecular communication system. The contribution of this dissertation is proposing well-justified models for signal propagation, noise sources, optimum receiver design and synchronization in molecular communication channels. The design of any communication system is primarily based on the signal propagation channel and noise models. Using the Brownian motion and advection molecular statistics, separate signal propagation and noise models are presented for diffusion-based and flow-based molecular communication channels. It is shown that the corrupting noise of molecular channels is uncorrelated and non-stationary with a signal dependent magnitude. The next key component of any communication system is the reception and detection process. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the effect of the ligand-receptor binding mechanism on the received signal, and develops the first optimal receiver design for molecular communications. The bit error rate performance of the proposed receiver is evaluated and the impact of medium motion on the receiver performance is investigated. Another important feature of any communication system is synchronization. In this dissertation, the first blind synchronization algorithm is presented for the molecular communication channels. The proposed algorithm uses a non-decision directed maximum likelihood criterion for estimating the channel delay. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is also derived and the performance of the proposed synchronization algorithm is evaluated by investigating its mean square error.

  8. Information leakage in three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication with EPR pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2011-04-01

    In 2007, Wang et al. [M. Y. Wang and F. L. Yan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 (2007) 2486] proposed a three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication (3P-SQSDC) scheme with EPR pairs. Recently, Chong et al. [S. K. Chong and T. Hwang, Opt. Commun. OPTICS-15438 (2010(online))] proposed an enhancement on Wang et al.'s scheme. The communications in Chong et al.'s 3P-SQSDC can be paralleled and thus their scheme has higher efficiency. However, we find that both of the schemes have the information leakage, because the legitimate parties' secret messages have a strong correlation. This kind of security loophole leads to the consequence that any eavesdropper (Eve) can directly conjecture some information about the secrets without any active attack.

  9. Satellite multiple access systems for mobile communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers multiple access techniques for a mobile radio system which incorporates a geosynchronous orbiting satellite repeater through which mobile terminals communicate. The communication capacities of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA systems are examined for a 4 MHz bandwidth system to serve up to 10,000 users. An FDMA system with multibeam coverage is analyzed in detail. The system includes an order-wire network for demand-access control and reassignment of satellite channels. Satellite and terminal configurations are developed to a block diagram level and system costs and implementation requirements are discussed.

  10. Systems Theory and Communication. Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, William G., Jr.

    This annotated bibliography presents annotations of 31 books and journal articles dealing with systems theory and its relation to organizational communication, marketing, information theory, and cybernetics. Materials were published between 1963 and 1992 and are listed alphabetically by author. (RS)

  11. Nutrition Implementation Programs as Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugelsang, Andreas

    1972-01-01

    Description of a model nutrition implementation program as a communication system. Focus is on developing countries where, author maintains, there is an over-emphasis on surveys and collection of data. Problems on program implementation are discussed. (LK)

  12. Space Station multiple access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Nanci A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

  13. 75 FR 16159 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee...: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will hold its annual... Management Branch, Department of Homeland Security, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Washington, DC 20598-0615....

  14. 75 FR 29781 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will be...), Department of Homeland Security, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Washington, DC 20598-0615; Fax:...

  15. NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gary A.; Nischan, Melissa L.; Iyengar, Mrinal A.; Kaushik, Sumanth; Griffin, Michael K.

    2000-11-01

    Atmospheric scattering of ultraviolet light is examined as a mechanism for short-range, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication between nodes in energy-constrained distributed sensor networks. The physics of scattering is discussed and modeled, and progress in the development of solid state sources and detectors is briefly summarized. The performance of a representative NLOS UV communication system is analyzed by means of a simulation model and compared to conventional RF systems in terms of covertness and transceiver power. A test bed for evaluating NLOS UV communication hardware and modulation schemes is described.

  16. Which verification qubits perform best for secure communication in noisy channel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Pan, Alok Kumar; De, Asok

    2016-04-01

    In secure quantum communication protocols, a set of single qubits prepared using 2 or more mutually unbiased bases or a set of n-qubit (n≥ 2) entangled states of a particular form are usually used to form a verification string which is subsequently used to detect traces of eavesdropping. The qubits that form a verification string are referred to as decoy qubits, and there exists a large set of different quantum states that can be used as decoy qubits. In the absence of noise, any choice of decoy qubits provides equivalent security. In this paper, we examine such equivalence for noisy environment (e.g., in amplitude damping, phase damping, collective dephasing and collective rotation noise channels) by comparing the decoy-qubit-assisted schemes of secure quantum communication that use single-qubit states as decoy qubits with the schemes that use entangled states as decoy qubits. Our study reveals that the single- qubit-assisted scheme performs better in some noisy environments, while some entangled-qubit-assisted schemes perform better in other noisy environments. Specifically, single-qubit-assisted schemes perform better in amplitude damping and phase damping noisy channels, whereas a few Bell-state-based decoy schemes are found to perform better in the presence of the collective noise. Thus, if the kind of noise present in a communication channel (i.e., the characteristics of the channel) is known or measured, then the present study can provide the best choice of decoy qubits required for implementation of schemes of secure quantum communication through that channel.

  17. An explosives detection system for airline security using coherent x-ray scattering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert W.; Mahdavieh, Jacob; Smith, Richard C.; Subramanian, Ravi

    2008-08-01

    L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems (SDS) has developed a new system for automated alarm resolution in airline baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on coherent x-ray scattering spectroscopy. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated in tests with concealed explosives at the Transportation Security Laboratory and airline passenger baggage at Orlando International Airport. The system uses x-ray image information to identify suspicious objects and performs targeted diffraction measurements to classify them. This extra layer of detection capability affords a significant reduction in the rate of false alarm objects that must presently be resolved by opening passenger bags for hand inspection.

  18. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    in the identification effort. The requirements in these seven standards were then compared against the requirements given in the Framework. This comparison identified gaps (requirements not covered) in both the individual industry standards and in the Framework. In addition to the sector-specific standards reviewed, the team compared the requirements in the cross-sector Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA) Technical Reports (TR) 99 -1 and -2 to the Framework requirements. The Framework defines a set of security classes separated into families as functional requirements for control system security. Each standard reviewed was compared to this template of requirements to determine if the standard requirements closely or partially matched these Framework requirements. An analysis of each class of requirements pertaining to each standard reviewed can be found in the comparison results section of this report. Refer to Appendix A, ''Synopsis of Comparison Results'', for a complete graphical representation of the study's findings at a glance. Some of the requirements listed in the Framework are covered by many of the standards, while other requirements are addressed by only a few of the standards. In some cases, the scope of the requirements listed in the standard for a particular industry greatly exceeds the requirements given in the Framework. These additional families of requirements, identified by the various standards bodies, could potentially be added to the Framework. These findings are, in part, due to the maturity both of the security standards themselves and of the different industries current focus on security. In addition, there are differences in how communication and control is used in different industries and the consequences of disruptions via security breaches to each particular industry that could affect how security requirements are prioritized. The differences in the requirements listed in the Framework and in the various industry

  19. Using SysML to model complex systems for security.

    SciTech Connect

    Cano, Lester Arturo

    2010-08-01

    As security systems integrate more Information Technology the design of these systems has tended to become more complex. Some of the most difficult issues in designing Complex Security Systems (CSS) are: Capturing Requirements: Defining Hardware Interfaces: Defining Software Interfaces: Integrating Technologies: Radio Systems: Voice Over IP Systems: Situational Awareness Systems.

  20. Secured network sensor-based defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Shen, Dan; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Network sensor-based defense (NSD) systems have been widely used to defend against cyber threats. Nonetheless, if the adversary finds ways to identify the location of monitor sensors, the effectiveness of NSD systems can be reduced. In this paper, we propose both temporal and spatial perturbation based defense mechanisms to secure NSD systems and make the monitor sensor invisible to the adversary. The temporal-perturbation based defense manipulates the timing information of published data so that the probability of successfully recognizing monitor sensors can be reduced. The spatial-perturbation based defense dynamically redeploys monitor sensors in the network so that the adversary cannot obtain the complete information to recognize all of the monitor sensors. We carried out experiments using real-world traffic traces to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed defense mechanisms. Our data shows that our proposed defense mechanisms can reduce the attack accuracy of recognizing detection sensors.

  1. Spectral-temporal-polarization encoding of photons for multi-user secure quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkor, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We describe a Quantum Key Distribution protocol that combines temporal-, spectraland polarization-encoding of photons for secure communication over an interconnected network of users. Temporal encoding is used to identify a user's location or address on the network. Polarization encoding is used to generate private cryptographic key. Polarization encoded information is locally and randomly generated by users and exchanged only over a dedicated secure channel. Spectral encoding allows for the detection of eavesdropping and tampering by a malicious agent. Temporal-spectral signals sent from the network administrator (Alice) to a user are bright light source. On the other hand spectral-temporal signal from a network user (Bob) to the administrator (Alice) are single photons. Signals are sent across the network as ordered light pairs. The ordering format is randomly chosen and are revealed only at the time of key selection between the parties so that a secure one-time cryptographic pad can be generated

  2. Novel Quantum Virtual Private Network Scheme for PON via Quantum Secure Direct Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Li-Hua; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2013-09-01

    Two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with quantum identification (QI) based on passive optical network (PON) architecture are proposed. One QSDC protocol can be implemented between two different optical network units just with simple configurations of PON by optical line terminal when they are in the same virtual private network after optical line terminal performing QI to the optical network units in the given PON architecture. The other QSDC protocol is also implemented between any two legitimated users in the virtual private network but with considerable reduction of workload of the optical line terminal. The security analysis shows that the proposed QSDC schemes with quantum identification are unconditionally secure and allow the legitimate users to exchange their secret information efficiently and to realize a quantum virtual private network in the PON networks ultimately.

  3. Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods

    DOEpatents

    Scott; Jeff W. , Pratt; Richard M.

    2006-09-12

    Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods are described. In one aspect, a tag includes a plurality of antennas configured to receive a plurality of first wireless communication signals comprising data from a reader, a plurality of rectifying circuits coupled with. respective individual ones of the antennas and configured to provide rectified signals corresponding to the first wireless communication signals, wherein the rectified signals are combined to produce a composite signal, an adaptive reference circuit configured to vary a reference signal responsive to the composite signal, a comparator coupled with the adaptive reference circuit and the rectifying circuits and configured to compare the composite signal with respect to the reference signal and to output the data responsive to the comparison, and processing circuitry configured to receive the data from the comparator and to process the data.

  4. A secure authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Lee, Yueh-Chun; Lai, Feipei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chung, Yufang

    2012-06-01

    The telecare medicine information system enables or supports health-care delivery services. In recent years, the increased availability of lower-cost telecommunications systems and custom made physiological monitoring devices for patients have made it possible to bring the advantages of telemedicine directly into the patient's home. These systems are moving towards an environment where automated patient medical records and electronically interconnected telecare facilities are prevalent. A secure authentication scheme will thus be needed to safeguard data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. Many schemes based on cryptography have been proposed for the goals. However, much of the schemes are vulnerable to various attacks, and are neither efficient, nor user friendly. Specially, in terms of efficiency, some schemes need the exponential computation resulting in high time cost. Therefore, we propose a novel authentication scheme that is added the pre-computing idea within the communication process to avoid the time-consuming exponential computations. Finally, it is shown to be more secure and practical for telecare medicine environments. PMID:20978928

  5. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.

  6. IT Security Support for the Spaceport Command Control Systems Development Ground Support Development Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Security is one of the most if not the most important areas today. After the several attacks on the United States, security everywhere has heightened from airports to the communication among the military branches legionnaires. With advanced persistent threats (APT's) on the rise following Stuxnet, government branches and agencies are required, more than ever, to follow several standards, policies and procedures to reduce the likelihood of a breach. Attack vectors today are very advanced and are going to continue to get more and more advanced as security controls advance. This creates a need for networks and systems to be in an updated and secured state in a launch control system environment. FISMA is a law that is mandated by the government to follow when government agencies secure networks and devices. My role on this project is to ensure network devices and systems are in compliance with NIST, as outlined in FISMA. I will achieve this by providing assistance with security plan documentation and collection, system hardware and software inventory, malicious code and malware scanning, and configuration of network devices i.e. routers and IDS's/IPS's. In addition, I will be completing security assessments on software and hardware, vulnerability assessments and reporting, and conducting patch management and risk assessments. A guideline that will help with compliance with NIST is the SANS Top 20 Critical Controls. SANS Top 20 Critical Controls as well as numerous security tools, security software and the conduction of research will be used to successfully complete the tasks given to me. This will ensure compliance with FISMA and NIST, secure systems and a secured network. By the end of this project, I hope to have carried out the tasks stated above as well as gain an immense knowledge about compliance, security tools, networks and network devices, as well as policies and procedures.

  7. IT Security Support for the Spaceport Command Control Systems Development Ground Support Development Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Security is one of the most if not the most important areas today. After the several attacks on the United States, security everywhere was heightened from Airports to the communication among the military branches legionnaires. With advanced persistent threats (APTs) on the rise following Stuxnet, government branches and agencies are required, more than ever, to follow several standards, policies and procedures to reduce the likelihood of a breach. Attack vectors today are very advanced and are going to continue to get more and more advanced as security controls advance. This creates a need for networks and systems to be in an updated and secured state in a launch control system environment. FISMA is a law that is mandated by the government to follow when government agencies secure networks and devices. My role on this project is to ensure network devices and systems are in compliance with NIST, as outlined in FISMA. I will achieve this by providing assistance with security plan documentation and collection, system hardware and software inventory, malicious code and malware scanning and configuration of network devices i.e. routers and IDSsIPSs. In addition I will be completing security assessments on software and hardware, vulnerability assessments and reporting, conducting patch management and risk assessments. A guideline that will help with compliance with NIST is the SANS Top 20 Critical Controls. SANS Top 20 Critical Controls as well as numerous security tools, security software and the conduction of research will be used to successfully complete the tasks given to me. This will ensure compliance with FISMA and NIST, secure systems and a secured network. By the end of this project, I hope to have carried out stated above as well as gain an immense knowledge about compliance, security tools, networks and network devices, policies and procedures.

  8. Results of European projects improving security of distributed health information systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Pharow, P

    1998-01-01

    The challenge for improvement of quality and efficiency of health care systems causes the development and promotion of "Shared Care" in all developed countries. Distribution, decentralisation, and specialisation of health care must be joint with an extended communication and co-operation between the different care providers. Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, care supporting health information systems has to be distributed, interoperable, and scaleable too. Communication and co-operation across organisational, regional, and even national boundaries is bearing high threats and risks regarding security and privacy of medical and personal information of both patients and health professionals. Involved in several security projects funded by the European Union, the Medical Informatics Department and the regional Clinical Cancer Registry at the University of Magdeburg are piloting a secure regional distributed medical record system for cancer diseases. Requirements, solutions, and experiences are presented and discussed. PMID:10384633

  9. Security of Classic PN-Spreading Codes for Hybrid DS/FH Spread-Spectrum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiao; Olama, Mohammed M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Djouadi, Seddik M

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid direct sequence/frequency hopping (DS/FH) spread-spectrum communication systems have recently received considerable interest in commercial applications in addition to their use in military communications because they accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. The security of hybrid DS/FH systems strongly depends on the choice of PN-spreading code employed. In this paper, we examine the security, in terms of unicity distance, of linear maximal-length, Gold, and Kasami PN-spreading codes for DS, FH, and hybrid DS/FH spread-spectrum systems without additional encryption methods. The unicity distance is a measure of the minimum amount of ciphertext required by an eavesdropper to uniquely determine the specific key used in a cryptosystem and hence break the cipher. Numerical results are presented to compare the security of the considered PN-spreading codes under known-ciphertext attacks.

  10. On a simulation study for reliable and secured smart grid communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Demand response is one of key smart grid applications that aims to reduce power generation at peak hours and maintain a balance between supply and demand. With the support of communication networks, energy consumers can become active actors in the energy management process by adjusting or rescheduling their electricity usage during peak hours based on utilities pricing incentives. Nonetheless, the integration of communication networks expose the smart grid to cyber-attacks. In this paper, we developed a smart grid simulation test-bed and designed evaluation scenarios. By leveraging the capabilities of Matlab and ns-3 simulation tools, we conducted a simulation study to evaluate the impact of cyber-attacks on demand response application. Our data shows that cyber-attacks could seriously disrupt smart grid operations, thus confirming the need of secure and resilient communication networks for supporting smart grid operations.

  11. EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM--PHASE III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITHERSPOON, JOHN P.; AND OTHERS

    MULTIPURPOSE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM MODELS WERE DEVELOPED FOR APPLICATION TO HIGHER EDUCATION. THREE MODEL SYSTEMS - INTRASTATE, INTERSTATE, AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES - WERE DESIGNED. THESE SYSTEM DESIGNS WERE ESTABLISHED FOR EASY EVALUATION AND MAXIMUM FLEXIBILITY, WITH A MINIMUM OF PRESET AUTOMATIC EQUIPMENT. TWO ALTERNATIVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS…

  12. Communications with chaotic optoelectronic systems cryptography and multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontani, Damien

    With the rapid development of optical communications and the increasing amount of data exchanged, it has become utterly important to provide effective architectures to protect sensitive data. The use of chaotic optoelectronic devices has already demonstrated great potential in terms of additional computational security at the physical layer of the optical network. However, the determination of the security level and the lack of a multi-user framework are two hurdles which have prevented their deployment on a large scale. In this thesis, we propose to address these two issues. First, we investigate the security of a widely used chaotic generator, the external cavity semiconductor laser (ECSL). This is a time-delay system known for providing complex and high-dimensional chaos, but with a low level of security regarding the identification of its most critical parameter, the time delay. We perform a detailed analysis of the in uence of the ECSL parameters to devise how higher levels of security can be achieved and provide a physical interpretation of their origin. Second, we devise new architectures to multiplex optical chaotic signals and realize multi-user communications at high bit rates. We propose two different approaches exploiting known chaotic optoelectronic devices. The first one uses mutually coupled ECSL and extends typical chaos-based encryption strategies, such as chaos-shift keying (CSK) and chaos modulation (CMo). The second one uses an electro-optical oscillator (EOO) with multiple delayed feedback loops and aims first at transposing coded-division multiple access (CDMA) and then at developing novel strategies of encryption and decryption, when the time-delays of each feedback loop are time-dependent.

  13. Internet-Based System for Voice Communication With the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.

  14. Full-duplex optical communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  15. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  16. The electronic security partnership of safety/security and information systems departments.

    PubMed

    Yow, J Art

    2012-01-01

    The ever-changing world of security electronics is reviewed in this article. The author focuses on its usage in a hospital setting and the need for safety/security and information systems departments to work together to protect and get full value from IP systems. PMID:22423530

  17. Design of secure group key management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Hwang, Kyo-Cheul; Lee, Kyoon-Ha

    2001-07-01

    Needs of Information Security in Multicast is increased. As clients join or leave a specific service group, Backward and Forward Secrecy problem occurred. Solving this problem, service group will make a re-key operation periodically. But because of this operation need translation frequently so it may have a bad influence to Real time property, which needs minimum bandwidth requirement. In this paper, we proposed a Group Key Management System, which is comprised of two levels, KD (Key Distributor) subsystem and subgroup, for managing encryption key. A KD (Key Distributor) subsystem is composed of SKDs (Subgroup Key Distributor) and TKD (Top-level Key Distributor). A SKD manages a encryption key of a subgroup. A TKD generates a KD group key that is a encryption key used in a KD group and transmits it to SKDs with safety. Subgroup consists of hosts in Multicast group. Hosts and a SKD share a encryption key, a subgroup key. This key is generated by a SKD and cannot be disclosed outside of the subgroup. As a result, a load of key management can be distributed into many KD so that the overhead of key translation can be decreased, which is needed at each stage of Multicast traffic. In joining and leaving a Multicast group frequently, a group key is distributed only in a specific subgroup. Therefore the overhead needed to redistribute a key can be decreased. By reducing overhead from security service, we expect to satisfy real time property.

  18. Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

  19. Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

  20. Utilization of commercial communications systems for space based research applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overmyer, Carolyn; Thompson, Clark

    1998-01-01

    With the increase in utilization of space for research and development activities, the need for a communication system which improves the availability of payload uplink and downlink with the ground becomes increasingly more critical. At the same time, experiment developers are experiencing a tightening of their budgets for space based research. They don't have the capability to develop a unique communication interface that requires unique software and hardware packages. They would prefer to use commercial protocols and standards available through off-the-shelf components. Also, the need for secure communication is critical to keep proprietary data from being distributed to competing organizations. In order to meet the user community needs, SPACEHAB is currently in the process of developing and testing a system designed specifically for the user community called the SPACEHAB Universal Communication System (SHUCS). The purpose of this paper is to present customer requirements, the SHUCS design approach and top level operations, terrestrial test results, and flight testing scheduled for STS-91 and -95.

  1. National Security/Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery Communications Via ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasqualino, Christopher R.; Abbe, Brian S.; Dixon, Frank

    1996-01-01

    During the period from early 1993 through 1994, the U.S. National Communication System, a government agency, sponsored the development and execution of several fixed and mobile experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)...The results of these experiments are described in this paper.

  2. Examining the Relationship between Organization Systems and Information Security Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tintamusik, Yanarong

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was to examine the crucial relationship between organization systems within the framework of the organizational behavior theory and information security awareness (ISA) of users within the framework of the information security theory. Despite advanced security technologies designed to protect information assets,…

  3. Security administration plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-09-29

    This document encompasses and standardizes the integrated approach for security within the PP and Ps applications, It also identifies the security tools and methods to be used. The Security Administration Plan becomes effective as of this document`s acceptance and will provide guidance through implementation efforts and, as a ``living document`` will support the operations and maintenance of the system.

  4. 77 FR 11385 - Security Considerations for Lavatory Oxygen Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... (Amendment Nos. 21-94, 25-133, 121-354, 129-50; SFAR 111) on security considerations for lavatory oxygen systems (77 FR 12550). The interim final rule addresses a security vulnerability and is needed so the...-94, 25-133, 121-354, 129-50; SFAR 111] RIN 2120-AJ92 Security Considerations for Lavatory...

  5. A native IP satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner-Puschl, S.; Riedler, W.

    2004-08-01

    ≪ In the framework of ESA's ARTES-5 program the Institute of Applied Systems Technology (Joanneum Research) in cooperation with the Department of Communications and Wave Propagation has developed a novel meshed satellite communications system which is optimised for Internet traffic and applications (L*IP—Local Network Interconnection via Satellite Systems Using the IP Protocol Suite). Both symmetrical and asymmetrical connections are supported. Bandwidth on demand and guaranteed quality of service are key features of the system. A novel multi-frequency TDMA access scheme utilises efficient methods of IP encapsulation. In contrast to other solutions it avoids legacy transport network techniques. While the DVB-RCS standard is based on ATM or MPEG transport cells, the solution of the L*IP system uses variable-length cells which reduces the overhead significantly. A flexible and programmable platform based on Linux machines was chosen to allow the easy implementation and adaptation to different standards. This offers the possibility to apply the system not only to satellite communications, but provides seamless integration with terrestrial fixed broadcast wireless access systems. The platform is also an ideal test-bed for a variety of interactive broadband communications systems. The paper describes the system architecture and the key features of the system.

  6. Mitigations for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Trent D. Nelson

    2006-05-01

    Industry is aware of the need for Control System (CS) security, but in on-site assessments, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has observed that security procedures and devices are not consistently and effectively implemented. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), established the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at INL to help industry and government improve the security of the CSs used in the nation's critical infrastructures. One of the main CSSC objectives is to identify control system vulnerabilities and develop effective mitigations for them. This paper discusses common problems and vulnerabilities seen in on-site CS assessments and suggests mitigation strategies to provide asset owners with the information they need to better protect their systems from common security flows.

  7. Interactive video audio system: communication server for INDECT portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulec, Martin; Voznak, Miroslav; Safarik, Jakub; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Mehic, Miralem

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with presentation of the IVAS system within the 7FP EU INDECT project. The INDECT project aims at developing the tools for enhancing the security of citizens and protecting the confidentiality of recorded and stored information. It is a part of the Seventh Framework Programme of European Union. We participate in INDECT portal and the Interactive Video Audio System (IVAS). This IVAS system provides a communication gateway between police officers working in dispatching centre and police officers in terrain. The officers in dispatching centre have capabilities to obtain information about all online police officers in terrain, they can command officers in terrain via text messages, voice or video calls and they are able to manage multimedia files from CCTV cameras or other sources, which can be interesting for officers in terrain. The police officers in terrain are equipped by smartphones or tablets. Besides common communication, they can reach pictures or videos sent by commander in office and they can respond to the command via text or multimedia messages taken by their devices. Our IVAS system is unique because we are developing it according to the special requirements from the Police of the Czech Republic. The IVAS communication system is designed to use modern Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services. The whole solution is based on open source software including linux and android operating systems. The technical details of our solution are presented in the paper.

  8. Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

  9. Pacs: Part Of An Integrated Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B. G.; Brenton, Bradley C.; Staab, Edward V.; Perry, J. Randolph; Parrish, Denise; Johnston, R. Eugene; Creasy, Jeffrey L.

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Radiology at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) has developed the concept for an integrated picture archiving and communications system. A communications network has been installed, and computer facilities are being interfaced within radiology areas. Other projects include the establishment of a computer simulation model of departmental operations and assembly of a limited picture archival and communication system (PACS) beginning with the CT and NMR Modalities. While this approach may provide immediate clinical benefits, the initial thrust has been towards evaluation of prototype systems with flexibility for modifications. PACS operational parameters are being studied for their acceptability in support of radiology clinical services. The goal is to provide objective operational data as a basis for planning system improvements.

  10. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN. PMID:20703727

  11. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  12. Security engineering: systems engineering of security through the adaptation and application of risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Feather, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) Security Risk Management is a critical task in the organization, which must protect its resources and data against the loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. As systems become more complex and diverse, and more vulnerabilities are discovered while attacks from intrusions and malicious content increase, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage IT security. This paper describes an approach to address IT security risk through risk management and mitigation in both the institution and in the project life cycle.

  13. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  14. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  15. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  16. Open information systems and data security in medicine.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B

    1996-01-01

    The realization of the German law for a new structure of health care delivery by the assurance of efficient structures and processes in hospitals calls for an optimal design of informational processes. To realize applications near to the users and just in time as well as to build up the complex functional relationships between departments and subsystems in big hospitals, a new design for Hospital Information Systems (HIS) is necessary. The features of modern HIS outlined in the paper can only be established by open systems, which guarantee portability, scalability and interoperability. This is also true in regionally distributed systems like the tumour register at Cancer Centres. In the paper the necessity and possibilities of open systems and different levels of application integration are discussed. The general statements are illustrated by practical realizations in the HIS of the Magdeburg University Hospital as well as in the tumour register at the Cancer Centre of Magdeburg/Sachsen-Anhalt. The creation of integrated structures for communications makes great demands on the assurance of data security and data protection, especially for the inclusion of external partners from the region. In the context of high sensitive data of cancer patients data protection is of top priority. The legal problems of data collection, data storage and exchange in medicine are discussed first. The paper presents some aspects of the concept for data security and data protection in the Magdeburg University HIS and of the related concept for data protection in the tumour register of the Cancer Centre Magdeburg/Sachsen-Anhalt. Appropriate steps of realization are demonstrated. The application of hardware based modern access control systems with integrated encryption of data follows. The statements are extended to the planned installation of hardware based network access control systems with integrated encryption of data in the LAN. PMID:10163732

  17. Influence: The Organizer in Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Larry; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines an array of categories that denote kinds of influence variables operative in organizational systems--including structures, relationships, and technology. This allows us to synthesize literature from a variety of system levels and sources by addressing the question: What variables influence a communicator's behavior at any given…

  18. School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flocco, Edward C.

    A comprehensive school planning tool is available from General Learning Corporation and the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon. This School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS) provides a deliverable system of training, implementation strategies and materials and technical…

  19. Name Authority Control in a Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Cathy Ann; Fair, C. James

    1983-01-01

    Examines use of Electronic Office System by Corporate Media Relations, a division of Communication Services, Standard Oil Company, focusing on the problem of name authority control. The media query file, variant entry problems, problems resulting from ineffective name authority control, and developing a control system are covered. Four sources are…

  20. A Systemic Perspective of Communication and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drecksel, Debra

    Communication and sexism are analyzed from a systemic perspective, illustrating how sexism is perpetuated through sexist interaction and symbol systems. Sexism is shown to be a disease in our society, which creates a societal situation with double-binding sex-role symbols which limit our adaptability. A remedy for sexism is suggested which…