Note: This page contains sample records for the topic secure distributed applications from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Distributed sensing in homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the implementation of a suitable technological support to improve the success likelihood of Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) missions. In particular, the adoption of an heterogeneous sensors network for situation awareness and security applications is suggested. The sensor network consists of two types of sensor, mandated, respectively, to through-the-wall radar (TTW) imaging and a vital sign

M. Ascione; A. Buonanno; M. D'Urso; L. Angrisani; R. Schiano Lo Moriello

2011-01-01

2

Security for real-time MPEG compressed video in distributed multimedia applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging computer network technologies promise to provide distributed multimedia in real-time. Security of real-time video, an important component of distributed multimedia applications, is increasingly becoming one of the major concerns of the computer networking community. This study presents Aegis, a security system for Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) compressed video transmissions. Aegis utilizes the concepts of the MPEG video compression

G. A. Spanos; Tracy Bradley Maples

1996-01-01

3

Secure Distributed File Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secure information distribution is a strategic capability as significant as weapons systems and tactics to military operations. The Department of Defense has recognized the importance of establishing and maintaining secure distributed file systems and exp...

T. M. Conroy W. H. Buxton

1994-01-01

4

Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications  

SciTech Connect

Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

2007-08-30

5

On Secure Distributed Source Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting correlated observations at multiple remote nodes for generating a secret common randomness to facilitate secure communication of data between the terminals has been addressed by many authors [1][2][3]. But in many applications such as sensor networks, the correlated observations might themselves be the data that need to be communicated. We address this problem of secure distributed source coding where

Vinod Prabhakaran; Kannan Ramchandran

2007-01-01

6

Multipartite secure state distribution  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation der Oesterreichischen, Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Calsamiglia, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2005-04-01

7

A Dynamic Context-Aware Security Infrastructure for Distributed Healthcare Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The rapid worldwide,deployment,of the Internet and Web isthe,enabler ,of a ,new ,generation ,of e-healthcare applications, but the provision of a security architecture that can ensure ,the privacy and ,security of sensitive healthcare data is still an open,question. Current solutions tothis problem (mostly built on static RBAC models) are application-dependent ,and do not ,address the intricate security requirements ,of healthcare

Junzhe Hu; Alfred C. Weaver

8

Security for distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an introduction to the subject of security in distributed systems. It is assumed that the reader is generally familiar with the concepts of computer and communications security, by which we mean protection against risks which can compromise data integrity, allow unauthorised disclosure of information or lead to denial of service in systems. However, this article aims to

Peter Trueman

1986-01-01

9

Practical delegation for secure distributed object environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SDM is a secure delegation model for Java-based distributed object environments. SDM extends current Java security features to support secure remote method invocations that may involve chains of delegated calls across distributed objects. The framework supports a control API for application developers to specify mechanisms and security policies surrounding simple or cascaded delegation. Delegation may also be disabled and optionally revoked. These policies may be controlled explicitly in application code, or implicitly via administrative tools.

Nagaratnam, Nataraj; Lea, Doug

1998-12-01

10

Secure Distributed Human Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a preliminary exploration of secure distributed computation. We consider the general paradigm of using large-scale distributed computation to solve difficult problems, but where humans can act as agents and provide candidate solutions. We are especially motivated by problem classes that appear to be difficult for computers to solve effectively, but are easier for humans; e.g., image analysis,

Craig Gentry; Zulfikar Ramzan; Stuart G. Stubblebine

2005-01-01

11

Secure distributed human computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a preliminary exploration of secure distributed human computation. We consider the general paradigm of using large-scale distributed computation to solve difficult problems, but where humans can act as agents and provide candidate solutions. We are especially motivated by problem classes that appear to be difficult for computers to solve effectively, but are easier for humans; e.g., image

Craig Gentry; Zulfikar Ramzan; Stuart Stubblebine

2005-01-01

12

Secure software distribution system  

SciTech Connect

Authenticating and upgrading system software plays a critical role in information security, yet practical tools for assessing and installing software are lacking in today`s marketplace. The Secure Software Distribution System (SSDS) will provide automated analysis, notification, distribution, and installation of security patches and related software to network-based computer systems in a vendor-independent fashion. SSDS will assist with the authentication of software by comparing the system`s objects with the patch`s objects. SSDS will monitor vendor`s patch sites to determine when new patches are released and will upgrade system software on target systems automatically. This paper describes the design of SSDS. Motivations behind the project, the advantages of SSDS over existing tools as well as the current status of the project are also discussed. 2 figs.

Bartoletti, T.; Dobbs, L.A.; Kelley, M.

1997-02-01

13

Secure Code Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Java Virtual Machine does not offer a way for code obtained from trusted sources to be granted extra rights. The article describes two approaches to authentification for code distribution: one extends the JVM to include a digital signature in applets; the other uses MIME encapsulation to take advantage of available security infrastructures. The signed-applet approach gives a programmer more

X. Nick Zhang

1997-01-01

14

Factors Affecting Distributed System Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent work examining distributed system security requirements is critiqued. A notion of trust based on distributed system topology and distributed system node evaluation levels proposed in that work is shown to be deficient. The notion fails to make allo...

D. M. Nessett

1985-01-01

15

On Secure Distributed Data Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the research challenges in secure dis- tributed data sharing, including the con?ict between the requirements of security and accuracy, and the di-culty to achieve e-ciency. We then give a detailed survey on related work of the speciflc problems in secure distributed data sharing, including privacy-preserving set operations, se- cure two-party vector dominance and privacy-preserving data

Yingpeng Sang; Hong Shen

16

Application Security Automation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

Malaika, Majid A.

2011-01-01

17

Secure Distributed Virtual Conferencing: Multicast or Bust  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a secure distributed virtual conferencing application (SDVC) that provides high quality streaming video and audio using IP multicast for efficient distribution, using strong authentication via cryptographic means and optionally providing fully encrypted communication without sacrificing quality of the medium or the user experience. We summarize our experiences with SDVC in a recent live demonstration and conclude with a

W. A. Adamson; C. J. Antonelli; K. W. Coffman; P. McDaniel; J. Rees

18

DIRAC distributed secure framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by users to a MyProxy service, and DIRAC retrieves new short delegated proxies when necessary. This contribution discusses the details of the implementation of this security infrastructure in DIRAC.

Casajus, A.; Graciani, R.; LHCb DIRAC Team

2010-04-01

19

A distributed systems approach to secure Internet mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the obstacles to improved security of the Internet is ad hoc development of technologies with different design goals and different security goals. This paper proposes reconceptualizing the Internet as a secure distributed system, focusing specifically on the application layer. The notion is to replace specific functionality by an equivalent, based on principles discovered in research on distributed sys-

Philip Machanick

2005-01-01

20

Secure Distributed Human Computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

21

An Immunological Model of Distributed Detection and Its Application to Computer Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores an immunological model of distributed detection, called negative detection,and studies its performance in the domain of intrusion detection on computer networks. The goal of thedetection system is to distinguish between illegitimate behaviour (nonself ), and legitimate behaviour (self ).The detection system consists of sets of negative detectors that detect instances of nonself; these detectors aredistributed across multiple

Steven Andrew Hofmeyr

1999-01-01

22

Evaluation of web application security risks and secure design patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of security in web application is of profound importance due to the extended use of web for business. Most of the attacks, are either because the developers are not considering security as a concern or due to the security flaws in designing and developing the applications. The enforcement of security in the software development life cycle of the

Asish Kumar Dalai; Sanjay Kumar Jena

2011-01-01

23

Security Enhancements for Distributed Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security enhancements for distributed control systems (DCSs) must be sensitive to operational issues, especially availability.\\u000a This paper presents three security enhancements for DCSs that satisfy this requirement: end-to-end security for DCS protocol\\u000a communications, role-based authorization to control access to devices and prevent unauthorized changes to operational parameters,\\u000a and reduced operating system kernels for enhanced device security. The security enhancements have

Jeffrey L. Hieb; James H. Graham; Sandip C. Patel

2007-01-01

24

Internet Draft Distributed Network Management Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of SNMP to securely manage distributed networks through firewalls has not been formally described, although features critical to such management are included in SNMP. This document reports on a study performed at Secure Computing Corporation on a meth...

P. Meyer

1997-01-01

25

A secure communications infrastructure for high-performance distributed computing  

SciTech Connect

Applications that use high-speed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers, databases, and scientific instruments may operate over open networks and access valuable resources. Hence, they can require mechanisms for ensuring integrity and confidentially of communications and for authenticating both users and resources. Security solutions developed for traditional client-server applications do not provide direct support for the program structures, programming tools, and performance requirements encountered in these applications. The authors address these requirements via a security-enhanced version of the Nexus communication library; which they use to provide secure versions of parallel libraries and languages, including the Message Passing Interface. These tools permit a fine degree of control over what, where, and when security mechanisms are applied. In particular, a single application can mix secure and nonsecure communication, allowing the programmer to make fine-grained security/performance tradeoffs. The authors present performance results that quantify the performance of their infrastructure.

Foster, I.; Koenig, G.; Tuecke, S. [and others

1997-08-01

26

Security and Privacy for Distributed Multimedia Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a critical need to provide privacy and security assurances for distributed multimedia sensor networking in applications including military surveillance and healthcare monitoring. Such guarantees enable the widespread adoption of such information systems, leading to large-scale societal benefit. To effectively address protection and reliability issues, secure communications and processing must be considered from system inception. Due to the emerging

Deepa Kundur; William Luh; Unoma Ndili Okorafor; Takis Zourntos

2008-01-01

27

Distributed intrusion detection system based on grid security model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grid computing has developed rapidly with the development of network technology and it can solve the problem of large-scale complex computing by sharing large-scale computing resource. In grid environment, we can realize a distributed and load balance intrusion detection system. This paper first discusses the security mechanism in grid computing and the function of PKI/CA in the grid security system, then gives the application of grid computing character in the distributed intrusion detection system (IDS) based on Artificial Immune System. Finally, it gives a distributed intrusion detection system based on grid security system that can reduce the processing delay and assure the detection rates.

Su, Jie; Liu, Yahui

2008-03-01

28

Secure Communications Processing for Distributed Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Communications processing is an important part of distributed language systems with facilities such as RPC (remote procedure call) and RMI (remote method invocation). For security, messages may require cryptographic operations in addition to ordinary marshaling. We investigate a method for wrapping communications processing around an entity with secure local communication, such as a single machine or a protected network.

Martín Abadi; Cédric Fournet; Georges Gonthier

1999-01-01

29

Secret Distribution for Secure Fingerprint Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, in the smart-card based authentication system, there is an increasing trend of using fingerprint for the card holder verification, instead of passwords. However, the security of the fingerprint data is particularly important as the possible compromise of the data will be permanent. In this paper, we propose an approach for secure fingerprint verification by distributing both the secret and

Hanna Choi; Sungju Lee; Daesung Moon; Yongwha Chung; Sungbum Pan

2008-01-01

30

Network aware distributed applications  

SciTech Connect

Most distributed applications today manage to utilize only a small percentage of the needed and available network bandwidth. Often application developers are not aware of the potential bandwidth of the network, and therefore do not know what to expect. Even when application developers are aware of the specifications of the machines and network links, they have few resources that can help determine why the expected performance was not achieved. What is needed is a ubiquitous and easy-to-use service that provides reliable, accurate, secure, and timely estimates of dynamic network properties. This service will help advise applications on how to make use of the network's increasing bandwidth and capabilities for traffic shaping and engineering. When fully implemented, this service will make building currently unrealizable levels of network awareness into distributed applications a relatively mundane task. For example, a remote data visualization application could choose between sending a wireframe, a pre-rendered image, or a 3-D representation, based on forecasts of CPU availability and power, compression options, and available bandwidth. The same service will provide on-demand performance information so that applications can compare predicted with actual results, and allow detailed queries about the end-to-end path for application and network tuning and debugging.

Agarwal, Deborah; Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Johnston, William

2001-02-04

31

Towards secure dataflow processing in open distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open distributed systems such as service oriented architecture and cloud computing have emerged as promising platforms to deliver software as a service to users. However, for many security sen- sitive applications such as critical data processing, trus t manage- ment poses significant challenges for migrating those criti cal ap- plications into open distributed systems. In this paper, we present the

Juan Du; Wei Wei; Xiaohui Gu; Ting Yu

2009-01-01

32

Clusters and security: distributed security for distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale commodity clusters are used in an increas- ing number of domains: academic, research, and indus- trial environments. At the same time, these clusters are exposed to an increasing number of attacks coming from public networks. Therefore, mechanisms for efficiently and flexibly managing security have now become an essential requirement for clusters. However, despite the growing im- portance of cluster

Makan Pourzandi; David Gordon; William Yurcik; Gregory A. Koenig

2005-01-01

33

Distributed audit with secure remote procedure calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have designed and implemented an experimental secure remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism and an RPC interface for a distributed audit mechanism running on AIX version 3 on the RISC System\\/6000. Based on the secure RPC mechanism and the network file system, the authors have designed and implemented a high-level, protocol-transparent interface for a distributed audit mechanism with centralized

Chii-Ren Tsai; V. D. Gligor

1991-01-01

34

An Aspect of Application Security Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first presents work in the area of application security management and then investigates relations to the application of Aspect Oriented Software Development (AOSD) to security, as they are both grounded on the systems engineering principle of \\

Philip Robinson; Maarten Rits; Roger Kilian-Kehr

35

MONTAGE: A Methodology for Designing Composable End-to-End Secure Distributed Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the Montage project, a principled approach to build secure distributed systems which remain secure when composed with other systems. This is an application of the Universal Composability Framework, which has been previously applied s...

S. Chari

2012-01-01

36

Secure web applications via automatic partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift is a new, principled approach to building web applications that are secure by construction. In modern web applications, some application functionality is usually implemented as client-side code written in JavaScript. Moving code and data to the client can create security vulnerabilities, but currently there are no good methods for deciding when it is secure to do so. Swift automatically

Stephen Chong; Jed Liu; Andrew C. Myers; Xin Qi; K. Vikram; Lantian Zheng; Xin Zheng

2007-01-01

37

Managing security in high-performance distributed computations.  

SciTech Connect

We describe a software infrastructure designed to support the development of applications that use highspeed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers, databases, and scientific instruments. Such applications may need to operate over open networks and access valuable resources, and hence can require mechanisms for ensuring integrity and confidentiality of communications and for authenticating both users and resources. Yet security solutions developed for traditional client-server applications do not provide direct support for the distinctive program structures, programming tools, and performance requirements encountered in these applications. To address these requirements, we are developing a security enhanced version of a communication library called Nexus, which is then used to provide secure versions of various parallel libraries and languages, including the popular Message Passing Interface. These tools support the wide range of process creation mechanisms and communication structures used in high performance computing. They also provide a fine degree of control over what, where, and when security mechanisms are applied. In particular, a single application can mix secure and nonsecure communication, allowing the programmer to make fine grained security/performance tradeoffs. We present performance results that enable us to quantify the performance of our infrastructure.

Foster, I.; karonis, N. T.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Northern Illinois Univ.; Univ. of Southern California

1998-01-01

38

Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1993-05-01

39

Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

Zhou, Yicong

2010-01-01

40

Secure web application via automatic partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Swift is a new, principled approach to building web applications that are secure by construction. In modern web applications, some application functionality is usually implemented,as client-side code written in JavaScript. Moving code and data to the client can create security vulnerabilities, but currently there are no good methods for deciding when,it is secure to do so. Swift automatically partitions

Stephen Chong; Jed Liu; Andrew C. Myers; Xin Qi; K. Vikram; Lantian Zheng; Xin Zheng

2007-01-01

41

Intelligent Video for Homeland Security Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of protecting critical infrastructure and other homeland security initiatives with the application of an intelligent video (IV) system. A systems engineering approach is followed to decompose top level requirements into system functions based on the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Strategic Plan, The National Strategy for Homeland Security, and the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP).

A. Nusimow

2007-01-01

42

Virtual Cyber-Security Testing Capability for Large Scale Distributed Information Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security, reliability and interoperability are indispensable in today's distributed heterogeneous information infrastructure. For government and military applications, it is crucial to conduct effective and efficient testing of security properties for newly developed systems, which are to be integrated into existing information system. Yet little progress has been made in the technology advancement of rigorous and automated security testing. In this

Perry Pederson; D. Lee; Guoqiang Shu; Dongluo Chen; Zhijun Liu; Na Li; Lifeng Sang

2008-01-01

43

Security applications of terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent events have accelerated the quest for ever more effective security screening to detect an increasing variety of threats. Many techniques employing different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio up to X- and gammaray are in use. Terahertz radiation, which lies between microwave and infrared, is the last part to be exploited for want, until recently, of suitable sources and detectors. This paper describes practical techniques for Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy which are now being applied to a variety of applications. We describe a number of proof-of-principle experiments which show that Terahertz imaging has the ability to use very low levels of this non-ionising radiation to detect hidden objects in clothing and common packing materials and envelopes. Moreover, certain hidden substances such as plastic explosives and other chemical and biological agents may be detected from their characteristic Terahertz spectra. The results of these experiments, coupled with availability of practical Terahertz systems which operate outside the laboratory environment, demonstrate the potential for Terahertz technology in security screening and counterterrorism.

Kemp, Michael C.; Taday, P. F.; Cole, Bryan E.; Cluff, J. A.; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Tribe, William R.

2003-08-01

44

Security constraint processing in a multilevel secure distributed database management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multilevel secure distributed database management system, users cleared at different security levels access and share a distributed database consisting of data at different sensitivity levels. An approach to assigning sensitivity levels, also called security levels, to data is one which utilizes constraints or classification rules. Security constraints provide an effective classification policy. They can be used to assign

Bhavani Thuraisingham; William Ford

1995-01-01

45

Secure distributed programming with value-dependent types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed applications are difficult to program reliably and securely. Dependently typed functional languages promise to prevent broad classes of errors and vulnerabilities, and to enable program verification to proceed side-by-side with development. However, as recursion, effects, and rich libraries are added, using types to reason about programs, specifications, and proofs becomes challenging. We present F*, a full-fledged design and implementation

Nikhil Swamy; Juan Chen; Cédric Fournet; Pierre-Yves Strub; Karthikeyan Bharagavan; Jean Yang

2011-01-01

46

A Calculus for Security Bootstrapping in Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calculus of channel security properties is presented which allows the analysis and comparison of protocols for establishing secure channels in a distributed open system at a high level of abstraction. A channel is characterized by its direction, its time of availability and its security properties. Cryptographic primitives as well as trust relations are interpreted as transformations for channel security

Ueli M. Maurer; Pierre E. Schmid

1996-01-01

47

Secure coprocessing applications and research issues  

SciTech Connect

The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

Smith, S.W.

1996-08-01

48

Video performance for high security applications.  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivity of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.

Connell, Jack C.; Norman, Bradley C.

2010-06-01

49

Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

Kang, Hun Jeong

2010-01-01

50

Addressing Security Challenges in Pervasive Computing Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pervasive computing provides services that use knowledge about the operating environment. The very knowledge that enables an application to provide better services may, however, be misused, causing security and privacy breaches. Uncontrolled disclosure of...

I. Ray I. Ray

2010-01-01

51

Ontology-Based Secure XML Content Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an ontology-driven secure XML content distribution scheme. This scheme first relies on a semantic access control model for XML documents that achieves three objectives: (1) representing flexible and evolvable policies, (2) providing a high-level mapping and interoperable interface to documents, and (3) automating the granting of fine-grained access rights by inferring on content semantics. A novel XML document parsing mechanism is defined to delegate document access control enforcement to a third party without leaking the document XML schema to it. The Encrypted Breadth First Order Labels (EBOL) encoding is used to bind semantic concepts with XML document nodes and to check the integrity of a document.

Rahaman, Mohammad Ashiqur; Roudier, Yves; Miseldine, Philip; Schaad, Andreas

52

Energy-Memory-Security Tradeoffs in Distributed Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security for sensor networks is challenging due to the resource-constrained nature of individual nodes, particularly their energy limitations. However, designing merely for energy savings may not result in a suitable security architecture. This paper investigates the inherent tradeoffs involved between energy, memory, and security robustness in distributed sensor networks. As a driver for the investigation, we intro- duce an energy-scalable

David D. Hwang; Bo-Cheng Charles Lai; Ingrid Verbauwhede

2004-01-01

53

Distributed Systems Security Governance, a SOA Based Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this demonstration is to show how a governed composition of security related services, provided through the Security as a Service (SaaS) paradigm, can be leveraged on in order to provide a more flexible and usable approach to security in distributed and complex systems.

de Leusse, Pierre; Brossard, David

54

Moving from Security to Distributed Trust in Ubiquitous Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTraditionally, security for stand-alone computers and small networks was handled by physical securityand by logging into computers and domains. With open networks like the Internet and pervasiveenvironments, issues concerning security and trust become crucial. There is no longer the physical aspectof security due to the distributed nature of the networks and the concept of user authentication toa domain is not

Lalana Kagal; Tim Finin; Anupam Joshi

2001-01-01

55

Model-Based Security Engineering of Distributed Information Systems Using UMLsec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the explosive growth of digitally stored informa- tion in modern enterprises, distributed information systems together with search engines are increasingly used in com- panies. By enabling the user to search all relevant informa- tion sources with one single query, however, crucial risks concerning information security arise. In order to make these applications secure, it is not sufficient to penetrate-

Bastian Best; Jan Jürjens; Bashar Nuseibeh

2007-01-01

56

Security threats and solutions in distributed, interoperable health information systems using middleware.  

PubMed

Increasingly, distributed, interoperable healthcare information systems, which meet the shared care paradigm, work across the boundaries of policy, organisational, and technological domains and are based on middleware concepts. Especially in healthcare with its sensitive personal and medical data, such systems require advanced data security measures. In the paper, a common object-oriented security model for middleware systems and advertisements for implementation are proposed, corresponding the security requirement of both the user and the application environment. PMID:10175374

Blobel, B; Holena, M

1997-01-01

57

Design of a distributed comptuer security lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the US and the rest of the world, there exists a lack of computer security components in many CS\\/IT curricula. For those programs that do have such components in computer security, a common difficulty is to integrate \\

T. Andrew Yang; Kwok-bun Yue; Morris Liaw; George Collins; Jayaraman T. Venkatraman; Swati Achar; Karthik Sadasivam; Ping Chen

2004-01-01

58

The security and recent technology of quantum key distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In principle, quantum key distribution (QKD) can be used to make unconditionally secure private communication. However, the\\u000a security of the existing real system for QKD needs to be carefully examined. Actually, the existing experiments based on weak\\u000a coherent states are not secure under photon-number-splitting attack. Fortunately, the decoy-state method and the entanglement-distribution\\u000a method can be used to realize the unconditionally

Xiang-Bin Wang; Hao Ying; Huai-Xing Ma; Cheng-Zhi Peng; Tao Yang; Jian-Wei Pan

2006-01-01

59

Improving security in the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arrival of high speed packet switched fiber optic LAN's has allowed local area design architectures to be used for larger metropolitan area network (MAN) implementations. The current LAN security mechanisms used in larger and faster fiber optic LAN's and MAN's are often inappropriate or unacceptable for use with emerging applications. The protocol of the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) standard provides a natural means for message integrity and availability verification. However, privacy in FDDI is facilitated at higher layers through a generic LAN standard. This thesis proposes a modification to the FDDI protocol implemented at the medium access control (MAC) sublayer, which integrates a confidentiality mechanism for data transfer. The modification provides a simple comprehensive security package to meet the high performance needs of current and emerging applications. In the proposed modification, the inherent properties of the ring are exploited using a unique Central Key Translator to distribute initial session keys. A symmetric bit stream cipher based on modulo2 addition is used for encryption/decryption by the transmitting and receiving stations. Part of the plain text from transmitted message frames is used as feedback to generate new session keys.

Jones, Benjamin E.

1992-09-01

60

Radiation Detection for Homeland Security Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past twenty years or so, there have been significant changes in the strategy and applications for homeland security. Recently there have been significant at deterring and interdicting terrorists and associated organizations. This is a shift in the normal paradigm of deterrence and surveillance of a nation and the `conventional' methods of warfare to the `unconventional' means that terrorist

James Ely

2008-01-01

61

Video motion detection for physical security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical security specialists have been attracted to the concept of video motion detection for several years. Claimed potential advantages included additional benefit from existing video surveillance systems, automatic detection, improved performance compared to human observers, and cost-effectiveness. In recent years, significant advances in image-processing dedicated hardware and image analysis algorithms and software have accelerated the successful application of video motion

1990-01-01

62

Video motion detection for physical security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical security specialists have been attracted to the concept of video motion detection for several years. Claimed potential advantages included additional benefit from existing video surveillance systems, automatic detection, improved performance compared to human observers, and cost effectiveness. In recent years significant advances in image processing dedicated hardware and image analysis algorithms and software have accelerated the successful application of

1990-01-01

63

Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections  

SciTech Connect

We consider the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for quantum key distribution, with arbitrary individual imperfections simultaneously in the source and detectors. We provide the secure key generation rate and show that three parameters must be bounded to ensure security; the basis dependence of the source, a detector-blinding parameter, and a detector leakage parameter. The system may otherwise be completely uncharacterized and contain large losses.

Maroey, Oystein; Lydersen, Lars; Skaar, Johannes [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway and University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

2010-09-15

64

Securing Applications in Personal Computers: The Relay Race Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reviews the increasing need for security in a personal computer (PC) environment and proposes a new approach for securing PC applications at the application layer. The Relay Race Approach extends two standard approaches: data encryption and pa...

J. M. Wright

1991-01-01

65

The Semantic Data Model for Security: Representing the Security Semantics of an Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data security requirements go beyond traditional access control considerations to include relationships among data that must be protected. The author extends the data-modeling concepts to include the secrecy properties of data. The semantic data model for security (SDMS) is proposed as the vehicle for users, database designers and security officers to analyze and understand the security requirements of the application

Gary W. Smith

1990-01-01

66

Distributed Key Management for Secure Role based Messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure Role Based Messaging (SRBM) augments mes- saging systems with role oriented communication in a se- cure manner. Role occupants can sign and decrypt mes- sages on behalf of roles. This paper identifies the require- ments of SRBM and recognises the need for: distributed key shares, fast membership revocation, mandatory security controls and detection of identity spoofing. A shared RSA

Gansen Zhao; Sassa Otenko; David W. Chadwick

2006-01-01

67

Secure Interoperation of Secure Distributed Databases - An Architecture Verification Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper describes the process of implementing an architecturefor secure distributed transaction processing, the process of verifyingthat it has the desired security properties, and the implementationthat resulted. The implementation and verification processes provided uswith valuable experience relevant to answering several questions posedby our research on transformational development of architectures. Towhat extent can implementation-level architectural descriptions be derivedfrom ...

Fred Gilham; R. A. Riemenschneider; Victoria Stavridou

1999-01-01

68

Protocol for Secure Communication in Large Distributed Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mechanism for secure communication in large distributed systems is proposed. The mechanism, called Authenticated Datagram Protocol (ADP), provides message authentication and, optionally, privacy of data. ADP is a host-to-host datagram protocol, position...

D. P. Anderson D. Ferrari P. V. Rangan B. Sartirana

1987-01-01

69

Deriving Key Distribution Protocols and their Security Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We apply the derivational method of protocol verification to key distribution protocols. This method assembles the security properties of a protocol by composing the guarantees offered by embedded fragments and patterns. It has shed light on fundamental n...

C. Meadows D. Pavlovic I. Cervesato

2006-01-01

70

17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution. ...Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2013-04-01

71

Generic Support for Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

to distributed applications. Current middleware platforms for distributed applications are based on the following software model and architecture. Distributed-software model Whatever the physical architecture of a distributed system, we must establish a software model that defines the entities that comprise the distributed system, how they interoperate, and how to specify their behavior. The object model, which underpins all recent middleware

Jean Bacon; Ken Moody; John Bates; Richard Hayton; Chaoying Ma; Andrew Mcneil; Oliver Seidel; Mark D. Spiteri

2000-01-01

72

Promoting the development of secure mobile agent applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a software architecture and a development environment for the implementation of applications based on secure mobile agents. Recent breakthroughs in mobile agent security have unblocked this technology, but there is still one important issue to overcome: the complexity of programming applications using these security solutions. Our proposal aims to facilitate and speed up the process

Carles Garrigues; Sergi Robles; Joan Borrell; Guillermo Navarro-Arribas

2010-01-01

73

SEAL: A secure communication library for building dynamic group key agreement applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the SEcure communicAtion Library (SEAL), a Linux-based C language application programming interface (API) library that implements secure group key agreement algorithms that allow a communication group to periodically renew a common secret group key for secure and private communication. The group key agreement protocols satisfy several important characteristics: distributed property (i.e., no centralized key server is needed), collaborative

Patrick P. C. Lee; John C. S. Lui; David K. Y. Yau

2007-01-01

74

Fast and Secure Distributed Read-Only File System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet users increasingly rely on publicly available data for everything from software installation to investment decisions. Unfortunately, the vast majority of public content on the Internet comes with no integrity or authenticity guarantees. This paper presents the self-certifying read-only file system, a content distribution system providing secure, scalable access to public, read-only data. The read-only file system makes the security

Kevin Fu; M. Frans Kaashoek; David Mazičres

2000-01-01

75

An Automated Analysis of the Security of Quantum Key Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of computer-aided verification as a practical means for analysing quantum information systems; specifically, the BB84 protocol for quantum key distribution is examined using this method. This protocol has been shown to be unconditionally secure against all attacks in an information-theoretic setting, but the relevant security proof requires a thorough understanding of the formalism of quantum

Rajagopal Nagarajan; Nikolaos Papanikolaou; Garry Bowen; Simon J. Gay

2005-01-01

76

Distributed certificateless key encapsulation mechanism secure against the adaptive adversary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an adaptively secure solution to certificateless distributed key encapsulation mechanism from pairings\\u000a by using Canetti’s adaptive secure key generation scheme based on discrete logarithm. The proposed scheme can withstand adaptive\\u000a attackers that can choose players for corruption at any time during the run of the protocol, and this kind of attack is powerful\\u000a and realistic. In contrast,

Yu Long; Xiang-xue Li; Ke-fei Chen; Xuan Hong

2009-01-01

77

Cooperative security in distributed sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed sensor network protocols, such as routing, time synchronization or data aggregation protocols make use of collaborative techniques to minimize the consumption of scarce resources in sensors. However, compromised and misbehaving nodes are a serious threat, as an attacker can employ them to eavesdrop on communication, inject forged data, or manipulate protocol operation. In this context, distributed revocation protocols play

Oscar García Morchon; Heribert Baldus; Tobias Heer; Klaus Wehrle

2007-01-01

78

Cooperative Security for Network Coding File Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-peer content distribution networks can suffer from malicious participants that intentionally corrupt content. Traditional systems verify blocks with traditional cryptographic signatures and hashes. However, these techniques do not apply well to more elegant schemes that use network coding techniques for efficient content distribution. Architectures that use network coding are prone to jamming attacks where the introduction of a few corrupted

Christos Gkantsidis; Pablo Rodriguez Rodriguez

2006-01-01

79

Passive terahertz imaging for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

80

Mobile Applications for Public Sector: Balancing Usability and Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mobile software applications for use in specific domains such as Public Security must conform to stringent security requirements. While mobile devices have many known limitations, assuring complex fine-grained security policies poses an additional challenge to quality mobile services and raises usability concerns. We address these challenges by means of a novel approach to authentication and gradual multi-factor authorization

Yuri NATCHETOI; Viktor KAUFMAN; Konstantin BEZNOSOV

2008-01-01

81

Security Vulnerabilities and Mitigation Strategies for Application Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipating and mitigating security threats is critical during software development. This work investigates security vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies to help software developers build secure applications. The work examines common vulnerabilities, and relevant mitigation strategies, from several perspectives, including the input environment used to supply the software with needed data, the internal data and structures used to store and retrieve the

Brunil Dalila Romero Marino; Hisham M. Haddad; M. Romero

2009-01-01

82

Safe Areas of Computation for Secure Computing with Insecure Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the computer systems and software used by the average user offer virtually no security. Because of this many attacks, both simulated and real, have been described by the security community and have appeared in the popular press. This paper presents an approach to increase the level of security provided to users when interacting with otherwise unsafe applications and computing

André L. M. Dos Santos; Richard A. Kemmerer

1999-01-01

83

Application of laser technology to introduce security features on security documents in order to reduce counterfeiting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of laser technology for application of security features into security documents is introduced and specifically the security features which are applied directly into the security documents itself are covered. This innovative way of working creates effective deterrents to counterfeit and forgery. Laser applied security features become an integral part of the documents and its characteristics are unique and well-distinguishable. Together with the high levels of fineness and accuracy which can be achieved, this makes laser applied security features virtually impossible to reproduce with other means. Furthermore lasers can create first line security features which the public can easily verify with the naked eye. An introduction into laser technology gives better insight into the use of lasers in security documents. The laser offers high flexibility as the security features are created one by one under control of computer programs. As result a laser system can produce unique and personalised security features which can be applied automatically during one of the last production stages of the document. Laser applied security features are at this moment used on banknotes, passports and cheques. Examples of such applications will be shown. Also new types of laser applied security features will be introduced.

Hospel, W. G.

1998-04-01

84

Radiation Detection for Homeland Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past twenty years or so, there have been significant changes in the strategy and applications for homeland security. Recently there have been significant at deterring and interdicting terrorists and associated organizations. This is a shift in the normal paradigm of deterrence and surveillance of a nation and the `conventional' methods of warfare to the `unconventional' means that terrorist organizations resort to. With that shift comes the responsibility to monitor international borders for weapons of mass destruction, including radiological weapons. As a result, countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments at land, rail, air, and sea ports of entry in the US and in European and Asian countries. Radioactive signatures of concern include radiation dispersal devices (RDD), nuclear warheads, and special nuclear material (SNM). Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are used as the main screening tool for vehicles and cargo at borders, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. This talk will present an overview of radiation detection equipment with emphasis on radiation portal monitors. In the US, the deployment of radiation detection equipment is being coordinated by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office within the Department of Homeland Security, and a brief summary of the program will be covered. Challenges with current generation systems will be discussed as well as areas of investigation and opportunities for improvements. The next generation of radiation portal monitors is being produced under the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program and will be available for deployment in the near future. Additional technologies, from commercially available to experimental, that provide additional information for radiation screening, such as density imaging equipment, will be reviewed. Opportunities for further research and development to improve the current equipment and methodologies for radiation detection for the important task of homeland security will be the final topic to be discussed.

Ely, James

2008-05-01

85

SMART Sensors for Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

New SMART approaches to fast, high sensitivity, high selectivity, low false indication, self communicating, distributed sensor networks for detection of chemical, biological and radiation threats are being developed at PNNL. These new sensors have their roots in clever combinations of high affinity ligands, self assembled monolayers, shape-specific receptor surfaces, mesoporous superstructures, rapidly fabricated single-chain antibodies, stabilized enzyme reactors and manipulated micro-beads for optical, mass, and direct electronic transduction. Assemblies of these SMART materials and structures are able to efficiently reject the bulk of highly cluttered physical environmental backgrounds, collect the product of interest with extremely high selectivity, concentrate it and present it for efficient and sensitive detection. The general construction methodology for these structures and examples of new sensor systems for detecting chemical, biological and nuclear materials of concern in the Homeland Security context is presented.

Lind, Michael A.; Wright, Bob W.

2004-02-27

86

SMART sensors for homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New SMART approaches to fast, high sensitivity, high selectivity, low false indication, self communicating, distributed sensor networks for detection of chemical, biological and radiation threats are being developed at PNNL. These new sensors have their roots in clever combinations of high affinity ligands, self assembled monolayers, shape-specific receptor surfaces, mesoporous superstructures, rapidly fabricated single-chain antibodies, stabilized enzyme reactors and manipulated micro-beads for optical, mass, and direct electronic transduction. Assemblies of these SMART materials and structures are able to efficiently reject the bulk of highly cluttered physical environmental backgrounds, collect the product of interest with extremely high selectivity, concentrate it and present it for efficient and sensitive detection. The general construction methodology for these structures and examples of new sensor systems for detecting chemical, biological and nuclear materials of concern in the Homeland Security context is presented.

Lind, Michael A.; Wright, Bob W.

2004-07-01

87

Multi-agent Based Distributed Secure Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise search differs from Internet search in many ways. The overwhelming majority of information in an enterprise is unstructured. Together with information in relational and proprietary databases, these documents constitute the enterprise information ecosystem. The information in an enterprise is distributed. A centric search engine does not satisfy the security requirement in enterprise information retrieval. In this paper, a multi-agent

Lixin Zhou

2010-01-01

88

Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems  

SciTech Connect

We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.

Sheridan, Lana [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2010-09-15

89

Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution.  

PubMed

Characterizing the physical channel and calibrating the cryptosystem hardware are prerequisites for establishing a quantum channel for quantum key distribution (QKD). Moreover, an inappropriately implemented calibration routine can open a fatal security loophole. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to induce a large temporal detector efficiency mismatch in a commercial QKD system by deceiving a channel length calibration routine. We then devise an optimal and realistic strategy using faked states to break the security of the cryptosystem. A fix for this loophole is also suggested. PMID:22026652

Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Makarov, Vadim; Leuchs, Gerd

2011-09-09

90

The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on one-way function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for one-way permutation-invariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the Devetak-Winter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain the implication, on the security level, of reducing a QKD protocol to an entanglement or a more general private state distillation protocol. In a different direction, we introduce a QKD protocol with multiple-photon encoding that can be implemented without a shared reference frame. We prove the unconditional security of this protocol, and discuss some features of the efficiency of multiple-photon QKD schemes in general.

Boileau, Jean Christian

91

Using AOP to separate SOA security concerns from application implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a programming paradigm that increases modularity by enabling improved separation of concerns. Implementing modern Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) systems requires expertise from people in a variety of roles, including application developers and security experts. Ideally, the application developers should be fully isolated from, and independent of, security implementation. The virtues of AOP offer a practical programming framework

Eric Sonchaiwanich; Jay Zhao; Christopher Dowin; Malcolm McRoberts

2010-01-01

92

On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification  

SciTech Connect

In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-04-01

93

Cryptographically secure hardware random number generator dedicated for distributed measurement and control systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chaotic signal generator based on the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources is presented. This system was implemented on the basis of the physical chaotic electronic vibration generator in which the resonant circuit is composed of two capacitors, two resistors, coil and transistor, called the Colpitts oscillator. The presented system was designed, programmed and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. True cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results will be here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.

Czernik, Pawel

2012-05-01

94

Migrating to simpler distributed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994 Wells Fargo Bank was the first large financial services company to invest heavily in distributed object-oriented applications for high-volume, mission-critical applications using version 1 of OMG's Common Object Request Broker Architecture. Wells Fargo continued to improve upon its distributed applications technology leadership by launching a Model Driven Architecture [MDA] initiative in 1999. The technology provided a consistent middle-tier

Joachim F. Kainz

2004-01-01

95

20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs...501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Applications...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration...

2009-04-01

96

20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs...501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Applications...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration...

2010-04-01

97

Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

Bisbee, T.L.

1997-06-01

98

DNPSec: Distributed Network Protocol Version 3 (DNP3) Security Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Network Protocol Version 3 (DNP3) is an open and optimized protocol developed for the Supervisory Control and\\u000a Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems supporting the utilities industries. The DNP3 enables the Master Station to request data\\u000a from Substations using pre-defined control function commands and Substations to respond by transmitting the requested data.\\u000a DNP3 was never designed with security mechanisms in mind

Munir Majdalawieh; Francesco Parisi-Presicce; Duminda Wijesekera

99

A secure and efficient conference key distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present practical conference key distribution systems based on public keys, which authenticate the users and which are\\u000a ‘proven’ secure provided the Diffie-Hellman problem is intractable. A certain number of interactions is needed but the overall\\u000a cost is low. There is a complexity tradeoff. Depending on the network used, we either have a constant (in the number of conference\\u000a participants)

Mike Burmester; Yvo Desmedt

100

Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. "Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications" presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references.

Javidi, Bahram

101

Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)  

SciTech Connect

Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

2009-01-01

102

Advances in Adaptive Secure Message-Oriented Middleware for Distributed Business-Critical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed business-critical systems are often implemented using distributed messaging infrastructures with increasingly stringent requirements with regard to resilience, security, adaptability, intelligence and scalability. Current systems have limited ability in meeting these requirements. This paper describes advances in adaptive security, security metrics, anomaly detection and resilience, and authentication architecture in such distributed messaging systems.

Abie, Habtamu; Savola, Reijo M.; Wang, Jinfu; Rotondi, Domenico

2010-09-01

103

Case for avoiding security-enhanced HTTP tools to improve security for Web-based applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes some of the general weaknesses of the current popular Hypertext Transmission Protocol (HTTP) security standards and products in an effort to show that these standards are not appealing for many applications. The author will then show ...

B. Wood

1996-01-01

104

Social Security Disability Applicant Statistics, 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About one of every 10 dollars in social security benefits under the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance program (OASDI) goes to disabled workers or their families. By the end of 1969, nearly 2,500,000 workers and dependents and 40,000 widows and widowers were receiving some form of social security disability compensation, while another…

Lerner, Philip R., Comp.

105

Web application security assessment by fault injection and behavior monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a large and complex application platform, the World Wide Web is capable of delivering a broad range of sophisticated applications. However, many Web applications go through rapid development phases with extremely short turnaround time, making it difficult to eliminate vulnerabilities. Here we analyze the design of Web application security assessment mechanisms in order to identify poor coding practices that

Yao-Wen Huang; Shih-Kun Huang; Tsung-Po Lin; Chung-Hung Tsai

2003-01-01

106

Neutron detection alternatives to 3He for national security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Large radiation detection systems deployed for homeland security and proliferation detection applications use such systems. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security and basic research, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This has led to

Richard T. Kouzes; James H. Ely; Luke E. Erikson; Warnick J. Kernan; Azaree T. Lintereur; Edward R. Siciliano; Daniel L. Stephens; David C. Stromswold; Renee M. Van Ginhoven; Mitchell L. Woodring

2010-01-01

107

Process detection in homeland security and defense applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process detection is a fundamental problem arising in a variety of homeland security, national defense and commercial applications, including network security, sensor network data fusion, dynamic social network analysis and video tracking of kinematic objects. Our approach to process detection is based on a generic algorithmic approach called Process Query Systems which has been developed at Dartmouth over the past

George Cybenko; Vincent Berk

2006-01-01

108

Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution  

SciTech Connect

Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an 'effective' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

Renes, Joseph M. [IAKS Prof. Beth, Arbeitsgruppe Quantum Computing, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten 5, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Quantum Information Theory Group, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, and Max-Planck-Forschungsgruppe, Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Grassl, Markus [IAKS Prof. Beth, Arbeitsgruppe Quantum Computing, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten 5, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2006-08-15

109

Distributed Ada Target Applications. Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on the investigation into real-time/runtime issues encountered while developing the DAPSE prototypes. This investigation encompasses two reports: (1) Distributed Ada Target Applications by C. Mugur Stefanescu. This report describe...

C. M. Stefanescu

1989-01-01

110

Antiquity: exploiting a secure log for wide-area distributed storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiquity is a wide-area distributed storage system designed to provide a simple storage service for applications like file systems and back-up. The design assumes that all servers eventually fail and attempts to maintain data despite those failures. Antiquity uses a secure log to maintain data integrity, replicates each log on multiple servers for durability, and uses dynamic Byzantine fault-tolerant quorum

Hakim Weatherspoon; Patrick Eaton; Byung-Gon Chun; John Kubiatowicz

2007-01-01

111

Suggestions for Social Security Disability Applicants  

MedlinePLUS

... and specialty. How much will an attorney cost? Fee Agreement Before the attorney can charge you for ... and your attorney must sign and file a fee agreement with the Social Security Administration. Your attorney ...

112

Securing PC applications: the relay race approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of personal computers and the growth of end-user computing have introduced a myriad of security concerns. As PC-based information systems become readily available and more individuals become computer literate, the risk of ill-intentioned individuals obtaining unauthorized access to computing resources and violating the secrecy and integrity of data increases significantly. But many of these computer security concerns

Moshe Zviran

2002-01-01

113

Secure Code Generation for Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large percentage of recent security problems, such as Cross-site Scripting or SQL injection, is caused by string-based code\\u000a injection vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities exist because of implicit code creation through string serialization. Based\\u000a on an analysis of the vulnerability class’ underlying mechanisms, we propose a general approach to outfit modern programming\\u000a languages with mandatory means for explicit and secure code

Martin Johns; Christian Beyerlein; Rosemaria Giesecke; Joachim Posegga

2010-01-01

114

A microwave imaging spectrometer for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the security of people and critical infrastructures is of increasing interest. Passive microwave sensors in the range of 1 - 100 GHz are suitable for the detection of concealed objects and wide-area surveillance through poor weather and at day and night time. The enhanced extraction of significant information about an observed object is enabled by the use of a spectral sensitive system. For such a spectral radiometer in the microwave range also some depth information can be extracted. The usable frequency range is thereby dependent on the application. For through-wall imaging or detection of covert objects such as for example landmines, the lower microwave range is best suited. On the other hand a high spatial resolution requires higher frequencies or instruments with larger physical dimensions. The drawback of a large system is the required movement of a mirror or a deflecting plate in the case of a mechanical scanner system, or a huge amount of receivers in a fully-electronic instrument like a focal plane array. An innovative technique to overcome these problems is the application of aperture synthesis using a highly thinned array. The combination of spectral radiometric measurements within a wide frequency band, at a high resolution, and requiring a minimum of receivers and only minor moving parts led to the development of the ANSAS instrument (Abbildendes Niederfrequenz-Spektrometer mit Apertursynthese). ANSAS is a very flexible aperture synthesis technology demonstrator for the analysis of main features and interactions concerning high spatial resolution and spectral sensing within a wide frequency range. It consists of a rotated linear thinned array and thus the spatial frequency spectrum is measured on concentric circles. Hence the number of receivers and correlators is reduced considerably compared to a fully two-dimensional array, and measurements still can be done in a reasonable time. In this paper the basic idea of ANSAS and its setup are briefly introduced. Some first imaging results showing the basic capabilities are illustrated. Possible error sources and their impacts are discussed by simulation and compared to the measured data.

Jirousek, Matthias; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

2010-04-01

115

Process detection in homeland security and defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process detection is a fundamental problem arising in a variety of homeland security, national defense and commercial applications, including network security, sensor network data fusion, dynamic social network analysis and video tracking of kinematic objects. Our approach to process detection is based on a generic algorithmic approach called Process Query Systems which has been developed at Dartmouth over the past 3 years. This paper surveys the general area of process detection, its applications and recent progress made in various implementations.

Cybenko, George; Berk, Vincent

2006-06-01

116

Neutron Detection Alternatives to 3He for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Large radiation detection systems deployed for homeland security and proliferation detection applications use such systems. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security and basic research, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This has led to the search for an alternative technology to replace the use of 3He-based neutron detectors. In this paper, we review the testing of currently commercially available alternative technologies for neutron detection in large systems used in various national security applications.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Stromswold, David C.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-11-21

117

20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section...611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General...

2013-04-01

118

Macroeconomic Influences on Social Security Disability Insurance Application Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) Program application rates are influenced by the macro economy. DI program data and previous research indicate that a disproportionate number of beneficiaries (past applicants) are less-educated, with low-skill employment histories. These applicants, while they worked, were likely to intertemporally shift their durables consumption expenditures in response to tight budget constraints

Dana A. Kerr; Bert J. Smoluk

2011-01-01

119

Impact of plugins on the security of web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many web applications have evolved into complex software ecosystems, consisting of a core maintained by a set of long term developers and a range of plugins developed by third parties. The security of such applications depends as much on vulnerabilities found in plugins as it does in vulnerabilities in the application core. In this paper, we present a study of

James Walden; Maureen Doyle; Rob Lenhof; John Murray; Andrew Plunkett

2010-01-01

120

Rising Tides and Retirement: The Aggregate and Distributional Effects of Differential Wage Growth on Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent growth in wage inequality has important implications for Social Security solvency and the distribution of benefits. Because only earnings below the taxable maximum are subject to Social Security payroll taxes, wage growth that is concentrated among very high earners will generate lower tax receipts than wage growth that is more evenly distributed. The progressivity of the Social Security benefit

Melissa M. Favreault

2009-01-01

121

Anomaly Detection with Sensor Data for Distributed Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in incorporating sensing systems\\u000a\\u0009into objects or the environment for monitoring purposes. In this\\u000a\\u0009work we compare approaches to performing fully-distributed anomaly\\u000a\\u0009detection as a means of detecting security threats for objects equipped\\u000a\\u0009with sensing and communication abilities. With the desirability of\\u000a\\u0009increased visibility into the cargo in the transport chain and the\\u000a\\u0009goal of

Brian Quanz; Hongliang Fei; Jun Huan; Joseph Evans; Victor Frost; Gary Minden; Daniel Deavours; Leon Searl; Daniel T. Fokum; Martin Kuehnhausen; Matt Zeets; Angela Oguna

2009-01-01

122

Incompleteness and limit of security theory of quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is claimed in the many papers that a trace distance: d guarantees the universal composition security in quantum key distribution (QKD) like BB84 protocol. In this introduction paper, at first, it is explicitly explained what is the main misconception in the claim of the unconditional security for QKD theory. In general terms, the cause of the misunderstanding on the security claim is the Lemma in the paper of Renner. It suggests that the generation of the perfect random key is assured by the probability (1-d), and its failure probability is d. Thus, it concludes that the generated key provides the perfect random key sequence when the protocol is success. So the QKD provides perfect secrecy to the one time pad. This is the reason for the composition claim. However, the quantity of the trace distance (or variational distance) is not the probability for such an event. If d is not small enough, always the generated key sequence is not uniform. Now one needs the reconstruction of the evaluation of the trace distance if one wants to use it. One should first go back to the indistinguishability theory in the computational complexity based, and to clarify the meaning of the value of the variational distance. In addition, the same analysis for the information theoretic case is necessary. The recent serial papers by H.P.Yuen have given the answer on such questions. In this paper, we show more concise description of Yuen's theory, and clarify that the upper bound theories for the trace distance by Tomamichel et al and Hayashi et al are constructed by the wrong reasoning of Renner and it is unsuitable as the security analysis. Finally, we introduce a new macroscopic quantum communication to replace Q-bit QKD.

Hirota, Osamu; Murakami, Dan; Kato, Kentaro; Futami, Fumio

2012-10-01

123

7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers...existing secured debtâdistribution and power supply borrowers...will be reviewed by RUS under normal review procedures for these...either advance approval or normal review, a lien...

2013-01-01

124

Application of technology to aviation security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that the air transport industry may have failed to maximize the security benefits available through ‘high?tech’ developments despite its dependence on technological advances in all other areas of its operations. It highlights passenger and baggage reconciliation as the ‘bedrock of any defence against the baggage bomber’ and cites the introduction of computer?based, automated matching programmes at Frankfurt's

Rodney Wallis

1993-01-01

125

A Software Architecture for Automatic Security Policy Enforcement in Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies, which are widely deployed in networking services (e.g., management, QoS, mobility, etc.), are a promising solution for securing wide distributed systems. However, the adoption of a policy-based approach for security requires an appropriate policy specification and enforcement tools. In fact, A long-standing problem in distributed systems security is how to specify and enforce correctly security policies. In this paper,

Hédi Hamdi; Adel Bouhoula; Mohamed Mosbah

2007-01-01

126

Improvement of fuzzy vault scheme for securing key distribution in body sensor network.  

PubMed

The security of Body Sensor Network (BSN) has become a vital concern, as the massive development of BSN applications in healthcare. A family of biometrics based security methods has been proposed in the last several years, where the bio-information derived from physiological signals is used as entity identifiers (EIs) for multiple security purposes, including node recognition and keying material protection. Among them, a method named as Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA) was proposed to use frequency-domain information of physiological signals together with Fuzzy Vault scheme to secure key distribution in BSN. In this study, the PSKA scheme was firstly analyzed and evaluated for its practical usage in terms of fuzzy performance, the result of which indicates that the scheme is not as good as claimed. An improved scheme with the deployment of Fuzzy Vault and error correcting coding was then proposed, followed by simulation analysis. The results indicate that the improved scheme is able to improve the performance of Fuzzy Vault and thus the success rate of authentication or key distribution between genuine nodes of a BSN. PMID:22255109

Cao, Cun-Zhang; He, Chen-Guang; Bao, Shu-Di; Li, Ye

2011-01-01

127

17 CFR 240.15Ca2-1 - Application for registration as a government securities broker or government securities dealer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Application for registration as a government securities broker or government securities dealer. 240.15Ca2-1 Section...Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Registration of Government Securities Brokers and Government...

2013-04-01

128

Securing web application code by static analysis and runtime protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security remains a major roadblock to universal acceptance of the Web for many kinds of transactions, especially since the recent sharp increase in remotely exploitable vulnerabilities have been attributed to Web application bugs. Many verification tools are discovering previously unknown vulnerabilities in legacy C programs, raising hopes that the same success can be achieved with Web applications. In this paper,

Yao-Wen Huang; Fang Yu; Christian Hang; Chung-Hung Tsai; Der-Tsai Lee; Sy-Yen Kuo

2004-01-01

129

Collaborative knowledge discovery & marshalling for intelligence & security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the Knowledge Encapsulation Framework, a flexible, extensible evidence-marshalling environment built upon a natural language processing pipeline and exposed to users via an open-source semantic wiki. We focus our discussion on applications of the framework to intelligence and security applications, specifically, an instantiation of the KEF environment for researching illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.

Andrew J. Cowell; Russell S. Jensen; Michelle L. Gregory; Peter C. Ellis; Keith Fligg; Liam R. McGrath; Kelly O'Hara; Eric B. Bell

2010-01-01

130

Securing context-aware applications using environment roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future, a largely invisible and ubiquitous computing infrastructure will assist people with a variety of activities in the home and at work. The applications that will be deployed in such systems will create and manipulate private information and will provide access to a variety of other resources. Securing such applications is challenging for a number of reasons. Unlike

Michael J. Covington; Wende Long; Srividhya Srinivasan; Anind K. Dev; Mustaque Ahamad

2001-01-01

131

Social Security Disability Insurance: Applications, Awards, and Lifetime Income Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides new evidence about the impact of Social Security Disability Insurance on male labor force participation decisions based on estimates from a structural model of applications, awards, and state-contingent lifetime income flows. The lifetime framework makes it possible to consider long-term opportunity costs associated with early labor force withdrawal and the disincentive to applications resulting from the statutory

Brent Kreider

1999-01-01

132

Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto's law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around ??2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

2012-11-01

133

Intelligent maritime security system with sensor networks for coastal environmental and homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an innovative command and control system design and the use of low, cost distributed sensor networks for an intelligent maritime security system. This concept utilizes a network of small passive and active multi-phenomenological unattended sensors and shore based optical sensors to detect, classify, and track submerged threat objects approaching high value coastal assets, such as ports, harbors,

Edward M. Carapezza; Ann Bucklin

2007-01-01

134

The Saga Security System: A Security Architecture for Open Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper we present an overview of Saga Security System,a security architectureinopen distributedsystems. An agent in Saga Security System is called a Saga Agent. The authorization model in Saga Security System (Saga authorization model)supportsthenovelconceptofa service path and provides uniform and flexible protection appro- priate for advanced computational models such as object- oriented systems and cooperative agent systems. With re-

Masakazu Soshi; Mamoru Maekawa

1997-01-01

135

Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the security challenges that face the virtual institute and the characteristics of the standards that must be employed. Section Four contains our proposal for documentation of the cybersecurity standards. Section Five contains the conclusion and suggestions for further work.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2008-03-01

136

Integrated Network Security Protocol Layer for Open-Access Power Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power distribution system cyber-security concerns are increasing rapidly with growing demands for open accesses to the distribution systems for electricity generation and trading imposed by new government deregulations. This paper proposes a new integrated network security protocol layer, located below the data-link layer of DNP3 - a popular utility protocol, to enhance the data transmission cyber-security for power distribution systems.

Todd Mander; Farhad Nabhani; Lin Wang; Richard Cheung

2007-01-01

137

Social applications: exploring a more secure framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online social network sites, such as MySpace, Facebook and others have grown rapidly, with hundreds of millions of active users. A new feature on many sites is social applications - applications and services written by third party developers that provide additional functionality linked to a user's profile. However, current application platforms put users at risk by permitting the disclosure of

Andrew Besmer; Heather Richter Lipford; Mohamed Shehab; Gorrell Cheek

2009-01-01

138

D-DOG: Securing Sensitive Data in Distributed Storage Space by Data Division and Out-Of-Order Keystream Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrating from server-attached storage to distributed storage brings new vulnerabilities in creating a secure data storage and access facility. Particularly it is a challenge on top of insecure networks or unreliable storage service providers. For example, in applications such as cloud computing where data storage is transparent to the owner. It is even harder to protect the data stored in

Jun Feng; Yu Chen; Wei-Shinn Ku; Zhou Su

2010-01-01

139

Application of homomorphism to secure image sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new approach for sharing images between l players by exploiting the additive and multiplicative homomorphic properties of two well-known public key cryptosystems, i.e. RSA and Paillier. Contrary to the traditional schemes, the proposed approach employs secret sharing in a way that limits the influence of the dealer over the protocol and allows each player to participate with the help of his key-image. With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own key-image using the dealer's public key. The dealer encrypts the secret-to-be-shared image with the same public key and then, the l encrypted key-images plus the encrypted to-be shared image are multiplied homomorphically to get another encrypted image. After this step, the dealer can safely get a scrambled image which corresponds to the addition or multiplication of the l + 1 original images (l key-images plus the secret image) because of the additive homomorphic property of the Paillier algorithm or multiplicative homomorphic property of the RSA algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need to use keys and the dealer has no role. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own key-image with no specific order from the scrambled image. Thus, the proposed approach provides an opportunity to use operators like multiplication on encrypted images for the development of a secure privacy preserving protocol in the image domain. We show that it is still possible to extract a visible version of the secret image with only l-1 key-images (when one key-image is missing) or when the l key-images used for the extraction are different from the l original key-images due to a lossy compression for example. Experimental results and security analysis verify and prove that the proposed approach is secure from cryptographic viewpoint.

Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Hayat, Khizar; Brouzet, Robert

2011-09-01

140

System for efficient and secure distribution of medical images on the Internet.  

PubMed

Because of the high compressibility of the medical images, data compression is desirable for digital storage despite the availability of inexpensive hardware for mass storage. A progressive transmission algorithm with automatic security filtering features for on-line medical image distribution using Daubechies' wavelets has been developed and is discussed in this paper. The system is practical for real-world applications, processing and coding each 12-bit image of size 512 x 512 within 2 seconds on a Pentium Pro. Besides its exceptional speed, the security filter has demonstrated a remarkable accuracy in detecting sensitive textual information within current or digitized previous medical images. The algorithm is of linear run time. PMID:9929350

Wang, J Z; Wiederhold, G

1998-01-01

141

Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2010-08-10

142

Blue versus Red: Towards a Model of Distributed Security Attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a two-sided multiplayer model of security in which attackers aim to deny service and defenders strategize to secure their assets. Attackers benefit from the successful compromise of target systems, however, may suffer penalties for increased attack activities. Defenders weigh the force of an attack against the cost of security. We consider security decision-making in tightly and loosely coupled networks and allow defense expenditures in protection and self-insurance technologies.

Fultz, Neal; Grossklags, Jens

143

Using Distributed Source Coding to Secure Fingerprint Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method to encode fingerprint biometrics securely for use, e.g., in encryption or access control. The system is secure because the stored data does not suffice to recreate the original fingerprint biometric. Therefore, a breach in database security does not lead to the loss of biometric data. At the same time the stored data suffices to validate a

Stark Draper; Ashish Khisti; Emin Martinian; Anthony Vetro; Jonathan Yedidia

2007-01-01

144

Security of Distributed, Ubiquitous, and Embedded Computing Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

As embedded computer systems continue to explode in number and capability, security and privacy challenges abound. We review desirable security properties and the design constraints posed by these systems that make security difficult. We summarize current research by focusing on solutions for ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, and RFID tags as representative of the design space. State of the

Anthony D. Wood; John A. Stankovic

145

Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Prac...

1993-01-01

146

Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System  

SciTech Connect

AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

2005-06-29

147

AN INTEGRATED WORKFLOW FOR LIDAR \\/ OPTICAL DATA MAPPING FOR SECURITY APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elucidates the potential of LiDAR data for information generation for security applications. The study is embedded in the EU Network of Excellence GMOSS. General, security applications cover a large area from infrastructure monitoring (e.g. power stations, pipelines) or border monitoring to less tangible threats like terrorism and civil security \\/ homeland security. It is demonstrated that for those

Dirk Tiede; Thomas Blaschke

148

Custom electronic nose with potential homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed in this work is the design and development of a handheld electronic nose nose with an array of conducting polymer composite film sensors interfaced to a Compaq iPAQ. The device has potential applications in homeland security, such as screening people packages, luggage and vehicles at key locations such as airports or government buildings, for the prevention of terrorist attacks.

K. I. Arshak; C. Cunniffe; E. G. Moore; L. M. Cavanagh

2006-01-01

149

Current seismic sensor issues for defense and security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic footstep detection-based systems are very important for various homeland security and military applications. Their performance and usefulness strongly depends on the characteristics of the seismic sensors. Unfortunately, currently available seismic sensors do not provide in satisfactory results. This paper describes the main issues of using seismic sensors for detection purposes and shows the key disadvantages of the most popular

Alex Pakhomov; Al Sicignano; Matt Sandy; Tim Goldburt

2004-01-01

150

Secure Deployment of Applications to Fielded Devices and Smart Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a process of deploying applications se- curely to flelded devices with smart cards whilst taking into consider- ation the possibility that the client device could be malicious. Advan- tages of the proposed process include; caching functionality upon the device, optimal use of resources, employment of nested security contexts whilst addressing flelded infrastructures and a homogeneous solution. This

William G. Sirett; John A. Macdonald; Keith Mayes; Constantinos Markantonakis

2006-01-01

151

Secure Storage for Physically Exposed Web and Application Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web and application servers nowadays often provide authorized users access to large amounts of sensitive data and services. These data and services need to be protected against unauthorized access. Thus, a lot of effort has been put into securing remote data access and network communication. However, attackers may get direct access to the data stored on the physical media, e.g.,

Tim Schattkowsky; Alexander Förster; Christoph Loeser

2006-01-01

152

Gate-level characterization: foundations and hardware security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gate-level characterization (GLC) is the process of characterizing each gate of an integrated circuit (IC) in terms of its physical and manifestation properties. It is a key step in the IC applications regarding cryptography, security, and digital rights management. However, GLC is challenging due to the existence of manufacturing variability (MV) and the strong correlations among some gates in the

Sheng Wei; Saro Meguerdichian; Miodrag Potkonjak

2010-01-01

153

SMART sensors for homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

New SMART approaches to fast, high sensitivity, high selectivity, low false indication, self communicating, distributed sensor networks for detection of chemical, biological and radiation threats are being developed at PNNL. These new sensors have their roots in clever combinations of high affinity ligands, self assembled monolayers, shape-specific receptor surfaces, mesoporous superstructures, rapidly fabricated single-chain antibodies, stabilized enzyme reactors and manipulated

Michael A. Lind; Bob W. Wright

2004-01-01

154

17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution...COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution...receipt of the order to purchase by the insurance company sponsoring the separate...

2013-04-01

155

Indirect taxes and social policy: distributional impact of alternative financing of social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of indirect taxes in social policy is investigated by 1) comparing the distributional pattern of indirect taxes with the one of personal income taxes and social security contributions; 2) calculating the indirect tax liabilities for recipients of social benefits; 3) assessing the distributional impact of shifting the financing of social security from contributions to indirect taxes. For this

André Decoster; Kris De Swerdt; Gerlinde Verbist

2007-01-01

156

Efficient key distribution schemes for secure media delivery in pay-TV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide secure media delivery in pay-TV systems, a large number of messages are exchanged for key updates in the conventional key distribution schemes. This is inefficient and costly when the client side (set-top box) uses a smart card with limited computing power. In this paper, we present three key distribution schemes for channel protection and secure media de- livery

Yu-lun Huang; Shiuh-pyng Shieh; Fu-shen Ho; Jian-chyuan Wang

2004-01-01

157

Nanomaterials and their application to defense and homeland security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical issue to homeland security and defense is the development of broad range collectors and detectors of weapons of mass destruction. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are increasingly important in the area of such separation and detection. This article presents an overview of the research at the Forensic Science Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop nanostructured materials for applications to forensics and homeland security. Among the many types of nanomaterials reviewed are silica-based materials, molecular imprinted polymers, and silicon platforms. The main aim of the article is to optimize these new classes of materials for the collection concentration and detection of chemical weapons or other related compounds.

Reynolds, John G.; Hart, Bradley R.

2004-01-01

158

Higher Dependability and Security for Mobile Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we are concerned with the detection software faults and tampering of the mobile application as well as the\\u000a mobile device theft. We want to disable mobile device cryptographically once either of these problems are detected. Basically\\u000a the device needs to receive a new cryptographic key after each pre-set period of time in order to continue function. The

Hongxia Jin

2006-01-01

159

78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...an Application for Registration as a National Securities Exchange (``Form 1...Application.\\6\\ Topaz Exchange submitted a detailed response to comments on July...

2013-08-01

160

Noble Gas Excimer Detectors for Security and Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

Noble gas excimer detectors are a technology that is common in particle physics research and less common in applications for security and international safeguards. These detectors offer the capability to detect gammas with an energy resolution similar to NaI and to detect neutrons with good energy resolution as well. Depending on the noble gas selected and whether or not it is in a gaseous or liquid state, the sensitivity to gammas and neutrons can be tuned according to the needs of the application. All of this flexibility can be available at a significant cost saving over alternative technologies. This paper will review this detector technology and its applicability to security and safeguards.

Hynes, Michael V.; Lanza, Richard [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chandra, Rico; Davatz, Giovanna [Arktis Radiation Detectors, Zurich, CH (Switzerland)

2011-12-13

161

Noble Gas Excimer Detectors for Security and Safeguards Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas excimer detectors are a technology that is common in particle physics research and less common in applications for security and international safeguards. These detectors offer the capability to detect gammas with an energy resolution similar to NaI and to detect neutrons with good energy resolution as well. Depending on the noble gas selected and whether or not it is in a gaseous or liquid state, the sensitivity to gammas and neutrons can be tuned according to the needs of the application. All of this flexibility can be available at a significant cost saving over alternative technologies. This paper will review this detector technology and its applicability to security and safeguards.

Hynes, Michael V.; Chandra, Rico; Davatz, Giovanna; Lanza, Richard

2011-12-01

162

A Containment-Based Security Model for Cycle-Stealing P2P Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

P2P networks and the computations they enable hold great potential in creating the next generation of large-scale distributed applications. However, the P2P phenomenon has largely left untouched large organizations and businesses that have stringent security requirements and are uncomfortable with the anonymity and lack of centralized control\\/censorship which are the features of P2P systems. Hence, there is an urgent need

Ankur Gupta; Lalit K. Awasthi

2010-01-01

163

ADDE: Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise (ADDE) project, a methodological set that supports the design of distributed business processes and information and communication technologies. Discusses principles behind ADDE, guidance on definition and planning of application development, guidance on distributed application

Franckson, Marcel; Hall, John; Helmerich, Alfred; Canadas, Rafael; Dehn, Martin

1998-01-01

164

A Security Architecture for Mobile Agent Based Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a security architecture for mobile agent based systems. It defines the notion of a security-enhanced agent and outlines security management components in agent platform bases and considers secure migration of agents from one base to another. The security enhanced agent carries a passport that contains its security credentials and some related security code. Then we describe how

V. Varadharajan; D. Foster

2003-01-01

165

Portable Resource Control in Java: Application to Mobile Agent Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of denial-of-service attacks is indispensable for distributed agent sys- tems to execute securely. To implement the required defense mechanisms, it is necessary to have support for resource control, i.e., accounting and limiting the consumption of resources like CPU, memory, and threads. Java is the predominant implementation language for mobile agent systems, even though resource control is a missing feature

Walter Binder; Jarle Hulaas; Alex Villazón

2001-01-01

166

Security analysis of an untrusted source for quantum key distribution: passive approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a passive approach to the security analysis of quantum key distribution (QKD) with an untrusted source. A complete proof of its unconditional security is also presented. This scheme has significant advantages in real-life implementations as it does not require fast optical switching or a quantum random number generator. The essential idea is to use a beam splitter to split each input pulse. We show that we can characterize the source using a cross-estimate technique without active routing of each pulse. We have derived analytical expressions for the passive estimation scheme. Moreover, using simulations, we have considered four real-life imperfections: additional loss introduced by the 'plug&play' structure, inefficiency of the intensity monitor noise of the intensity monitor, and statistical fluctuation introduced by finite data size. Our simulation results show that the passive estimate of an untrusted source remains useful in practice, despite these four imperfections. Also, we have performed preliminary experiments, confirming the utility of our proposal in real-life applications. Our proposal makes it possible to implement the 'plug&play' QKD with the security guaranteed, while keeping the implementation practical.

Zhao, Yi; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Qian, Li

2010-02-01

167

Multilevel Security Assessment for the Distributed Mission Operations Network (DMON)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical and policy issues, architectural considerations, ongoing assessment results, and plans for Distributed Mission Operations Network (DMON) multi-level security (MLS) implementation. In this paper, the Combat Air Force (CAF) Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) Operations and Integration (O&I) team builds on previous Combat Air Force Distributed Mission Operations Multi-Level Security feasibility research and recommendations. Combat Air Force

Bonnie Danner; Tony Valle

168

A Secure User Interface for Web Applications Running Under an Untrusted Operating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many security-critical web applications, such as online banking and e-commerce, require a secure communication path between the user and a remote server. Securing this endto- end path is challenging and can be broken down into several segments. The network part between the user's machine and the server is usually well protected, using secure communication protocols, such as the Transport Layer

Chunxiao Li; Anand Raghunathan; Niraj K. Jha

2010-01-01

169

Privacy and security requirements of distributed computer based patient records.  

PubMed

Privacy and security issues increase in complexity as we move from the conventional patient record to the computer based patient record (CPR) supporting patient care and to cross-institutional networked CPRs. The privacy and security issues surrounding the CPR are outlined. Measures for privacy and security protection are summarized. It is suggested that we lack a key component of an information sharing culture. We need means for semantic indexing in the form of a metadata base at the level of the instantiation of a data base rather than at the level of its schemas. PMID:8188423

Moehr, J R

1994-02-01

170

The Secure DAES Design for Embedded System Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) has become one of the major symmetric encryption algorithms used in the embedded\\u000a system applications. Many researches extended use of the algorithm of AES for system security. In this paper, we propose a\\u000a diversified AES (DAES) to create more variations. In the architecture of the DAES, the diversity results from the modification\\u000a of the parameters

Ming-haw Jing; Jian-hong Chen; Zih-heng Chen; Yaotsu Chang

2007-01-01

171

Nanomaterials and their application to defense and homeland security  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical issue to homeland security and defense is the development of broad range collectors and detectors of weapons of\\u000a mass destruction. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are increasingly important in the area of such separation and detection.\\u000a This article presents an overview of the research at the Forensic Science Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory\\u000a to develop nanostructured materials for applications

John G. Reynolds; Bradley R. Hart

2004-01-01

172

A Wireless Sensor Network Architecture for Homeland Security Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an innovative wireless sensor network architecture, which has intrinsic reliability and can therefore\\u000a be used for some components of homeland security applications such as intrusion detection. The proposed architecture includes\\u000a a set of communication protocols in the different layers of the model. DTSN is a transport protocol used for reliable data\\u000a transfer and DSDV is a routing

António Grilo; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Peter Langendoerfer; Augusto Casaca

2009-01-01

173

NEUTRON AND GAMMA RAY DETECTION FOR BORDER SECURITY APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments in the U.S. and in a number of other countries by governments and international organizations. Most deployed radiation portal monitor systems are based on plastic scintillator for gamma-ray detection and 3He tubes for neutron detection. The approach to this homeland security application, and lessons learned, are discussed.

Kouzes, Richard T.

2010-05-21

174

Business Models and Business Model Innovation in a “Secure and Distributed Cloud Clustering (DISC) Society”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and innovation of business models to a secure distributed cloud clustering society (DISC)—is indeed still\\u000a a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. Numerous types of security technologies are in these years proposed\\u000a and in the “slip stream” of these the study of secure business models and how business models can be operated and innovated\\u000a in

Peter Lindgren; Yariv Taran

2011-01-01

175

Semantic information assurance for secure distributed knowledge management: a business process perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure knowledge management for eBusiness processes that span multiple organizations requires intraorganizational and interorganizational perspectives on security and access control issues. There is paucity in research on information assurance of distributed interorganizational eBusiness processes from a business process perspective. This paper presents a framework for secure semantic eBusiness processes integrating three streams of research, namely: 1) eBusiness processes; 2) information

Rahul Singh; Al Farooq Salam

2006-01-01

176

Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

177

Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile\\u000a networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh\\u000a look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security\\/efficiency analysis\\u000a to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach

Mike Meyerstein; Inhyok Cha; Yogendra Shah

2009-01-01

178

Open, flexible and portable secure web-based health applications.  

PubMed

This paper presents a totally generic client-server model for accessing legacy and new databases according to the three tier architecture principles. It is based on an integrated environment that eases the dynamic creation and instantiation of secure web applications that access multiple database management systems. Emphasis is placed on the ability to query almost any type of relational database and queries can simultaneously address a multitude of data sources. The information is collected, assembled and presented to users depending on a possible set of user profiles. These profiles originate from work on securing the conduct of clinical studies. This has been achieved in the context of the EU funded project HARP (Harmonisation for the Security of Web Technologies and Applications). The generic character of the model is exploited through an accompanying set of development tools. This permits efficient and effective creation and maintenance of applications in several domains of health telematics and beyond. Main merit is the lightweight character of the resulting platform, whereby all necessary instantiations are accomplished through a set of related XML documents. PMID:15061523

Vlachos, Michael; Stassinopoulos, George

2003-01-01

179

Improving Security in the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The arrival of high speed packet switched fiber optic LANs has allowed local area design architectures to be used for larger metropolitan area network (MAN) implementations. The current LAN security mechanisms used in larger and faster fiber optic LANs an...

B. E. Jones

1992-01-01

180

26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...amount treated as money â(1) Aggregation...distribution of money under section...is listed on a national securities exchange...time. (3) Interests in an entity...marketable securities, money, or both only if 90 percent or more of the assets...regard to any debt that may...

2013-04-01

181

An Authentication Technique Based on Distributed Security Management for the Global Mobility Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an authentication technique for use in the global mobility network (GLOMONET), which provides a personal communication user with global roaming service. This technique is based on new distributed security management, where authentication management in roaming-service provision is conducted only by the roamed network (the visited network). The original security manager (OSM) administrates the original authentication key (OAK)

Shigefusa Suzuki; Kazuhiko Nakada

1997-01-01

182

Towards Energy-Efficient Secure Communications Using Biometric Key Distribution in Wireless Biomedical Healthcare Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for the realtime biomedical healthcare system, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the crucial constraints of low power in the sensors, traditional security mechanisms and key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. In this paper, we

Jinyang Shi; Kwok-Yan Lam; Ming Gu; Mingze Li; Siu-Leung Chung

2009-01-01

183

Customer Security Assessment in Distribution Networks With High Penetration of Wind Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel methodology is proposed for the customer security assessment with high penetration of wind power in modern distribution networks. The customer security is quantified through customer damage costs by operating wind farms without standing reserve, which causes an inadequate supply of power to meet loads at some operating conditions. Necessary reserve to mitigate intermittency of wind is quantified through

Dilan Jayaweera; Graeme Burt; James R. McDonald

2007-01-01

184

An Analysis of Ethics as Foundation of Information Security in Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security of distributed systems requires both technical and administrative foundations. Technical foundation is based on cryptographic measures and access control models, and is considerable well understood. Administrative foundation is based on several non- technical layers added on top of technical communication protocols. Several models for secure interconnection of information systems suggest common ethics to be the uppermost layer and base

Jussipekka Leiwo; Seppo Heikkuri

1998-01-01

185

Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

186

Security Applications of Diodes with Unique Current-Voltage Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diodes are among the most simple and inexpensive electric components. In this paper, we investigate how random diodes with irregular I(U) curves can be employed for crypto and security purposes. We show that such diodes can be used to build Strong Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs), Certificates of Authenticity (COAs), and Physically Obfuscated Keys (POKs), making them a broadly usable security tool. We detail how such diodes can be produced by an efficient and inexpensive method known as ALILE process. Furthermore, we present measurement data from real systems and discuss prototypical implementations. This includes the generation of helper data as well as efficient signature generation by elliptic curves and 2D barcode generation for the application of the diodes as COAs.

Rührmair, Ulrich; Jaeger, Christian; Hilgers, Christian; Algasinger, Michael; Csaba, György; Stutzmann, Martin

187

Intelligent Facial Recognition Systems: Technology advancements for security applications  

SciTech Connect

Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just credentials or badges) in a given sensitive area and provide full time personnel accountability. One approach desirable at Department of Energy facilities for access control and/or personnel identification is an Intelligent Facial Recognition System (IFRS) that is non-invasive to personnel. Automatic facial recognition does not require the active participation of the enrolled subjects, unlike most other biological measurement (biometric) systems (e.g., fingerprint, hand geometry, or eye retinal scan systems). It is this feature that makes an IFRS attractive for applications other than access control such as emergency evacuation verification, screening, and personnel tracking. This paper discusses current technology that shows promising results for DOE and other security applications. A survey of research and development in facial recognition identified several companies and universities that were interested and/or involved in the area. A few advanced prototype systems were also identified. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating facial recognition systems that are in the advanced prototype stage. The initial application for the evaluation is access control in a controlled environment with a constant background and with cooperative subjects. Further evaluations will be conducted in a less controlled environment, which may include a cluttered background and subjects that are not looking towards the camera. The outcome of the evaluations will help identify areas of facial recognition systems that need further development and will help to determine the effectiveness of the current systems for security applications.

Beer, C.L.

1993-07-01

188

8 CFR 1003.47 - Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to applications...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is subject to the conduct of identity, law enforcement, or security...has completed the appropriate identity, law enforcement, or security...consequences of filing under the Child Status Protection Act. ...application for relief for which identity, law...

2013-01-01

189

18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES...

2013-04-01

190

National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. Homeland Security Applications: Radiation Detection Instruments, April 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The laboratory accreditation program for Radiation Detection Instruments used in homeland security applications was established in 2006 in response to a request from the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directora...

B. A. Sandoval C. Brannon G. Gillerman L. Pibida M. Unterweger

2010-01-01

191

Distributed Object-Oriented Database Application Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to analyze and develop a distributed object-oriented database management system (DOODBMS) application to support parallel software development of the Parallel Algorithms and Applications Group (PAAG) at AFIT. By following the ...

H. F. Wu

1993-01-01

192

Boosting-based Distributed and Adaptive Security-Monitoring through Agent Collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Within agent systems, two entities, namely hosts and agents, subsist and require protection against potential malicious acts. The use of such agent systems to support the development of practical applications is limited primarily by the risks to which hosts in the system are subject to. This article introduces a distributed and adaptive security-monitoring framework to decrease such potential threats. The proposed framework is based on a modified version of the popular Boosting algorithm to classify malicious agents based on their execution patterns on current and prior hosts. Having implemented the framework for the Aglet platform, we herein present the results of our experiments showcasing the detection of agent entities in the system with intention deviating from that of their well-behaved counterparts.

Jean, Evens [Pennsylvania State University; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Hurson, Ali R. [Pennsylvania State University; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2007-01-01

193

The Generalized Security Framework  

SciTech Connect

The Generalized Security Framework (GSF) consists of a set of libraries, classes, and tools that provide developers with the ability to easily secure distributed applications and collaborative environments. The GSF uses and enhances the Generic Security Services API (GSSAPI) to provide authentication, authorization, data protection, delegation, and auditing. It currently works with either DCE or Kerberos as the underlying security mechanism, and it has been designed so support for PKI can be easily added in the future. DCE/Kerberos is a scaleable, mature, robust security infrastructure embraced and accredited throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) for a secure collaborative modeling and simulation environment. The goal of the GSF is to provide a common security foundation that can be applied and extended to create secure distributed applications, independent of the communications protocol. The GSF provides a number of extensions that embed GSF security in specific remote communication APIs, such as Java sockets and Java RMI. The extensions have been designed and implemented in such a manner as to require minimum changes to application code in order to move from an unsecure application to a secure application. The advantage of this approach is that security can be enforced reliably and consistently since very little is required of the application developer. In this paper, the authors describe the goals, design, and implementation of the Generalized Security Framework.

Richard J. Detry; Stephen D. Kleban; Patrick C. Moore

2001-06-01

194

Federated, secure trust networks for distributed healthcare IT services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent US regulations mandate the privacy and security of healthcare data at a level never previously contemplated. Our research group is developing a prototype healthcare IT system and medical data portal based upon a Web services approach. An authentication Web service manages trust levels, issues authorization tickets, and uses biometric devices to establish identity; an authorization Web service determines what

A. C. Weaver; A. M. Snyder; J. Van Dyke; J. Hu; X. Chen; T. Mulholland; A. Marshall

2003-01-01

195

Secure mobile code computing in distributed remote environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agent computing is an increasingly important paradigm which presents interesting new security challenges. Among these are the protection of host against malicious agents and protecting agents against hosts that execute agents. Especially of interest is the use of mobile agents in e-commerce settings, in which users release autonomous agents to roam around virtual stores and find desired products. In

Khaled E. A. Negm; Wael Adi

2004-01-01

196

Secure key distribution system based on quantum cryptography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secure transmission of cryptographic keys is demonstrated over a 10 km-long optical fibre channel using a technique called 'quantum cryptography'. Single-photon detector noise and nonideal modulator frequency response lead to error rates of approximately 6% in the transmitted keys that are corrected using publicly agreed key permutations and parity checks.

Townsend, P. D.

1994-05-01

197

Massachusetts and Energy Security: What One State is Doing to Enhance Security through Distributed Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 11, 2001, have indelibly marked requirements for a focus on energy generation and use strategies to protect public interests and manage emergency events. Security experts have concluded that current electrical systems could be vulnerable to conventional military, nuclear, and terror attacks. Disbursed, renewable and domestic supplies of fuels and electricity can be used to reduce these

Raphael Herz

2003-01-01

198

Passive millimeter-wave imaging for airborne and security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of its relatively short wavelength coupled with relatively high penetration of such things as fog, bad weather and clothing, millimeter-wave imaging provides a powerful tool for both airborne and security type applications. By using a passive approach such as that implemented here, it is possible to image through bad weather or detect concealed weapons and articles all without generating any form of radiation that might either help an enemey or raise health concerns. In this paper we will show imagery from our second generation state-of-the-art unit and discuss the technology involved.

Clark, Stuart E.; Lovberg, John A.; Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

2003-08-01

199

Image fusion technology for security and surveillance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image fusion technology offers a range of potential benefits to the security and surveillance community, including increased situational awareness and enhanced detection capabilities. This paper reports on how image fusion technology is being adapted from the military arena (in which it is generally found today) to provide a new and powerful asset in the fight against crime and terrorism. The combination of detection and tracking processing with image fusion is discussed and assessed. Finally, a number of specific examples are presented which include land, air, and sea applications.

Riley, Tom; Smith, Moira

2006-10-01

200

Distributed Applications for Collaborative Augmented Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the distributed architecture of the collaborative augmented reality system Studierstube. The system allows multiple users to experience a shared 3D workspace populated by multiple applications using see- through head mounted displays or other presentation media such as projection systems. The system design is based on a distributed shared scene graph that alleviates the application programmer from

Dieter Schmalstieg; Gerd Hesina

2002-01-01

201

Lightweight Task Graph Inference for Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent paradigm shifts in distributed computing such as the advent of cloud computing pose new challenges to the analysis of distributed executions. One important new characteristic is that the management staff of computing platforms and the developers of applications are separated by corporate boundaries. The net result is that once applications go wrong, the most readily available debugging aids for

Bin Xin; Patrick Th. Eugster; Xiangyu Zhang; Jinlin Yang

2010-01-01

202

Unconditionally secure key distribution in higher dimensions by depolarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a prepare-and-measure scheme using N -dimensional quantum particles as information carriers where N is a prime power. One of the key ingredients used to resist eavesdropping in this scheme is to depolarize all Pauli errors introduced to the quantum information carriers. Using the Shor-Preskill-type argument, we prove that this scheme is unconditionally secure against all attacks allowed

Hoi Fung Chau

2005-01-01

203

Distributed application development with Inferno  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed computing has taken on a new importance in order to meet the requirements of users demanding information “anytime, anywhere”. Inferno facilitates the creation and support of distributed services in the new and emerging world of network environments. These environments include a world of varied terminals, network hardware, and protocols. The Namespace is a critical Inferno concept that enables the

Ravi Sharma

1999-01-01

204

Distributed application development with Inferno  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed computing has taken a new importance in order to meet the requirements of users demanding information “anytime, anywhere.” Inferno facilitates the creation and s upport of distributed services in the new and emerging world of network environments. These environments include a world of varied terminals, network hardware, and protocols. The Namespace is a critical Inferno concept that enables the

Ravi Sharma

1999-01-01

205

Implementing geoportals: applications of distributed GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As GIS implementations mature and GIS use expands beyond the current core GIS com- munity the need to discover and disseminate GIS capabilities grows. The Internet and the age of distributed computing provide the technical framework on which distributed GIS is built. As key application of distributed GIS, geoportals provide a gateway to discover and access geographic Web services. Four

Michael G. Tait

2005-01-01

206

T3: Secure, Scalable, Distributed Data Movement and Remote System Control for Enterprise Level Cyber Security  

SciTech Connect

Enterprise level cyber security requires the deployment, operation, and monitoring of many sensors across geographically dispersed sites. Communicating with the sensors to gather data and control behavior is a challenging task when the number of sensors is rapidly growing. This paper describes the system requirements, design, and implementation of T3, the third generation of our transport software that performs this task. T3 relies on open source software and open Internet standards. Data is encoded in MIME format messages and transported via NNTP, which provides scalability. OpenSSL and public key cryptography are used to secure the data. Robustness and ease of development are increased by defining an internal cryptographic API, implemented by modules in C, Perl, and Python. We are currently using T3 in a production environment. It is freely available to download and use for other projects.

Thomas, Gregory S.; Nickless, William K.; Thiede, David R.; Gorton, Ian; Pitre, Bill J.; Christy, Jason E.; Faultersack, Elizabeth M.; Mauth, Jeffery A.

2009-07-20

207

Turning Application Security Inside Out: Security for Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented architectures (SOAs) have become mainstream in the past year due to their ability to provide business agility and flexibility through integration, productivity, and software reuse. The Web services framework enables composite applications that leverage service- oriented architecture (SOA) design practices, creating more cost-effective distributed architectures. As enterprises adopt SOA, they open their systems, enabling greater agility and easier integration.

Brent Carlson; Alan Himler

2005-01-01

208

Security applications of a remote electric-field sensor technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of electric field sensors developed at the University of Sussex is enabling an alternative to contact voltage and non-contact magnetic field measurements. We have demonstrated the capability of this technology in a number of areas including ECG through clothing, remote off-body ECG, through wall movement sensing and electric field imaging. Clearly, there are many applications for a generic sensor technology with this capability, including long term vital sign monitoring. The non-invasive nature of the measurement also makes these sensors ideal for man/machine and human/robot interfacing. In addition, there are obvious security and biometric possibilities since we can obtain physiological data remotely, without the knowledge of the subject. This is a clear advantage if such systems are to be used for evaluating the psychological state of a subject. In this paper we report the results obtained with a new version of the sensor which is capable of acquiring electrophysiological signals remotely in an open unshielded laboratory. We believe that this technology opens up a new area of remote biometrics which could have considerable implications for security applications. We have also demonstrated the ability of EPS to function in closely-packed one and two dimensional arrays for real-time imaging.

Prance, Robert J.; Harland, Christopher J.; Prance, Helen

2008-10-01

209

Application of Near-Space Passive Radar for Homeland Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To protect the homeland from terrorist attacks employing explosive devices, revolutionary advances across a wide range of technologies are required. Inspired by recent advances in near-space (defined as the region between 20 km and 100 km), this paper proposes a new passive radar system using opportunistic transmitter as an illuminator and near-space platform as a receiver. This concept differs substantially from current radars. This system can be operated as a passive bistatic or multistatic radar and hence largely immune to jamming. By placing the receiver in near-space platforms, many functions that are currently performed with satellites or airplanes could be performed much more cheaply and with much greater operational utility. These advantages make near-space passive attractive for a variety of applications, many of which fit well with the needs of homeland security. This paper details the role of near-space passive radar as sensor system that can support homeland security applications. The strengths and weakness of near-space passive radar, compared to current spaceborne and airborne radars, are detailed. The signal models and processing algorithms for near-space passive radar are provided. It is shown that the use of cost effective near-space platforms can provide the solutions that were previously thought to be out of reach to remote sensing and government customers.

Wang, Wenqin

2007-03-01

210

Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution  

SciTech Connect

By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.

Pawlowski, Marcin [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, PL-80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Brunner, Nicolas [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

211

Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being “device-independent.” Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.

Paw?owski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas

2011-07-01

212

Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.  

PubMed

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

2013-07-25

213

Game Theory for Security: Lessons Learned from Deployed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security at major locations of economic or political importance or transportation or other infrastructure is a key concern around the world, particularly given the threat of terrorism. Limited security resources prevent full security coverage at all times; instead, these limited resources must be deployed intelligently taking into account differences in priorities of targets requiring security coverage, the responses of the

M. Tambe

2010-01-01

214

Development and applications of diffractive optical security devices for banknotes and high value documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embossed holograms and othe rdiffractive optically variable devices are increasingly familiar security items on plastic cards, banknotes, securyt documetns and on branded gods and media to protect against counterfeit, protect copyright and to evidence tamper. This paper outlines some of the diffractive optical seuryt and printed security develoepd for this rapidly growing field and provides examles of some current security applications.

Drinkwater, John K.; Holmes, Brian W.; Jones, Keith A.

2000-04-01

215

Preventing Secure Web Applications Overload through Dynamic Resource Provisioning and Admission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overload control mechanisms such as admission control and connections differentiation have been proven effective for preventing overload of application servers running secure web applications. However, achieving optimal results in overload prevention is only possible when considering some kind of resource management in addition to these mechanisms. In this paper we propose an overload control strategy for secure web applications that

Jordi Guitart; David Carrera

216

Enforcing code security in database web applications using libraries and object models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries are commonly though as toolboxes offering reusable components and algorithms. In this paper, we show that a properly designed library can also be used to enforce security, and hence to help in the creation of robust and secure applications. As an illustration, we choose database web applications, because they are the kind of applications that suffers from the highest

Nicolas Juillerat

2007-01-01

217

Security Loop Agents for the Enterprise Applications based on Resource Description Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security loop-holes can cost a fortune to a large enterprise organization providing e-commerce services. Meanwhile, the enterprise applications have been applied widely to simplify and generate better performance in managing the business tasks. Most of these applications (Enterprise Applications) unable to provide a high level of security due to the new daily threats specially when malicious agents entered into agent

Ahmed Isam Khaleel; Ibraheem T. Nather; Adib M. Monzer Habbal

2011-01-01

218

Unconditional security proof of a deterministic quantum key distribution with a two-way quantum channel  

SciTech Connect

In a deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol with a two-way quantum channel, Bob sends a qubit to Alice who then encodes a key bit onto the qubit and sends it back to Bob. After measuring the returned qubit, Bob can obtain Alice's key bit immediately, without basis reconciliation. Since an eavesdropper may attack the qubits traveling on either the Bob-Alice channel or the Alice-Bob channel, the security analysis of DQKD protocol with a two-way quantum channel is complicated and its unconditional security has been controversial. This paper presents a security proof of a single-photon four-state DQKD protocol against general attacks.

Lu Hua [State Key Laboratory of Magnetics Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Fung, Chi-Hang Fred [Department of Physics and Center of Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Ma Xiongfeng [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Cai Qingyu [State Key Laboratory of Magnetics Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2011-10-15

219

New network cyber-security architecture for smart distribution system operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new network cyber-security architecture for smart (energy-efficient, environmental-friendly, cost-effective, etc.) power distribution system operations. The focus is on providing cyber-security for smart (time-of-use scheduling, smart metering, dispersed generation tracking, etc.) load-management devices that are networked for collaborative operations and accessible by utility staff and consumers. The proposed architecture utilizes DNP3 to produce protocols disjoint between DNP3

Todd Mander; Helen Cheung; Alexander Hamlyn; Lin Wang; Cungang Yang; Richard Cheung

2008-01-01

220

Secure Key Distribution Using Correlated Randomness in Lasers Driven by Common Random Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a secure key distribution scheme based on correlated physical randomness in remote optical scramblers driven by common random light. The security of the scheme depends on the practical difficulty of completely observing random optical phenomena. We describe a particular realization using the synchronization of semiconductor lasers injected with common light of randomly varying phase. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme over a distance of 120 km.

Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Jun; Davis, Peter; Harayama, Takahisa; Okumura, Haruka; Morikatsu, Shinichiro; Aida, Hiroki; Uchida, Atsushi

2012-02-01

221

The application research of airport security information management system on the field of civil aviation security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airport security information management system (ASIMS) has been playing very important role in preventing aircrafts from hijacking, terrorism attacks and other acts of unlawful interference. The system is designed to integrate a variety of security information of an airport into an organic body by analyzing and mining data collected form the security checkpoints and stored in central server database

Wu Wei

2009-01-01

222

Security Checkpoint Optimizer (SCO): An Application for Simulating the Operations of Airport Security Checkpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most security planners, a key challenge is to continuously evaluate how changes or additions to their facilities or procedures impact security effectiveness, operational costs, and passenger throughput. Each change must be analyzed to ensure negative effects do not outweigh the benefits. This paper presents security checkpoint optimizer (SCO), a 2-D spatially aware discrete event simulation tool developed by Northrop

D. Wilson; E. K. Roe; S. A. So

2006-01-01

223

Security Checkpoint Optimizer (SCO): an application for simulating the operations of airport security checkpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most security planners, a key challenge is to continu- ously evaluate how changes or additions to their facilities or procedures impact security effectiveness, operational costs, and passenger throughput. Each change must be analyzed to ensure negative effects do not outweigh the benefits. This paper presents Security Checkpoint Opti- mizer (SCO), a 2-D spatially aware discrete event simula- tion tool

Diane Wilson; Eric K. Roe; S. Annie So

2006-01-01

224

A Classification of Security Feedback Design Patterns for Interactive Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to design a user interface of a secure interactive application, a method is provided to designers with guidance in designing an adequate security information feedback using a library of user interface design patterns integrating security and usability. The resulting feedback is then evaluated against a set of design\\/evaluation criteria called Human-Computer Interaction for Security (HCI-S). In this way,

Jaime Muńoz-Arteaga; Ricardo Mendoza González; Jean Vanderdonckt

2008-01-01

225

A Practical Modelling Notation for Secure Distributed Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code computation has lead to a new paradigm of distributed computation. A mobile process can move from site to site and interact with the resources as a local pro- cess. To prevent the misuse resources, authentication and authorization need to be dealt with. Many modeling lan- guages have been proposed to model distributed computa- tion; Ambient Calculus (1) is

Yih-jiun Lee; Peter Henderson

2005-01-01

226

How to write application code even a security auditor could love  

SciTech Connect

In the past the application programmer was frequently isolated from the computer security professional. The target machine might have various access controls and security plans, but when the programmer delivered a new application, it was rarely scrutinized from a security standpoint. Security reviews of application code are now being used to overcome this apparent oversight, but these reviews are often hampered by a lack of knowledge among programmers of techniques that make code secure and facilitate security analysis of the code. This paper informally describes fifteen general principles for producing good code that is easily reviewed. This paper is not a formal guideline, but is intended as an inside view of how one reviewer looks at code from a security standpoint.

Barlich, G.L.

1989-01-01

227

Test of radiation detectors used in homeland security applications.  

PubMed

This work was performed as part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) program to support the development of the new American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards N42.32-2003 and N42.33-2003 for hand-held detectors, and personal electronic dosimeters, as well as to support the Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in testing these types of detectors for their use by first responders. These instruments are required to operate over a photon energy range of 60 keV to 1.33 MeV and over a wide range of air-kerma rates. The performance and response of various radiation detectors, purchased by the NIST, was recorded when placed in 60Co, 137Cs, and x-ray beams at different air-kerma rates. The measurements described in this report were performed at the NIST x-ray and gamma-ray radiation calibration facilities. The instruments' response (exposure or dose rate readings) shows strong energy dependence but almost no dependence to different air-kerma rates. The data here reported provide a benchmark in support of current protocols that are being developed for radiation detection instrumentation used in homeland security applications. A future plan is to test these devices, plus other commercially available detectors, against ANSI standards N42.32-2003 and N42.33-2003. PMID:15824588

Pibida, L; Minniti, R; O'Brien, M; Unterweger, M

2005-05-01

228

A Secure RFID-based WBAN for Healthcare Applications.  

PubMed

A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) allows the seamless integration of small and intelligent invasive or non-invasive sensor nodes in, on or around a human body for continuous health monitoring. These nodes are expected to use different power-efficient protocols in order to extend the WBAN lifetime. This paper highlights the power consumption and security issues of WBAN for healthcare applications. Numerous power saving mechanisms are discussed and a secure RFID-based protocol for WBAN is proposed. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed and compared with that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols using extensive simulations. It is shown that the proposed protocol is power-efficient and protects patients' data from adversaries. It is less vulnerable to different attacks compared to that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols. For a low traffic load and a single alkaline battery of capacity 2.6 Ah, the proposed protocol could extend the WBAN lifetime, when deployed on patients in hospitals or at homes, to approximately five years. PMID:24061704

Ullah, Sana; Alamri, Atif

2013-09-06

229

Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications.  

PubMed

New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers. PMID:23175590

Potyrailo, Radislav A; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R

2012-08-11

230

Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications  

PubMed Central

New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers.

Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.

2012-01-01

231

Verification of secure distributed systems in higher order logic: A modular approach using generic components  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a generalization of McCullough's restrictiveness model as the basis for proving security properties about distributed system designs. We mechanize this generalization and an event-based model of computer systems in the HOL (Higher Order Logic) system to prove the composability of the model and several other properties about the model. We then develop a set of generalized classes of system components and show for which families of user views they satisfied the model. Using these classes we develop a collection of general system components that are instantiations of one of these classes and show that the instantiations also satisfied the security property. We then conclude with a sample distributed secure system, based on the Rushby and Randell distributed system design and designed using our collection of components, and show how our mechanized verification system can be used to verify such designs. 16 refs., 20 figs.

Alves-Foss, J.; Levitt, K.

1991-01-01

232

Results of European projects improving security of distributed health information systems.  

PubMed

The challenge for improvement of quality and efficiency of health care systems causes the development and promotion of "Shared Care" in all developed countries. Distribution, decentralisation, and specialisation of health care must be joint with an extended communication and co-operation between the different care providers. Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, care supporting health information systems has to be distributed, interoperable, and scaleable too. Communication and co-operation across organisational, regional, and even national boundaries is bearing high threats and risks regarding security and privacy of medical and personal information of both patients and health professionals. Involved in several security projects funded by the European Union, the Medical Informatics Department and the regional Clinical Cancer Registry at the University of Magdeburg are piloting a secure regional distributed medical record system for cancer diseases. Requirements, solutions, and experiences are presented and discussed. PMID:10384633

Blobel, B; Pharow, P

1998-01-01

233

A Secure Protocol to Distribute Unlinkable Health Data  

PubMed Central

Health data that appears anonymous, such as DNA records, can be re-identified to named patients via location visit patterns, or trails. This is a realistic privacy concern which continues to exist because data holders do not collaborate prior to making disclosures. In this paper, we present STRANON, a novel computational protocol that enables data holders to work together to determine records that can be disclosed and satisfy a formal privacy protection model. STRANON incorporates a secure encrypted environment, so no data holder reveals information until the trails of disclosed records are provably unlinkable. We evaluate STRANON on real-world datasets with known susceptibilities and demonstrate data holders can release significant quantities of data with zero trail re-identifiability.

Malin, Bradley; Sweeney, Latanya

2005-01-01

234

Communication Security Architecture for Smart Distribution System Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a communication cybersecurity architecture for smart distribution system operations using distributed network protocol (DNP3). The focus is on providing cybersecurity for residential load-management devices that are networked for access by the utility and their consumers. The proposed architecture utilizes DNP3 to produce a disjoint protocol between strictly-regulated utility devices and devices accessible by the utility and consumers.

T. Mander; H. Cheung; A. Hamlyn; R. Cheung

2007-01-01

235

Distributed certification application via a trusted dealer.  

PubMed

Distributed certification via threshold cryptography is much more secure than other ways to protect certification authority (CA)'s private key, and can tolerate some intrusions. As the original system such as ITTC, etc., is unsafe, inefficient and impractical in actual network environment, this paper brings up a new distributed certification scheme, which although it generates key shares concentratively, it updates key shares distributedly, and so, avoids single-point failure like ITTC. It not only enhances robustness with Feldman verification and SSL protocol, but can also change the threshold (t, k) flexibly and robustly, and so, is much more practical. In this work, the authors implement the prototype system of the new scheme and test and analyze its performance. PMID:12958714

Liu, Duan-yang; Pan, Xue-zeng; Ping, Ling-di

236

Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.  

PubMed

Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

2011-12-22

237

Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

2012-01-01

238

JaDiMa: Java Applications Distributed Management on Grid Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes JaDiMa (Java Distributed Machine), a collaborative framework to construct high performance distributed Java applications on grid platforms. JaDiMa is a system that automatically manages remote libraries used in a Java application. It leverages on the advantages of portability, modularity, object oriented model and exi- bility of Java, while incorporating well known techniques of communi- cation and security.

Yudith Cardinale; Eduardo Blanco; Jesús De Oliveira

2006-01-01

239

Autonomous energy harvesting embedded sensors for border security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless networks of seismic sensors have proven to be a valuable tool for providing security forces with intrusion alerts even in densely forested areas. The cost of replenishing the power source is one of the primary obstacles preventing the widespread use of wireless sensors for passive barrier protection. This paper focuses on making use of energy from multiple sources to power these sensors. A system comprising of Texas Micropower's (TMP's) energy harvesting device and Crane Wireless Monitoring Solutions' sensor nodes is described. The energy harvesters are suitable for integration and for low cost, high volume production. The harvesters are used for powering sensors in Crane's wireless hub and spoke type sensor network. TMP's energy harvesting methodology is based on adaptive power management circuits that allow harvesting from multiple sources making them suitable for underground sensing/monitoring applications. The combined self-powered energy harvesting solutions are expected to be suitable for broad range of defense and industry applications. Preliminary results have indicated good feasibility to use a single power management solution that allows multi-source energy harvesting making such systems practical in remote sensing applications.

Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep; Falasco, James N.; Weiner, Doug

2010-04-01

240

Satellite services for disaster management and security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advantages of communications satellites are the inherent broadcast capability, high bandwidth, reliability and flexibility in network expansion. Small transportable terminals can be made operational very quickly. Recent developments in communications and computer technology allow to provide low-cost equipment, which is affordable even in developing countries. Communications satellites can also play an important role in case of emergencies or natural disasters. The combination of satellite communications and navigation can support new services for emergency teams. At the Institute of Applied Systems Technology and the Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communications highly transportable terminals have been developed, both for star and mesh network topologies. A fully meshed VSAT system is used for symmetrical links. For other applications, which do not require high return link capacity an asymmetrical system is an efficient solution. It uses low-cost DVB technology for the forward link and satellite phones with data capability on the return link. Novel multicast protocols allow to use these asymmetrical links in an efficient way. The paper describes the different systems and their applications in disaster management and security applications. Emphasis is put on transfer of remote sensing images and voice over IP (VoIP) as well as videoconference services.

Koudelka, Otto; Schrotter, P.

2007-06-01

241

The application of neural networks to UNIX computer security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer security can be divided into two distinct areas, preventive security and the detection of security violations. Of the two, a greater degree of research and emphasis has been applied to prevention, while detection has been relatively overlooked. This is a costly oversight as preventive measures are never infallible. To date the detection of intruder violation on computer systems is

Kymie Tan

1995-01-01

242

Secure protocol lifecycle and its application in power industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With advancing of communication technologies, various protocols have been designed, developed and widely deployed in modern industries, including power industry. And the security issues of these protocol systems which involve the security of national infrastructure have gained more and more concerns. Since protocols are not only communication services, but also evolving developing processes, security vulnerabilities could be introduced at the

Wen Tang; Aifen Sui

2008-01-01

243

Dynamic programming model estimates of Social Security Disability Insurance application timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a dynamic programming model of the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) application timing decision. We estimate the time to application from the point at which a health condition first begins to affect the kind or amount of work that a currently employed person can do. We use Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and restricted access Social Security

Richard V. Burkhauser; J. S. Butler; Gulcin Gumus

2004-01-01

244

Trade-off Analysis between Security Policies for Java Mobile Codes and Requirements for Java Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

† We propose a method for analyzing trade-off between security policies for Java mobile codes and requirements for Java application. We assume that mobile codes are downloaded from different sites, they are used in an application on a site, and their functions are restricted by security policies on the site. We clarify which functions can be performed under the policies

Haruhiko Kaiya; Kouta Sasaki; Yasunori Maebashi; Kenji Kaijiri

2003-01-01

245

Secure code distribution in dynamically programmable wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote reprogramming of in situ wireless sensor networks (WSNs) via the wireless link is an important capability. Se- curing the process of reprogramming allows each sensor node to authenticate each received code image. Due to the re- source constraints of WSNs, public key schemes must be used sparingly. This paper introduces a mechanism for se- cure and efficient code distribution

Jing Deng; Richard Han; Shivakant Mishra

2006-01-01

246

Securing coding based distributed storage in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of pollution attacks in coding based distributed storage systems proposed for wireless sensor networks. In a pollution attack, the adversary maliciously alters some of the stored encoded packets, which results in the incorrect decoding of a large part of the original data upon retrieval. We propose algorithms to detect and recover from such attacks. In contrast

Levente Buttyán; László Czap; István Vajda

2008-01-01

247

Cyber security strategy for future distributed energy delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy delivery systems in future manner will be referred to a modernization of delivery system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimize the operation of its interconnected elements. Its contain power generations, transmission network and user automation. It characterized by two way flow of electricity and information to create an automated distributed energy delivery system. From the viewing side of

Tinton Dwi Atmaja; Fitriana

2011-01-01

248

Analyzing the Feasibility of Using Secure Application Integration Methodology (SAIM) for Integrating DON Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thorough examination of the Secure Application Integration Methodology (SAIM) for applicability in the Department of the Navy (DON) would provide useful information about a beneficial methodology. SAIM is analyzed, by accessing its step by step directio...

R. O. Marin

2004-01-01

249

Intelligent maritime security system with sensor networks for coastal environmental and homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an innovative command and control system design and the use of low, cost distributed sensor networks for an intelligent maritime security system. This concept utilizes a network of small passive and active multi-phenomenological unattended sensors and shore based optical sensors to detect, classify, and track submerged threat objects approaching high value coastal assets, such as ports, harbors, residential, commercial, and military facilities and areas. The network of unattended, in-water sensors perform the initial detection, classification, and coarse tracking and then queues shore based optical laser radar sensors. These shore-based sensors perform a high resolution sector search to develop a precision track on the submerged threat objects. Potential threat objects include submarines, submerged barges, UUV's, swimmers carrying threat objects such as explosives, chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear materials. Reliable systems with low false alarm rates (FAR) are proposed. Tens to hundreds of low cost passive sensors are proposed to be deployed conjunctively with several active acoustic and optical sensors in threat and facility dependant patterns to maximize the detection, tracking and classification of submerged threat objects.

Carapezza, Edward M.; Bucklin, Ann

2007-10-01

250

Android Protection Mechanism: A Signed Code Security Mechanism for Smartphone Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research develops the Android Protection System (APS), a hardware-implemented application security mechanism on Android smartphones. APS uses a hash-based white-list approach to protect mobile devices from unapproved application execution. Functional...

J. Stueckle

2011-01-01

251

Dynamic, Context-Aware Access Control for Distributed Healthcare Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid worldwide deployment of the Internet and Web is the enabler of a new generation of e-healthcare applications, but the provision of a security architecture that can ensure the privacy and security of sensitive healthcare data is still an open question. Current solutions to this problem (mostly built on static RBAC models) are application-dependent and do not address the

Junzhe Hu; Alfred C. Weaver

252

Application-Oriented Confidentiality and Integrity Dynamic Union Security Model Based on MLS Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new security model based on MLS Policy to achieve a better security performance on confidentiality, integrity and availability. First, it realizes a combination of BLP model and Biba model through a two-dimensional independent adjustment of integrity and confidentiality. And, the subject's access range is adjusted dynamically according to the security label of related objects and the subject's access history. Second, the security level of the trusted subject is extended to writing and reading privilege range respectively, following the principle of least privilege. Third, it adjusts the objects' security levels after adding confidential information to prevent the information disclosure. Fourth, it uses application-oriented logic to protect specific applications to avoid the degradation of security levels. Thus, it can ensure certain applications operate smoothly. Lastly, examples are presented to show the effectiveness and usability of the proposed model.

Xue, Mingfu; Hu, Aiqun; He, Chunlong

253

DSF - A Distributed Security Framework for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have many applications that handle sensitive information such as surveillance, reconnaissance, and target tracking. Therefore, a WSN deployed in a hostile region should be resilient to attacks. The current approach to defending against malicious threats is to develop and deploy a specific defense mechanism for a specific attack. However, the problem with this traditional approach to

Himali Saxena; Chunyu Ai; Marco Valero; Yingshu Li; Raheem Beyah

2010-01-01

254

Secure dissemination of electronic healthcare records in distributed wireless environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new networking paradigm has emerged with the appearance of wireless computing. Among else ad-hoc networks, mobile and ubiquitous environments can boost the performance of systems in which they get applied. Among else, medical environments are a convenient example of their applicability. With the utilisation of wireless infrastructures, medical data may be accessible to healthcare practitioners, enabling continuous access to

Petros Belsis; Dimitris Vassis; Christos Skourlas; Grammati E. Pantziou

2008-01-01

255

Applications of shape analysis to domestic and international security.  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly growing area of cooperative international security calls for pervasive deployment of smart sensors that render valuable information and reduce operational costs and errors. Among the sensors used, vision sensors are by far the most versatile, tangible, and rich in the information they provide about their environment. On the flip side, they are also the most complex to analyze automatically for the extraction of high-level information. The ability to process imagery in a useful manner requires at least partial functional emulation of human capabilities of visual understanding. Of all visual cues available in image data, shape is perhaps the most important for understanding the content of an image. In this paper we present an overview of ongoing research at LANL on geometric shape analysis. The objective of our research is to develop a computational framework for multiscale characterization, analysis, and recognition of shapes. This framework will enable the development of a comprehensive and connected body of mathematical methods and algorithms, based on the topological, metrical, and morphological properties of shapes. We discuss its potential applications to automated surveillance, monitoring, container tracking and inspection, weapons dismantlement, and treaty verification. The framework will develop a geometric filtering scheme for extracting semantically salient shape features. This effort creates a paradigm for solving shape-related problems in Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision, and Image Understanding in a conceptually cohesive and algorithmically amenable manner. The research aims to develop an advanced image analysis capability at LANL for solving a wide range of problems in automated facility surveillance, nuclear materials monitoring, treaty verification, and container inspection and tracking. The research provides the scientific underpinnings that will enable us to build smart surveillance cameras, with a direct practical impact on LANL's capabilities in domestic and international safeguards and security.

Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A. N. (Alexei N.); Doak, J. E. (Justin E.)

2002-01-01

256

Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to customization to include radioactive waste management or responses to catastrophic releases of radioactive material due to terrorist actions. (authors)

Garrahan, K.G. [EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Collie, S.L. [Tetra Tech, 350 N. St. Paul, Suite 2600, Dallas TX 75201 (United States)

2006-07-01

257

Bacteriorhodopsin-based photochromic pigments for optical security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteriorhodopsin is a two-dimensional crystalline photochromic protein which is astonishingly stable towards chemical and thermal degradation. This is one of the reasons why this is one of the very few proteins which may be used as a biological pigment in printing inks. Variants of the naturally occurring bacteriorhodopsin have been developed which show a distinguished color change even with low light intensities and without the requirement of UV-light. Several pigments with different color changes are available right now. In addition to this visual detectable feature, the photochromism, the proteins amino acid sequence can be genetically altered in order to code and identify specific production lots. For advanced applications the data storage capability of bacteriorhodopsin will be useful. Write-once-read-many (WORM) recording of digital data is accomplished by laser excitation of printed bacteriorhodopsin inks. A density of 1 MBit per square inch is currently achieved. Several application examples for this biological molecule are described where low and high level features are used in combination. Bacteriorhodopsin-based inks are a new class of optical security pigments.

Hampp, Norbert A.; Fischer, Thorsten; Neebe, Martin

2002-04-01

258

Application of the JDL data fusion process model for cyber security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of cyber security technologies have proposed the use of data fusion to enhance the defensive capabilities of the network and aid in the development of situational awareness for the security analyst. While there have been advances in fusion technologies and the application of fusion in intrusion detection systems (IDSs), in particular, additional progress can be made by gaining a better understanding of a variety of data fusion processes and applying them to the cyber security application domain. This research explores the underlying processes identified in the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model and further describes them in a cyber security context.

Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

2010-04-01

259

Adaptively Secure Feldman VSS and Applications to Universally-Composable Threshold Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the first distributed discrete-log key generation (DLKG) protocol from scratch which is adaptively-secure in the non-erasure model, and at the same time completely avoids the use of interactive zero-knowledge proofs. As a consequence, the protocol can be proven secure in a universally-composable (UC) like framework which prohibits rewinding. We prove the security in what we call the single-inconsistent-player

Masayuki Abe; Serge Fehr

2004-01-01

260

76 FR 8755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-032 Official Passport Application and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--032 Official Passport Application and...Department of Homeland Security/ ALL--032 Official Passport Application and...Washington, DC 20528. Instructions: All submissions received must include the...

2011-02-15

261

Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

Technology & Learning, 2008

2008-01-01

262

Empirical distributional semantics: methods and biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Over the past 15 years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

2009-02-14

263

Defense and homeland security applications of multi-agent simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of Defense and Homeland Security analysts are increasingly using multi-agent simulation (MAS) to exam- ine national security issues. This paper summarizes three MAS national security studies conducted at the Naval Post- graduate School. The first example explores equipment and employment options for protecting critical infrastructure. The second case considers non-lethal weapons within the spectrum of force-protection options in a

Thomas W. Lucas; Susan M. Sanchez; Felix Martinez; Lisa R. Sickinger; Jonathan W. Roginski

2007-01-01

264

Overcoming Channel Bandwidth Constraints in Secure SIM Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an architecture based on a Java (J2SE, J2EE, J2ME and Java Card) platform supporting a secure channel from a Mobile Operator to the SIM card. This channel offers the possibility of end to end security for delivery of large data files to a GSM SIM card. Such a secure channel could be used for delivery

John A. Macdonald; William G. Sirett; Chris J. Mitchell

2005-01-01

265

Secure authentication protocol for Internet applications over CATV network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An authentication protocol is proposed in this paper to implement secure functions which include two way authentication and key management between end users and head-end. The protocol can protect transmission from frauds, attacks such as reply and wiretap. Location privacy is also achieved. A rest protocol is designed to restore the system once when systems fail. The security is verified by taking several security and privacy requirements into consideration.

Chin, Le-Pond

1998-02-01

266

Aggregating policies in user centric, real-time and distributed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Securing individual data objects using sticky policies in trusted networks is essential in user centric distributing computing applications. However aggregation of data objects presents a challenge in terms of sticky policy integrity for the new object. A possible solution is based on a mathematical merger of sticky polices associated with all aggregated data objects that respects all the individual policy

Thomas Kirkham; Ingo Dahn; David Chadwick; Marc Santos; Sandra Winfield

2009-01-01

267

Power system DNP3 data object security using data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system cyber security demand is escalating with the increased number of security incidents and the increased stakeholder participation in power system operations, specifically consumers. Rule-based cyber security is proposed for Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) outstation devices, with a focus on smart distribution system devices. The security utilizes the DNP3 application layer function codes and data objects to determine data

Todd Mander; Richard Cheung; Farhad Nabhani

2010-01-01

268

Applicability of Army Automation Security Guidance to Local Area Computer Network Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Combat Developments Experimentation Center (USACDEC) Directorate of Information Management (DIM), Fort Ord, is currently involved with several network implementations, all at various stages of development, and wants adequate network security...

J. D. Ayres

1987-01-01

269

SRS-Tool: A Security Functional Requirement Specification Development Tool for Application Information System of Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An application information system (IS) of public or private organization should be developed securely and cost-effectively\\u000a by using security engineering and software engineering technologies, as well as a security requirement specification (SRS).\\u000a We present a SRS-Process that is a development process for SRS of IS, and a SRS-Tool that is a development tool for SRS in\\u000a accordance with the SRS-Process.

Sang-soo Choi; Soo-young Chae; Gang-soo Lee

2005-01-01

270

The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

271

Improving Performance of Cluster-based Secure Application Servers with User-level Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-art cluster-based data centers consisting of three tiers (web server, application server and database server) are being used to host complex Web services such as e-commerce applications. The application server handles dynamic and sen- sitive Web contents that need protection from eavesdropping, tampering and forgery. Although the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is the most popular protocol to provide a secure

Jin-ha Kim; Gyu Sang Choi; Chita R. Das

2005-01-01

272

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers rapid, localized chemical analysis of solid or liquid materials with high spatial resolution in lateral and depth profiling, without the need for sample preparation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares algorithms were applied to identify a variety of complex organic and inorganic samples. This work illustrates how LIBS analyzers can answer a multitude of real-world needs for rapid analysis, such as determination of lead in paint and children's toys, analysis of electronic and solder materials, quality control of fiberglass panels, discrimination of coffee beans from different vendors, and identification of generic versus brand-name drugs. Lateral and depth profiling was performed on children's toys and paint layers. Traditional one-element calibration or multivariate chemometric procedures were applied for elemental quantification, from single laser shot determination of metal traces at {approx}10 {mu}g/g to determination of halogens at 90 {mu}g/g using 50-shot spectral accumulation. The effectiveness of LIBS for security applications was demonstrated in the field by testing the 50-m standoff LIBS rasterizing detector.

Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Yoo, Jong H.; Liu Chunyi; Plumer, John R.; Russo, Richard E.

2010-05-01

273

Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication vulnerability for security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

RF toxicity and Information Warfare (IW) are becoming omnipresent posing threats to the protection of nuclear assets, and within theatres of hostility or combat where tactical operation of wireless communication without detection and interception is important and sometimes critical for survival. As a result, a requirement for deployment of many security systems is a highly secure wireless technology manifesting stealth

Cooley; H. Timothy

2010-01-01

274

Secure positioning of wireless devices with application to sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, the problem of positioning in wireless net- works has been mainly studied in a non-adversarial setting. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure

Srdjan Capkun; Jean-pierre Hubaux

2005-01-01

275

Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk

K. G. Garrahan; S. L. Collie

2006-01-01

276

Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following

William R. Tribe; David A. Newnham; Philip F. Taday; Michael C. Kemp

2004-01-01

277

Applications, Denials, and Appeals for Social Security Disability Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project explores the process by which older workers apply for, and are awarded, Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits. Our focus is on how and whether DI serves as a path out of the labor market at older ages. This research is important to the extent that proposals to raise the early retirement age under Social Security alter the

Olivia S. Mitchell; John W. R. Phillips

2002-01-01

278

Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to security screening, either to simplify or speed up the checking process,

William R. Tribe; David A. Newnham; Philip F. Taday; Michael C. Kemp

279

Distributed Configurable Application Monitoring on SMP Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance analysis of applications on large clusters of SMPs requires a monitoring approach that supports tools realizing concepts like automation, distribution and on-line operations. Key goals are a mini- mization of the perturbation of the target application and ?exibility and e-ciency with respect to data pre-processing and flltering. To achieve these goals, our approach separates the monitor into a passive

Karl Fürlinger; Michael Gerndt

2003-01-01

280

One-sided device-independent quantum key distribution: Security, feasibility, and the connection with steering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the security and feasibility of a protocol for quantum key distribution (QKD) in a context where only one of the two parties trusts his measurement apparatus. This scenario lies naturally between standard QKD, where both parties trust their measurement apparatuses, and device-independent QKD (DI-QKD), where neither do, and can be a natural assumption in some practical situations. We show that the requirements for obtaining secure keys are much easier to meet than for DI-QKD, which opens promising experimental opportunities. We clarify the link between the security of this one-sided DI-QKD scenario and the demonstration of quantum steering, in analogy to the link between DI-QKD and the violation of Bell inequalities.

Branciard, Cyril; Cavalcanti, Eric G.; Walborn, Stephen P.; Scarani, Valerio; Wiseman, Howard M.

2012-01-01

281

Compact, rugged, and intuitive thermal imaging cameras for homeland security and law enforcement applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost, small size, low power uncooled thermal imaging sensors have completely changed the way the world views commercial law enforcement and military applications. Key applications include security, medical, automotive, power generation monitoring, manufacturing and process control, aerospace application, defense, environmental and resource monitoring, maintenance monitoring and night vision. Commercial applications also include law enforcement and military special operations. Each

Charles M. Hanson

2005-01-01

282

Active Millimeter-Wave and Sub-Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Active imaging at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths has been developed for security applications including concealed weapon detection. The physical properties that affect imaging performance are discussed along with a review of the current state-of-the-art and future potential for security imaging systems.

Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

2011-09-02

283

How secure is the Internet for healthcare applications?  

PubMed

The Internet has grown faster than any other communications medium or consumer electronics technology--including the fax machine and personal computer. It offers new possibilities for providing economical and good quality patient care, but how secure is it? Is it prudent to communicate patient information over the Internet? For confidential patient information to be transmitted appropriately on the Internet, the originator must be clearly identified without any chance of impersonation; the information must be transmitted without any possibility of corruption or alteration; and the process must be secure. Many experts recognize the need to secure privacy of information, and there are some standards for electronic signatures and data encryption. However, no one has yet come up with a plan that offers a comprehensive solution. Appropriate confidentiality and security legislation has not yet been passed by the U.S. Congress. The following security technologies are currently available and are described in this article: cryptography, authentication devices, electronic signature systems, firewalls, secure hypertext transfer protocol and secure sockets layer protocol. Until proper standards are developed and accepted, providers should use available technologies to protect both patient records and themselves. The legal consequences of mishandling confidential patient information can be disastrous. PMID:10154332

Campbell, L A

284

Synchronizable Objects in Distributed Multimedia Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In training and gaming systems, distributed multimedia are often used, in which the basic content elements must be conveyed or presented in a synchronized order at synchronized moments over multiple devices and in many cases over a network. These content elements are often presented or represented as "Synchronizable Objects" with which their control and management fall into a design pattern. This paper uses the pattern language to capture the common features of these "Synchronizable Objects", in combination of the formal Object-Z specification to treat the architectural construct. The proposed pattern can be applied for content elements with or without intrinsic timing in distributed multimedia applications. Examples are given to show how this pattern can be applied in distributed applications.

Hu, Jun; Feijs, Loe

285

Security of Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in the Bounded-Quantum-Storage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) is a formalism that supersedes traditional quantum key distribution, as its security does not rely on any detailed modeling of the internal working of the devices. This strong form of security is only possible using devices producing correlations that violate a Bell inequality. Full security proofs of DIQKD have recently been reported, but they tolerate zero or small amounts of noise and are restricted to protocols based on specific Bell inequalities. Here, we provide a security proof of DIQKD that is both more efficient and noise resistant, and also more general, as it applies to protocols based on arbitrary Bell inequalities and can be adapted to cover supraquantum eavesdroppers limited by the no-signaling principle only. It is formulated, however, in the bounded-quantum-storage model, where an upper bound on the adversary’s quantum memory is a priori known. This condition is not a limitation at present, since the best existing quantum memories have very short coherence times.

Pironio, S.; Masanes, Ll.; Leverrier, A.; Acín, A.

2013-07-01

286

Intelligent Facial Recognition Systems: Technology advancements for security applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just cr...

C. L. Beer

1993-01-01

287

Modeling and Simulation of Incident Management for Homeland Security Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Incident management models and simulations may be used to support analysis, planning, and training needs pertaining to terrorist attacks, national security events, natural and man-made disasters. Simulation models may be used to understand incident manage...

C. Hutchings C. McLean S. Jain Y. T. Lee

2011-01-01

288

Applicability of Visual Analytics to Defence and Security Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the context of modern defence and security operations, analysts are faced with a continuously growing set of information of different nature which causes significant information overload problems and prevent developing good situation awareness. Fortuna...

D. Gouin V. Lavigne

2011-01-01

289

Reviews of computing technology: Securing network applications, Kerberos and RSA  

SciTech Connect

This paper will focus on the first step in establishing network security, authentication, and describe the basic function of both RSA and Kerberos as used to provide authentication and confidential data transfer services. It will also discuss the Digital Signature Standard and the market acceptance of each. Proper identification of the principals involved in a network dialog is a necessary first step in providing network-wide security comparable to that of stand-alone systems.

Johnson, S.M.

1992-06-01

290

Developing High Brightness Semiconductor Lasers for Homeland Security and Defense Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present recent advances in high brightness, high power semiconductor lasers and their applications in homeland security and defense including countermeasures, bio-chemical agent detection, rangefinding, targeting, and directed energy weapons.

P. T. Rudy; M. L. Osowski; R. M. Lammert; S. W. Oh; C. Ocochlain; C. Panja; T. Stakelon; J. E. Ungar

2007-01-01

291

Developing high brightness semiconductor lasers for homeland security and defense applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present recent advances in high brightness, high power semiconductor lasers and their applications in homeland security and defense including countermeasures, bio-chemical agent detection, rangefinding, targeting, and directed energy weapons.

P. T. Rudy; M. L. Osowski; R. M. Lammert; S. W. Oh; C Ocochlain; C. Panja; T. Stakelon; J. E. Ungar

2007-01-01

292

Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue  

SciTech Connect

This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

2007-07-01

293

BIND: A Fine-Grained Attestation Service for Secure Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose BIND (Binding Instructions aNd Data),1 a fine-grained attestation service for secur- ing distributed systems. Code attestation has recently re- ceived considerable attention in trusted computing. How- ever, current code attestation technology is relatively im- mature. First, due to the great variability in software ver- sions and configurations,verification of the hash is difficult. Second, the time-of-use

Elaine Shi; Adrian Perrig; Leendert Van Doorn

2005-01-01

294

Reliability of Calderbank Shor Steane codes and security of quantum key distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

After Mayers (1996 Advances in Cryptography: Proc. Crypto'96 pp 343-57 2001 J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 48 351-406) gave a proof of the security of the Bennett-Brassard (1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) pp 175-9) (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol, Shor and Preskill (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441-4) made a remarkable observation that

Mitsuru Hamada

2004-01-01

295

Guidelines for developing distributed virtual environment applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a variety of projects that served to investigate the limits of virtual environments and distributed virtual environment (DVE) technology for the military and medical professions. The projects include an application that allows the user to interactively explore a high-fidelity, dynamic scale model of the Solar System and a high-fidelity, photorealistic, rapidly reconfigurable aircraft simulator. Additional projects are a project for observing, analyzing, and understanding the activity in a military distributed virtual environment, a project to develop a distributed threat simulator for training Air Force pilots, a virtual spaceplane to determine user interface requirements for a planned military spaceplane system, and an automated wingman for use in supplementing or replacing human-controlled systems in a DVE. The last two projects are a virtual environment user interface framework; and a project for training hospital emergency department personnel. In the process of designing and assembling the DVE applications in support of these projects, we have developed rules of thumb and insights into assembling DVE applications and the environment itself. In this paper, we open with a brief review of the applications that were the source for our insights and then present the lessons learned as a result of these projects. The lessons we have learned fall primarily into five areas. These areas are requirements development, software architecture, human-computer interaction, graphical database modeling, and construction of computer-generated forces.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

1998-08-01

296

Towards a multilevel secure database management system for real-time applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Database systems for real-time applications must satisfy timing constraints associated with transactions, in addition to maintaining data consistency. In addition to real-time requirements, security is usually required in many applications, because sensitive information must be safeguarded. Multilevel security requirements introduce a new dimension to transaction processing in real-time database systems. The paper addresses issues that must be investigated in order

Sang H. Son; Bhavani Thuraisingham

1993-01-01

297

Secure interoperation for effective data mining in border control and homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our NSF funded project aims at providing decision makers with the ability to extract and fuse information from multiple, hetertgeneous sources in response to a query while operating under a decentralized security administration. Our motivation comes from US Customs, which embarked on a major modernization initiative of its Information Technology systems. Drawing in data from Customs trade systems, targeting inspectors

Nabil R. Adam; Vijayalakshmi Atluri; Rey Koslowski; Robert Grossman; Vandana Pursnani Janeja; Janice Warner

2006-01-01

298

Designing an overload control strategy for secure e-commerce applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrolled overload can lead e-commerce applications to considerable revenue losses. For this reason, overload pre- vention in these applications is a critical issue. In this paper we present a complete characterization of secure e-commerce applications scalability to determine which are the bottlenecks in their performance that must be considered for an over- load control strategy. With this information, we design

Jordi Guitart; David Carrera; Vicenç Beltran; Jordi Torres; Eduard Ayguadé

2007-01-01

299

High-Resolution Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used in Homeland Security and Forensic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect elements for a variety of homeland security applications such as nuclear materials identification and inventory,and forensic applications has been demonstrated. For nuclear materials applications, we detected and profiled metals in coatings that were used to encapsulate nuclear fuel. Multivariate analysis has been successfully employed in the quantification of elements present in

Madhavi Z Martin; Stan D Wullschleger; Arpad Alexander Vass; Rodger Carl Martin; Henri Grissino-Mayer

2006-01-01

300

The Growth in Applications for Social Security Disability Insurance: A Spillover Effect from Workers’ Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the determinants of application for Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits in approxi­mately 45 jurisdictions between 1981 and 1999. We reproduce findings of previous studies of the determinants of DI application then test the additional influence of changes to workers’ compensation program benefits and rules on DI application rates. Our findings indicate that the programs are interrelated: When

Xuguang Guo; John F. Burton

2012-01-01

301

Securing Telehealth Applications in a Web-Based e-Health Portal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telehealth applications can deliver medical services to patients at remote locations using telecommunications technologies, such as the Internet. At the same time, such applications also pose unique security challenges. First, the trust issue becomes more severe due to the lack of visual proofs in telehealth applications. The public key infrastructure (PKI) is insufficient for providing the same kind of trust

Qian Liu; Shuo Lu; Yuan Hong; Lingyu Wang; Rachida Dssouli

2008-01-01

302

Latest electro-optic and photonic devices for security and military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reveals performance capabilities of state-of-the-art electro-optic and photonic devices, which are best suited for security and defense system applications. These devices can be used in battlefield, space surveillance, medical diagnosis, and detection of terrorist activities. Performance capabilities of fiber optic components for possible applications in WDM and DWDM systems are summarized. Photonic devices for covert military and security communication applications are identified with particular emphasis on performance and reliability. Performance parameters of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), Erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs), and optical hybrid amplifiers (OHAs) comprising of EDFAs and Raman amplifiers are discussed with emphasis on bandwidth, gain-flatness, data handling capability, channel capacity and cost-effectiveness. Performance parameters of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) detectors are summarized, which have potential applications in remote sensing and ballistic missile defense applications. Electro-optic and photonic devices best suited for security and defense applications are identified.

Jha, A. R.

2006-10-01

303

Contributions to Human Errors and Breaches in National Security Applications.  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has recognized that security infractions are often the consequence of various types of human errors (e.g., mistakes, lapses, slips) and/or breaches (i.e., deliberate deviations from policies or required procedures with no intention to bring about an adverse security consequence) and therefore has established an error reduction program based in part on the techniques used to mitigate hazard and accident potentials. One cornerstone of this program, definition of the situational and personal factors that increase the likelihood of employee errors and breaches, is detailed here. This information can be used retrospectively (as in accident investigations) to support and guide inquiries into security incidents or prospectively (as in hazard assessments) to guide efforts to reduce the likelihood of error/incident occurrence. Both approaches provide the foundation for targeted interventions to reduce the influence of these factors and for the formation of subsequent 'lessons learned.' Overall security is enhanced not only by reducing the inadvertent releases of classified information but also by reducing the security and safeguards resources devoted to them, thereby allowing these resources to be concentrated on acts of malevolence.

Pond, D. J. (Daniel J.); Houghton, F. K. (Florence Kay); Gilmore, W. E. (Walter E.)

2002-01-01

304

Development and application of distribution network comprehensive analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a system study of the fundamental theories of distribution network analysis, operation optimization and network architecture assessment, including static security analysis theory, power flow calculation method, state estimation technique, network optimization method, fault isolation and recovery algorithm, and reactive power optimization algorithm, etc, a graphic distribution network analysis system was developed. Feeder renovation and sectionalization is determined by using

Pengxiang Bi; Zhimai Li; Qing Jinl; Ruifeng Guo; Jimin Ma

2010-01-01

305

Applications of omics for food safety and security  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food safety and food security are important global issues. Research employing 'omics' technologies, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, is helping to elucidate pathogen behavior at the molecular level and to develop better detection and typing systems. Omics-based tools enable resear...

306

Image fusion technology for security and surveillance applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion technology offers a range of potential benefits to the security and surveillance community, including increased situational awareness and enhanced detection capabilities. This paper reports on how image fusion technology is being adapted from the military arena (in which it is generally found today) to provide a new and powerful asset in the fight against crime and terrorism. The

Tom Riley; Moira Smith

2006-01-01

307

Coherent millimeter-wave imaging for security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeland security today presents a major field for technology improvement and systems development. For instance body scanners, commonly operated at airports, are basically metal detectors and therefore are not able to detect other potential hazards like ceramics or explosives as well. In this context millimeter-wave (MMW) radar systems are a promising approach, because the radiation does not present a health

Alexander Dallinger; Sebastian Bertl; J. Detlefsen

2007-01-01

308

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

309

Securing RDS broadcast messages for smart grid applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to reduce peak electrical demand has led to the introduction of demand response (DR) programs for residences. The RDS network is a strong candidate for delivering DR messages due to its low-cost nature and ubiquitous coverage. However, security concerns arise due to the wireless nature of the communication channel. We present evaluations of cryptographic methods that could be employed

Monageng Kgwadi; Thomas Kunz

2010-01-01

310

Flexible Cryptographic Component Design for Secure Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Internet serves many contents and services, it has serious problems of security: the invasion of privacy, hacking and etc. To prevent these problems, two implementations have been presented: Hardware and Software implementations of cryptographic algorithms. Hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms provide much faster than software implementations. However, Software implementations are much flexible and low-cost. Many software-approaches have been presented.

Tae Ho Kim; Jong Jin Kim; Chang Hoon Kim; Chun Pyo Hong

2006-01-01

311

Secure application deployment in the Hierarchical Local Desktop Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Desktop Grid model harvests the unused CPU cycles of any computer con- nected. In this paper we present a concept how the separated Desktop Grids can be used as building blocks for larger scale grids by organizing them in a hier- archical tree. We present a prototype implementation and show the challenges and security considerations we discovered. We describe

Attila Csaba Marosi; Gábor Gombás; Zoltán Balaton

312

CAPTCHAs: An Artificial Intelligence Application to Web Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, it is hard to find a popular Web site with a registration form that is not protected by an automated human proof test which displays a sequence of characters in an image, and requests the user to enter the sequence into an input field. This security mechanism is based on the Turing Test—one of the oldest concepts in Artificial

José María Gómez Hidalgo; Gonzalo Alvarez

2011-01-01

313

Control and Communication for a Secure and Reconfigurable Power Distribution System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major transformation is taking place throughout the electric power industry to overlay existing electric infrastructure with advanced sensing, communications, and control system technologies. This transformation to a smart grid promises to enhance system efficiency, increase system reliability, support the electrification of transportation, and provide customers with greater control over their electricity consumption. Upgrading control and communication systems for the end-to-end electric power grid, however, will present many new security challenges that must be dealt with before extensive deployment and implementation of these technologies can begin. In this dissertation, a comprehensive systems approach is taken to minimize and prevent cyber-physical disturbances to electric power distribution systems using sensing, communications, and control system technologies. To accomplish this task, an intelligent distributed secure control (IDSC) architecture is presented and validated in silico for distribution systems to provide greater adaptive protection, with the ability to proactively reconfigure, and rapidly respond to disturbances. Detailed descriptions of functionalities at each layer of the architecture as well as the whole system are provided. To compare the performance of the IDSC architecture with that of other control architectures, an original simulation methodology is developed. The simulation model integrates aspects of cyber-physical security, dynamic price and demand response, sensing, communications, intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs), and dynamic optimization and reconfiguration. Applying this comprehensive systems approach, performance results for the IEEE 123 node test feeder are simulated and analyzed. The results show the trade-offs between system reliability, operational constraints, and costs for several control architectures and optimization algorithms. Additional simulation results are also provided. In particular, the advantages of an IDSC architecture are highlighted when an intermittent DER is present on the system.

Giacomoni, Anthony Michael

314

Applying a UML Extension to Build Use Cases Diagrams in a Secure Mobile Grid Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems based on Grid computing have not traditionally been developed through suitable methodologies and have not taken into account security requirements throughout their development, offering technical security solutions only during the implementation stages. We are creating a development methodology for the construction of information systems based on Grid Computing, which is highly dependent on mobile devices, in which security plays a highly important role. One of the activities in this methodology is the requirements analysis which is use-case driven. In this paper, we build use case diagrams for a real mobile Grid application by using a UML-extension, called GridUCSec-Profile, through which it is possible to represent specific mobile Grid features and security aspects for use case diagrams, thus obtaining diagrams for secure mobile Grid environments.

Rosado, David G.; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; López, Javier

315

Lower bounds for the security of modified coherent-one-way quantum key distribution against one-pulse-attack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper bounds for the security of coherent-one-way (COW) quantum key distribution protocols have been analyzed by considering the one-pulse-attack [Branciard C, Gisin N and Scarani V (BGS) New J.Phys. (2008) 10 013031]. However, their security analysis was based on long distance case, and the typical value of the transmission distance is larger than 50 km. Applying the sharp continuity for the von Neumann entropy and some basic inequalities, we provide lower bounds for the security of modified coherent-one-way quantum key distribution protocol against the most general one-pulse-attack by only considering photon number resolved detectors that will be used in the receiver's side. Comparing with BGS's security analysis, our security analysis can be satisfied with arbitrary distance case.

Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu; Bao, Wan-Su; Guo, Guang-Can

2011-02-01

316

Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

77 GHz passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging camera for the purpose of security is developed. In order to detect concealed objects in clothes without hindrance to flow of people at airport security checks, video rate imaging is realized using one-dimensional imaging sensor array of 25 elements and a flapping reflector. As receiving antennas, novel antipodal Fermi antenna (APFA) having required characteristics for passive imaging such as broad bandwidth to obtain enough power, axially symmetric directivity with 10dB beam width of 35 degrees to obtain optimum coupling with dielectric lens, narrow width geometry for high spatial resolution of imaging is used. Real-time calibration (RTC) technique is introduced to eliminate the drift of receiving circuits. Interpolation technique to improve the quality of image and marking software for screening of suspicious objects are also developed. High spatial resolution of 20 mm is obtained by using developed imaging camera.

Sato, Hiroyasu; Sawaya, Kunio; Mizuno, Koji; Uemura, Jun; Takeda, Masamune; Takahashi, Junichi; Yamada, Kota; Morichika, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Haruyuki; Niikura, Hirotaka; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Kato, Shigeto; Nakada, Jun

2010-04-01

317

Detection of applications within encrypted tunnels using packet size distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In protocol tunnelling, one application protocol is encapsulated within another carrier protocol. Application-layer tunnels are security threat for networks because those applications which are sometimes restricted by firewalls like high data-rate games, peer-to-peer file sharing, video streaming, etc are carried through the allowed protocols like HTTP, SSH, hence the firewall policy is thwarted. The existing techniques for detection of applications

Ghulam Mujtaba; David Parish

2009-01-01

318

Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition in Homeland Security Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tutorial will summarize the status of research and innovation in the field of Security of Computer Vision and Pattern\\u000a Recognition Technology. Two main research areas are considered: intelligent scene analysis in video-surveillance, and mobile\\u000a Automatic Number Plate recognition ANPR, for investigation and crime prevention. The lecture will refer the most recent advances\\u000a of mobile ANPR solutions on board of

Giovanni B. Garibotto

2007-01-01

319

Bayesian performance metrics of binary sensors in homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian performance metrics, based on such parameters, as: prior probability, probability of detection (or, accuracy), false alarm rate, and positive predictive value, characterizes the performance of binary sensors; i.e., sensors that have only binary response: true target\\/false target. Such binary sensors, very common in Homeland Security, produce an alarm that can be true, or false. They include: X-ray airport inspection,

Tomasz P. Jannson; Thomas C. Forrester

2008-01-01

320

Forensic and homeland security applications of modern portable Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern detection and identification of chemical and biological hazards within the forensic and homeland security contexts may well require conducting the analysis in field while adapting a non-contact approach to the hazard. Technological achievements on both surface and resonance enhancement Raman scattering re-developed Raman spectroscopy to become the most adaptable spectroscopy technique for stand-off and non-contact analysis of hazards. On

Emad L. Izake

2010-01-01

321

Evaluation of neutron detector performance for hand-held homeland security application  

SciTech Connect

We describe neutron response simulations along with benchmark measurements for various configurations of a moderated Helium-3 filled proportional counter suitable for hand-held security applications. The results show an excellent agreement within measurement uncertainties between the measurements and the simulations. This allows us to optimize the detector configuration and predict the detector performance for different packaging and applications. (authors)

Zhu, H.; Croft, S.; Russ, W.; Venkataraman, R. [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

2006-07-01

322

Micro embedded monitoring for security in application specific instruction-set processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for monitoring security in Application Specific Instruction-set Processors (ASIPs). This is a generalized methodology for inline monitoring insecure operations in machine instructions at microinstruction level. Microinstructions are embedded into the critical machine instructions forming self checking instructions. We name this method Micro Embedded Monitoring. Since ASIPs are designed exclusively for a particular application domain, the

Roshan G. Ragel; Sri Parameswaran; Sayed Mohammad Kia

2005-01-01

323

Homeland Security, Medical, Pharmaceutical and Non-destructive Testing Applications of Terahertz Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum (300GHz-10THz) spans the region between radio and light. Recent advances in terahertz source, detector and systems technology are enabling new applications across a number of fields, based on both terahertz imaging and spectroscopy. This paper reviews our recent work on the development of practical systems and applications in security screening for the detection

Michael Kemp

2005-01-01

324

Estimating the Labor Market Impact of Voluntary Military Service Using Social Security Data on Military Applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of military service on veterans' earnings are estimated using Social Security administrative records to fit models with heterogeneous potential outcomes. The first estimation strategy uses matching and regression to compare applicants who enlisted with applicants who did not enlist. The second uses instrumental variables generated by an error in military entrance exams. The empirical results suggest that military service

Joshua D. Angrist

1998-01-01

325

An Empirical Analysis of the Social Security Disability Application, Appeal, and Award Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an empirical analysis of the Social Security disability application, award, and appeal process using the Health and Retirement Survey. We show that the appeal option increases the award probability from 46\\\\% to 73\\\\%. However, this comes at the cost of significant delays: the duration between application and award is over three times longer for those who are awarded

Hugo Benitez-Silva; Moshe Buchinsky; Hiu-Man Chan; John Rust; Sofia Sheivasser

1997-01-01

326

An empirical analysis of the social security disability application, appeal, and award process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an empirical analysis of the Social Security disability application, award, and appeal process using the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS). We show that the appeal option increases the award probability from 46% to 73%. However, this comes at the cost of significant delays: the duration between application and award is over three times longer for those who are

Hugo Ben??tez-Silva; Moshe Buchinsky; Hiu Man Chan; John Rust; Sofia Sheidvasser

1999-01-01

327

Option Value and Dynamic Programming Model Estimates of Social Security Disability Insurance Application Timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops dynamic structural models - an option value model and a dynamic programming model - of the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) application timing decision. We estimate the time to application from the point at which a health condition first begins to affect the kind or amount of work that a currently employed person can do. We use

Richard V. Burkhauser; J. S. Butler; Gulcin Gumus

2003-01-01

328

Paper Evaluation: Securing Web Application Code by Static Anaylysis and Runtime Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation paper of Securing Web Application Code by Static Analysis and Runtime Protection by Huang et al. from 2004 (HYH+04b) attempting to go further in solving web application vulnerabilities in the source code at compile time. This paper explains the concepts and solutions proposed by Huang et al. and also attempts to fully evaluate and discuss its merits and failures,

Michael England

2008-01-01

329

Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for estimating and studying past organism distributions. SDM complements fossil and genetic evidence by providing (i) quantitative and potentially high-resolution predictions of the past organism distributions, (ii) statistically formulated, testable ecological hypotheses regarding past distributions and communities, and (iii) statistical assessment of range determinants. In this article, we provide an overview of applications of SDM to paleobiology, outlining the methodology, reviewing SDM-based studies to paleobiology or at the interface of paleo- and neobiology, discussing assumptions and uncertainties as well as how to handle them, and providing a synthesis and outlook. Key methodological issues for SDM applications to paleobiology include predictor variables (types and properties; special emphasis is given to paleoclimate), model validation (particularly important given the emphasis on cross-temporal predictions in paleobiological applications), and the integration of SDM and genetics approaches. Over the last few years the number of studies using SDM to address paleobiology-related questions has increased considerably. While some of these studies only use SDM (23%), most combine them with genetically inferred patterns (49%), paleoecological records (22%), or both (6%). A large number of SDM-based studies have addressed the role of Pleistocene glacial refugia in biogeography and evolution, especially in Europe, but also in many other regions. SDM-based approaches are also beginning to contribute to a suite of other research questions, such as historical constraints on current distributions and diversity patterns, the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions, past community assembly, human paleobiogeography, Holocene paleoecology, and even deep-time biogeography (notably, providing insights into biogeographic dynamics >400 million years ago). We discuss important assumptions and uncertainties that affect the SDM approach to paleobiology - the equilibrium postulate, niche stability, changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations - as well as ways to address these (ensemble, functional SDM, and non-SDM ecoinformatics approaches). We conclude that the SDM approach offers important opportunities for advances in paleobiology by providing a quantitative ecological perspective, and hereby also offers the potential for an enhanced contribution of paleobiology to ecology and conservation biology, e.g., for estimating climate change impacts and for informing ecological restoration.

Svenning, Jens-Christian; Flřjgaard, Camilla; Marske, Katharine A.; Nógues-Bravo, David; Normand, Signe

2011-10-01

330

Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to security screening, either to simplify or speed up the checking process, or to provide additional functionality. Terahertz (THz) technology is a promising, emerging candidate. In previous publications we have shown how our THz pulsed imaging systems can be used to image threat items, and have demonstrated that explosive materials have characteristic THz spectra. We have also demonstrated that nonmetallic weaponry can be imaged when concealed beneath clothing. In this work we examine more closely the properties of barrier and potential confusion materials. We demonstrate that barrier materials have smooth spectra with relatively low attenuation. We further demonstrate that the terahertz spectra of several common chemicals and medicines are distinct from those of threat materials.

Tribe, William R.; Newnham, David A.; Taday, Philip F.; Kemp, Michael C.

2004-04-01

331

DisCo: A Distribution Infrastructure for Securely Deploying Decomposable Services in Partly Trusted Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growing popularity of network-based services and peer-to-peer networks has resulted in situations where components of a distributed application often need to execute in environments that are only partly trusted by the application's owner. Such deploym...

E. Freudenthal E. Keenan T. Pesin L. Port V. Karamcheti

2001-01-01

332

Control and communication mechanisms in distributed control application platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing world market requirements and perspective drives the need for new approaches and models to the development of distributed control applications. An advanced industrial automation system is becoming increasingly sophisticated with multiple levels of control and automation. A distributed control application platform was designed [Chen, IM (2001)]. The control and communication mechanism for implementation of a distributed control application

Roland Lim; R. T. Qu

2003-01-01

333

Transparent Process Migration for Distributed Applications in a Beowulf Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful, low-cost clusters of personal computers, such as Beowulf clusters, have fueled the potential for widespread distributed computation. While these Beowulf clusters typically have software that facilitates development of distributed applications, there is stil l a need for effective distributed computation that is transparent to the application programmer. This paper describes the design and development of the PANTS Application Node

Mark Claypool; David Finkel

2002-01-01

334

FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FSIS Food Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products are designed to aid those handling food products during transportation and storage. These guidelines provide a list of safety and secur...

2005-01-01

335

Forensic and homeland security applications of modern portable Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Modern detection and identification of chemical and biological hazards within the forensic and homeland security contexts may well require conducting the analysis in field while adapting a non-contact approach to the hazard. Technological achievements on both surface and resonance enhancement Raman scattering re-developed Raman spectroscopy to become the most adaptable spectroscopy technique for stand-off and non-contact analysis of hazards. On the other hand, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy proved to be very valuable for non-invasive chemical analysis of hazards concealed within non-transparent containers and packaging. PMID:20395087

Izake, Emad L

2010-04-14

336

Bayesian performance metrics of binary sensors in homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayesian performance metrics, based on such parameters, as: prior probability, probability of detection (or, accuracy), false alarm rate, and positive predictive value, characterizes the performance of binary sensors; i.e., sensors that have only binary response: true target/false target. Such binary sensors, very common in Homeland Security, produce an alarm that can be true, or false. They include: X-ray airport inspection, IED inspections, product quality control, cancer medical diagnosis, part of ATR, and many others. In this paper, we analyze direct and inverse conditional probabilities in the context of Bayesian inference and binary sensors, using X-ray luggage inspection statistical results as a guideline.

Jannson, Tomasz P.; Forrester, Thomas C.

2008-05-01

337

Integrated solution for secure group communication in wide-area networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many distributed applications require a secure reliable group communication system to provide coordination among the application components. This paper describes a secure group layer (SGL) which bundles a reliable group communication system, a group autho...

D. A. Agarwal O. Chevassut M. Thompson G. Tsudik

2001-01-01

338

Application-level scheduling on distributed heterogeneous networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous networks are increasingly being used as platforms for resource-intensive distributed parallel applications. A critical contributor to the performance of such applications is the scheduling of constituent application tasks on the network. Since often the distributed resources cannot be brought under the control of a single global scheduler, the application must be scheduled by the user. To obtain the best

Francine D. Berman; Rich Wolski; Silvia Figueira; Jennifer Schopf; Gary Shao

1996-01-01

339

A technology acquisition strategy for the security of water distribution networks.  

SciTech Connect

This slide presentation outlines information on a technology acquisition strategy for the security of water distribution networks. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has tasked a multi-laboratory team to evaluate current and future needs to protect the nation's water distribution infrastructure by supporting an objective evaluation of current and new technologies. The primary deliverables from this Operational Technology Demonstration (OTD) are the following: establishment of an advisory board for review and approval of testing protocols, technology acquisition processes and recommendations for technology test and evaluation in laboratory and field settings; development of a technology acquisition process; creation of laboratory and field testing and evaluation capability; and, testing of candidate technologies for insertion into a water early warning system. The initial phase of this study involves the development of two separate but complementary strategies to be reviewed by the advisory board: a technology acquisition strategy; and, a technology evaluation strategy. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories are tasked with the first strategy, while Los Alamos, Pacific Northwest, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories are tasked with the second strategy. The first goal of the acquisition strategy is the development of a technology survey process that includes a review of current test programs and development of a method to solicit and select existing and emerging sensor technologies for evaluation and testing. The second goal is to implement the acquisition strategy to provide a set of recommendations for candidate technologies for laboratory and field testing.

Einfeld, Wayne; Love, Adam (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Alai, Maureen (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Glascoe, Lee G. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

2005-04-01

340

Applicants' preference for impression management tactic in employment interviews by Transportation Security Administration.  

PubMed

Following past findings on employment interviews, this study hypothesized applicants would have a preference for using self-promoting tactics of impression management over other focuses. Self-reports of impression management tactics were collected from 124 applicants who had interviews for screener positions with the Transportation Security Administration. Contrary to the hypothesis, analysis indicated participants reported they used more ingratiation tactics attempting to praise the interviewer than self-promotion tactics which focused on their own accomplishments. Special qualifications for security jobs which required well-developed perceptual abilities and the controlling structure of the interview context were perhaps responsible for present results differing from prior findings. PMID:19610468

Scudder, Joseph N; Lamude, Kevin G

2009-04-01

341

49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME...writing: I acknowledge that if the Transportation Security Administration determines that I pose a security...

2009-10-01

342

Designing Secure and Reliable Applications using Fragmentation-Redundancy-Scattering: An Object-Oriented Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security and reliability issues in distributed systems have been investigated for several years at LAAS using a technique called Fragmentation-Redundancy-Scattering (FRS). The aim of FRS is to tolerate both accidental and intentional faults: the core idea consists i n fragmenting confidential information in order to produce insignificant fragments and then in scattering the fragments so obtained in a redundant fashion

Jean-charles Fabre; Yves Deswarte; Brian Randell

1994-01-01

343

Smart Card Applications in Security and Data Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The several security elements of the smart card are based on phisical and logical barriers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Materially, the smart card is a monolithic component including a microprocessor and a memory of 8 K bits, this memory being indelible.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a In addition entry test points have been destroyed before activating the smart card.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a In practice it is impossible to read,

Jean Goutay

1984-01-01

344

JWIG: Yet Another Framework for Maintainable and Secure Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challeng- ing task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server-oriented architecture that coherently supports general aspects of modern web applica- tions, including dynamic XML construction, session management,

Anders Mřller; Mathias Schwarz

2009-01-01

345

Generalized Role-Based Access Control for Securing Future Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computing technology becomes more pervasive andbroadband services are deployed into residential communities,new applications will emerge for the homeand community environment. These applications willassist people in a variety of daily activities by enablingthem to create, access, and manipulate informationabout the residents and resources in their homes.In a connected community, resources in the home andinformation about the residents of the home

2000-01-01

346

A distributed wireless sensor network system for transportation safety and security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the anticipated increases in highway traffic, the scale and complexity of the traffic infrastructure will continue to grow progressively in time and in distributed geographical areas. To assure transportation efficiency, safety, and security in the presence of such growth, it is critical to identify an infrastructure development methodology that can adapt to expansions while assuring reliable operation for both centralized monitoring and distributed management. In this paper, a wireless sensor network design methodology is presented, aimed at providing effective distributed surveillance, anomaly detection, and coordinated response. The proposed methodology integrates state-of-the-art traffic sensors, with flexibly programmable controller devices that can integrate with the available traffic control equipments. The system methodology provides a paradigm in which sensors and controllers can be progressively incorporated and programmed to autonomously coordinate with peer sensors and a hierarchy of controllers to detect, notify, and react to anomalous events. Since the system can tolerate failure of parts of the system, as the network connectivity continues to increase, the proposed sensor network will have positive implications on evacuation plans during natural disasters or terrorist attacks. To illustrate the design methodology and usage, a simulated system along a freeway corridor in South Carolina was constructed in an integrated microscopic traffic and wireless sensor network simulation platform, in which distributed incident detection and response functions were implemented. The test results, including detection and false alarm rates and wireless communication latencies, are analyzed to identify insights of the system's operation and potential enhancement strategies.

Chowdhury, Mashrur; Wang, Kuang-Ching; Fries, Ryan; Ma, Yongchang; Bagaria, Devang

2007-05-01

347

Security issues of wireless sensor networks in healthcare applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in healthcare applications is gaining momentum through the increasing array\\u000a of wearable vital sign sensors and location tags which can track both healthcare personnel and patient status\\/ location continuously\\u000a in real-time mode. Despite the increased range of potential application frameworks — ranging from pre-hospital, in-hospital,\\u000a ambulatory and home monitoring, to long-term database collection

H. S. Ng; M. L. Sim; C. M. Tan

2006-01-01

348

Services Supporting Management of Distributed Applications and Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed computing system consists of heterogeneous computing devices, communicationnetworks, operating system services and applications. As organisations movetoward distributed computing environments, there will be a corresponding growth in distributedapplications central to the enterprise.The design, development, and management of distributed applications presents manydifficult challenges. As these systems grow to hundreds or even thousands of devices andsimilar or greater...

Michael A. Bauer; Richard B. Bunt; Asham El Rayess; Patrick J. Finnigan; Thomas Kunz; Hanan Lutfiyya; Andrew D. Marshall; Patrick Martin; Gregory M. Oster; Wendy Powley; Jerome A. Rolia; David J. Taylor; C. Murray Woodside

1997-01-01

349

Thin-film thermoelectric energy harvesting for security and sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has seen significant advances in distributed sensors and sensor networks. Many of these advances have been driven by programs that support national intelligence and security interests. With these advances have come an increased interest in energy harvesting to provide continuous power sources to replace or augment existing power storage systems. The use of waste heat is an attractive source of energy for many applications where ?W-mW power is required. The implementation of a thermoelectric power conversion system requires several basic elements in addition to an assumed heat source. These elements are: 1) a thermoelectric device, 2) a heat sink, 3) voltage regulation, 4) an energy storage device and 5) load management. The design and optimization of the system (and each element within the system) is highly dependent on the thermal boundary conditions and the power load. This presentation will review the key performance factors and considerations required to optimize each element of the system to achieve the required I-V characteristics for output power.

Koester, David A.; Crocco, Paul; Mahadevan, Ramaswamy; Siivola, Edward; von Gunten, Karl

2011-05-01

350

A PseudoRandom Function (PRF) for the Kerberos V Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API) Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document defines the Pseudo-Random Function (PRF) for the Kerberos V mechanism for the Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API), based on the PRF defined for the Kerberos V cryptographic framework, for keying application protocols given an established Kerberos V GSS-API security context.

N. Williams

2006-01-01

351

Application of Ica-Eemd to Secure Communications in Chaotic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the application of ICA-EEMD to secure communication systems. ICA-EEMD is employed to retrieve the message data encrypted by a mixture of Gaussian white noise and chaotic noise. The results showed that ICA-EEMD can effectively extract the two original message data.

Lin, Shih-Lin; Tung, Pi-Cheng; Huang, Norden E.

2012-04-01

352

The Kerberos Version 5 Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API) Mechanism: Version 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document defines protocols, procedures, and conventions to be employed by peers implementing the Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API) when using the Kerberos Version 5 mechanism. RFC 1964 is updated and incremental changes are proposed in response to recent developments such as the introduction of Kerberos cryptosystem framework. These changes support the inclusion of new cryptosystems, by defining

L. Zhu; K. Jaganathan

353

A Security Framework of Group Location-Based Mobile Applications in Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a secure frame- work when the location information of mobile terminals is utilized in a cloud computing environment. Because cloud computing provides powerful storage capabil- ity and scalability, many application providers start migrating the data stored in their original databases to outsourced databases (ODB), such as AMAZON SIMPLEDB. However, because of the multiple tenants and

Yu-Jia Chen; Li-Chun Wang

2011-01-01

354

Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gratings-based phase contrast imaging is a promising new radiographic technique providing three distinct contrast mechanisms, absorption, phase, and scatter, using a conventional x-ray tube source. We investigate the signatures available in these three contrast mechanisms with particular attention towards potential homeland security applications. We find that the scatter mode in particular is sensitive to textured materials, enabling lowered detection limits

Erin A. Miller; Timothy A. White; Benjamin S. McDonald; Allen Seifert; Michael J. Flynn

2010-01-01

355

Using evolutionary computation for seismic signal detection: a homeland security application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations and governments have the need to monitor areas for intrusions and, once detected, to identify the type of potential intruder(s) present. Applications include perimeter security at installations such as airports and critical infrastructure, as well as military situation awareness in monitoring demilitarized zones, or other areas where activity of interest may occur. Seismic signal detectors can be used

Vincent W. Porto; Lawrence J. Fogel; David B. Fogel

2004-01-01

356

On the design of integrated HF radar systems for Homeland Security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, HCAC's research and development efforts on the development of integrated and low cost HF radar for coastal surveillance and other Homeland Security applications are summarized. The proposed design incorporates electrically small antenna for rapid deployment, supports operation on floating platforms by using enhanced DSP algorithms to mitigate clutter, incorporates improved propagation modeling to more accurately select optimum

James Baker; Nuri Celik; Nobutaka Omaki; Jill Kobashigawa; Hyoung-Sun Youn; Magdy F. Iskander

2010-01-01

357

Concepts and applications of wireless security systems for tactical, portable, and fixed sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrusion detection systems sometimes use radio signals to convey sensor status in areas that wire conduits do not service or as a redundant path to wired systems. Some applications benefit from radio technology by minimizing setup time and reducing installation and operation costs. In recent years with the explosion in wireless communications, these radio-based security systems have become more capable

J. J. Harrington; D. A. Pritchard

1997-01-01

358

THz imaging and sensing for security applications---explosives, weapons and drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 5 years, there has been a significant interest in employing terahertz (THz) technology, spectroscopy and imaging for security applications. There are three prime motivations for this interest: (a) THz radiation can detect concealed weapons since many non-metallic, non-polar materials are transparent to THz radiation; (b) target compounds such as explosives and illicit drugs have characteristic THz spectra

John F. Federici; Brian Schulkin; Feng Huang; Dale Gary; Robert Barat; Filipe Oliveira; David Zimdars

2005-01-01

359

How policy variables influence the timing of applications for Social Security Disability Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the impact of policy variables - employer accommodations, state Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) allowance rates, and DI benefits - on the timing of an application for DI benefits by workers with a work-limiting health condition starting when their health condition first begins to bother them. The analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study linked

Richard V. Burkhauser; J. S. Butler; Robert R Weathers II

1999-01-01

360

Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

2012-01-01

361

COAMPS Application to Global and Homeland Security Threat Problems  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric dispersion problems have received more attention with regard to global and homeland security than their conventional roles in air pollution and local hazard assessment in the post 9/11 era. Consequently, there is growing interest to characterize meteorology uncertainty at both low and high altitudes (below and above 30 km, respectively). A 3-D Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS, developed by Naval Research Laboratory; Hodur, 1997) is used to address LLNL's task. The objective of this report is focused on the effort at the improvement of COAMPS forecast to address the uncertainty issue, and to provide new capability for high-altitude forecast. To assess the atmospheric dispersion behavior in a wider range of meteorological conditions and to expand its vertical scope for the potential threat at high altitudes, several modifications of COAMPS are needed to meet the project goal. These improvements include (1) the long-range forecast capability to show the variability of meteorological conditions at a much larger time scale (say, a year), and (2) the model physics enhancement to provide new capability for high-altitude forecast.

Chin, H S; Glascoe, L G

2004-09-14

362

Experimental quantum key distribution with finite-key security analysis for noisy channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In quantum key distribution implementations, each session is typically chosen long enough so that the secret key rate approaches its asymptotic limit. However, this choice may be constrained by the physical scenario, as in the perspective use with satellites, where the passage of one terminal over the other is restricted to a few minutes. Here we demonstrate experimentally the extraction of secure keys leveraging an optimal design of the prepare-and-measure scheme, according to recent finite-key theoretical tight bounds. The experiment is performed in different channel conditions, and assuming two distinct attack models: individual attacks or general quantum attacks. The request on the number of exchanged qubits is then obtained as a function of the key size and of the ambient quantum bit error rate. The results indicate that viable conditions for effective symmetric, and even one-time-pad, cryptography are achievable.

Bacco, Davide; Canale, Matteo; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

2013-09-01

363

Experimental quantum key distribution with finite-key security analysis for noisy channels.  

PubMed

In quantum key distribution implementations, each session is typically chosen long enough so that the secret key rate approaches its asymptotic limit. However, this choice may be constrained by the physical scenario, as in the perspective use with satellites, where the passage of one terminal over the other is restricted to a few minutes. Here we demonstrate experimentally the extraction of secure keys leveraging an optimal design of the prepare-and-measure scheme, according to recent finite-key theoretical tight bounds. The experiment is performed in different channel conditions, and assuming two distinct attack models: individual attacks or general quantum attacks. The request on the number of exchanged qubits is then obtained as a function of the key size and of the ambient quantum bit error rate. The results indicate that viable conditions for effective symmetric, and even one-time-pad, cryptography are achievable. PMID:24008848

Bacco, Davide; Canale, Matteo; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

2013-01-01

364

Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.

He, Guang Ping

2011-11-01

365

Lowering social security's duration-of-marriage requirement: distributional effects for future female retirees.  

PubMed

A number of alternatives to Social Security's auxiliary benefit system have been proposed in the context of changes in American family and work patterns. This article focuses on one modification therein-lowering the 10-year duration-of-marriage requirement for divorced spouses. Using a powerful microsimulation model (MINT), we examine the distributional effects of extending spouse and survivor benefit eligibility to 5- and 7-year marriages ending in divorce among female retirees in 2030, a population largely comprised of baby boomers. Results show that the options would increase benefits for a small share of female retirees, around 2 to 4%, and would not affect the vast majority of low-income divorced older women. However, of those affected, the options would substantially increase benefits and lower incidence of poverty and near poor. Low-income divorced retirees with marriages between 5 and 9 years in length and a deceased former spouse face the greatest potential gains. PMID:20661806

Tamborini, Christopher R; Whitman, Kevin

2010-01-01

366

MAGDA and MAGNATE: Secure Web-Based Data Distribution and Visualization for the Cassini Magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurements of Saturn's magnetic field acquired by the Cassini magnetometer (MAG) to date have provided the basis of numerous pioneering scientific studies of the planet's magnetic and plasma environs. MAG data is essential for, among other applications, understanding the nature of the particle distributions observed by the plasma instruments onboard Cassini. In order to facilitate interaction and collaboration between

T. Seears; N. Achilleos; S. Kellock; P. Slootweg; M. Dougherty

2006-01-01

367

Applications of Photonuclear Physics for International Safeguards and Security  

SciTech Connect

Studies of nuclear resonance fluorescence based applications are presented. Important for these applications are data for isotopes such as {sup 239}Pu. Nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements of {sup 239}Pu were performed at the free electron laser facility at UC Santa Barbara using photons from a bremsstrahlung beam with an endpoint energies between 4.0 MeV and 5.5 MeV. Though no discrete states with significant confidence level were measured, we have excluded the region above 27(3) eV-barns, or 4-sigma, where we would expect only a small chance of false positives. Details of the measurements and the results are presented here.

Johnson, M S; Hall, J M; McNabb, D P; McFarland, J; Norman, E; Bertozzi, W; Korbly, S; Ledoux, R; Park, W

2010-04-16

368

Web Based Application for Distributed Remote Measurement Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses web based application for distributed automation. Realization is made over three-layer distributed model. XML table driven communication model is used for heterogeneous connection of different parts of the system. Functionality of the model is delegated and distributed among servers and embedded systems. Majority features of realization, concerning scalability, flexibility, distribution, collecting and delegating of functionality, reliability and

Ivan Stankov; Grisha Spasov

369

Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources (137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is ''non-specific'' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are ''blind'' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as protecting armed forces and infrastructure.

Valkovi, Vlado

2006-05-01

370

A Framework for Federated Two-Factor Authentication Enabling Cost-Effective Secure Access to Distributed Cyberinfrastructure  

SciTech Connect

As cyber attacks become increasingly sophisticated, the security measures used to mitigate the risks must also increase in sophistication. One time password (OTP) systems provide strong authentication because security credentials are not reusable, thus thwarting credential replay attacks. The credential changes regularly, making brute-force attacks significantly more difficult. In high performance computing, end users may require access to resources housed at several different service provider locations. The ability to share a strong token between multiple computing resources reduces cost and complexity. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) provides access to digital resources, including supercomputers, data resources, and software tools. XSEDE will offer centralized strong authentication for services amongst service providers that leverage their own user databases and security profiles. This work implements a scalable framework built on standards to provide federated secure access to distributed cyberinfrastructure.

Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Rogers, Gary L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Peterson, Gregory D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2012-01-01

371

REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

372

Application of telecom planar lightwave circuits for homeland security sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, a massive effort has been made in the development of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) for application in optical telecommunications. Major advances have been made, on both the technological and functional performance front. Highly sophisticated software tools that are used to tailor designs to required functional performance support these developments. In addition extensive know-how in the field

Gert J. Veldhuis; Job Elders; Harm van Weerden; Martin Amersfoort

2004-01-01

373

A Survey on Mix Networks and Their Secure Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anonymity is a subdiscipline of information hiding, required in a number of applications, such as in electronic voting. For network communications, anonymity can be provided by a mix network (mixnet). A mixnet is a multistage system that uses cryptography and permutations to provide anonymity. The basic idea of a mixnet has evolved into a number of different classes. In addition

Krishna Sampigethaya; Radha Poovendran

2006-01-01

374

Security in dynamic web content management systems applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction The processes behind corporate efforts to create, manage, publish, and archive Web information has also evolved using Web Content Management Systems (WCMS). WCMS allow teams to maintain Web content in a dynamic fashion through a user friendly interface and a modular application approach. This dynamic \\

Ganesh Vaidyanathan; Steven Mautone

2009-01-01

375

Towards a Secure Application-Semantic Aware Policy Enforcement Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though policy enforcement has been studied from dif- ferent angles including notation, negotiation and enforcement, the devel- opment of an application-semantic aware enforcement architecture re- mains an open problem. In this paper we present and discuss the design of such an architecture. As networked and grid computing and web service architectures are gaining ac- ceptance, computer systems are being

Srijith K. Nair; Bruno Crispo; Andrew S. Tanenbaum

2006-01-01

376

Security Technologies for Open Networking Environments (STONE)  

SciTech Connect

Under this project SETECS performed research, created the design, and the initial prototype of three groups of security technologies: (a) middleware security platform, (b) Web services security, and (c) group security system. The results of the project indicate that the three types of security technologies can be used either individually or in combination, which enables effective and rapid deployment of a number of secure applications in open networking environments. The middleware security platform represents a set of object-oriented security components providing various functions to handle basic cryptography, X.509 certificates, S/MIME and PKCS No.7 encapsulation formats, secure communication protocols, and smart cards. The platform has been designed in the form of security engines, including a Registration Engine, Certification Engine, an Authorization Engine, and a Secure Group Applications Engine. By creating a middleware security platform consisting of multiple independent components the following advantages have been achieved - Object-oriented, Modularity, Simplified Development, and testing, Portability, and Simplified extensions. The middleware security platform has been fully designed and a preliminary Java-based prototype has been created for the Microsoft Windows operating system. The Web services security system, designed in the project, consists of technologies and applications that provide authentication (i.e., single sign), authorization, and federation of identities in an open networking environment. The system is based on OASIS SAML and XACML standards for secure Web services. Its topology comprises three major components: Domain Security Server (DSS) is the main building block of the system Secure Application Server (SAS) Secure Client In addition to the SAML and XACML engines, the authorization system consists of two sets of components An Authorization Administration System An Authorization Enforcement System Federation of identities in multi-domain scenarios is supported by a set of security engines that represent the core of the Federated Identities Management Server, which is also an extension of the Domain Security Server. The Federated Identity Management server allows users to federate their identities or terminate the federation between the service provider and the identity provider. At the service provider web site, the users are offered a list of identity providers to which they can choose to federate their identities. After users federate their identity, they can perform Single Sign-On protocol in an environment of federated domains. The group security system consists of a number of security technologies under a unified architecture, which supports creation of secure groups and execution of secure group transactions and applications in an open networking environment. The system is based on extensions of the GSAKMP standard for group key distribution and management. The Top layer is the Security Infrastructure with the Security Management and Administration System components and protocols that provide security functions common to all secure network applications The Middle layer is the Secure Group Protocols and Applications layer, consisting of the Policy and Group Key Distribution Server and Web-based (thin) Client. The Bottom layer is the supporting Middleware Security Platform, the cryptographic platform already described above. The group security system is designed to perform the functions necessary to create secure groups and enable secure group applications. Specifically, the system can manage group roles, create and disseminate a group security policy, perform authentication and authorization of users using PKI certificates and Web services security, generate group keys, and recover from compromises. In accordance with the GSAKMP standard, the group security system must perform all the required group life-cycle functions: group definition, group establishment, group maintenance, and group removal. The group security system has been designed to support four roles: The Security Domain Ad

Muftic, Sead

2005-03-31

377

Bayesian performance metrics and small system integration in recent homeland security and defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Bayesian inference is applied to performance metrics definition of the important class of recent Homeland Security and defense systems called binary sensors, including both (internal) system performance and (external) CONOPS. The medical analogy is used to define the PPV (Positive Predictive Value), the basic Bayesian metrics parameter of the binary sensors. Also, Small System Integration (SSI) is discussed in the context of recent Homeland Security and defense applications, emphasizing a highly multi-technological approach, within the broad range of clusters ("nexus") of electronics, optics, X-ray physics, ?-ray physics, and other disciplines.

Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Patton, Edward; Pradhan, Ranjit; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Savant, Gajendra; Shie, Rick; Forrester, Thomas

2010-04-01

378

Application of classification methods in assessment of NATO member countries' economic, security and political risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to attempt possible quantification of determinants of military expenditure and their application to current NATO member countries. To analyse the economic, security and political risks of NATO member countries, author employ multivariate statistical techniques which take into consideration the multivariate properties of the data sets used as input variables. Classification of countries based on cluster analysis has made it possible to identify disparities between NATO member countries, and thus to describe diverse economic or security environment affecting the amount of military expenditure as a percentage of the respective countries' gross domestic product.

Odehnal, Jakub

2013-10-01

379

The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

Hungerford, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

380

Applications of ?-function perturbation to the pricing of derivative securities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent econophysics literature, the use of functional integrals is widespread for the calculation of option prices. In this paper, we extend this approach in several directions by means of ?-function perturbations. First, we show that results about infinitely repulsive ?-function are applicable to the pricing of barrier options. We also introduce functional integrals over skew paths that give rise to a new European option formula when combined with ?-function potential. We propose accurate closed-form approximations based on the theory of comonotonic risks in case the functional integrals are not analytically computable.

Decamps, Marc; de Schepper, Ann; Goovaerts, Marc

2004-11-01

381

Virtualization and Programming Support for Video Sensor Networks with Application to Wireless and Physical Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network Security Systems are heavily anchored in the digital plane of "cyber space" and hence cannot be used effectively to derive the physical identity of an intruder in order to prevent further malicious wireless broadcasts (i.e., escorting an intruder off the premises based on physical evidence). Embedded Sensor Networks (SNs) can be used to bridge the gap between digital and physical security planes, and thus can provide reciprocal benefit to security tasks on both planes. Toward that end, we present our experience integrating wireless networking security services into snBench (the Sensor Network workBench). snBench provides an extensible framework that enables the rapid development and automated deployment of SN applications on a shared, embedded sensing and actuation infrastructure. snBench's extensible architecture allows an engineer to quickly integrate new sensing and response capabilities into the snBench framework, while high-level languages, compilers and execution environments allow novice SN programmers to compose SN service logic, unaware of the lower-level components on which their services rely. Concrete examples are provided to illustrate the power and potential of Wireless Security Services that span both the physical and digital plane.

Bestavros, Azer; Ocean, Michael J.

382

Concepts and applications of wireless security systems for tactical, portable, and fixed sites  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection systems sometimes use radio signals to convey sensor status in areas that wire conduits do not service or as a redundant path to wired systems. Some applications benefit from radio technology by minimizing setup time and reducing installation and operation costs. In recent years with the explosion in wireless communications, these radio-based security systems have become more capable while lowering costs, size, and power consumption. However, the very nature of radio communication raises issues regarding setup, operation, and security of these systems. Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with government and industry, has addressed many of these issues through the analysis and development of security systems, communications protocols, and operational procedures. Message encryption and frequent channel supervision are used to enhance security. Installation and maintenance of these systems are simplified by incorporating built-in radio link analysis, menu-driven configuration equipment, and other techniques. Commercial communications satellites and spread-spectrum radios are also being integrated to provide unique capabilities to the security community. The status of this work is presented here along with details of its development.

Harrington, J.J.

1997-06-01

383

Visual communications with side information via distributed printing channels: extended multimedia and security perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address visual communications via printing channels from an information-theoretic point of view as communications with side information. The solution to this problem addresses important aspects of multimedia data processing, security and management, since printed documents are still the most common form of visual information representation. Two practical approaches to side information communications for printed documents are analyzed in the paper. The first approach represents a layered joint source-channel coding for printed documents. This approach is based on a self-embedding concept where information is first encoded assuming a Wyner-Ziv set-up and then embedded into the original data using a Gel'fand-Pinsker construction and taking into account properties of printing channels. The second approach is based on Wyner-Ziv and Berger-Flynn-Gray set-ups and assumes two separated communications channels where an appropriate distributed coding should be elaborated. The first printing channel is considered to be a direct visual channel for images ("analog" channel with degradations). The second "digital channel" with constrained capacity is considered to be an appropriate auxiliary channel. We demonstrate both theoretically and practically how one can benefit from this sort of "distributed paper communications".

Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav V.; Koval, Oleksiy; Deguillaume, Frederic; Pun, Thierry

2004-06-01

384

Wireless video monitoring and robot control in security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on applications based on wireless monitoring and robot control, utilizing motion image and augmented reality. These applications include remote services and surveillance-related functions such as remote monitoring. A remote service can be, for example, a way to deliver products at a hospital or old people's home. Due to the mobile nature of the system, monitoring at places with privacy concerns is possible. On the other hand, mobility demands wireless communications. Suitable and present technologies for wireless video transfer are weighted. Identification of objects with the help of Radio Frequency Identifying (RFID) technology and facial recognition results in intelligent actions, for example, where the control of a robot does not require extensive workload from the user. In other words, tasks can be partially autonomous, RFID can be also used in augmentation of the video view with virtual objects. As a real-life experiment, a prototype environment is being constructed that consists of a robot equipped with a video camera and wireless links to the network and multimedia computer.

Nurkkala, Eero A.; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roening, Juha

1998-10-01

385

Energy-Efficient Key Distribution Using Electrocardiograph Biometric Set for Secure Communications in Wireless Body Healthcare Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical\\u000a healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the\\u000a constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes\\u000a a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute

Jinyang Shi; Kwok-Yan Lam; Ming Gu; Mingze Li; Siu-Leung Chung

386

Design and visualization of synthetic holograms for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a software for the design and visualization of holographic elements containing full scale of visual effects. It enables to simulate an observation of the holographic elements under general conditions including different light sources with various spectral and coherence properties and various geometries of reconstruction. Furthermore, recent technologies offer interesting possibilities for the 3D visualization such as the 3D techniques based on shutter or polarization glasses, anaglyphs, etc. The presented software is compatible with the mentioned techniques and enables an application of the 3D hardware tools for visualization. The software package can be used not only for visualization of the existing designs, but also for a fine tuning of the spatial, kinetic, and color properties of the hologram. Moreover, the holograms containing all types of the 3D effects, general color mixing, kinetic behavior, diffractive cryptograms, etc. can be translated using the software directly to a high resolution micro-structure.

Škere?, M.; Nývlt, M.; Svoboda, J.

2013-02-01

387

Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

Clark, G A

2002-10-08

388

Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.  

PubMed

Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

2012-09-17

389

Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

2012-01-01

390

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

391

of Performance Models for Distributed Application Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations have become increasingly dependent on computing systems to achieve their business goals. The performance of these systems in terms of response times and cost has a major impact on their effectiveness. To achieve openness and scalability, these systems have begun to rely on distributed environment technologies such as the Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) and the Object

M. Qin; R. Lee; A. El Rayess; V. Vetland; J. Rolia

392

International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards  

SciTech Connect

As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

Rabin, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

393

National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors - Mostly Nuclear Safeguards  

SciTech Connect

As with science, so with security--in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

2009-12-16

394

National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors-Mostly Nuclear Safeguards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As with science, so with security-in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

Rabin, Michael W.

2009-12-01

395

Distributed mutual exclusion algorithms for grid applications: A hierarchical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of current distributed mutual exclusion algorithms are not suited for parallel or distributed applications on a Grid as they do not consider the heterogeneity of latency on Grids. We propose two distributed mutual exclusion algorithms, based on Naimi–Trehel's token-based algorithm, which take into account latency gaps, especially those between local and remote clusters of machines. Our first algorithm

Marin Bertier; Luciana Bezerra Arantes; Pierre Sens

2006-01-01

396

Supporting dynamic distributed computing for industrial devices and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the capability of communication, independent devices can be connected to share information and to perform a more complex task. In this paper, a distributed computing model suitable for industrial applications such as surveillance systems or mobile robots is introduced. The computing model is called the Dynamic Distributed Computing (DDC) model. The dynamic join of distributed devices for sharing data

Wen-Yew Liang; Yang-Lang Chang; Jyh-Perng Fang; Shanq-Jang Ruan; Hung-Che Lee; Chi-Yu Weng

2008-01-01

397

Transparent Checkpoint-Restart of Distributed Applications on Commodity Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created ZapC, a novel system for transparent coordinated checkpoint-restart of distributed network ap- plications on commodity clusters. ZapC provides a thin virtualization layer on top of the operating system that de- couples a distributed application from dependencies on the cluster nodes on which it is executing. This decoupling en- ables ZapC to checkpoint an entire distributed application across

Oren Laadan; Dan B. Phung; Jason Nieh

2005-01-01

398

Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging Signatures for Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Gratings-based phase contrast imaging is a promising new radiographic technique providing three distinct contrast mechanisms, absorption, phase, and scatter, using a conventional x-ray tube source. We investigate the signatures available in these three contrast mechanisms with particular attention towards potential homeland security applications. We find that the scatter mode in particular is sensitive to textured materials, enabling lowered detection limits than absorption for materials such as powders. We investigate the length scales to which our imaging system is sensitive.

Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Seifert, Allen; Flynn, Michael J.

2011-06-13

399

ObjectVideo Forensics: Activity-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval for Physical Security Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an architecture and methodology for high-speed activity-based digital video indexing and retrieval for physical security applications. State of the art computer vision algorithms detect objects in real-time video and determine basic activity information such as object type (human, vehicle, etc), object trajectory, and interactions with other objects. This information is encoded as a light-weight stream of activity-based

Alan J. Lipton

400

Bio-inspired motion planning algorithms for autonomous robots facilitating greater plasticity for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed are techniques toward using collaborative robots for infrastructure security applications by utilizing them for mobile sensor suites. A vast number of critical facilities/technologies must be protected against unauthorized intruders. Employing a team of mobile robots working cooperatively can alleviate valuable human resources. Addressed are the technical challenges for multi-robot teams in security applications and the implementation of multi-robot motion planning algorithm based on the patrolling and threat response scenario. A neural network based methodology is exploited to plan a patrolling path with complete coverage. Also described is a proof-of-principle experimental setup with a group of Pioneer 3-AT and Centibot robots. A block diagram of the system integration of sensing and planning will illustrate the robot to robot interaction to operate as a collaborative unit. The proposed approach singular goal is to overcome the limits of previous approaches of robots in security applications and enabling systems to be deployed for autonomous operation in an unaltered environment providing access to an all encompassing sensor suite.

Guo, Yi; Hohil, Myron; Desai, Sachi V.

2007-10-01

401

Application of enterprise modeling and analysis to the transportation security administration's air cargo security cost estimation project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 crystallized public awareness and concern over issues of aviation security. As the nation has brought greater levels of inspection and other security measures to bear on passengers and baggage, concerns have mounted that air cargo will become vulnerable to delivering explosive threats to aircraft. In the “9\\/11” bill, Congress mandated TSA to screen

E. Rao; J. Nestor; R. Pillai

2010-01-01

402

Autonomic Runtime Manager for Large Scale Adaptive Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale distributed applications are highly adaptive and heterogeneous in terms of their computational requirements. The computational complexity associated with each computational region or domain varies continuously and dramatically both in space and time throughout the whole life cycle of the application execution. Consequently, static scheduling techniques are inefficient to optimize the execution of these applications at runtime. In this paper,

Jingmei Yang; Huoping Chen; Salim Hariri; Manish Parashar

403

Distributed Cognitive Sensor Network Approach for Surveillance Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of intelligent systems composed by smart cameras is continuously spreading in a wide range of applications, playing a key role in public, military and commercial scenarios. As well, in the last years, the capability of wireless sensor networks to collect information from the environment in a distributed manner has been successfully applied in both civilian and military applications.

Luca Bixio; Lorenzo Ciardelli; Marina Ottonello; Carlo S. Regazzoni

2009-01-01

404

Power distribution engineering: Fundamentals and applications  

SciTech Connect

Covering virtually all areas of distribution engineering, this thoroughly up-to-date reference examines the unique behavior of utilities and provides the practical knowledge necessary to solve real-world distribution problems. Simplifying seemingly difficult concepts and calculations, Power Distribution Engineering addresses topics typically associated with power quality such as sags, swells, harmonics, electromagnetic fields, and stray voltage; describes different types of system designs and grounding as well as values for voltage, line lengths, and load and fault levels; details the loading, construction, and rating of various transformers; presents methods to maximize the effectiveness of capacitor placement; explains overcurrent and overvoltage protection of distribution systems; evaluates utilities using economic techniques that incorporate ideas such as present worth, carrying charge, cost of losses, operating costs, and customer satisfaction. Furnishing over 425 helpful equations, tables, drawings, and photographs, Power Distribution Engineering is an invaluable resource for electrical and electronics, utility distribution, power systems, control, protection, and relaying engineers, as well as graduate students in these disciplines.

Burke, J.J.

1994-01-01

405

75 FR 4595 - BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 34-61400; File No. 10-198] BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application...1934 January 22, 2010. On October 20, 2009, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Y Exchange'') submitted to the Securities...

2010-01-28

406

Lifetime Earnings Patterns, The Distribution Of Future Social Security Benefits, And The Impact Of Pension Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an analysis of career earnings patterns developed for predicting the impact of Social Security reform. We produce estimates of age-earnings profiles of American men and women born between 1931 and 1960. The estimates are obtained using lifetime earnings records maintained by the Social Security Administration. We use a standard econometric approach to develop forecasts of future individual

Barry Bosworth; Gary Burtless; Eugene Steuerle

2002-01-01

407

Loop topology based white light interferometric fiber optic sensor network for application of perimeter security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A loop topology based white light interferometric sensor network for perimeter security has been designed and demonstrated. In the perimeter security sensing system, where fiber sensors are packaged in the suspended cable or buried cable, a bi-directional optical path interrogator is built by using Michelson or Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A practical implementation of this technique is presented by using an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source and standard single mode fiber, which are common in communication industry. The sensor loop topology is completely passive and absolute length measurements can be obtained for each sensing fiber segment so that it can be used to measure quasi-distribution strain perturbation. For the long distance perimeter monitoring, this technique not only extends the multiplexing potential, but also provides a redundancy for the sensing system. One breakdown point is allowed in the sensor loop because the sensing system will still work even if the embedded sensor loop breaks somewhere.

Yuan, Libo; Dong, Yongtao

2011-09-01

408

Neutron Generators Developed at LBNL for Homeland Security andImaging Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

Reijonen, Jani

2006-08-13

409

High-Resolution Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used in Homeland Security and Forensic Applications  

SciTech Connect

The technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect elements for a variety of homeland security applications such as nuclear materials identification and inventory,and forensic applications has been demonstrated. For nuclear materials applications, we detected and profiled metals in coatings that were used to encapsulate nuclear fuel. Multivariate analysis has been successfully employed in the quantification of elements present in treated wood and engineered wood composites. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications related to homeland security. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) are sufficient; (2) samples can be analyzed by LIBS very rapidly, and (3) biological materials such as human and animal bones and wood can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation. For forensic applications they have used LIBS to determine differences in animal and human bones. They have also applied this technique in the determination of counterfeit and non-counterfeit currency. They recently applied LIBS in helping to solve a murder case.

Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Martin, Rodger Carl [ORNL; Grissino-Mayer, Henri [ORNL

2006-01-01

410

Using a Secure Mobile Object Kernel as Operating System on Embedded Devices to Support the Dynamic Upload of Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the architecture of an autonomous, multi-purpose station which securely executes dynamically uploaded\\u000a applications. The station hardware is based on an embedded Java processor running the system software and applications. The\\u000a system software is built on top of a flexible, lightweight, efficient, and secure mobile object kernel, which is able to receive\\u000a mobile code and to

Walter Binder; Balázs Lichtl

2002-01-01

411

Reliability Applications of a Bivariate Exponential Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper examines some two-unit systems in which the lifetimes of the two units in service are not independent but depend upon one another in a particular way. This dependence is characterized by the bivariate exponential distribution of Marshall and Olk...

R. Harris

1966-01-01

412

Distributed geant4 simulation in medical and space science applications using DIANE framework and the GRID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed computing is one of the most important trends in IT which has recently gained significance for large-scale scientific applications. Distributed Analysis Environment (DIANE) [1] is a R&D study, focusing on semi-interactive parallel and remote data analysis and simulation, which has been conducted at CERN. DIANE provides necessary software infrastructure for parallel scientific applications in the master-worker model. Advanced error recovery policies, automatic book-keeping of distributed jobs and on-line monitoring and control tools are provided. DIANE makes a transparent use of a number of different middleware implementations such as load balancing service (LSF, PBS, GRID Resource Broker, Condor) and security service (GSI, Kerberos, openssh). A number of distributed Geant 4 simulations have been deployed and tested, ranging from interactive radiotherapy treatment planning using dedicated clusters in hospitals, to globally-distributed simulations of astrophysics experiments using the European Data Grid middleware. This paper describes the general concepts behind the DIANE framework and results of the first tests with distributed Geant 4 simulations.

Mo?cicki, Jakub T.; Guatelli, Susanna; Mantero, Alfonso; Pia, M. G.

2003-09-01

413

Terahertz continuous-wave transmission imaging system and its application in security inspections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terahertz continuous-wave transmission imaging system and its applications in security inspections are reported. A Gunn oscillator is utilized as emitter and an unbiased Schottky diode is employed as detector in this system. The sample is placed on an X-Y two-dimensional stage which is controlled by a computer. The intensity information of the terahertz wave after passing though the sample is collected by the Schottky diode and fed into the computer. Two-dimensional image is obtained by scanning the sample point by point. Compared with the terahertz pulse imaging system, this system is compact, simple, and portable. Tennis bat with sheath and knife in the box are imaged by using this system. The results obtained here show that this new technology can be widely used in security inspections.

Zhang, Yandong; Deng, Chao; Sun, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin

2008-03-01

414

Quasi-distributed sensing network based on coherence multiplexing and spatial division multiplexing for coal mine security monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system for coal-mine security monitoring is proposed in this paper. Based on\\u000a the coherence multiplexing (CM) and spatial division multiplexing (SDM) techniques, this hybrid sensing network can support\\u000a more than 40 sensors for quasi-distributed detection. It is demonstrated experimentally that the multiplexed sensing signal\\u000a of each sensor can be clearly distinguished by an

Tian-hao Xia; Wei-sheng Liu; Bin Zhou; Bo-bo Gu; Chun-sheng Yan

2010-01-01

415

Secure Mobile Code Computing Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code systems are technologies that allow applications to move their codes, and possibly the corresponding state, among the nodes of a wide area network. The code mobility is a flexible and powerful mechanism that can be exploited to build distributed applications in an internet scale. However, these new technologies capabilities come with inherent security hazards, both for the machines

KHALED E. A. NEGM; WAEL ADI; FAHEY ABD AL-WAHAB

416

Distributed Embedded Smart Cameras for Surveillance Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in computing, communication, and sensor technology are pushing the development of many new applications. This trend is especially evident in pervasive computing, sensor networks, and embedded systems. Smart cameras, one example of this innovation, are equipped with a high-performance onboard computing and communication infrastructure, combining video sensing, processing, and communications in a single embedded device. By providing access

Michael Bramberger; Andreas Doblander; Arnold Maier; Bernhard Rinner; Helmut Schwabach

2006-01-01

417

Analysis of thrips distribution: application of spatial statistics and ...  

Treesearch

Title: Analysis of thrips distribution: application of spatial statistics and Kriging ... analysis of such data assumes that the counts taken over space and time are ... Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During  ...

418

Some geometric applications of the beta distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? be the angle between a line and a “random” k-space in Euclidean n-space Rn. Then the random variable cos2 ? has the beta distribution. This result is applied to show (1) in Rnthere are exponentially many (in n) lines going through the origin so that any two of them are “nearly” perpendicular, (2) any N-point set of diameter

Peter Frankl; Hiroshi Maehara

1990-01-01

419

Technical section Interactive multimedia streams in distributed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed multimedia applications typically handle two different types of communication: request\\/reply interaction for control information as well as real-time streaming data. The CORBA Audio\\/Video Streaming Service provides a promising framework for the efficient development of such applications. In this paper, we discuss the CORBA-based design and implementation of Campus TV, a distributed television studio architecture. We analyze the performance of

Edouard Lamboray; Aaron Zollinger; Oliver G. Staadt; Markus Gross

420

APPLICATION OF THE BINGHAM DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION IN PALEOMAGNETIC STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fisherian statistical parameters are frequently published for paleomagnetic data that form elongate directional distributions, despite the fact that they are strictly applicable to circularly symmetric distributions. Thus the Bingham statistical parameters provide better approximation to elongate paleomagnetic data sets. Because the Bingham parameters also pertain to directions dispersed along a great circle, they supply a statistical basis for describing the

Tullis C. Onstott

1980-01-01

421

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK CALIBRATION: A REAL APPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method can be used in water network model calibration with a particular application to the Parma water distribution system. Parma is an important city in the north of Italy with about 160.000 inhabitants and about 87.000 water users. The water distribution network covers about 650 Km. The company that manages the water systems in Parma and

ANGELO BORZĚ; ELISA GERBINO; STEFANO BOVIS; MICHELE CORRADINI

422

Optimal Distribution System Horizon Planning–Part II: Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of a two-part paper in which application methods to enhance distribution horizon planning for a 20+ year period are described. The optimal horizon planning model encompasses all distribution design requirements for primary and secondary systems. The model formulation is described in the companion paper Part I. The model makes use of a generalized feeder layout

Robert H. Fletcher; Kai Strunz

2007-01-01

423

Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the end of 2012, U.S. wind turbines in distributed applications reached a 10-year cumulative installed capacity of more than 812 MW from more than 69,000 units across all 50 states. In 2012 alone, nearly 3,800 wind turbines totaling 175 MW of distribut...

A. C. Orrell B. H. Pro H. E. Rhodes-Weaver K. M. Sahl M. N. Gagne

2013-01-01

424

Application for fault location in electrical power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault location has been studied deeply for transmission lines due to its importance in power systems. Nowadays the problem of fault location on distribution systems is receiving special attention mainly because of the power quality regulations. In this context, this paper presents an application software developed in Matlabtrade that automatically calculates the location of a fault in a distribution power

S. Herraiz; J. Melendez; G. Ribugent; J. Sanchez; M. Castro

2007-01-01

425

A Distributed Key-Changing Mechanism for Secure Voice Over IP (VoIP) Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voice over IP (VoIP) has experienced tremendous growth in recent years due to its low cost and flexible service enhancement. However, it is vulnerable to security attack. The most popular solution to providing secure VoIP service is based on the advanced encryption standard (AES). The practice for AES-based solution is to adopt a common secret key negotiated during a VoIP

Chia-hui Wang; Mei-wen Li; Wanjiun Liao

2007-01-01

426

Adapting the Pretty Good Privacy Security Style to Power System Distributed Network Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system modernization with increasing operation automation and integration results in growing computer network access. This facilitates cyber-attackers' capabilities to assume control over power system operations that could cause serious blackouts. Security therefore becomes a critical issue for DNP3, a commonly used protocol for power system communications. This paper proposes cyber-security based on Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) for DNP3 to

T. Mander; Lin Wang; R. Cheung; F. Nabhani

2006-01-01

427

Ripley: automatically securing web 2.0 applications through replicated execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rich Internet applications are becoming increasingly distributed, as demonstrated by the popularity of AJAX or Web 2.0 applications such as Facebook, Google Maps, Hotmail and many others. A typ- ical multi-tier AJAX application consists, at the least, of a server- side component implemented in Java J2EE, PHP or ASP.NET and a client-side component running JavaScript. The resulting applica- tion is

K. Vikram; Abhishek Prateek; V. Benjamin Livshits

2009-01-01

428

Future trends in distributed applications and problem-solving environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Grid computing technologies and infrastructures are being developed, suitable ab- stractions, methods, and tools will become necessary to enable application development, and software development of the components of Grid Computing Environments. Grid Computing will enable distributed applications with large numbers of involved components with dynamic interactions. This requires new approaches to understand and manage structure and behaviour, and the

José C. Cunha; Omer F. Rana; Pedro D. Medeiros

2005-01-01

429

Practical Applications of Vehicle Control within the Distributed Processing Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the distributed processing environment the integration of dependent control structures must be designed to meet specific system and subsystem requirements. Moreover, globally integrating multiple time-critical control events into one system presents complications. This paper discusses the practical application of integrated vehicle controls using a MIL-STD 15538 data bus as its carrier medium. This application represents the first use of

Joseph A. Ruggirello; Dennis A. Bielawski; R. Gary Diaz

1992-01-01

430

CREAM: An Infrastructure for Distributed, Heterogeneous Event-Based Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications ranging from event-based supply chain man- agement to enterprise application integration and pervasive computing depend on the timely detection and notification of events. We present Cream the event-based reactive component of the Dream middleware platform. Here we address four key issues in distributed and heteroge- neous environments: event detection and notification, event composition, an active functionality service, and ontology

Mariano Cilia; Christof Bornhövd; Alejandro P. Buchmann

2003-01-01

431

Multicast Tree Diameter for Dynamic Distributed Interactive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latency reduction in distributed interactive appli- cations has been studied intensively. Such applications may have stringent latency requirements and dynamic user groups. We focus on using application-layer multicast with a centralized approach to the group management. The groups are organized in overlay networks that are created using graph algorithms. We investigate many spanning tree problems with particular focus on reducing

Knut-helge Vik; Pĺl Halvorsen; Carsten Griwodz

2008-01-01

432

An Integrated Solution for Secure Group Communication in Wide-Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many distributed applications require a secure reli- able group communication system to provide coordination among the application components. This paper describes a secure group layer (SGL) which bundles a reliable group communication system, a group authorization and access control mechanism, and a group key agreement protocol to provide a comprehensive and practical secure group com- munication platform. SGL also encapsulates

Deborah A. Agarwal; Olivier Chevassut; Mary R. Thompson; Gene Tsudik

2001-01-01

433

20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES...forms used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart...prescribed by the Social Security Administration for use by the public in applying for...

2013-04-01

434

Short period resonant dual-grating structures for applications to anisotropic color change securities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subwavelength grating with resonant behaviors can be used to exploit security productions with characteristics of anisotropic color variation, i.e., its color has been changed when the grating is rotated on its own plane. In this paper, a novel grating structure with potentials of broadening its spectral bandwidths and improving its color aspects is proposed and its design principles and fabrication methods are also provided. The design of it is completely based on rectangular gratings with a filling factor of 0.5, but the grating regions of fabricated structures have profiles of sinusoidal gratings. Reflection spectra of such two structures are simulated and compared using vector diffraction methods and compared. Moreover, a security grating with unique characteristics of color change has been successfully designed and fabricated, and the changes of color aspects of it have also been verified from both theory and experiment. The proposed structure and its related fabrication methods are feasible in practical application of security and have better values and potentials for mass productions through holographic embossing equipments.

Chen, Yongli; Liu, Wenxia

2011-04-01

435

THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 5 years, there has been a significant interest in employing terahertz (THz) technology, spectroscopy and imaging for security applications. There are three prime motivations for this interest: (a) THz radiation can detect concealed weapons since many non-metallic, non-polar materials are transparent to THz radiation; (b) target compounds such as explosives and illicit drugs have characteristic THz spectra that can be used to identify these compounds and (c) THz radiation poses no health risk for scanning of people. In this paper, stand-off interferometric imaging and sensing for the detection of explosives, weapons and drugs is emphasized. Future prospects of THz technology are discussed.

Federici, John F.; Schulkin, Brian; Huang, Feng; Gary, Dale; Barat, Robert; Oliveira, Filipe; Zimdars, David

2005-07-01

436

Distortion invariant correlation filters application for quality inspection of master-matrix for security holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Security holograms (SH) are perspective for document and product authenticity protection due to difficulties of such a protection mark falsification. Mass production of SH uses widespread technology of hot foil or lavsan paper stamping. The quality of holograms significantly depends on perfection of nickel master-matrix that is used in stamping equipment. We represent the method of automatic quality inspection of nickel master-matrix based on digital processing of its surface relief microphotographs. Proposed processing algorithm is based on combination of image spatial frequency analysis and image matching using distortion invariant correlation filters. The results of our method application for real SH master-matrices inspection are shown in this paper.

Zlokazov, Evgeny; Shaulskiy, Dmitriy; Starikov, Rostislav; Odinokov, Sergey; Zherdev, Alexander; Koluchkin, Vasiliy; Shvetsov, Ivan; Smirnov, Andrey

2013-03-01

437

NetStage\\/DPR: A Self-adaptable FPGA Platform for Application-Level Network Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasing transmission speeds in high-performance networks pose significant challenges to protecting the systems and networking\\u000a infrastructure. Reconfigurable devices have already been used with great success to implement lower-levels of appropriate\\u000a security measures (e.g., deep-packet inspection). We present a reconfigurable processing architecture capable of handling\\u000a even application-level tasks, and also able to autonomously adapt itself to varying traffic patterns using dynamic

Sascha Mühlbach; Andreas Koch

2011-01-01

438

System Support for Dynamic Layout of Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic application layout is the capability to move the components of a distributed program among different hosts during the execution of the application. This capability is essential for large-scale applications since it allows t o adapt them to changes in resource availability, which are common in wide-area environments. The FarGo system in- troduces a model for programming the layout of

Ophir Holder; Israel Ben-shaul; Hovav Gazit

1999-01-01

439

Mapping Linux Security Targets to Existing Test Suites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Criteria standard provides an infrastructure for evaluating security functions of IT products and for certifying\\u000a that security policies claimed by product suppliers are correctly enforced by the security functions themselves. Certifying\\u000a Open Source software (OSS) can pave the way to OSS adoption in a number of security-conscious application environments. Recent\\u000a experiences in certifying Linux distributions has pointed out

Claudio Agostino Ardagna; Ernesto Damiani; Nabil El Ioini; Fulvio Frati; Pietro Giovannini; Romaric Tchokpon

2008-01-01

440

Exploring Explicit Security Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security burden on the user can be lessened by automating security tasks or by making them more implicit (i.e., by embedding or mapping security actions to user tasks or applications). Doing so is in keeping with the reality that for users, security is almost never their primary goal. However, there seems to be a number security tasks which necessarily

Jennifer Stoll; Frank Park

441

Security extensions to DICOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure the acceptance of telemedical applications several obstacles must be overcome: the transfer of huge amounts of data over heterogeneous hard- and software platforms must be optimized; extended data post-processing is often required; and data security must be taken into consideration; post- processing based on secured data exchange must retain the relationship between original and post-processed images. To analyze and solve these problems, applications of distributed medical services were integrated. Data transfer and management was based on the Digital Imaging and Communications (DICOM) standard. To account for platform- independence of remote users, a novel DICOM server and viewer as implemented in JAVA. Different DICOM-conform data security concepts were analyzed. Encryption of the complete data stream using secure socket layers as well as a partial encryption concepts were tested. The best result was attained by a DICOM-conform encryption of patient-relevant data. The implementation medical services, which used newly develop techniques of magnetic resonance imaging, allowed a much earlier diagnosis of the human brain infarct. The integrated data security enabled remote segmentation within the unsecured internet, followed by storing the data back into the secured network.

Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Schaaf, Thorsten; Bellaire, Gunter; Tolxdorff, Thomas

1999-07-01

442

17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports...ACT OF 1933 General § 230.139 Publications or distributions of research reports...section, a broker's or dealer's publication or distribution of a...

2013-04-01

443

Providing Secure Access to Confidential Patient Information Detailing Diabetic Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can secure access be granted to confidential patient records using the Internet? Our study has involved providing distributed access to one such confidential information database in a United Kingdom (UK) secondary care (hospital) organisation. We describe the application chosen to be distributed, the security systems used to protect the data, the reasons for the implementation decisions made and the results

David W. Chadwick; John P. New; D. M. Mcdowall; Darren P. Mundy

2001-01-01

444

Security proof for quantum-key-distribution systems with threshold detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we rigorously prove the intuition that in security proofs for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol, one may regard an incoming signal to Bob as a qubit state. From this result, it follows that all security proofs for BB84 protocol based on a virtual qubit entanglement distillation protocol, which was originally proposed by Lo and Chau [Science 283, 2050 (1999)] and by Shor and Preskill [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000)], are all valid even if Bob’s actual apparatus cannot distill a qubit state explicitly. As a consequence, especially, the well-known result that a higher bit error rate of 20% can be tolerated for BB84 protocol by using two-way classical communications is still valid even when Bob uses threshold detectors. Using the same technique, we also prove the security of Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992 (BBM92) protocol where Alice and Bob both use threshold detectors.

Tsurumaru, Toyohiro; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

2008-09-01

445

ESC\\/Java2 as a Tool to Ensure Security in the Source Code of Java Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shows how extended static checking tools like ESC\\/Java2 can be used to ensure source code security properties of Java applications. It is demonstrated in a case study on a simple personal password manager. In case of such an application the ensuring of secu- rity is one of the most important goals. We present the possible threats connected with

Aleksy Schubert; Jacek Chrzaszcz

2006-01-01

446

Applications Analysis: Principles and Examples from Various Distributed Computer Applications at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

As information systems have become distributed over many computers within the enterprise, managing those applications has become increasingly important. This is an emerging area of work, recognized as such by many large organizations as well as many start-up companies. In this report, we present a summary of the move to distributed applications, some of the problems that came along for the ride, and some specific examples of the tools and techniques we have used to analyze distributed applications and gain some insight into the mechanics and politics of distributed computing.

Bateman, Dennis; Evans, David; Jensen, Dal; Nelson, Spencer

1999-08-01

447

High bandwidth real time frequency modulated (FM) video link for security and tactical applications  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing demand for in situ unmanned reconnaissance, security control, and intrusion detection, the capability of transmitting and receiving video information from remote locations has become of paramount importance. This capability can be achieved by appropriately deploying radio frequency (RF) video links which can readily be interfaced with sensors, humans, or other RF links. The video link described in this paper was designed and implemented for security and tactical applications which require a medium power, low complexity, rugged link capable of direct transmission and reception of FM modulated, high quality, full-color video signals in the low portion (470--806 MHz) of the UHF frequency band (300--3000 MHz). The transmitter portion of the link is tunable. It is of the direct modulation (FM and FR simultaneously) type. The receiver is of the direct detection type with no need for any downconversion. Both transmitter and receiver are currently being tested for mobile and fixed applications at the Sandia Robotic Vehicle Range. Ranges in excess of 10 Km and simultaneous transmission and reception of three adjacent channels have been achieved using omnidirectional antennas. 6 refs., 13 figs.

Lupinetti, F.

1988-01-01

448

High bandwidth real time frequency modulated (FM) video link for security and tactical applications  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing demand for in situ unmanned reconnaissance, security control, and intrusion detection, the capability of transmitting and receeiving video information from remote locations has become of paramount importance. This capability can be achieved by appropriately deploying radio frequency (RF) video links which can readily be interfaced with sensors, humans, or other RF links. The video link described in this paper was designed and implemented for security and tactical applications which require medium power, low complexity, rugged link capable of direct transmission and reception of FM modulated, high quality, full-color video signals in the low portion (470-806 MHz0 of the UHF frequency band (300-3000 MHz). The transmitter portion of the link is tubable. It is of the direct modulation (FM and RF simultaneously) type. The receiver is of the direct detection type with no need for any downconversion. Both transmitter and receiver are currently being tested for mobile and fixed applications at the Sandia Robotic Vehicle Rangle. Ranges in excess of 10 Km and simultaneous transmission and reception of three adjacent channels have been achieved using omnidirectional antennas.

Lupinetti, F.

1988-01-01

449

Secure wireless actuation of an implanted microvalve for drug delivery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to wirelessly control fluid flow through a microvalve can emerge as an attractive technology enabling various biomedical applications such as remote drug delivery and in vitro diagnostics. Contactless powering of such a microvalve is best addressed by near-field inductive coupling due to its close proximity to the external interrogator. In this paper, we propose the use of the same technique for secure remote interrogation and powering of a human implantable, surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlation-based, passive microvalve. This is carried out by interrogating the microvalve with a Barker sequence-encoded BPSK signal. A numerical and experimental analysis of the biotelemetry link for the microvalve was undertaken in the vicinity of numerical and physical human body phantoms, respectively. To accurately account for the path losses and to address the design optimization, the receiver coil/antenna was solved simultaneously with the transmitter coil/antenna in the presence of a human body simulant using three-dimensional, high frequency electromagnetic FEM modelling. The received relative signal strength was numerically and experimentally derived for a miniature (6 mm × 6 mm × 0.5 mm), square spiral antenna/coil when interrogated by a handheld 8 cm × 5 cm × 0.2 cm square spiral antenna/coil in the near-field. Finally, the experimental results agreed well with the FEM analysis predictions and hence ascertained the applicability of the developed system for secure interrogation and remote powering of the newly proposed microvalve.

Tikka, Ajay C.; Faulkner, Michael; Al-Sarawi, Said F.

2011-10-01

450

Securing recompense under nuisance law for crop damages from pesticide applications.  

PubMed

In areas where several crops are grown or where organic practices have been adopted, conflicts may arise due to the use of pesticides. Accompanying the use of specialized pesticides for individualized crops are possibilities that spray applications or volatilization will result in airborne pesticide particulates damaging nontarget crops. American jurisprudence provides several major causes of action that may be used to secure recompense for damages to crops from applications of pesticides. However, defenses and limitations for each of these causes of action create impediments that make recovery difficult. An evaluation of nuisance law discloses that defenses often preclude recoveries for damages to nontarget crops from airborne pesticide particulates. Policy makers may want to evaluate the defenses due to their interference with property rights. The defenses may discourage changes in crop production resulting in suboptimal uses of resources. PMID:22721686

Centner, Terence J

2012-06-20

451

Nanostructure based EO/IR sensor development for homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next Generation EO/IR focal plane arrays using nanostructure materials are being developed for a variety of Defense and Homeland Security Sensor Applications. Several different nanomaterials are being evaluated for these applications. These include ZnO nanowires, GaN Nanowires and II-VI nanowires, which have demonstrated large signal to noise ratio as a wide band gap nanostructure material in the UV band. Similarly, the work is under way using Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) for a high speed detector and focal plane array as two-dimensional array as bolometer for IR bands of interest, which can be implemented for the sensors for homeland security applications. In this paper, we will discuss the sensor design and model predicting performance of an EO/IR focal plane array and Sensor that can cover the UV to IR bands of interest. The model can provide a robust means for comparing performance of the EO/IR FPA's and Sensors that can operate in the UV, Visible-NIR (0.4- 1.8?), SWIR (2.0-2.5?), MWIR (3-5?), and LWIR bands (8-14?). This model can be used as a tool for predicting performance of nanostructure arrays under development. We will also discuss our results on growth and characterization of ZnO nanowires and CNT's for the next generation sensor applications. We also present several approaches for integrated energy harvesting using nanostructure based solar cells and Nanogenerators that can be used to supplement the energy required for nanostructure based sensors.

Sood, Ashok K.; Welser, Roger E.; Sood, Adam W.; Puri, Yash R.; Manzur, Tariq; Dhar, Nibir K.; Polla, Dennis L.; Wang, Zhong L.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.; Anwar, A. F. M.

2011-05-01

452

A Distributed Event-triggered Knowledge Sharing System for Agricultural Homeland Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government agencies globally are facing problems like illegal immigration, terrorism, and disease diagnostics and control. Solutions to these problems rely heavily on collaborating organizations' ability to effectively and efficiently share not only data but also knowledge embedded in organizational and inter-organizational policies, regulations, data and security constraints, processes and procedures. The United States Department of Agriculture has launched a multi-year

S. Degwekar; J. DePree; H. Beck; S. Y. W. Su

2007-01-01

453

Flexi-DNP3: Flexible distributed network protocol version 3 (DNP3) for SCADA security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legacy SCADA systems are inherently insecure. They were built using specialized and proprietary protocols and used serial link, radio or leased line for communication. As these protocols were little known and specific to the industry they catered to, security was not important for them. But, recently because of increased terrorist attacks and migration of these protocols to TCP\\/IP, they have

Sankalp Bagaria; Shashi Bhushan Prabhakar; Zia Saquib

2011-01-01

454

Maximizing an Organization's Information Security Posture by Distributed Assessment and Remedy of System Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updating systems for security vulnerabilities has become a cumbersome yet necessary evil in today's environment of zero- day exploits and ever-changing threat matrix. The current state of affairs for the vulnerability and threat management functions are in dire need of a solution that can rapidly assess systems for vulnerabilities and fix them expeditiously. This will guarantee the effective reconnaissance of

Yonesy F. Nuńez

2009-01-01

455

Inferno security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mechanisms used by Inferno to secure communications between machines. All security is optional: an application may use it or avoid it. Inferno provides strong mutual authentication message encryption, message digesting, and digital signatures. Authentication and digital signatures are performed using public key cryptography. Public keys are certified by Inferno-based certifying authorities that sign the public keys

David Leo Presotto

1997-01-01

456

Application-dependent Probability Distributions for Offshore Wind Speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The higher wind speeds of the offshore environment make it an attractive setting for future wind farms. With sparser field measurements, the theoretical probability distribution of short-term wind speeds becomes more important in estimating values such as average power output and fatigue load. While previous studies typically compare the accuracy of probability distributions using R2, we show that validation based on this metric is not consistent with validation based on engineering parameters of interest, namely turbine power output and extreme wind speed. Thus, in order to make the most accurate estimates possible, the probability distribution that an engineer picks to characterize wind speeds should depend on the design parameter of interest. We introduce the Kappa and Wakeby probability distribution functions to wind speed modeling, and show that these two distributions, along with the Biweibull distribution, fit wind speed samples better than the more widely accepted Weibull and Rayleigh distributions based on R2. Additionally, out of the 14 probability distributions we examine, the Kappa and Wakeby give the most accurate and least biased estimates of turbine power output. The fact that the 2-parameter Lognormal distribution estimates extreme wind speeds (i.e. fits the upper tail of wind speed distributions) with least error indicates that not one single distribution performs satisfactorily for all applications. Our use of a large dataset composed of 178 buoys (totaling ~72 million 10-minute wind speed observations) makes these findings highly significant, both in terms of large sample size and broad geographical distribution across various wind regimes. Boxplots of R2 from the fit of each of the 14 distributions to the 178 boy wind speed samples. Distributions are ranked from left to right by ascending median R2, with the Biweibull having the closest median to 1.

Morgan, E. C.; Lackner, M.; Vogel, R. M.; Baise, L. G.

2010-12-01

457

Resource optimization in distributed real-time multimedia applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research area of multimedia content analysis (MMCA) considers all aspects of the automated extraction of knowledge from\\u000a multimedia archives and data streams. To adhere to strict time constraints, large-scale multimedia applications typically\\u000a are being executed on distributed systems consisting of large collections of compute clusters. In a distributed scenario,\\u000a it is first essential to determine the optimal number of

Ran Yang; Robert D. van der Mei; Dennis Roubos; Frank J. Seinstra; Henri E. Bal

2011-01-01

458

Scaling social media applications into geo-distributed clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federation of geo-distributed cloud services is a trend in cloud computing which, by spanning multiple data centers at different geographical locations, can provide a cloud platform with much larger capacities. Such a geo-distributed cloud is ideal for supporting large-scale social media streaming applications (e.g., YouTube-like sites) with dynamic contents and demands, owing to its abundant on-demand storage\\/bandwidth capacities and geographical

Yu Wu; Chuan Wu; Bo Li; Linquan Zhang; Zongpeng Li; Francis C. M. Lau

2012-01-01

459

Network Security Validation Using Game Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-functional requirements (NFR) such as network security recently gained widespread attention in distributed information systems. Despite their importance however, there is no systematic approach to validate these requirements given the complexity and uncertainty characterizing modern networks. Traditionally, network security requirements specification has been the results of a reactive process. This however, limited the immunity property of the distributed systems that depended on these networks. Security requirements specification need a proactive approach. Networks' infrastructure is constantly under attack by hackers and malicious software that aim to break into computers. To combat these threats, network designers need sophisticated security validation techniques that will guarantee the minimum level of security for their future networks. This paper presents a game-theoretic approach to security requirements validation. An introduction to game theory is presented along with an example that demonstrates the application of the approach.

Papadopoulou, Vicky; Gregoriades, Andreas

460

Finite-key security against coherent attacks in quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Christandl et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 020504) provide, in particular, the possibility of studying unconditional security in the finite-key regime for all discrete-variable protocols. We spell out this bound from their general formalism. Then, we apply it in the analysis of a recently proposed protocol (Laing et al 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 012304). This protocol is meaningful when the alignment of Alice's and Bob's reference frames is not monitored and may vary with time. In this scenario, the notion of asymptotic key rate has hardly any operational meaning, because if one waits too long a time, the average correlations are smeared out and no security can be inferred. Therefore, finite-key analysis is necessary for finding the maximal achievable secret key rate and the corresponding optimal number of signals.

Sheridan, Lana; Phuc Le, Thinh; Scarani, Valerio

2010-12-01

461

Comparing the Impacts of Social Security Benefit Reductions on the Income Distribution of the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benefit reductions will likely be a part of the eventual Social Security reform in the United States. This research attempts to quantify the intragenerational and intergenerational impacts of different benefit reduction proposals on the incomes of the elderly. Reforms include across-the-board benefit cuts, price indexing, and reductions to the cost-of-living adjustment. Restoring the projected seventy-five year balance for the Trust

Wade Donald Pfau

2006-01-01

462

LIFETIME EARNINGS PATTERNS, THE DISTRIBUTION OF FUTURE SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS, AND THE IMPACT OF PENSION REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes an analysis of career earnings patterns deve loped for predicting the impact of Social Security reform. We produce estimates of age-earnings profiles of A merican men and women,born between 1931 and 1960. The,estimates are obtained using lifetime earnings records maintained by the Social Securit y Administration. We use a standard econometricapproach to develop forecasts of future

Barry Bosworth; Gary Burtless; Eugene Steuerle

1999-01-01

463

Pautas de Inocuidad y Seguridad para el Transporte y la Distribucion de Carne, Aves, y Productos de Huevo (FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FSIS Food Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products are designed to aid those handling food products during transportation and storage. These guidelines provide a list of safety and secur...

2005-01-01

464

Scheduling Distributed Applications: the SimGrid Simulation Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of distributed computer systems an active field of research has been the inves- tigation of scheduling strategies for parallel applications. The common approach is to employ scheduling heuris- tics that approximate an optimal schedule. Unfortu- nately, it is often impossible to obtain analytical results to compare the ecacy of these heuristics. One possi- bility is to conducts

Arnaud Legrand; Loris Marchal; Henri Casanova

2003-01-01

465

Evaluation of CORBA and Web Services in distributed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of computer systems have been widely used in such applications, scientific, manufacturing and business. The main idea of distributed computing systems is to use a client-server architecture in combination with remote method invocation. The invocation of these methods is to send data from a client to a server for processing and then the server returns data to the

Sotomayor-Olmedo Artemio; Barriga-Rodriguez Leonardo; Jimenez-Hernandez Hugo; Moya-Morales J. Carlos; Pedraza-Ortega J. Carlos

2012-01-01

466

Electrical power distribution system operating experience review for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes safety research on electrical distribution systems applicable to fusion facilities. Electrical power has many uses in both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments; it is the most important support system for any fusion experiment. Electricity powers a wide variety of plant equipment, including vacuum pumps, magnets, coolant pumps, air handlers, compressors, and either plasma heating or target implosion

L. C Cadwallader

2002-01-01

467

Multi-color IR sensors based on QWIP technology for security and surveillance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature targets are detected at the furthest distance by imaging them in the long wavelength (LW: 8-12 ?m) infrared spectral band where they glow brightest. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) have sensitivity, noise, and cost metrics that have enabled them to become the best commercial solution for certain security and surveillance applications. Recently, QWIP technology has advanced to provide pixelregistered dual-band imaging in both the midwave (MW: 3-5 ?m) and longwave infrared spectral bands in a single chip. This elegant technology affords a degree of target discrimination as well as the ability to maximize detection range for hot targets (e.g. missile plumes) by imaging in the midwave and for room-temperature targets (e.g. humans, trucks) by imaging in the longwave with one simple camera. Detection-range calculations are illustrated and FPA performance is presented.

Sundaram, Mani; Reisinger, Axel; Dennis, Richard; Patnaude, Kelly; Burrows, Douglas; Cook, Robert; Bundas, Jason

2006-06-01

468

Modeling and simulation for small system integration of military and homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly productive approach to small systems design and integration (SSDI), and modeling and simulation (M&S), based on rapid/interactive prototyping has been effectively used at Physical Optics Corporation (POC) to support small system development of "intellectual products" that cover a broad range of electromagnetic spectra (X-ray, optical, infrared, and microwave). In particular, the implementation of an accelerated interactive modeling (AIM) environment produces effective engineering solutions for tackling difficult and complex technical issues for combining 3D mechanical design and microwave engineering. In addition, using established small systems engineering principles and the effective use of collaborative input at the start of a development effort that incorporates a diverse range of areas like optics, mechanics, electronics, software, thermal modeling, electromagnetism, surface chemistry, and manufacturing plays an important role in the success of future military and homeland security applications.

Bennahmias, Mark; Esterkin, Vladimir; Lee, Kang; Koziol, Richard; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Savant, Gajendra; Jannson, Tomasz

2007-05-01

469

Update on NRF Measurements on ^237Np for National Security and Safeguards Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) uses ? rays to excite nuclear levels and measure their properties. This provides a unique isotopic signature, and can be used to identify and assay material. This is particularly important for applications that detect the smuggling of nuclear material or the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs, both of which present grave risks to world security. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions potentially making it an attractive material for covert weapon programs. This talk will present the final results of two measurements of NRF on ^237Np using a bremsstrahlung photon source. 15 NRF states have been identified between 1.5 and 2.5 MeV excitation energy.

Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, R.; Swanberg, E.; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G.; Hicks, C. L., Jr.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Bray, T. H.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

2010-11-01

470

Sensor-enabled chem/bio contamination detection system dedicated to situational awareness of water distribution security status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both real events and models have proven that drinking water systems are vulnerable to deliberate and/or accidental contamination. Additionally, homeland security initiatives and modeling efforts have determined that it is relatively easy to orchestrate the contamination of potable water supplies. Such contamination can be accomplished with classic and non-traditional chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and/or toxic industrial materials (TIMs). Subsequent research and testing has developed a proven network for detection and response to these threats. The method uses offthe- shelf, broad-spectrum analytical instruments coupled with advanced interpretive algorithms. The system detects and characterizes any backflow events involving toxic contaminants by employing unique chemical signature (fingerprint) response data. This instrumentation has been certified by the Office of Homeland Security for detecting deliberate and/or accidental contamination of critical water infrastructure. The system involves integration of several mature technologies (sensors, SCADA, dynamic models, and the HACH HST Guardian Blue instrumentation) into a complete, real-time, management system that also can be used to address other water distribution concerns, such as corrosion. This paper summarizes the reasons and results for installing such a distribution-based detection and protection system.

Ginsberg, Mark D.; Smith, Eddy D.; Vanblaricum, Vicki; Hock, Vincent F.; Kroll, Dan; Russell, Kevin J.

2010-04-01

471

75 FR 47320 - Millington Securities, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...have discretion as to when portfolio securities of a Series...cost-efficient means of investing in a professionally selected, diversified portfolio of securities of investment...additional expenses of investing in Funds. B....

2010-08-05

472

SECURORS (Security Officer Response Strategies) Application to a Generic Nuclear Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Security Officer Response Strategies (SECURORS) technique is applied to a nine-level generic nuclear power plant to determine security officer deployment locations within the facility subsequent to detection of adversary intrusion. Extensive use has b...

S. L. K. Rountree

1983-01-01

473

78 FR 29733 - Applications for New Awards; Promoting the Readiness of Minors in Supplemental Security Income...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supplemental Security Income (SSI...from high school ready for...employment in an integrated...improving post-school outcomes for...assist States in improving...Supplemental Security Income: Better...student's Social Security number, student...alone or in combination...person in the school...

2013-05-21

474

The Application of Data Warehouse Technology In Security Assessment Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make full use of the historical data which is evaluated in the security assessment work of power supply enterprise, the data has been re-analyzed and organized. The data warehouse for security assessment was built based on the existing security assessment management system. The data cube of the star type mode was introduced, and the data information was

Pan Shou-fei; Lei Xia; Ji Er-yun

2010-01-01

475

Application of integer programming to the deployment of security officers within a generic nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SECURity Officer Response Strategies (SECURORS) approach provides a method for determining security force deployment locations within a nuclear power plant to interrupt sequences of adversary actions which could lead to a radioactive release. The technique is applied to a nine-level generic nuclear power plant to determine locations for deployment subsequent to detection of an adversary intrusion. The security officers

Rountree; S. L. K

1983-01-01

476

GridSec: Trusted Grid Computing with Security Binding and Self-defense Against Network Worms and DDoS Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USC GridSec project develops distributed security infrastructure and self-defense capabilities to secure wide-area networked resource sites participating in a Grid application. We report new developments in trust modeling, security-binding methodology, and defense architecture against intrusions, worms, and flooding attacks. We propose a novel architectural design of Grid security infrastructure, security binding for enhanced Grid efficiency, distributed collaborative IDS and

Kai Hwang; Yu-kwong Kwok; Shanshan Song; Min Cai Yu Chen; Ying Chen; Runfang Zhou; Xiaosong Lou

2005-01-01

477

Meeting the ONCHIT population health mandate: a proposed model for security in selective transportable distributed environments.  

PubMed

Goal Two of the US ONCHIT Plan focuses on enabling the use of electronic health information for critical health improvement activities that promote the health of targeted communities, and the US population as a whole. Because of the focus on communities and populations, the activities under this second goal differ fundamentally from those of the first goal, which focus on the care of individuals. Proposed here is a model for health information management in such population-based environments, which allows selective access and use of information, and maintains transportability while ensuring security and confidentiality. PMID:20703910

Lorence, Daniel; Chin, John; Richards, Michael

2009-03-10

478

Apple's Leopard Versus Microsoft's Windows XP: Experimental Evaluation of Apple's Leopard Operating System with Windows XP-SP2 under Distributed Denial of Service Security Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple's iMac computers are promoted by Apple Inc. to be secure, safe, virus free, and fast computers. In this experimental paper, we evaluate the security offered by the iMac with its usual Leopard Operating System, against different Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in a Gigabit LAN environment. We compared the effect of DDoS attacks on Leopard OS against those

Sirisha Surisetty; Sanjeev Kumar

2011-01-01

479

Some applications of the fractional Poisson probability distribution  

SciTech Connect

Physical and mathematical applications of the recently invented fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers of the second kind. The appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been introduced and applied to evaluate the skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A representation of the Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of the quantum optics and the theory of combinatorial numbers.

Laskin, Nick [TopQuark Inc., Toronto, Ontario M6P 2P2 (Canada)

2009-11-15

480

New efficient user identification and key distribution scheme providing enhanced security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from user identification and key distribution, it is very useful for the login process to achieve user anonymity. Recently, Wu and Hsu proposed an efficient user identification scheme with key distribution while preserving user anonymity by extending an earlier work of Lee and Chang. We however find out that the Wu and Hsu scheme has a serious weakness, which

Yanjiang Yang; Shuhong Wang; Feng Bao; Jie Wang; Robert Huijie Deng

2004-01-01

481

Using a Secure Java Micro-kernel on Embedded Devices for the Reliable Execution of Dynamically Uploaded Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the architecture of an autonomous, multipurpose station, which executes dynamically uploaded applications.\\u000a The station hardware is based on an embedded Java processor, which runs the system software and applications. The system software\\u000a is built on top of a flexible, lightweight, efficient, and secure mobile object platform, which is able to receive mobile\\u000a code and to execute it,

Walter Binder; Balázs Lichtl

2002-01-01

482

Vectorized presentation-level services for scientific distributed applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of heterogeneous distributed systems is a promising approach to significantly increase computational performance of scientific applications. However, one key to this strategy is to minimize the percentage of lime spent by an application moving data between machines. This percentage is composed of two parts: (1) the time to translate data between the formats used on different machines, and (2) the time to move data over the network that interconnects the machines. Previous work suggests that data format conversion activity, generally known as presentation-level services, is by far the more costly of the two. In this paper we describe how vectorization can be used to improve presentation-level performance in scientific applications by one or two orders of magnitude over the conventional approach. While others have recognized the advantages of vectorized data format conversion, we describe how to automate this process so that an application programmer need not explicitly call vectorization routines. We explore the impact of presentation-level vectorization on software portability, programming efficiency and protocol standards. We compare our performance results with those of two other popular distributed application programming tools and then summarize the lessons we have learned during the course of our research.

Stanberry, L.C.; Branstetter, M.L.; Nessett, D.M.

1993-03-01

483

Lanthanum Halide Scintillators and Optical Fiber Readout for X-Ray Astronomy and National Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Hole Finder Probe (BHFP) mission is intended to survey the local Universe for black holes. One approach to such a survey is a hard X-ray coded aperture imaging telescope operating in the 20 - 600 keV energy band. A sensitive hard X-ray/gamma ray imaging telescope is also well suited to surveillance applications searching for shielded sources of illicit nuclear materials, for example "dirty bomb" materials being smuggled into a harbor or city. The development of new inorganic scintillator materials (e.g., LaBr3 and LaCl3) provides improved energy resolution and timing performance that is well suited to the requirements for these national security and astrophysics applications. LaBr3 or LaCl3 detector arrays coupled with waveshifting fiber optic readout represent a significant advance in the performance capabilities of scintillator-based gamma cameras and provide the potential for a feasible approach to affordable, large area, extremely sensitive detectors. We describe the Coded Aperture Survey Telescope for Energetic Radiation (CASTER), a mission concept for a BHFP, and the High Sensitivity Gamma Ray Imager (HiSGRI), a device intended for surveillance for nuclear materials, and present laboratory test results demonstrating the expected scintillator performance.

Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Welch, Christopher E.

2006-04-01

484

Utilizing the IEEE 802.16 standard for homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors are developing a flexible sensor network with numerous potential uses. This paper presents one constructive application of the sensor integration platform and network. The theory of operation is as follows. Multiple sensing/processing nodes are scattered about a 30-­mile radius on land. Each node has the capability to handle up to a few different sensors based on user needs. The nodes operate autonomously while continuously acquiring data and process the information locally. The information deemed relevant to the system operator is uplinked to a base station at optimal intervals. Further data collection takes place at the base station where an operator can take appropriate action. Communication between the base station and nodes is based upon the emerging IEEE 802.16 standard. This enables broadband level information transfer at ranges capable of covering entire metropolitan areas. The application discussed in this paper is a homeland security monitoring system. This system would make use of a variety of nodes to collect data from surveillance cameras at border crossings and high value assets, water contamination sensors, weather sensors, and other sensors the user sees necessary. A technical description of the system architecture, its benefits, and limitations will be included. The utility of the 802.16 standard will also be incorporated in the paper.

Rathgeb, Brian; Cheng, Qiang

2005-05-01

485

Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications.  

SciTech Connect

With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors.

Klann, R. T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division; DHS

2009-10-01

486

System-on-chip-centric unattended embedded sensors in homeland security and defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System-on-chip (SoC) single-die electronic integrated circuit (IC) integration has recently been attracting a great deal of attention, due to its high modularity, universality, and relatively low fabrication cost. The SoC also has low power consumption and it is naturally suited to being a base for integration of embedded sensors. Such sensors can run unattended, and can be either commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic, COTS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or optical-COTS or produced in house (i.e., at Physical Optics Corporation, POC). In the version with the simplest electronic packaging, they can be integrated with low-power wireless RF that can communicate with a central processing unit (CPU) integrated in-house and installed on the specific platform of interest. Such a platform can be a human body (for e-clothing), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), or many others. In this paper we discuss SoC-centric embedded unattended sensors in Homeland Security and military applications, including specific application scenarios (or CONOPS). In one specific example, we analyze an embedded polarization optical sensor produced in house, including generalized Lambertian light-emitting diode (LED) sources and secondary nonimaging optics (NIO).

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Esterkin, Vladimir

2009-05-01

487

Secure Spread: An Integrated Architecture for Secure Group Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group communication systems are high-availability distributed systems providing reliable and ordered message delivery, as well as a membership service, to group-oriented applications. Many such systems are built using a distributed client-server architecture where a relatively small set of servers provide service to numerous clients. In this work, we show how group communication systems can be enhanced with security services without

Yair Amir; Cristina Nita-rotaru; Jonathan Robert Stanton; Gene Tsudik

2005-01-01

488

Using Java Applets and CORBA for Distributed Application Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Java language environment, the World-Wide Web (WWW), and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) are complementary software technologies. When used together they pro- vide a powerful set of tools for developing and deploying user-oriented distributed applications. We set out to establish whether we could develop reasonably sophisticated client software as WWW-download- able Java Applets, which would use

Eric Evans; Daniel Rogers

1996-01-01

489

Topologies and design considerations for distributed power system applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes developments in the technology of converters primarily intended for server-type distributed power system (DPS) applications. The paper first addresses the single-phase two-stage DPS, discussing the available options for simple power factor correction and high-performance DC-DC converters. Next, the concept is extended to three-phase high-power front-end converters, which also use a two-stage approach. Finally the paper presents the

FRED C. LEE; PETER BARBOSA; Peng Xu; Jindong Zhang; Bo Yang; FRANCISCO CANALES

2001-01-01

490

Application of Artificial Intelligence Technique in Distributed Generation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief description of current situation of distributed generation system, and points out that microgrid\\u000a can run in two kinds of operation modes. The key problems which need to be cautiously considered exist in each operation mode\\u000a are summarized, and advanced artificial intelligence techniques are adopted to solve those problems as effective tools. The\\u000a application situation and

Guoqing Weng; Youbing Zhang; Yi Hu

2009-01-01

491

Application of geographic information system in distribution power network automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information system (GIS) is the computer system in support of computer software with collection, storage, management, retrieval and comprehensive analysis of a variety of geospatial information, with various forms output data and graphics products. This paper introduced GIS data organization and its main applications in distribution power network automation, including both offline and online, and proposed component-based system development model and the need to establish WEBGIS and reliability.

Wei, Xianmin

2011-01-01

492

ASX: An Object-Oriented Framework for Developing Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ADAPTIVE Service eXecutive (ASX) is a highly modular and extensible object-oriented framework that simplifies the development and configuration of distributed applications on shared memory multi-processor platforms. This paper describes the structure and functionality of theASX frame- work's object-oriented architecture. In addition, the paper presents the results of performance experiments conducted using ASX-based implementations of connection-oriented and connectionless protocols from

Douglas C. Schmidt

1994-01-01

493

Determining Global Population Distribution: Methods, Applications and Data  

PubMed Central

Evaluating the total numbers of people at risk from infectious disease in the world requires not just tabular population data, but data that are spatially explicit and global in extent at a moderate resolution. This review describes the basic methods for constructing estimates of global population distribution with attention to recent advances in improving both spatial and temporal resolution. To evaluate the optimal resolution for the study of disease, the native resolution of the data inputs as well as that of the resulting outputs are discussed. Assumptions used to produce different population data sets are also described, with their implications for the study of infectious disease. Lastly, the application of these population data sets in studies to assess disease distribution and health impacts is reviewed. The data described in this review are distributed in the accompanying DVD.

Balk, D.L.; Deichmann, U.; Yetman, G.; Pozzi, F.; Hay, S.I.; Nelson, A.

2011-01-01

494

Communicating Uncertainty about Climate Change for Application to Security Risk Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of climate change has convincingly demonstrated that human activities, including the release of greenhouse gases, land-surface changes, particle emissions, and redistribution of water, are changing global and regional climates. Consequently, key institutions are now concerned about the potential social impacts of climate change. For example, the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report from the U.S. Department of Defense states that "climate change, energy security, and economic stability are inextricably linked." Meanwhile, insured losses from climate and weather-related natural disasters have risen dramatically over the past thirty years. Although these losses stem largely from socioeconomic trends, insurers are concerned that climate change could exacerbate this trend and render certain types of climate risk non-diversifiable. Meanwhile, the climate science community-broadly defined as physical, biological, and social scientists focused on some aspect of climate change-remains largely focused scholarly activities that are valued in the academy but not especially useful to decision makers. On the other hand, climate scientists who engage in policy discussions have generally permitted vested interests who support or oppose climate policies to frame the discussion of climate science within the policy arena. Such discussions focus on whether scientific uncertainties are sufficiently resolved to justify policy and the vested interests overstate or understate key uncertainties to support their own agendas. Consequently, the scientific community has become absorbed defending scientific findings to the near exclusion of developing novel tools to aid in risk-based decision-making. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established expressly for the purpose of informing governments, has largely been engaged in attempts to reduce unavoidable uncertainties rather than helping the world's governments define a science-based risk-management framework for climate security. The IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report concluded that "Responding to climate change involves an iterative risk management process that includes both adaptation and miti