Science.gov

Sample records for secure distributed applications

  1. Ripley: Automatically Securing Distributed Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    , adjust their quantities, add coupons, compute the shopping cart totals, etc. When run on the clientScript-based shopping cart within a typical e-commerce retail site such as Amazon.com that allows the user to add items, this application can be compromised in a variety of ways. For instance, coupon validation checks can be dodged

  2. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  3. Design and Applications of a Secure and Decentralized Distributed Hash Table

    E-print Network

    , creating many fake identities is cheap; (2) an attacker can subvert periodic routing table maintenanceDesign and Applications of a Secure and Decentralized Distributed Hash Table by Christopher T and Applications of a Secure and Decentralized Distributed Hash Table by Christopher T. Lesniewski-Laas Submitted

  4. Unidirectional Key Distribution Across Time and Space with Applications to RFID Security

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Unidirectional Key Distribution Across Time and Space with Applications to RFID Security Ari Juels problem, however, is that of practical key management in RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification) systems. We describe the application of our techniques to RFID-enabled supply chains and a prototype privacy

  5. Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2007-08-30

    Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

  6. Security of Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Renato Renner

    2006-01-11

    We propose various new techniques in quantum information theory, including a de Finetti style representation theorem for finite symmetric quantum states. As an application, we give a proof for the security of quantum key distribution which applies to arbitrary protocols.

  7. Coupling Lemma and Its Application to The Security Analysis of Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Kentaro Kato

    2015-05-23

    It is known that the coupling lemma provides a useful tool in the study of probability theory and its related areas. It describes the relation between the variational distance of two probability distributions and the probability that outcomes from the two random experiments associated with each distribution are not identical. In this paper, the failure probability interpretation problem that has been presented by Yuen and Hirota is discussed from the viewpoint of the application of the coupling lemma. First, we introduce the coupling lemma, and investigate properties of it. Next, it is shown that the claims for this problem in the literatures are justified by using the coupling lemma. Consequently, we see that the failure probability interpretation is not adequate in the security analysis of quantum key distribution.

  8. Multipartite secure state distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J.; Calsamiglia, J.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

  9. Quantum key distribution with delayed privacy amplification and its application to security proof of a two-way deterministic protocol

    E-print Network

    Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Xiongfeng Ma; H. F. Chau; Qing-yu Cai

    2012-03-09

    Privacy amplification (PA) is an essential post-processing step in quantum key distribution (QKD) for removing any information an eavesdropper may have on the final secret key. In this paper, we consider delaying PA of the final key after its use in one-time pad encryption and prove its security. We prove that the security and the key generation rate are not affected by delaying PA. Delaying PA has two applications: it serves as a tool for significantly simplifying the security proof of QKD with a two-way quantum channel, and also it is useful in QKD networks with trusted relays. To illustrate the power of the delayed PA idea, we use it to prove the security of a qubit-based two-way deterministic QKD protocol which uses four states and four encoding operations.

  10. Distributed network of integrated 3D sensors for transportation security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejmadi, Vic; Garcia, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The US Port Security Agency has strongly emphasized the needs for tighter control at transportation hubs. Distributed arrays of miniature CMOS cameras are providing some solutions today. However, due to the high bandwidth required and the low valued content of such cameras (simple video feed), large computing power and analysis algorithms as well as control software are needed, which makes such an architecture cumbersome, heavy, slow and expensive. We present a novel technique by integrating cheap and mass replicable stealth 3D sensing micro-devices in a distributed network. These micro-sensors are based on conventional structures illumination via successive fringe patterns on the object to be sensed. The communication bandwidth between each sensor remains very small, but is of very high valued content. Key technologies to integrate such a sensor are digital optics and structured laser illumination.

  11. Secure key storage and distribution

    DOEpatents

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  12. Secure Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Hoi-Kwong Lo; Marcos Curty; Kiyoshi Tamaki

    2015-05-20

    Secure communication plays a crucial role in the Internet Age. Quantum mechanics may revolutionise cryptography as we know it today. In this Review Article, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After a brief introduction to recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and counter-measures against it.

  13. Secure quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  14. Application Security Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  15. Design and applications of a secure and decentralized Distributed Hash Table

    E-print Network

    Lesniewski-Laas, Christopher T. (Christopher Tur), 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) are a powerful building block for highly scalable decentralized systems. They route requests over a structured overlay network to the node responsible for a given key. DHTs are subject to the ...

  16. Estimation of Policy Effects and Counterfactual Distributions: An Application to Food Security Analysis in Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Navas Alban, Paul

    2015-08-10

    of estimation of policy effects presented previously, the vari- able of interest in this case is the outcome, Y . In the counterfactual setup, given a treatment or source of variation, one has the variable Yi for the subject i, with its potential outcomes Yt... differentiability and local approximation properties. The extension of the delta method to this setup is based on the intuitive idea of von Mises calculus, which asserts that a first order approximation of the empirical distribution or function- als thereof...

  17. Security Data Warehouse Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, Lynn R.; Hennan, Robert; Ortiz, Chris; Gonzalez, Steve; Roane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Security Data Warehouse (SDW) is used to aggregate and correlate all JSC IT security data. This includes IT asset inventory such as operating systems and patch levels, users, user logins, remote access dial-in and VPN, and vulnerability tracking and reporting. The correlation of this data allows for an integrated understanding of current security issues and systems by providing this data in a format that associates it to an individual host. The cornerstone of the SDW is its unique host-mapping algorithm that has undergone extensive field tests, and provides a high degree of accuracy. The algorithm comprises two parts. The first part employs fuzzy logic to derive a best-guess host assignment using incomplete sensor data. The second part is logic to identify and correct errors in the database, based on subsequent, more complete data. Host records are automatically split or merged, as appropriate. The process had to be refined and thoroughly tested before the SDW deployment was feasible. Complexity was increased by adding the dimension of time. The SDW correlates all data with its relationship to time. This lends support to forensic investigations, audits, and overall situational awareness. Another important feature of the SDW architecture is that all of the underlying complexities of the data model and host-mapping algorithm are encapsulated in an easy-to-use and understandable Perl language Application Programming Interface (API). This allows the SDW to be quickly augmented with additional sensors using minimal coding and testing. It also supports rapid generation of ad hoc reports and integration with other information systems.

  18. A secure communications infrastructure for high-performance distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Koenig, G.; Tuecke, S.

    1997-08-01

    Applications that use high-speed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers, databases, and scientific instruments may operate over open networks and access valuable resources. Hence, they can require mechanisms for ensuring integrity and confidentially of communications and for authenticating both users and resources. Security solutions developed for traditional client-server applications do not provide direct support for the program structures, programming tools, and performance requirements encountered in these applications. The authors address these requirements via a security-enhanced version of the Nexus communication library; which they use to provide secure versions of parallel libraries and languages, including the Message Passing Interface. These tools permit a fine degree of control over what, where, and when security mechanisms are applied. In particular, a single application can mix secure and nonsecure communication, allowing the programmer to make fine-grained security/performance tradeoffs. The authors present performance results that quantify the performance of their infrastructure.

  19. Information SecurityInformation Security--Applications andApplications and

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Farid

    ScenariosApplication Scenarios Secure ProgrammingSecure Programming Multimedia Data Security using DWMMultimedia Data Security using DWM Research AgendasResearch Agendas Security Awareness, Training of Information SecuritySecurity Network SecurityNetwork Security PGP, SSL,PGP, SSL, IPsecIPsec Data SecurityData

  20. Lecture 3: Web Application Security

    E-print Network

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Computer security has been an increasing concern for IT professionals for a number of years, yet despite all the efforts, computer systems and networks remain highly vulnerable to attacks of different kinds. Design flaws and security bugs in the underlying software are among the main reasons for this. This lecture focuses on security aspects of Web application development. Various vulnerabilities typical to web applications (such as Cross-site scripting, SQL injection, cross-site request forgery etc.) are introduced and discussed. Sebastian Lopienski is CERN’s deputy Computer Security Officer. He works on security strategy and policies; offers internal consultancy and audit services; develops and maintains security tools for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection; provides training and awareness raising; and does incident investigation and response. During his work at CERN since 2001, Sebastian has had various assignments, including designing and developing software to manage and support servic...

  1. Big Ideas Paper: Enforcing End-to-end Application Security

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    's address space. To see why this is necessary, consider healthcare data. These may be sensitive for a humanBig Ideas Paper: Enforcing End-to-end Application Security in the Cloud Jean Bacon1 , David Evans1-to-end secure, distributed software by means of thorough, relentless tagging of the security meaning of data

  2. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  3. Integrating security in a group oriented distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, Michael; Birman, Kenneth; Gong, LI

    1992-01-01

    A distributed security architecture is proposed for incorporation into group oriented distributed systems, and in particular, into the Isis distributed programming toolkit. The primary goal of the architecture is to make common group oriented abstractions robust in hostile settings, in order to facilitate the construction of high performance distributed applications that can tolerate both component failures and malicious attacks. These abstractions include process groups and causal group multicast. Moreover, a delegation and access control scheme is proposed for use in group oriented systems. The focus is the security architecture; particular cryptosystems and key exchange protocols are not emphasized.

  4. INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Application-Centric Security

    E-print Network

    Sandhu, Ravi

    Data Collection for Innovation Analysis 1 Centric Security: How to Get There Prof. Ravi SandhuINSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Application-Centric Security: How to Get There Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security (ICS) University of Texas at San Antonio

  5. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  6. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  7. Distributed Middleware Enforcement of Event Flow Security Policy

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    , frequently stemming from data pro- tection laws. Such policies often refer to the flow of sensitive dataDistributed Middleware Enforcement of Event Flow Security Policy Matteo Migliavacca1 , Ioannis requirements. Ideally, developers want to express secu- rity policy for such applications in data-centric terms

  8. SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Application for a Social Security Card

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Application for a Social Security Card Applying for a Social Security Card is easy AND it is FREE! If you DO NOT follow these instructions, we CANNOT process your the items as they apply to that person. 2. Show an address where you can receive the card 10 to 14 days from

  9. The Security of Practical Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Valerio Scarani; Helle Bechmann-Pasquinucci; Nicolas J. Cerf; Miloslav Dusek; Norbert Lutkenhaus; Momtchil Peev

    2009-09-30

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is the first quantum information task to reach the level of mature technology, already fit for commercialization. It aims at the creation of a secret key between authorized partners connected by a quantum channel and a classical authenticated channel. The security of the key can in principle be guaranteed without putting any restriction on the eavesdropper's power. The first two sections provide a concise up-to-date review of QKD, biased toward the practical side. The rest of the paper presents the essential theoretical tools that have been developed to assess the security of the main experimental platforms (discrete variables, continuous variables and distributed-phase-reference protocols).

  10. Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test bed is expected to demonstrate NPSS CORBASec-specific policy functionality, confirm adequate performance, and validate the required Internet configuration in a distributed collaborative aerospace propulsion environment.

  12. Distributed Security Algorithms for Mobile Agents

    E-print Network

    Santoro, Nicola

    , and possibly the most difficult to address. In particular, specific severe security threats are those posed Introduction Mobile agents have been extensively studied for several years by researchers in Artificial Intelligence and in Software Engineering. They offer a simple and natural way to describe distributed settings

  13. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  14. Unconditional Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Practical Devices

    E-print Network

    Hupkes, Hermen Jan

    Unconditional Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Practical Devices H.J. Hupkes Mathematical for the unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol which was given by Mayers. We remove proof for the unconditional security of a quantum key distribution protocol, which was given by Mayers

  15. Unconditional Security of Practical Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    H. J. Hupkes

    2004-02-23

    We present an extension of the first proof for the unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol which was given by Mayers. We remove the constraint that a perfect BB84 quantum source is required and the proof given here covers a range of practical quantum sources. Nothing is assumed about the detector except that the efficiency with which signals are detected is basis independent.

  16. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  17. Derived virtual devices: a secure distributed file system mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanMeter, Rodney; Hotz, Steve; Finn, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the design of derived virtual devices (DVDs). DVDs are the mechanism used by the Netstation Project to provide secure shared access to network-attached peripherals distributed in an untrusted network environment. DVDs improve Input/Output efficiency by allowing user processes to perform I/O operations directly from devices without intermediate transfer through the controlling operating system kernel. The security enforced at the device through the DVD mechanism includes resource boundary checking, user authentication, and restricted operations, e.g., read-only access. To illustrate the application of DVDs, we present the interactions between a network-attached disk and a file system designed to exploit the DVD abstraction. We further discuss third-party transfer as a mechanism intended to provide for efficient data transfer in a typical NAP environment. We show how DVDs facilitate third-party transfer, and provide the security required in a more open network environment.

  18. Master Key Secured Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Tabish Qureshi; Tabish Shibli; Aditi Sheel

    2013-01-17

    A new scheme of Quantum Key Distribution is proposed using three entangled particles in a GHZ state. Alice holds a 3-particle source and sends two particles to Bob, keeping one with herself. Bob uses one particle to generate a secure key, and the other to generate a master-key. This scheme should prove to be harder to break in non-ideal situations as compared to the standard protocols BB84 and Eckert. The scheme uses the concept of Quantum Disentanglement Eraser. Extension to multi-partite scheme has also been investigated.

  19. Video performance for high security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Jack C.; Norman, Bradley C.

    2010-06-01

    The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivity of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.

  20. Secure coprocessing applications and research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

  1. Software Protection and Application Security: Understanding the Battleground ?

    E-print Network

    Van Oorschot, Paul

    in today's Internet has resulted in a vast array of new security threats and challenges. Indeed, it is diSoftware Protection and Application Security: Understanding the Battleground ? A. Main 1 P.C. van. The relationship between application security and data security, network security, and software security

  2. Software Protection and Application Security: Understanding the Battleground

    E-print Network

    Van Oorschot, Paul

    in today's Internet has resulted in a vast array of new security threats and challenges. IndeedSoftware Protection and Application Security: Understanding the Battleground A. Main1 P.C. van. The relationship between application security and data security, network security, and software security

  3. The security of practical quantum key distribution Valerio Scarani

    E-print Network

    Dusek, Miloslav

    The security of practical quantum key distribution Valerio Scarani Centre for Quantum Technologies Published 29 September 2009 Quantum key distribution QKD is the first quantum information task to reach 1302 B. Basics of quantum key distribution 1303 1. Generic setting 1303 2. The origin of security 1304

  4. Integrating Security in a Large Distributed M. SATYANARAYANAN

    E-print Network

    Satyanarayanan, Mahadev "Satya"

    Mellon University campus. This paper examines the security issues that arise in such an environment Descriptors: C.2.0 [Computer-Communication Networks]: General- security and protection; C.2.2 [ComputerIntegrating Security in a Large Distributed System M. SATYANARAYANAN Carnegie Mellon University

  5. The Role of Trust Management in Distributed Systems Security ?

    E-print Network

    Blaze, Matthew

    Internet Programming: Security Issues for Mobile and Dis­ tributed Objects,'' ed. Jan Vitek and Christian one thing in common: the need to grant or restrict access to resources according to some securityThe Role of Trust Management in Distributed Systems Security ? Matt Blaze 1 , Joan Feigenbaum 1

  6. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  7. Applications for cyber security - System and application monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    Standard network security measures are adequate for defense against external attacks. However, many experts agree that the greater threat is from internal sources. Insiders with malicious intentions can change controller instructions, change alarm thresholds, and issue commands to equipment which can damage equipment and compromise control system integrity. In addition to strict physical security the state of the system must be continually monitored. System and application monitoring goes beyond the capabilities of network security appliances. It will include active processes, operating system services, files, network adapters and IP addresses. The generation of alarms is a crucial feature of system and application monitoring. The alarms should be integrated to avoid the burden on operators of checking multiple locations for security violations. Tools for system and application monitoring include commercial software, free software, and ad-hoc tools that can be easily created. System and application monitoring is part of a 'defense-in-depth' approach to a control network security plan. Layered security measures prevent an individual security measure failure from being exploited into a successful security breach. Alarming of individual failures is essential for rapid isolation and correction of single failures. System and application monitoring is the innermost layer of this defense strategy. (authors)

  8. Implementing a secure client/server application

    SciTech Connect

    Kissinger, B.A.

    1994-08-01

    There is an increasing rise in attacks and security breaches on computer systems. Particularly vulnerable are systems that exchange user names and passwords directly across a network without encryption. These kinds of systems include many commercial-off-the-shelf client/server applications. A secure technique for authenticating computer users and transmitting passwords through the use of a trusted {open_quotes}broker{close_quotes} and public/private keys is described in this paper.

  9. The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge

    E-print Network

    Sandhu, Ravi

    The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive.ics.utsa.edu Institute for Cyber Security The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge Prof. Ravi.ics.utsa.edu © Ravi Sandhu World-Leading Research with Real-World Impact! The Data and Application Security

  10. Adaptively Secure Garbling with Applications to One-Time Programs and Secure Outsourcing

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Adaptively Secure Garbling with Applications to One-Time Programs and Secure Outsourcing Mihir) and secure outsourcing (Gennaro, Gentry, Parno 2010)-- need adaptive security, where x may depend on F. We identify gaps in proofs from these papers with regard to adaptive security and suggest the need of a better

  11. Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections

    SciTech Connect

    Maroey, Oystein; Lydersen, Lars; Skaar, Johannes

    2010-09-15

    We consider the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for quantum key distribution, with arbitrary individual imperfections simultaneously in the source and detectors. We provide the secure key generation rate and show that three parameters must be bounded to ensure security; the basis dependence of the source, a detector-blinding parameter, and a detector leakage parameter. The system may otherwise be completely uncharacterized and contain large losses.

  12. Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states Daniel Gottesman1

    E-print Network

    Preskill, John

    Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states Daniel Gottesman1 and John Preskill2, * 1 of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator information are the concepts of quantum error correction and quantum key distribution QKD . Quan- tum error

  13. Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization for Securing Large Water Distribution Networks

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    -9496 2008 134:6 516 CE Database subject headings: Water distribution systems; Water pollution; OptimizationEfficient Sensor Placement Optimization for Securing Large Water Distribution Networks Andreas Abstract: The problem of deploying sensors in a large water distribution network is considered, in order

  14. 3 Distributed Security Algorithms for Mobile Agents

    E-print Network

    Flocchini, Paola

    by researchers in artificial intelligence and in software engineering. They offer a simple and natural way and the amount of effort, must still be effectively addressed [11­15]. Among the severe security threats faced

  15. Audit Trails in the Aeolus Distributed Security Platform

    E-print Network

    Popic, Victoria

    2010-09-29

    This thesis provides a complete design and implementation of audit trail collection and storage for Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. An information flow control system regulates ...

  16. Audit trails in the Aeolus distributed security platform

    E-print Network

    Popic, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    This thesis provides a complete design and implementation of audit trail collection and storage for Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. An information flow control system regulates ...

  17. MEMS and MOEMS for national security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Marion W.

    2003-01-01

    Major opportunities for microsystem insertion into commercial applications, such as telecommunications and medical prosthesis, are well known. Less well known are applications that ensure the security of our nation, the protection of its armed forces, and the safety of its citizens. Microsystems enable entirely new possibilities to meet National Security needs, which can be classed along three lines: anticipating security needs and threats, deterring the efficacy of identified threats, and defending against the application of these threats. In each of these areas, specific products that are enabled by MEMS and MOEMS are discussed. In the area of anticipating needs and threats, sensored microsystems designed for chem/bio/nuclear threats, and sensors for border and asset protection can significantly secure our borders, ports, and transportation systems. Key features for these applications include adaptive optics and spectroscopic capabilities. Microsystems to monitor soil and water quality can be used to secure critical infrastructure, food safety can be improved by in-situ identification of pathogens, and sensored buildings can ensure the architectural safety of our homes and workplaces. A challenge to commercializing these opportunities, and thus making them available for National Security needs, is developing predictable markets and predictable technology roadmaps. The integrated circuit manufacturing industry provides an example of predictable technology maturation and market insertion, primarily due to the existence of a "unit cell" that allows volume manufacturing. It is not clear that microsystems can follow an analogous path. The possible paths to affordable low-volume production, as well as the prospects of a microsystems unit cell, are discussed.

  18. Security for Multimedia Space Data Distribution over the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Thom; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Distribution of interactive multimedia to remote investigators will be required for high quality science on the International Space Station (ISS). The Internet with the World Wide Web (WWW) and the JAVA environment are a good match for distribution of data, video and voice to remote science centers. Utilizing the "open" Internet in a secure manner is the major hurdle in making use of this cost effective, off-the-shelf, universal resource. This paper examines the major security threats to an Internet distribution system for payload data and the mitigation of these threats. A proposed security environment for the Space Station Biological Research Facility (SSBRP) is presented with a short description of the tools that have been implemented or planned. Formulating and implementing a security policy, firewalls, host hardware and software security are also discussed in this paper. Security is a vast topic and this paper can only give an overview of important issues. This paper postulates that a structured approach is required and stresses that security must be built into a network from the start. Ignoring security issues or putting them off until late in the development cycle can be disastrous.

  19. Terahertz Imaging and Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Erich

    2005-03-01

    Imaging at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies could vastly improve the security of personnel checkpoints, because of the penetration through clothing and spatial resolution available in this spectral range. Since 9/11, the social need for improved checkpoint screening has been obvious and great. However, although efforts to develop such imagers had been underway for many years before that, practical low-cost systems, analogous to IR uncooled imagers, still don't exist. An emphasis on purely passive imaging places very stringent sensitivity requirements on such imagers. A number of long-term efforts, which I briefly mention, are underway to improve the sensitivity of such passive imagers. However, most of the emphasis in our program is on active imaging. With this approach, much simpler and lower-cost detectors, such as (uncooled) antenna-coupled microbolometers can be used, at the expense of incorporating slightly more complex optics and illumination components. I discuss several tradeoffs presented in the design of active imaging systems for the 100 to 1000 GHz frequency range, describe how we have addressed them in the design of a scanning, 95 GHz, bolometer-based imager for concealed weapons detection that is nearing completion, and describe how the system architecture can be modified to scale the operating frequency to the 650 GHz atmospheric window. Co-authors: Arttu Luukanen and Aaron Miller

  20. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  1. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Hong-Wei Li; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Shuang Wang; Yong-Jun Qian; Wei Chen; Guang-Can Guo; Zheng-Fu Han

    2015-09-20

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  2. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  3. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  4. Distributed Key Generation for Secure Encrypted Deduplication

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    in convergent ciphertexts. In this paper, we first provide a rigorous proof of security, in the random oracle model, for the DupLESS architecture which is lacking in the original paper. Our proof shows that using ineffec- tive. Convergent Encryption (CE) [28] was proposed as a workaround. With CE, #12;a piece of data

  5. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark; Cooper, Robert; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system is described: a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when pre-existing, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  6. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Cooper, Robert; Wood, Mark; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system (a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software) is described. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real-time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user-defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when preexisting, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  7. Electronic Distribution of Airplane Software and the Impact of Information Security on Airplane Safety

    E-print Network

    Poovendran, Radha

    Electronic Distribution of Airplane Software and the Impact of Information Security on Airplane.von.oheimb,jens-uwe.busser,jorge.cuellar}@siemens.com Abstract. The general trend towards ubiquitous networking has reached the realm of airplanes. E-enabled airplanes with wired and wireless network interfaces offer a wide spectrum of network applications

  8. Security proof of practical quantum key distribution schemes

    E-print Network

    Yodai Watanabe

    2005-06-29

    This paper provides a security proof of the Bennett-Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol in practical implementation. To prove the security, it is not assumed that defects in the devices are absorbed into an adversary's attack. In fact, the only assumption in the proof is that the source is characterized. The proof is performed by lower-bounding adversary's Renyi entropy about the key before privacy amplification. The bound reveals the leading factors reducing the key generation rate.

  9. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Imperfect Phase Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peng; Lin, Da-kai; Huang, Duan; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Phase compensation is a necessary procedure in practical application of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) for the reason of unavoidable phase drifts of quantum signals in quantum channel. However, the phase compensation may become imperfect in practical applications. The security of CVQKD scheme with imperfect phase compensation is investigated under realistic conditions of quantum channel and detector. In particular, a tight security bound to the phase noise of the imperfect phase compensation are derived for reverse reconciliation and realistic homodyne detection. Moreover, the phase noise is analyzed experimentally and a practical phase compensation procedure is applied to simulate the imperct processing. The simulation results show its coincidence to the security bound, and reveal the sensitivity of the security of the reverse reconciliation CVQKD protocol to the noise arising from imperfect phase compensation.

  10. The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge

    E-print Network

    Sandhu, Ravi

    The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge Prof. Ravi Sandhu Institute.ics.utsa.edu © Ravi Sandhu World-Leading Research with Real The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY-relationship) vis a vis data ., B trees) Cyber Security Research Status ., B trees) 5 Leading Research with Real

  11. The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge

    E-print Network

    Sandhu, Ravi

    The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge Prof. Ravi Sandhu Institute.profsandhu.com www.ics.utsa.edu © Ravi Sandhu World-Leading Research with Real The Data and Application Security-relationship) vis a vis data ., B trees) Cyber Security Research Status ., B trees) 5 Leading Research with Real

  12. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outstanding Port Security Card... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.55 Outstanding Port Security Card Applications. A person who has filed an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior...

  13. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outstanding Port Security Card... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.55 Outstanding Port Security Card Applications. A person who has filed an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior...

  14. Secure quantum cryptographic network based on quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Sora Choi; Soojoon Lee; Dong Pyo Chi

    2004-03-24

    We present a protocol for quantum cryptographic network consisting of a quantum network center and many users, in which any pair of parties with members chosen from the whole users on request can secure a quantum key distribution by help of the center. The protocol is based on the quantum authentication scheme given by Barnum et al. [Proc. 43rd IEEE Symp. FOCS'02, p. 449 (2002)]. We show that exploiting the quantum authentication scheme the center can safely make two parties share nearly perfect entangled states used in the quantum key distribution. This implies that the quantum cryptographic network protocol is secure against all kinds of eavesdropping.

  15. Evaluation of Classifiers: Practical Considerations for Security Applications

    E-print Network

    Baras, John S.

    Evaluation of Classifiers: Practical Considerations for Security Applications Alvaro A. C, biometrics and multimedia forensics. Measur- ing the security performance of these classifiers is an essential part for facilitating decision making, deter- mining the viability of the product

  16. Power laser application for security glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashkin, Vladimir; Achimova, Elena

    2009-09-01

    Modern glass application needs to move from traditional tempering with only average controlled fragmentation of security glass to computerized controlled fragmentation by developing engineered stress profiles in glass article. The new treatment methods of soda-lime float glass using irradiation by power Nd:YAG laser which is moved by robot will be discussed. The transparency of glass for laser wavelength is one of the problems of glass treatment by laser. Noncontact stress control by light scattering will be shown. The two main objectives of this work will be discussed: 1. Glass treatment by power laser beam directed to secure glass production; 2. Control methods of residual stress into float glasses treated by laser.

  17. Power laser application for security glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashkin, Vladimir; Achimova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Modern glass application needs to move from traditional tempering with only average controlled fragmentation of security glass to computerized controlled fragmentation by developing engineered stress profiles in glass article. The new treatment methods of soda-lime float glass using irradiation by power Nd:YAG laser which is moved by robot will be discussed. The transparency of glass for laser wavelength is one of the problems of glass treatment by laser. Noncontact stress control by light scattering will be shown. The two main objectives of this work will be discussed: 1. Glass treatment by power laser beam directed to secure glass production; 2. Control methods of residual stress into float glasses treated by laser.

  18. Secure Key Distribution by Swapping Quantum Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Daegene Song

    2004-01-01

    We report two key distribution schemes achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. Using two Bell states, two bits of secret key can be shared between two distant parties that play symmetric and equal roles. We also address eavesdropping attacks against the schemes.

  19. Secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Daegene

    2004-03-01

    We report two key distribution schemes achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. Using two Bell states, two bits of secret key can be shared between two distant parties that play symmetric and equal roles. We also address eavesdropping attacks against the schemes.

  20. Java-based Open Platform for distributed health telematics applications.

    PubMed

    Hoepner, Petra; Eckert, Klaus-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Within the European HARP project, a Java-based Open Platform has been specified and implemented to support trustworthy distributed applications for health. Emphasis was put on security services for enabling both communication and application security. The Open Platform is Web-based and comprises the Client environment, Web/Application server, as well as Database and Archive servers. Servlets composed and executed according to the user's authorisation create signed XML messages. From those messages, user-role-related applets are generated. The technical details of the realisation are presented. Possible future enhancements for user-centric, adaptable services based on next-generation mobile service environments are outlined. PMID:15061527

  1. Accelerators for Discovery Science and Security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, A. M. M.; Bluem, H. P.; Jarvis, J. D.; Park, J. H.; Rathke, J. W.; Schultheiss, T. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several Advanced Energy Systems (AES) accelerator projects that span applications in Discovery Science and Security are described. The design and performance of the IR and THz free electron laser (FEL) at the Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin that is now an operating user facility for physical chemistry research in molecular and cluster spectroscopy as well as surface science, is highlighted. The device was designed to meet challenging specifications, including a final energy adjustable in the range of 15-50 MeV, low longitudinal emittance (<50 keV-psec) and transverse emittance (<20 ? mm-mrad), at more than 200 pC bunch charge with a micropulse repetition rate of 1 GHz and a macropulse length of up to 15 ?s. Secondly, we will describe an ongoing effort to develop an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) source that is scheduled for completion in 2015 with prototype testing taking place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). This tabletop X-band system will find application in time-resolved chemical imaging and as a resource for drug-cell interaction analysis. A third active area at AES is accelerators for security applications where we will cover some top-level aspects of THz and X-ray systems that are under development and in testing for stand-off and portal detection.

  2. Secure ContentSecure Content Distribution: How doesDistribution: How does

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Farid

    and research scholarship Secure Digital Library InitiativeSecure Digital Library Initiative #12;Digital to Academia?How is it related to Academia? What is Digital WatermarkingWhat is Digital Watermarking (DWM WatermarkingDigital Watermarking-- What?What? Digital watermarking is the process ofDigital watermarking

  3. Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-09-15

    We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.

  4. Passive terahertz imaging for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

  5. Secure Mining of Association Rules in Horizontally Distributed Databases

    E-print Network

    Tassa, Tamir

    2011-01-01

    We propose a protocol for secure mining of association rules in horizontally distributed databases. The current leading protocol is that of Kantarcioglu and Clifton (TKDE 2004). Our protocol, like theirs, is based on the Fast Distributed Mining (FDM) algorithm of Cheung et al. (PDIS 1996), which is an unsecured distributed version of the Apriori algorithm. The main ingredients in our protocol are two novel secure multi-party algorithms --- one that computes the union of private subsets that each of the interacting players hold, and another that tests the inclusion of an element held by one player in a subset held by another. Our protocol offers enhanced privacy with respect to the protocol of Kantarcioglu and Clifton. In addition, it is simpler and is significantly more efficient in terms of communication rounds, communication cost and computational cost.

  6. Data Mining Applications for Fraud Detection in Securities Market

    E-print Network

    Zaiane, Osmar R.

    Data Mining Applications for Fraud Detection in Securities Market Koosha Golmohammadi, Osmar R}@ualberta.ca This paper presents an overview of fraud detection in securities market as well as a comprehensive literature for future research works accordingly. Keywords: data mining, fraud detection, securities market, market

  7. Drop-in Security for Distributed and Portable Computing Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevelakis, Vassilis; Keromytis, Angelos

    2003-01-01

    Proposes the use of a special purpose drop-in firewall/VPN gateway called Sieve, that can be inserted between the mobile workstation and the network to provide individualized security services for that particular station. Discusses features and advantages of the system and demonstrates how Sieve was used in various application areas such as at…

  8. Security of practical phase-coding quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Hong-Wei Li; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Zheng-Fu Han; Wan-Su Bao; Guang-Can Guo

    2009-11-16

    Security proof of practical quantum key distribution (QKD) has attracted a lot of attentions in recent years. Most of real-life QKD implementations are based on phase-coding BB84 protocol, which usually uses Unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (UMZI) as the information coder and decoder. However, the long arm and short arm of UMZI will introduce different loss in practical experimental realizations, the state emitted by Alice's side is nolonger standard BB84 states. In this paper, we will give a security analysis in this situation. Counterintuitively, active compensation for this different loss will only lower the secret key bit rate.

  9. Radiation Detection for Homeland Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, James

    2008-05-01

    In the past twenty years or so, there have been significant changes in the strategy and applications for homeland security. Recently there have been significant at deterring and interdicting terrorists and associated organizations. This is a shift in the normal paradigm of deterrence and surveillance of a nation and the `conventional' methods of warfare to the `unconventional' means that terrorist organizations resort to. With that shift comes the responsibility to monitor international borders for weapons of mass destruction, including radiological weapons. As a result, countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments at land, rail, air, and sea ports of entry in the US and in European and Asian countries. Radioactive signatures of concern include radiation dispersal devices (RDD), nuclear warheads, and special nuclear material (SNM). Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are used as the main screening tool for vehicles and cargo at borders, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. This talk will present an overview of radiation detection equipment with emphasis on radiation portal monitors. In the US, the deployment of radiation detection equipment is being coordinated by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office within the Department of Homeland Security, and a brief summary of the program will be covered. Challenges with current generation systems will be discussed as well as areas of investigation and opportunities for improvements. The next generation of radiation portal monitors is being produced under the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program and will be available for deployment in the near future. Additional technologies, from commercially available to experimental, that provide additional information for radiation screening, such as density imaging equipment, will be reviewed. Opportunities for further research and development to improve the current equipment and methodologies for radiation detection for the important task of homeland security will be the final topic to be discussed.

  10. Application of laser technology to introduce security features on security documents in order to reduce counterfeiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospel, Will G. J. M.

    1998-04-01

    The use of laser technology for application of security features into security documents is introduced and specifically the security features which are applied directly into the security documents itself are covered. This innovative way of working creates effective deterrents to counterfeit and forgery. Laser applied security features become an integral part of the documents and its characteristics are unique and well-distinguishable. Together with the high levels of fineness and accuracy which can be achieved, this makes laser applied security features virtually impossible to reproduce with other means. Furthermore lasers can create first line security features which the public can easily verify with the naked eye. An introduction into laser technology gives better insight into the use of lasers in security documents. The laser offers high flexibility as the security features are created one by one under control of computer programs. As result a laser system can produce unique and personalised security features which can be applied automatically during one of the last production stages of the document. Laser applied security features are at this moment used on banknotes, passports and cheques. Examples of such applications will be shown. Also new types of laser applied security features will be introduced.

  11. Machine intelligence applications to securities production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    The production of security documents provides a cache of interesting problems ranging across a broad spectrum. Some of the problems do not have rigorous scientific solutions available at this time and provide opportunities for less structured approaches such as AI. AI methods can be used in conjunction with traditional scientific and computational methods. The most productive applications of AI occur when this marriage of methods can be carried out without motivation to prove that one method is better than the other. Fields such as ink chemistry and technology, and machine inspection of graphic arts printing offer interesting challenges which will continue to intrigue current and future generations of researchers into the 21st century.

  12. Security Applications Of Computer Motion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Andrew P.; Nelan, Joseph; Riter, Stephen; Frankel, Harry

    1987-05-01

    An important area of application of computer vision is the detection of human motion in security systems. This paper describes the development of a computer vision system which can detect and track human movement across the international border between the United States and Mexico. Because of the wide range of environmental conditions, this application represents a stringent test of computer vision algorithms for motion detection and object identification. The desired output of this vision system is accurate, real-time locations for individual aliens and accurate statistical data as to the frequency of illegal border crossings. Because most detection and tracking routines assume rigid body motion, which is not characteristic of humans, new algorithms capable of reliable operation in our application are required. Furthermore, most current detection and tracking algorithms assume a uniform background against which motion is viewed - the urban environment along the US-Mexican border is anything but uniform. The system works in three stages: motion detection, object tracking and object identi-fication. We have implemented motion detection using simple frame differencing, maximum likelihood estimation, mean and median tests and are evaluating them for accuracy and computational efficiency. Due to the complex nature of the urban environment (background and foreground objects consisting of buildings, vegetation, vehicles, wind-blown debris, animals, etc.), motion detection alone is not sufficiently accurate. Object tracking and identification are handled by an expert system which takes shape, location and trajectory information as input and determines if the moving object is indeed representative of an illegal border crossing.

  13. Advances in Adaptive Secure Message-Oriented Middleware for Distributed Business-Critical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abie, Habtamu; Savola, Reijo M.; Wang, Jinfu; Rotondi, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Distributed business-critical systems are often implemented using distributed messaging infrastructures with increasingly stringent requirements with regard to resilience, security, adaptability, intelligence and scalability. Current systems have limited ability in meeting these requirements. This paper describes advances in adaptive security, security metrics, anomaly detection and resilience, and authentication architecture in such distributed messaging systems.

  14. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dealers distributing asset-backed securities. 230.139a Section 230.139a Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities. The publication or distribution by a broker or dealer of information, an opinion or a recommendation with respect to asset-backed...

  15. Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Joseph M. Renes; Markus Grassl

    2006-08-29

    Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an ``effective'' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

  16. Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Renes, Joseph M.; Grassl, Markus

    2006-08-15

    Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an 'effective' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

  17. Security of quantum key distribution with state-dependent imperfections

    E-print Network

    Hong-Wei Li; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Zheng-Fu Han; Wan-Su Bao; Guang-Can Guo

    2011-12-20

    In practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, the state preparation and measurement are imperfect comparing with the ideal BB84 protocol, which are always state-dependent in practical realizations. If the state-dependent imperfections can not be regarded as an unitary transformation, it should not be considered as part of quantum channel noise introduced by the eavesdropper, the commonly used secret key rate formula GLLP can not be applied correspondingly. In this paper, the unconditional security of quantum key distribution with state-dependent imperfection has been analyzed by estimating the upper bound of the phase error rate about the quantum channel.

  18. Web Application Security Standards and Practices Page 1 of 14 Web Application Security Standard Operating Environment (SOE) V1.3

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Web Application Security Standards and Practices Page 1 of 14 Web Application Security Standard Operating Environment (SOE) V1.3 Columbia University Web Application Security Standards and Practices Objective and Scope Effective Date: January 2011 This Web Application Security Standards and Practices

  19. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    SciTech Connect

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  20. Information Flow for Secure Distributed Applications

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Winnie Wing-Yee

    2009-08-27

    Private and confidential information is increasingly stored online and increasingly being exposed due to human errors as well as malicious attacks. Information leaks threaten confidentiality, lead to lawsuits, damage ...

  1. Information flow for secure distributed applications

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Winnie Wing-Yee

    2009-01-01

    Private and confidential information is increasingly stored online and increasingly being exposed due to human errors as well as malicious attacks. Information leaks threaten confidentiality, lead to lawsuits, damage ...

  2. Distributing Secret Keys with Quantum Continuous Variables: Principle, Security and Implementations

    E-print Network

    Eleni Diamanti; Anthony Leverrier

    2015-08-31

    The ability to distribute secret keys between two parties with information-theoretic security, that is, regardless of the capacities of a malevolent eavesdropper, is one of the most celebrated results in the field of quantum information processing and communication. Indeed, quantum key distribution illustrates the power of encoding information on the quantum properties of light and has far reaching implications in high-security applications. Today, quantum key distribution systems operate in real-world conditions and are commercially available. As with most quantum information protocols, quantum key distribution was first designed for qubits, the individual quanta of information. However, the use of quantum continuous variables for this task presents important advantages with respect to qubit based protocols, in particular from a practical point of view, since it allows for simple implementations that require only standard telecommunication technology. In this review article, we describe the principle of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, focusing in particular on protocols based on coherent states. We discuss the security of these protocols and report on the state-of-the-art in experimental implementations, including the issue of side-channel attacks. We conclude with promising perspectives in this research field.

  3. Distributing Secret Keys with Quantum Continuous Variables: Principle, Security and Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Eleni; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The ability to distribute secret keys between two parties with information-theoretic security, that is, regardless of the capacities of a malevolent eavesdropper, is one of the most celebrated results in the field of quantum information processing and communication. Indeed, quantum key distribution illustrates the power of encoding information on the quantum properties of light and has far reaching implications in high-security applications. Today, quantum key distribution systems operate in real-world conditions and are commercially available. As with most quantum information protocols, quantum key distribution was first designed for qubits, the individual quanta of information. However, the use of quantum continuous variables for this task presents important advantages with respect to qubit based protocols, in particular from a practical point of view, since it allows for simple implementations that require only standard telecommunication technology. In this review article, we describe the principle of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, focusing in particular on protocols based on coherent states. We discuss the security of these protocols and report on the state-of-the-art in experimental implementations, including the issue of side-channel attacks. We conclude with promising perspectives in this research field.

  4. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  5. Composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent States.

    PubMed

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-20

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings. PMID:25763943

  6. Entanglement as precondition for secure quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Marcos Curty; Maciej Lewenstein; Norbert Lütkenhaus

    2003-07-21

    We demonstrate that a necessary precondition for unconditionally secure quantum key distribution is that sender and receiver can use the available measurement results to prove the presence of entanglement in a quantum state that is effectively distributed between them. One can thus systematically search for entanglement using the class of entanglement witness operators that can be constructed from the observed data. We apply such analysis to two well-known quantum key distribution protocols, namely the 4-state protocol and the 6-state protocol. As a special case, we show that, for some asymmetric error patterns, the presence of entanglement can be proven even for error rates above 25% (4-state protocol) and 33% (6-state protocol).

  7. Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bisbee, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

  8. Multiple Networks for Heterogeneous Distributed Applications

    E-print Network

    Melin, Emmanuel

    --multiple networks, distributed applications, performance prediction, FlowVR Sylvain Jubertie, Emmanuel Melin in its application design. The FlowVR middleware offers a way to build distributed applications prediction model for FlowVR applications which is adapted to heterogeneous SMP clusters with multiple

  9. A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Guohai; Zhang, Jingjuan

    A cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm is presented for optical security applications. Two phase-masks are designed and located in the input and the Fourier domains of a 4-f correlator respectively, in order to implement the optical encryption or authenticity verification. Compared with previous methods, the proposed algorithm employs an improved searching strategy: modifying the phase-distributions of both masks synchronously as well as enlarging the searching space. Computer simulations show that the algorithm results in much faster convergence and better image quality for the recovered image. Each of these masks is assigned to different person. Therefore, the decrypted image can be obtained only when all these masks are under authorization. This key-assignment strategy may reduce the risk of being intruded.

  10. 78 FR 4393 - Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program... Policy, Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Minorities and Retirement... Education (ED or the Department) and the United States Social Security Administration (SSA). The MRS...

  11. Lilith: A scalable secure tool for massively parallel distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R.C.; Camp, L.J.; Evensky, D.A.; Gentile, A.C.

    1997-06-01

    Changes in high performance computing have necessitated the ability to utilize and interrogate potentially many thousands of processors. The ASCI (Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative) program conducted by the United States Department of Energy, for example, envisions thousands of distinct operating systems connected by low-latency gigabit-per-second networks. In addition multiple systems of this kind will be linked via high-capacity networks with latencies as low as the speed of light will allow. Code which spans systems of this sort must be scalable; yet constructing such code whether for applications, debugging, or maintenance is an unsolved problem. Lilith is a research software platform that attempts to answer these questions with an end toward meeting these needs. Presently, Lilith exists as a test-bed, written in Java, for various spanning algorithms and security schemes. The test-bed software has, and enforces, hooks allowing implementation and testing of various security schemes.

  12. Simultaneous Scalability and Security for Data-Intensive Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Service Provider (DSSP) that caches application data and supplies query answers on behalf about security. However, if all data passing through a DSSP is encrypted to enhance security, then data impacting scalability. Experiments over a prototype DSSP system show the effectiveness of our static

  13. Simultaneous Scalability and Security for DataIntensive Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Service Provider (DSSP) that caches application data and supplies query answers on behalf about security. However, if all data passing through a DSSP is encrypted to enhance security, then data impacting scalability. Experiments over a prototype DSSP system show the e#ectiveness of our static analysis

  14. Secure positioning of wireless devices with application to sensor networks

    E-print Network

    Capkun, Srdjan

    1 Secure positioning of wireless devices with application to sensor networks Srdjan Capkun and Jean Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor the proximity of two devices connected by a wired link. Sastry, Shankar and Wagner [22] propose a new distance

  15. Hardware Enforcement of Application Security Policies Using Tagged Memory

    E-print Network

    Hardware Enforcement of Application Security Policies Using Tagged Memory Nickolai Zeldovich , Hari are notoriously insecure, in part because ap- plication security policies do not map well onto tradi- tional- plication policies can be expressed in terms of informa- tion flow restrictions and enforced in an OS kernel

  16. Big Data Applications in Cloud and Cyber Security

    E-print Network

    Sandhu, Ravi

    Big Data Applications in Cloud and Cyber Security Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Professor UTSA COB Symposium on Big Data, Big Challenges March 17, 2015 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www Security 1 #12;© Ravi Sandhu 2 World-Leading Research with Real-World Impact! Big Data Volume Variety

  17. Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

  18. Topic 7 : Smart Grid Privacy and Security 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Topic 7 : Smart Grid Privacy and Security 1Networking and Distributed Systems Department Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid 2 · Smart Meter Privacy · Concerns · Possible Solutions · Smart Grid Security · Load Altering Attacks · False Data Injection Attacks · Impact

  19. From client-side encryption to secure web applications

    E-print Network

    Stark, Emily (Emily Margarete)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents an approach for designing secure web applications that use client-side encryption to keep user data private in the face of arbitrary web server compromises, as well as a set of tools, called CryptFrame, ...

  20. Efficient quantum key distribution secure against no-signalling eavesdroppers

    E-print Network

    Antonio Acin; Serge Massar; Stefano Pironio

    2006-08-03

    By carrying out measurements on entangled states, two parties can generate a secret key which is secure not only against an eavesdropper bound by the laws of quantum mechanics, but also against a hypothetical "post-quantum" eavesdroppers limited by the no-signalling principle only. We introduce a family of quantum key distribution protocols of this type, which are more efficient than previous ones, both in terms of key rate and noise resistance. Interestingly, the best protocols involve large number of measurements. We show that in the absence of noise, these protocols can yield one secret bit per entanglement bit, implying that the key rates in the no-signalling post-quantum scenario are comparable to the key rates in usual quantum key distribution.

  1. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a)...

  2. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422...Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION... Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs....

  3. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422...Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION... Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs....

  4. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a)...

  5. Consistency and Security in Mobile Real Time Distributed Database (MRTDDB): A Combinational Giant Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Gyanendra Kr.; Sharma, A. K.; Swaroop, Vishnu

    2010-11-01

    Many type of Information System are widely used in various fields. With the hasty development of computer network, Information System users care more about data sharing in networks. In traditional relational database, data consistency was controlled by consistency control mechanism when a data object is locked in a sharing mode, other transactions can only read it, but can not update it. If the traditional consistency control method has been used yet, the system's concurrency will be inadequately influenced. So there are many new necessities for the consistency control and security in MRTDDB. The problem not limited only to type of data (e.g. mobile or real-time databases). There are many aspects of data consistency problems in MRTDDB, such as inconsistency between attribute and type of data; the inconsistency of topological relations after objects has been modified. In this paper, many cases of consistency are discussed. As the mobile computing becomes well liked and the database grows with information sharing security is a big issue for researchers. Consistency and Security of data is a big challenge for researchers because when ever the data is not consistent and secure no maneuver on the data (e.g. transaction) is productive. It becomes more and more crucial when the transactions are used in non-traditional environment like Mobile, Distributed, Real Time and Multimedia databases. In this paper we raise the different aspects and analyze the available solution for consistency and security of databases. Traditional Database Security has focused primarily on creating user accounts and managing user privileges to database objects. But in the mobility and nomadic computing uses these database creating a new opportunities for research. The wide spread use of databases over the web, heterogeneous client-server architectures, application servers, and networks creates a critical need to amplify this focus. In this paper we also discuss an overview of the new and old database security challenges.

  6. A resilient and secure software platform and architecture for distributed spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, William R.; Dubey, Abhishek; Karsai, Gabor

    2014-06-01

    A distributed spacecraft is a cluster of independent satellite modules flying in formation that communicate via ad-hoc wireless networks. This system in space is a cloud platform that facilitates sharing sensors and other computing and communication resources across multiple applications, potentially developed and maintained by different organizations. Effectively, such architecture can realize the functions of monolithic satellites at a reduced cost and with improved adaptivity and robustness. Openness of these architectures pose special challenges because the distributed software platform has to support applications from different security domains and organizations, and where information flows have to be carefully managed and compartmentalized. If the platform is used as a robust shared resource its management, configuration, and resilience becomes a challenge in itself. We have designed and prototyped a distributed software platform for such architectures. The core element of the platform is a new operating system whose services were designed to restrict access to the network and the file system, and to enforce resource management constraints for all non-privileged processes Mixed-criticality applications operating at different security labels are deployed and controlled by a privileged management process that is also pre-configuring all information flows. This paper describes the design and objective of this layer.

  7. A microwave imaging spectrometer for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirousek, Matthias; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the security of people and critical infrastructures is of increasing interest. Passive microwave sensors in the range of 1 - 100 GHz are suitable for the detection of concealed objects and wide-area surveillance through poor weather and at day and night time. The enhanced extraction of significant information about an observed object is enabled by the use of a spectral sensitive system. For such a spectral radiometer in the microwave range also some depth information can be extracted. The usable frequency range is thereby dependent on the application. For through-wall imaging or detection of covert objects such as for example landmines, the lower microwave range is best suited. On the other hand a high spatial resolution requires higher frequencies or instruments with larger physical dimensions. The drawback of a large system is the required movement of a mirror or a deflecting plate in the case of a mechanical scanner system, or a huge amount of receivers in a fully-electronic instrument like a focal plane array. An innovative technique to overcome these problems is the application of aperture synthesis using a highly thinned array. The combination of spectral radiometric measurements within a wide frequency band, at a high resolution, and requiring a minimum of receivers and only minor moving parts led to the development of the ANSAS instrument (Abbildendes Niederfrequenz-Spektrometer mit Apertursynthese). ANSAS is a very flexible aperture synthesis technology demonstrator for the analysis of main features and interactions concerning high spatial resolution and spectral sensing within a wide frequency range. It consists of a rotated linear thinned array and thus the spatial frequency spectrum is measured on concentric circles. Hence the number of receivers and correlators is reduced considerably compared to a fully two-dimensional array, and measurements still can be done in a reasonable time. In this paper the basic idea of ANSAS and its setup are briefly introduced. Some first imaging results showing the basic capabilities are illustrated. Possible error sources and their impacts are discussed by simulation and compared to the measured data.

  8. Neutron detection alternatives to 3He for national security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Stromswold, David C.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-11-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Large radiation detection systems deployed for homeland security and proliferation detection applications use such systems. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security and basic research, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This has led to the search for an alternative technology to replace the use of 3He-based neutron detectors. In this paper, we review the testing of currently commercially available alternative technologies for neutron detection in large systems used in various national security applications.

  9. Neutron Detection Alternatives to 3He for National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Stromswold, David C.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-11-21

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Large radiation detection systems deployed for homeland security and proliferation detection applications use such systems. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security and basic research, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This has led to the search for an alternative technology to replace the use of 3He-based neutron detectors. In this paper, we review the testing of currently commercially available alternative technologies for neutron detection in large systems used in various national security applications.

  10. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto’s law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around ??2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

  11. Optimal service distribution in WSN service system subject to data security constraints.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. PMID:25093346

  12. Optimal Service Distribution in WSN Service System Subject to Data Security Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. PMID:25093346

  13. Data Mining for Security Applications Bhavani Thuraisingham, Latifur Khan, Mohammad M. Masud, Kevin W. Hamlen

    E-print Network

    Hamlen, Kevin W.

    Data Mining for Security Applications Bhavani Thuraisingham, Latifur Khan, Mohammad M. Masud, Kevin, is a growing concern. Security and defense networks, proprietary research, intellectual property, and data to detect security breaches. Data mining has many applications in security including in national security (e

  14. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the security challenges that face the virtual institute and the characteristics of the standards that must be employed. Section Four contains our proposal for documentation of the cybersecurity standards. Section Five contains the conclusion and suggestions for further work.

  15. The Role of Trust Management in Distributed Systems Security?

    E-print Network

    Keromytis, Angelos D.

    powerful and robust tools for handling security at the scale necessary for today's Internet. ? To appear in Secure Internet Programming: Security Issues for Mobile and Dis- tributed Objects," ed. Jan have one thing in common: the need to grant or restrict access to resources according to some security

  16. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in partnership allocations. (i) A is admitted to partnership ABC as a partner with a 1 percent interest in partnership profits. At the time of A's admission, ABC held no securities. ABC subsequently... increase. ABC then acquires Securities Y and Z and later distributes Security X to A in a...

  17. Simultaneous Scalability and Security for Data-Intensive Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Tomasic, Anthony

    be provided by a third-party Database Scalability Service Provider (DSSP) that caches application data applications, inevitably raising concerns about security. However, if all data passing through a DSSP of the database that can be encrypted without impacting scalability. Exper- iments over a prototype DSSP system

  18. Collaborative Knowledge Discovery & Marshalling for Intelligence & Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Jensen, Russell S.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Ellis, Peter C.; Fligg, Alan K.; McGrath, Liam R.; O'Hara, Kelly A.; Bell, Eric B.

    2010-05-24

    This paper discusses the Knowledge Encapsulation Framework, a flexible, extensible evidence-marshalling environment built upon a natural language processing pipeline and exposed to users via an open-source semantic wiki. We focus our discussion on applications of the framework to intelligence and security applications, specifically, an instantiation of the KEF environment for researching illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.

  19. Robust protocols for securely expanding randomness and distributing keys using untrusted quantum devices

    E-print Network

    Carl A. Miller; Yaoyun Shi

    2015-04-10

    Randomness is a vital resource for modern day information processing, especially for cryptography. A wide range of applications critically rely on abundant, high quality random numbers generated securely. Here we show how to expand a random seed at an exponential rate without trusting the underlying quantum devices. Our approach is secure against the most general adversaries, and has the following new features: cryptographic quality output security, tolerating a constant level of implementation imprecision, requiring only a constant size quantum memory for the honest implementation, and allowing a large natural class of constructions. In conjunct with a recent work by Chung, Shi and Wu (QIP 2014), it also leads to robust unbounded expansion using just 2 multi-part devices. When adapted for distributing cryptographic keys, our method achieves, for the first time, exponential expansion combined with cryptographic security and noise tolerance. The proof proceeds by showing that the Renyi divergence of the outputs of the protocol (for a specific bounding operator) decreases linearly as the protocol iterates. At the heart of the proof are a new uncertainty principle on quantum measurements, and a method for simulating trusted measurements with untrusted devices.

  20. 17 CFR 240.15Ca2-1 - Application for registration as a government securities broker or government securities dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Application for registration as a government securities broker or government securities dealer. 240.15Ca2-1 Section...Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Registration of Government Securities Brokers and Government...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15Ca2-1 - Application for registration as a government securities broker or government securities dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Application for registration as a government securities broker or government securities dealer. 240.15Ca2-1 Section...Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Registration of Government Securities Brokers and Government...

  2. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  3. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    E-print Network

    Derzsy, N; Santos, M A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto's law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around $\\alpha \\approx 2.5$, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-econ...

  4. Enhanced Security-Constrained OPF With Distributed Battery Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, YF; Guo, CX; Kirschen, DS; Dong, SF

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how fast-response distributed battery energy storage could be used to implement post-contingency corrective control actions. Immediately after a contingency, the injections of distributed batteries could be adjusted to alleviate overloads and reduce flows below their short-term emergency rating. This ensures that the post-contingency system remains stable until the operator has redispatched the generation. Implementing this form of corrective control would allow operators to take advantage of the difference between the short-and long-term ratings of the lines and would therefore increase the available transmission capacity. This problem is formulated as a two-stage, enhanced security-constrained OPF problem, in which the first-stage optimizes the pre-contingency generation dispatch, while the second-stage minimizes the corrective actions for each contingency. Case studies based on a six-bus test system and on the RTS 96 demonstrate that the proposed method provides effective corrective actions and can guarantee operational reliability and economy.

  5. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  6. Model Checking An Entire Linux Distribution for Security Violations Benjamin Schwarz Hao Chen David Wagner

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    MOPS, a static analyzer, to verify security properties in an entire Linux distribution. We use, and use MOPS to decide which programs violate the prop­ erty. We have developed six security properties is the scale of our experiment. We ran MOPS on the entire Red Hat Linux 9 distribution, which contains 839

  7. Secure Quantum Key Distribution with an Uncharacterized Source Masato Koashi1

    E-print Network

    Preskill, John

    Secure Quantum Key Distribution with an Uncharacterized Source Masato Koashi1 and John Preskill2 1; published 6 February 2003) We prove the security of the Bennett-Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution, to an adversary, the key extraction process is equivalent to a measurement in the ^x basis performed on a pure ^z

  8. Antiquity: Exploiting a Secure Log for Wide-Area Distributed Storage

    E-print Network

    Kubiatowicz, John D.

    Antiquity: Exploiting a Secure Log for Wide-Area Distributed Storage Hakim Weatherspoon Cornell Antiquity is a wide-area distributed storage system designed to provide a simple storage service to maintain data despite those failures. Antiquity uses a secure log to maintain data integrity, replicates

  9. Economics Definitions, Methods, Models, and Analysis Procedures for Homeland Security Applications

    E-print Network

    Economics Definitions, Methods, Models, and Analysis Procedures for Homeland Security Applications Prepared for The Science and Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Chemical Sector #12;3 Economics Definitions, Methods, Models, and Analysis Procedures for Homeland Security

  10. Database security and encryption technology research and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li-juan

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the current database information leakage problem, and discuss the important role played by the message encryption techniques in database security, As well as MD5 encryption technology principle and the use in the field of website or application. This article is divided into introduction, the overview of the MD5 encryption technology, the use of MD5 encryption technology and the final summary. In the field of requirements and application, this paper makes readers more detailed and clearly understood the principle, the importance in database security, and the use of MD5 encryption technology.

  11. Security in Delay-Tolerant Mobile Cyber-Physical Applications

    E-print Network

    Correia, Miguel

    processing or storage. Cyber-security threats and the self- organizing nature of DTN environments pose a set enforcement are analyzed. I. INTRODUCTION Unlike conventional embedded systems where the emphasis tends distributed embedded sensor and actuator devices equipped with computing and communicating capabilities

  12. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. Social Security Number (SSN) Application Instructions A Social Security Number (SSN) is a unique, 9-digit identification number issued by the US Social Security Administration (SSA).

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    6/2015 Social Security Number (SSN) Application Instructions A Social Security Number (SSN) is a unique, 9-digit identification number issued by the US Social Security Administration (SSA). An SSN to the government. Your SSN and Student ID number are different. When you are asked for these numbers, be clear

  14. Simultaneous Scalability and Security for Data-Intensive Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Maggs, Bruce M.

    -party Database Scalability Service Provider (DSSP) that caches application data and supplies query answers, inevitably raising concerns about security. However, if all data passing through a DSSP is encrypted of the database that can be encrypted without impacting scalability. Exper- iments over a prototype DSSP system

  15. Circuits Resilient to Additive Attacks with Applications to Secure Computation

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Circuits Resilient to Additive Attacks with Applications to Secure Computation Daniel Genkin arithmetic circuits against additive attacks, which can add an arbitrary fixed value to each wire in the circuit. This extends the notion of algebraic manipulation detection (AMD) codes, which protect

  16. Mobile RFID Applications and Security Konidala M. Divyan, Kwangjo Kim

    E-print Network

    Kim, Kwangjo

    Mobile RFID Applications and Security Challenges Konidala M. Divyan, Kwangjo Kim InformationDong, Daejeon 305732, Republic of Korea {divyan, kkj}@icu.ac.kr Abstract. With mobile RFID technology, handheld portable devices like mobile phones and PDAs, also behave as RFID readers and RFID tags. As RFID readers

  17. Gate-Level Characterization: Foundations and Hardware Security Applications

    E-print Network

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    hardware intellectual property, and even untrusted members of the design team. Gate-level characterization and manifestation properties. It is a key step in the IC applications regarding cryptography, security, and digital rights management. However, GLC is challenging due to the existence of manufacturing variability (MV

  18. Fully Simulatable Quantum-Secure Coin-Flipping and Applications

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    of cryptographic protocols in the quan- tum world means, of course, that quantum computation does not jeopardizeFully Simulatable Quantum-Secure Coin-Flipping and Applications Carolin Lunemann and Jesper Buus against poly-sized quantum adver- saries on both sides. It can be implemented with quantum

  19. Share conversion, pseudorandom secretsharing and applications to secure computation

    E-print Network

    Ishai, Yuval

    Share conversion, pseudorandom secret­sharing and applications to secure computation Ronald Cramer@cs.technion.ac.il) Abstract. We present a method for converting shares of a secret into shares of the same secret in a di#erent secret­sharing scheme using only local computation and no communication between players. In particular

  20. WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF

    E-print Network

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF SIMULATED ANNEALING Fred E. Goldman Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5.1 INTRODUCTION The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained

  1. Chile, 2009 APPLICATION OF A DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED

    E-print Network

    7 th ISE & 8 th HIC Chile, 2009 APPLICATION OF A DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED HYDROLOGY AND WATER QUALITY spatial and temporal point and nonpoint source material distributions in Great Lakes watersheds. We automatically calibrated the DLBRM hydrology to reproduce the 1950-1964 and the 1999-2006 watershed outflows

  2. Secure Middleware for Situation-Aware Naval C2 and Combat Systems In Proc. 9th International Workshop on Future Trends of Distributed Computing Systems FTDCS 2003

    E-print Network

    Secure Middleware for Situation-Aware Naval C2 and Combat Systems In Proc. 9th International and Marine Corps for building distributed situation-aware applications that are rapidly recon gurable and sur for constructing situation-aware Command and Con- trol C2 and combat applications. We pay particu- lar attention

  3. Wireless structural monitoring for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiremidjian, Garo K.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2004-07-01

    This paper addresses the development of a robust, low-cost, low power, and high performance autonomous wireless monitoring system for civil assets such as large facilities, new construction, bridges, dams, commercial buildings, etc. The role of the system is to identify the onset, development, location and severity of structural vulnerability and damage. The proposed system represents an enabling infrastructure for addressing structural vulnerabilities specifically associated with homeland security. The system concept is based on dense networks of "intelligent" wireless sensing units. The fundamental properties of a wireless sensing unit include: (a) interfaces to multiple sensors for measuring structural and environmental data (such as acceleration, displacements, pressure, strain, material degradation, temperature, gas agents, biological agents, humidity, corrosion, etc.); (b) processing of sensor data with embedded algorithms for assessing damage and environmental conditions; (c) peer-to-peer wireless communications for information exchange among units(thus enabling joint "intelligent" processing coordination) and storage of data and processed information in servers for information fusion; (d) ultra low power operation; (e) cost-effectiveness and compact size through the use of low-cost small-size off-the-shelf components. An integral component of the overall system concept is a decision support environment for interpretation and dissemination of information to various decision makers.

  4. A Security Proof of Measurement Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution: From the View of Information Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Yi; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Wen, Hao; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-07-01

    Although some ideal quantum key distribution protocols have been proved to be secure, there have been some demonstrations that practical quantum key distribution implementations were hacked due to some real-life imperfections. Among these attacks, detector side channel attacks may be the most serious. Recently, a measurement device independent quantum key distribution protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 130503] was proposed and all detector side channel attacks are removed in this scheme. Here a new security proof based on quantum information theory is given. The eavesdropper's information of the sifted key bits is bounded. Then with this bound, the final secure key bit rate can be obtained.

  5. Mapping Heterogeneous Distributed Applications on Clusters

    E-print Network

    Melin, Emmanuel

    of nodes where each node owns a set of (possibly multicore) processors sharing a common memory. These nodes. The FlowVR framework4 [1, 2] was created to address this problem and to ease the development of heterogeneous distributed applications (especially Vir- tual Reality ones). To build a FlowVR application

  6. Task Assignment Heuristics for Distributed CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Benitez, N.; Djomehri, M. J.; Biswas, R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    CFD applications require high-performance computational platforms: 1. Complex physics and domain configuration demand strongly coupled solutions; 2. Applications are CPU and memory intensive; and 3. Huge resource requirements can only be satisfied by teraflop-scale machines or distributed computing.

  7. (Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices.

  8. Noble Gas Excimer Detectors for Security and Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, Michael V.; Lanza, Richard; Chandra, Rico; Davatz, Giovanna

    2011-12-13

    Noble gas excimer detectors are a technology that is common in particle physics research and less common in applications for security and international safeguards. These detectors offer the capability to detect gammas with an energy resolution similar to NaI and to detect neutrons with good energy resolution as well. Depending on the noble gas selected and whether or not it is in a gaseous or liquid state, the sensitivity to gammas and neutrons can be tuned according to the needs of the application. All of this flexibility can be available at a significant cost saving over alternative technologies. This paper will review this detector technology and its applicability to security and safeguards.

  9. Quantum key distribution with unconditional security for all optical fiber network

    E-print Network

    Osamu Hirota; Kentaro Kato; Masaki Shoma; Tsuyoshi Sasaki Usuda

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient implementation method of physical layer of Y-00 which can support a secure communication and a quantum key distribution (more generally key expansion) by IMDD(intensity modulation/direct detection) or FSK(frequency shift keying)optical fiber communication network. Although the general proof of the security is not yet given, a brief sketch of security analysis is shown, which involve an entanglement attack.

  10. Towards secure quantum key distribution protocol for wireless LANs: a hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, R. Lalu; Reddy, P. Chenna

    2015-09-01

    The primary goals of security such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in communication networks can be achieved with secure key distribution. Quantum mechanisms are highly secure means of distributing secret keys as they are unconditionally secure. Quantum key distribution protocols can effectively prevent various attacks in the quantum channel, while classical cryptography is efficient in authentication and verification of secret keys. By combining both quantum cryptography and classical cryptography, security of communications over networks can be leveraged. Hwang, Lee and Li exploited the merits of both cryptographic paradigms for provably secure communications to prevent replay, man-in-the-middle, and passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme with the combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography for 802.11i wireless LANs. Since quantum cryptography is premature in wireless networks, our work is a significant step forward toward securing communications in wireless networks. Our scheme is known as hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. Our analytical results revealed that the proposed scheme is provably secure for wireless networks.

  11. Distributing Key Updates in Secure Dynamic Sandeep S. Kulkarni and Bezawada Bruhadeshwar

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Sandeep

    Distributing Key Updates in Secure Dynamic Groups Sandeep S. Kulkarni and Bezawada Bruhadeshwar of distributing key updates in se- cure dynamic groups. Due to changes in group membership, the group controller needs to change and distribute the keys used for ensuring en- cryption. However, in the current key

  12. Distributing Key Updates in Secure Dynamic Sandeep S. Kulkarni and Bezawada Bruhadeshwar

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Sandeep

    Distributing Key Updates in Secure Dynamic Groups # Sandeep S. Kulkarni and Bezawada Bruhadeshwar of distributing key updates in se­ cure dynamic groups. Due to changes in group membership, the group controller needs to change and distribute the keys used for ensuring en­ cryption. However, in the current key

  13. Secure Random Key Pre-Distribution Against Semi-Honest Adversaries

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Secure Random Key Pre-Distribution Against Semi-Honest Adversaries Mike Burmester1 , Reihaneh}@umd.edu Abstract. Recently, Eschenauer and Gligor [EG02] proposed a model (the EG-model) for random key pre-distribution in distributed sensor networks (DSN) that allows sensors to establish private shared keys. In this model, each

  14. Secure coherent-state quantum key distribution protocols with efficient reconciliation G. Van Assche,1,

    E-print Network

    Cerf, Nicolas

    Secure coherent-state quantum key distribution protocols with efficient reconciliation G. Van of a realistic quantum key distribution protocol using coherent states and homo- dyne detection with a formalRevA.71.052304 PACS number s : 03.67.Dd, 89.70. c I. INTRODUCTION The quantum key distribution QKD , also

  15. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2013-07-09

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  16. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2015-01-06

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  17. 76 FR 17158 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...platforms that are thought to make such architectures inherently more secure. In the second, we will discuss the issue of cryptography and distributed platforms. How To Apply If you would like to participate in this workshop, please submit (1) a...

  18. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  19. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-06-09

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  20. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  1. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.

  2. Neutron resonance radiography for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    2002-11-01

    Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method, with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In the NRR method, a 2-D elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images taken at different neutron energies chosen to cover the resonance cross section features of one or more elements. Images are formed using a lens-coupled plastic scintillator-CCD combination. In preliminary experiments, we have produced NRR images of various simulants using a variable energy neutron beam based on the Li(p,n)Be reaction and a variable energy proton beam. In order to overcome practical limitations to this method, we have studied NRR imaging using the D-D reaction at a fixed incident D energy and scanning through various neutron energies by using the angular variation in neutron energy. The object-detector assembly rotates around the neutron source and different energy (2-6 MeV) neutrons can be obtained at different angles from a D-D neutron source. The radiographic image provides a 2-D mapping of the sum of elemental contents (weighted by the attenuation coefficients). Transmission measurements taken at different neutron energies (angles) form a set of linear equations, which can then be solved to map individual elemental contents.

  3. NEUTRON AND GAMMA RAY DETECTION FOR BORDER SECURITY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-05-21

    Countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments in the U.S. and in a number of other countries by governments and international organizations. Most deployed radiation portal monitor systems are based on plastic scintillator for gamma-ray detection and 3He tubes for neutron detection. The approach to this homeland security application, and lessons learned, are discussed.

  4. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments. 242.609 Section 242.609 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  5. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of securities... MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.609 Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments. (a)...

  6. Enhanced Chosen-Ciphertext Security and Applications Dana Dachman-Soled1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Enhanced Chosen-Ciphertext Security and Applications Dana Dachman-Soled1 Georg Fuchsbauer2 Payman Mohassel3 Adam O'Neill4 Abstract We introduce and study a new notion of enhanced chosen-ciphertext security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Enhanced Chosen-Ciphertext Security 5 4 Constructions of ECCA-Secure PKE 8 4.1 Adaptivity

  7. 49 CFR 1572.9 - Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment. 1572.9 Section 1572.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING...

  8. 49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment. 1572.17 Section 1572.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING...

  9. Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the infrastructure and protocols necessary to enable near-real-time commanding, access to space-based assets, and the secure interoperation between sensor webs owned and controlled by various entities. Select terrestrial and aeronautics-base sensor webs will be used to demonstrate time-critical interoperability between integrated, intelligent sensor webs both terrestrial and between terrestrial and space-based assets. For this work, a Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller and knowledge generation unit is implemented using Virtual Mission Operation Center technology.

  10. A case for avoiding security-enhanced HTTP tools to improve security for Web-based applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes some of the general weaknesses of the current popular Hypertext Transmission Protocol (HTTP) security standards and products in an effort to show that these standards are not appealing for many applications. The author will then show how one can treat HTTP browsers and servers as untrusted elements in the network so that one can rely on other mechanisms to achieve better overall security than can be attained through today`s security-enhanced HTTP tools.

  11. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  12. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  13. An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IP networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)

  14. Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol for Defense Applications in Military Operations Using Virtual Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    With the advent into the 20th century whole world has been facing the common dilemma of Terrorism. The suicide attacks on US twin towers 11 Sept. 2001, Train bombings in Madrid Spain 11 Mar. 2004, London bombings 7 Jul. 2005 and Mumbai attack 26 Nov. 2008 were some of the most disturbing, destructive and evil acts by terrorists in the last decade which has clearly shown their evil intent that they can go to any extent to accomplish their goals. Many terrorist organizations such as al Quaida, Harakat ul-Mujahidin, Hezbollah, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Toiba, etc. are carrying out training camps and terrorist operations which are accompanied with latest technology and high tech arsenal. To counter such terrorism our military is in need of advanced defense technology. One of the major issues of concern is secure communication. It has to be made sure that communication between different military forces is secure so that critical information is not leaked to the adversary. Military forces need secure communication to shield their confidential data from terrorist forces. Leakage of concerned data can prove hazardous, thus preservation and security is of prime importance. There may be a need to perform computations that require data from many military forces, but in some cases the associated forces would not want to reveal their data to other forces. In such situations Secure Multi-party Computations find their application. In this paper, we propose a new highly scalable Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC) protocol and algorithm for Defense applications which can be used to perform computation on encrypted data. Every party encrypts their data in accordance with a particular scheme. This encrypted data is distributed among some created virtual parties. These Virtual parties send their data to the TTP through an Anonymizer layer. TTP performs computation on encrypted data and announces the result. As the data sent was encrypted its actual value can’t be known by TTP and with the use of Anonymizers we have covered the identity of true source of data. Modifier tokens are generated along encryption of data which are distributed among virtual parties, then sent to TTP and finally used in the computation. Thus without revealing the data, right result can be computed and privacy of the parties is maintained. We have also given a probabilistic security analysis of hacking the protocol and shown how zero hacking security can be achieved.

  15. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22... § 60.22 Filing and distribution of application...generate additional copies for distribution in accordance with written...Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel. Any subsequent...

  16. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22... § 60.22 Filing and distribution of application...generate additional copies for distribution in accordance with written...Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel. Any subsequent...

  17. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22... § 60.22 Filing and distribution of application...generate additional copies for distribution in accordance with written...Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel. Any subsequent...

  18. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22... § 60.22 Filing and distribution of application...generate additional copies for distribution in accordance with written...Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel. Any subsequent...

  19. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  20. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  1. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  2. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  3. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  4. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  5. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  6. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  7. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  8. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  9. Unconditional Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Practical Devices

    E-print Network

    Hupkes, Hermen Jan

    a secret random key at the end of the procedure. This secret key could then be used by both Alice and Bob secret messages, it is of course very easy for them to generate and share a secret bit-string. However that the security of the system depends merely on the laws of nature and not on the unknown capabilities

  10. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Distributed Information Brokering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fengjun

    2010-01-01

    As enormous structured, semi-structured and unstructured data are collected and archived by organizations in many realms ranging from business to health networks to government agencies, the needs for efficient yet secure inter-organization information sharing naturally arise. Unlike early information sharing approaches that only involve a small…

  11. A Modified Wigner's Inequality for Secure Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    S. Castelletto; I. P. Degiovanni; M. L. Rastello

    2003-02-27

    In this report we discuss the insecurity with present implementations of the Ekert protocol for quantum-key distribution based on the Wigner Inequality. We propose a modified version of this inequality which guarantees safe quantum-key distribution.

  12. Secure Path-Key Revocation for Symmetric Key Pre-distribution Schemes in Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    Secure Path-Key Revocation for Symmetric Key Pre-distribution Schemes in Sensor Networks Tyler 0FD United Kingdom {Tyler.Moore,Jolyon.Clulow}@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract. Path keys are secrets established between communicating devices that do not share a pre-distributed key. They are required by most

  13. Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes. I. INTRODUCTION Quantum keyGeneralized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key

  14. Unconditional security proof of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation

    E-print Network

    Anthony Leverrier; Philippe Grangier

    2008-12-22

    We present a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol combining a discrete modulation and reverse reconciliation. This protocol is proven unconditionally secure and allows the distribution of secret keys over long distances, thanks to a reverse reconciliation scheme efficient at very low signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. 76 FR 17158 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    .... Assertion: ``Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security''. Distributed data architectures, such as cloud computing, offer very attractive cost savings and provide new means of large scale analysis and information...; adversaries will have difficulty locating your data in the cloud, and by breaking it up and...

  16. Security Analysis and Extensions of the PCB Algorithm for Distributed Key Generation

    E-print Network

    Poovendran, Radha

    Security Analysis and Extensions of the PCB Algorithm for Distributed Key Generation Radha these methods is the distributed key generation method proposed by Poovendran, Corson and Baras in [PCB],which we call the PCB scheme in this paper. The PCB scheme made use of modulo arithmetic and generalized

  17. Security and Privacy Behavior-Based Access Control for Distributed Healthcare Systems

    E-print Network

    Sartipi, Kamran

    Security and Privacy Behavior-Based Access Control for Distributed Healthcare Systems M. Yarmand, K requirements for using patient profiles in distributed healthcare environments. The amalgamation of new information technology with traditional healthcare workflows for sharing patient profiles has made the whole

  18. DisCo: A Distribution Infrastructure for Securely Deploying Decomposable Services in Partly Trusted

    E-print Network

    Karamcheti, Vijay

    DisCo: A Distribution Infrastructure for Securely Deploying Decomposable Services in Partly Trusted often dominates the benefits of service distribution. The DisCo infrastructure is specifically targeted administered by multiple authorities with changing trust relationships. The DisCo infrastructure provides

  19. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  20. Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  1. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-07-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report.

  2. Security Applications of Diodes with Unique Current-Voltage Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rührmair, Ulrich; Jaeger, Christian; Hilgers, Christian; Algasinger, Michael; Csaba, György; Stutzmann, Martin

    Diodes are among the most simple and inexpensive electric components. In this paper, we investigate how random diodes with irregular I(U) curves can be employed for crypto and security purposes. We show that such diodes can be used to build Strong Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs), Certificates of Authenticity (COAs), and Physically Obfuscated Keys (POKs), making them a broadly usable security tool. We detail how such diodes can be produced by an efficient and inexpensive method known as ALILE process. Furthermore, we present measurement data from real systems and discuss prototypical implementations. This includes the generation of helper data as well as efficient signature generation by elliptic curves and 2D barcode generation for the application of the diodes as COAs.

  3. Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices

    E-print Network

    Lluis Masanes; Stefano Pironio; Antonio Acin

    2010-11-18

    Device-independent quantum key distribution aims to provide key distribution schemes whose security is based on the laws of quantum physics but which does not require any assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used in the protocol. This strong form of security, unattainable with standard schemes, is possible only when using correlations that violate a Bell inequality. We provide a general security proof valid for a large class of device-independent quantum key distribution protocols in a model in which the raw key elements are generated by causally independent measurement processes. The validity of this independence condition may be justifiable in a variety of implementations and is necessarily satisfied in a physical realization where the raw key is generated by N separate pairs of devices. Our work shows that device-independent quantum key distribution is possible with key rates comparable to those of standard schemes.

  4. Intelligent Facial Recognition Systems: Technology advancements for security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just credentials or badges) in a given sensitive area and provide full time personnel accountability. One approach desirable at Department of Energy facilities for access control and/or personnel identification is an Intelligent Facial Recognition System (IFRS) that is non-invasive to personnel. Automatic facial recognition does not require the active participation of the enrolled subjects, unlike most other biological measurement (biometric) systems (e.g., fingerprint, hand geometry, or eye retinal scan systems). It is this feature that makes an IFRS attractive for applications other than access control such as emergency evacuation verification, screening, and personnel tracking. This paper discusses current technology that shows promising results for DOE and other security applications. A survey of research and development in facial recognition identified several companies and universities that were interested and/or involved in the area. A few advanced prototype systems were also identified. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating facial recognition systems that are in the advanced prototype stage. The initial application for the evaluation is access control in a controlled environment with a constant background and with cooperative subjects. Further evaluations will be conducted in a less controlled environment, which may include a cluttered background and subjects that are not looking towards the camera. The outcome of the evaluations will help identify areas of facial recognition systems that need further development and will help to determine the effectiveness of the current systems for security applications.

  5. Security of quantum key distribution using a simplified trusted relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, William; Annabestani, Razieh; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We propose a QKD protocol for trusted node relays. Our protocol shifts the communication and computational weight of classical postprocessing to the end users by reassigning the roles of error correction and privacy amplification, while leaving the exchange of quantum signals untouched. We perform a security analysis for this protocol based on the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol on the level of infinite key formulas, taking into account weak coherent implementations involving decoy analysis.

  6. Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas

    2011-07-15

    By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.

  7. Form SS-5 (08-2011) ef (08-2011) Destroy Prior Editions Application for a Social Security Card

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Form SS-5 (08-2011) ef (08-2011) Destroy Prior Editions Application for a Social Security Card Page 1 SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Applying for a Social Security Card is free! USE THIS APPLICATION TO: Apply for an original Social Security card Apply for a replacement Social Security card Change

  8. Experimental study for Yuen-Kim protocol of quantum key distribution with unconditional secure

    E-print Network

    O. Hirota; K. Kato; M. Sohma

    2002-12-09

    In this report, we simulate practical feature of Yuen-Kim protocol for quantum key distribution with unconditional secure. In order to demonstrate them experimentally by intensity modulation/direct detection(IMDD) optical fiber communication system, we use simplified encoding scheme to guarantee security for key information(1 or 0). That is, pairwise M-ary intensity modulation scheme is employed. Furthermore, we give an experimental implementation of YK protocol based on IMDD.

  9. Unconditional security proof of a deterministic quantum key distribution with a two-way quantum channel

    E-print Network

    Hua Lu; Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Xiongfeng Ma; Qing-yu Cai

    2011-11-01

    In a deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol with a two-way quantum channel, Bob sends a qubit to Alice who then encodes a key bit onto the qubit and sends it back to Bob. After measuring the returned qubit, Bob can obtain Alice's key bit immediately, without basis reconciliation. Since an eavesdropper may attack the qubits traveling on either the Bob-Alice channel or the Alice-Bob channel, the security analysis of DQKD with a two-way quantum channel is complicated and its unconditional security has been controversial. This paper presents a security proof of a single-photon four-state DQKD against general attacks.

  10. Security evaluation of the quantum key distribution system with two-mode squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Osaki, M.; Ban, M.

    2003-08-01

    The quantum key distribution (QKD) system with two-mode squeezed states has been demonstrated by Pereira et al. [Phys. Rev. A 62, 042311 (2000)]. They evaluate the security of the system based on the signal to noise ratio attained by a homodyne detector. In this paper, we discuss its security based on the error probability individually attacked by eavesdropper with the unambiguous or the error optimum detection. The influence of the energy loss at transmission channels is also taken into account. It will be shown that the QKD system is secure under these conditions.

  11. Unconditional security proof of a deterministic quantum key distribution with a two-way quantum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Hua; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Ma Xiongfeng; Cai Qingyu

    2011-10-15

    In a deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol with a two-way quantum channel, Bob sends a qubit to Alice who then encodes a key bit onto the qubit and sends it back to Bob. After measuring the returned qubit, Bob can obtain Alice's key bit immediately, without basis reconciliation. Since an eavesdropper may attack the qubits traveling on either the Bob-Alice channel or the Alice-Bob channel, the security analysis of DQKD protocol with a two-way quantum channel is complicated and its unconditional security has been controversial. This paper presents a security proof of a single-photon four-state DQKD protocol against general attacks.

  12. Micropolis: A Virtual City for Water Distribution System Research Applications 

    E-print Network

    Torres, Jacob

    2006-07-11

    For security reasons, cities keep their water distribution system data confidential. This data includes geographic layout of pipes, tanks, pumps, wells, buildings, and demands. While the secrecy of water system data is crucial, it poses a...

  13. Using Science Driven Technologies for the Defense and Security Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Zukor, Dorthy; Ambrose, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    For the past three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing enormous amounts of useful data and information in broadening our understanding of our home planet as a system. This research, as it has expanded our learning process, has also generated additional questions. This has further resulted in establishing new science requirements, which have culminated in defining and pushing the state-of-the-art technology needs. NASA s Earth science program has deployed 18 highly complex satellites, with a total of 80 sensors, so far and is in a process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in the next decade. Due to the heightened security alert of the nation, researchers and technologists are paying serious attention to the use of these science driven technologies for dual use. In other words, how such sophisticated observing and measuring systems can be used in detecting multiple types of security concerns with a substantial lead time so that the appropriate law enforcement agencies can take adequate steps to defuse any potential risky scenarios. This paper examines numerous NASA technologies such as laser/lidar systems, microwave and millimeter wave technologies, optical observing systems, high performance computational techniques for rapid analyses, and imaging products that can have a tremendous pay off for security applications.

  14. Provably secure time distribution for the electric grid

    SciTech Connect

    Smith IV, Amos M; Evans, Philip G; Williams, Brian P; Grice, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a quantum time distribution (QTD) method that combines the precision of optical timing techniques with the integrity of quantum key distribution (QKD). Critical infrastructure is dependent on microprocessor- and programmable logic-based monitoring and control systems. The distribution of timing information across the electric grid is accomplished by GPS signals which are known to be vulnerable to spoofing. We demonstrate a method for synchronizing remote clocks based on the arrival time of photons in a modifed QKD system. This has the advantage that the signal can be veried by examining the quantum states of the photons similar to QKD.

  15. Distributed Computing Framework for Synthetic Radar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurrola, Eric M.; Rosen, Paul A.; Aivazis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We are developing an extensible software framework, in response to Air Force and NASA needs for distributed computing facilities for a variety of radar applications. The objective of this work is to develop a Python based software framework, that is the framework elements of the middleware that allows developers to control processing flow on a grid in a distributed computing environment. Framework architectures to date allow developers to connect processing functions together as interchangeable objects, thereby allowing a data flow graph to be devised for a specific problem to be solved. The Pyre framework, developed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and now being used as the basis for next-generation radar processing at JPL, is a Python-based software framework. We have extended the Pyre framework to include new facilities to deploy processing components as services, including components that monitor and assess the state of the distributed network for eventual real-time control of grid resources.

  16. T3: Secure, Scalable, Distributed Data Movement and Remote System Control for Enterprise Level Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Gregory S.; Nickless, William K.; Thiede, David R.; Gorton, Ian; Pitre, Bill J.; Christy, Jason E.; Faultersack, Elizabeth M.; Mauth, Jeffery A.

    2009-07-20

    Enterprise level cyber security requires the deployment, operation, and monitoring of many sensors across geographically dispersed sites. Communicating with the sensors to gather data and control behavior is a challenging task when the number of sensors is rapidly growing. This paper describes the system requirements, design, and implementation of T3, the third generation of our transport software that performs this task. T3 relies on open source software and open Internet standards. Data is encoded in MIME format messages and transported via NNTP, which provides scalability. OpenSSL and public key cryptography are used to secure the data. Robustness and ease of development are increased by defining an internal cryptographic API, implemented by modules in C, Perl, and Python. We are currently using T3 in a production environment. It is freely available to download and use for other projects.

  17. Data Mining Applications in Social Security Yanchang Zhao, Huaifeng Zhang, Longbing Cao, Hans Bohlscheid, Yuming Ou,

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    Chapter 6 Data Mining Applications in Social Security Yanchang Zhao, Huaifeng Zhang, Longbing Cao mining in social security. The first is an application of decision tree and association rules to find the demo- graphic patterns of customers. Sequence mining is used in the second application to find activity

  18. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of the diver's depth based on the IR surface manifestation. To reduce the impact of measurement and data processing errors in this natural very noisy environment, a computer based analysis process was developed and optimized for this very specific application. Based on its assessment previous contradictions in the bubble growth could be resolved.

  19. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Owen S.; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M.; Lee, Michael Z.; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

  20. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Owen S; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M; Lee, Michael Z; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

  1. Application of Near-Space Passive Radar for Homeland Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenqin

    2007-03-01

    To protect the homeland from terrorist attacks employing explosive devices, revolutionary advances across a wide range of technologies are required. Inspired by recent advances in near-space (defined as the region between 20 km and 100 km), this paper proposes a new passive radar system using opportunistic transmitter as an illuminator and near-space platform as a receiver. This concept differs substantially from current radars. This system can be operated as a passive bistatic or multistatic radar and hence largely immune to jamming. By placing the receiver in near-space platforms, many functions that are currently performed with satellites or airplanes could be performed much more cheaply and with much greater operational utility. These advantages make near-space passive attractive for a variety of applications, many of which fit well with the needs of homeland security. This paper details the role of near-space passive radar as sensor system that can support homeland security applications. The strengths and weakness of near-space passive radar, compared to current spaceborne and airborne radars, are detailed. The signal models and processing algorithms for near-space passive radar are provided. It is shown that the use of cost effective near-space platforms can provide the solutions that were previously thought to be out of reach to remote sensing and government customers.

  2. Security applications of a remote electric-field sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prance, Robert J.; Harland, Christopher J.; Prance, Helen

    2008-10-01

    A new generation of electric field sensors developed at the University of Sussex is enabling an alternative to contact voltage and non-contact magnetic field measurements. We have demonstrated the capability of this technology in a number of areas including ECG through clothing, remote off-body ECG, through wall movement sensing and electric field imaging. Clearly, there are many applications for a generic sensor technology with this capability, including long term vital sign monitoring. The non-invasive nature of the measurement also makes these sensors ideal for man/machine and human/robot interfacing. In addition, there are obvious security and biometric possibilities since we can obtain physiological data remotely, without the knowledge of the subject. This is a clear advantage if such systems are to be used for evaluating the psychological state of a subject. In this paper we report the results obtained with a new version of the sensor which is capable of acquiring electrophysiological signals remotely in an open unshielded laboratory. We believe that this technology opens up a new area of remote biometrics which could have considerable implications for security applications. We have also demonstrated the ability of EPS to function in closely-packed one and two dimensional arrays for real-time imaging.

  3. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra V; Wang, Joseph

    2015-11-19

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, 'on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA. PMID:26554557

  4. Adaptively Secure Feldman VSS and Applications to Universally-Composable Threshold Cryptography

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Adaptively Secure Feldman VSS and Applications to Universally-Composable Threshold Cryptography-log key generation (DLKG) protocol from scratch which is adaptively-secure in the non-erasure model threshold Cramer-Shoup cryptosystem. Our results are based on a new adaptively-secure Feldman VSS scheme

  5. Adaptively Secure Feldman VSS and Applications to Universally-Composable Threshold Cryptography ?

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Adaptively Secure Feldman VSS and Applications to Universally-Composable Threshold Cryptography discrete-log key generation (DLKG) protocol from scratch which is adaptively-secure in the non, and a SIP UC threshold Cramer-Shoup cryptosystem. Our results are based on a new adaptively-secure Feldman

  6. End-to-end Web Application Security Ulfar Erlingsson Benjamin Livshits

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    relies primarily on server-side mechanisms. This paper makes the end-to- end argument that the client-to-end security, Web clients must be enhanced. We introduce Mutation-Event Trans- forms: an easy-to-use client of attractive, new security poli- cies that demonstrate the advantages of end-to-end Web application security

  7. Development and applications of diffractive optical security devices for banknotes and high value documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, John K.; Holmes, Brian W.; Jones, Keith A.

    2000-04-01

    Embossed holograms and othe rdiffractive optically variable devices are increasingly familiar security items on plastic cards, banknotes, securyt documetns and on branded gods and media to protect against counterfeit, protect copyright and to evidence tamper. This paper outlines some of the diffractive optical seuryt and printed security develoepd for this rapidly growing field and provides examles of some current security applications.

  8. USING DISTRIBUTED SOURCE CODING TO SECURE FINGERPRINT BIOMETRICS Stark C. Draper, Ashish Khisti, Emin Martinian, Anthony Vetro, Jonathan S. Yedidia

    E-print Network

    Draper, Stark C.

    USING DISTRIBUTED SOURCE CODING TO SECURE FINGERPRINT BIOMETRICS Stark C. Draper, Ashish Khisti Broadway Ave, Cambridge MA, 02139 ABSTRACT We describe a method to encode fingerprint biometrics securely not suffice to recreate the original finger- print biometric. Therefore, a breach in database security does

  9. Security of high speed quantum key distribution with finite detector dead time

    E-print Network

    Viacheslav Burenkov; Bing Qi; Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2010-05-03

    The security of a high speed quantum key distribution system with finite detector dead time \\tau is analyzed. When the transmission rate becomes higher than the maximum count rate of the individual detectors (1/\\tau ), security issues affect the algorithm for sifting bits. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations of the Bennett-Brassard BB84 protocol are performed. We study Rogers et al.'s protocol (introduced in "Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution," New J. Phys. 9 (2007) 319) in the presence of an active eavesdropper Eve who has the power to perform an intercept-resend attack. It is shown that Rogers et al.'s protocol is no longer secure. More specifically, Eve can induce a basis-dependent detection efficiency at the receiver's end. Modified key sifting schemes that are secure in the presence of dead time and an active eavesdropper are then introduced. We analyze and compare these secure sifting schemes for this active Eve scenario, and calculate and simulate their key generation rate. It is shown that the maximum key generation rate is 1/(2\\tau ) for passive basis selection, and 1/\\tau for active basis selection. The security analysis for finite detector dead time is also extended to the decoy state BB84 protocol.

  10. 12 CFR 303.203 - Applications for capital distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for capital distributions. 303.203... FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action § 303.203 Applications for capital distributions. (a) Scope... for capital distribution if, after having made a capital distribution, the institution would...

  11. Security and entanglement in differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Adriana Marais; Thomas Konrad; Francesco Petruccione

    2010-02-04

    The differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol is formalised as a prepare-and-measure scheme and translated into an equivalent entanglement-based protocol. A necessary condition for security is that Bob's measurement can detect the entanglement of the distributed state in the entanglement-based translation, which implies that his measurement is described by non-commuting POVM elements. This condition is shown to be met.

  12. Web-Based Training Applications in Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.L.

    1999-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires all employees who hold a security clearance and have access to classified information and/or special nuclear material to be trained in the area of Safeguards and Security. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, personnel who are responsible for training have capitalized on this communication medium to develop and deliver Web-based training. Unlike traditional computer based training where the student was required to find a workstation where the training program resided, one of Web-based training strongest advantage is that the training can be delivered right to the workers desk top computer. This paper will address reasons for the driving forces behind the utilization of Web-based training at the Laboratory with a brief explanation of the different types of training conducted. Also discussed briefly is the different types of distance learning used in conjunction with Web-based training. The implementation strategy will be addressed and how the Laboratory utilized a Web-Based Standards Committee to develop standards for Web-based training applications. Web-based problems resulting from little or no communication between training personnel across the Laboratory will be touched on and how this was solved. Also discussed is the development of a ''Virtual Training Center'' where personnel can shop on-line for their training needs. Web-based training programs within the Safeguards and Security arena will be briefly discussed. Specifically, Web-based training in the area of Materials Control and Accountability will be explored. A Web-based example of what a student would experience during a training session is also discussed. A short closing statement of what the future of Web-based Training holds in the future is offered.

  13. Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Marske, Katharine A.; Nógues-Bravo, David; Normand, Signe

    2011-10-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for estimating and studying past organism distributions. SDM complements fossil and genetic evidence by providing (i) quantitative and potentially high-resolution predictions of the past organism distributions, (ii) statistically formulated, testable ecological hypotheses regarding past distributions and communities, and (iii) statistical assessment of range determinants. In this article, we provide an overview of applications of SDM to paleobiology, outlining the methodology, reviewing SDM-based studies to paleobiology or at the interface of paleo- and neobiology, discussing assumptions and uncertainties as well as how to handle them, and providing a synthesis and outlook. Key methodological issues for SDM applications to paleobiology include predictor variables (types and properties; special emphasis is given to paleoclimate), model validation (particularly important given the emphasis on cross-temporal predictions in paleobiological applications), and the integration of SDM and genetics approaches. Over the last few years the number of studies using SDM to address paleobiology-related questions has increased considerably. While some of these studies only use SDM (23%), most combine them with genetically inferred patterns (49%), paleoecological records (22%), or both (6%). A large number of SDM-based studies have addressed the role of Pleistocene glacial refugia in biogeography and evolution, especially in Europe, but also in many other regions. SDM-based approaches are also beginning to contribute to a suite of other research questions, such as historical constraints on current distributions and diversity patterns, the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions, past community assembly, human paleobiogeography, Holocene paleoecology, and even deep-time biogeography (notably, providing insights into biogeographic dynamics >400 million years ago). We discuss important assumptions and uncertainties that affect the SDM approach to paleobiology - the equilibrium postulate, niche stability, changing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations - as well as ways to address these (ensemble, functional SDM, and non-SDM ecoinformatics approaches). We conclude that the SDM approach offers important opportunities for advances in paleobiology by providing a quantitative ecological perspective, and hereby also offers the potential for an enhanced contribution of paleobiology to ecology and conservation biology, e.g., for estimating climate change impacts and for informing ecological restoration.

  14. Security of quantum key distribution protocols using two-way classical communication or weak coherent pulses

    E-print Network

    Barbara Kraus; Cyril Branciard; Renato Renner

    2006-10-18

    We apply the techniques introduced in [Kraus et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 080501, 2005] to prove security of quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes using two-way classical post-processing as well as QKD schemes based on weak coherent pulses instead of single-photon pulses. As a result, we obtain improved bounds on the secret-key rate of these schemes.

  15. Security of EPR-based Quantum Key Distribution using three bases

    E-print Network

    Hitoshi Inamori

    2000-08-16

    Modifications to a previous proof of the security of EPR-based quantum key distribution are proposed. This modified version applies to a protocol using three conjugate measurement bases rather than two. A higher tolerable error rate is obtained for the three-basis protocol.

  16. Secure Distributed Solution for Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid

    E-print Network

    Shehab, Mohamed

    Secure Distributed Solution for Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid Mohammad: Smart Grid, Energy Consumption Schedule, Privacy. I. INTRODUCTION Energy is critically important varying energy prices, giving incentive for using energy at off-peak hours. Smart grids provide innovative

  17. Security of quantum key distribution with entangled qutrits Thomas Durt,1

    E-print Network

    Cerf, Nicolas

    . In this paper, we consider a generalization of Ekert's entanglement-based quantum cryptographic protocol where for entangled photons up to eleven dimensions 18 . Thus, exploring an entanglement- based quantum cryptographicSecurity of quantum key distribution with entangled qutrits Thomas Durt,1 Nicolas J. Cerf,2 Nicolas

  18. Enabling Distributed Addition of Secure Access to Patient's Records in A Tele-Referring Group

    E-print Network

    Poovendran, Radha

    and networking technolo- gies, vast medical records now exist in digital for- mat. Compared to paper-based records, Electronic Health Records (EHR) are easy to transmit, store and share among medical professionalsEnabling Distributed Addition of Secure Access to Patient's Records in A Tele-Referring Group

  19. 7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Responsibility Matters—Primary Covered Transactions, as required by 7 CFR part 3017; (8) A report by the borrower... power supply borrowers. 1717.857 Section 1717.857 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Private Financing § 1717.857 Refinancing of existing secured debt—distribution and power supply...

  20. Fabric: A Platform for Secure Distributed Computation and Storage Jed Liu Michael D. George K. Vikram

    E-print Network

    Myers, Andrew C.

    Fabric: A Platform for Secure Distributed Computation and Storage Jed Liu Michael D. George K,mdgeorge,kvikram,qixin,lrw,andru}@cs.cornell.edu Department of Computer Science Cornell University Abstract Fabric is a new system and language for building-level programming language makes distri- bution and persistence largely transparent to programmers. Fabric supports

  1. Event distribution middleware supports the integration of distributed applications by accepting events from

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Kelly A.

    Abstract Event distribution middleware supports the integration of distributed applications by accepting events from information producers and disseminating applicable events to interested consumers) stateless event transformations that consolidate events from diverse sources; and (3) stateful event

  2. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

  3. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2012-01-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers. PMID:23175590

  4. A secure RFID-based WBAN for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Alamri, Atif

    2013-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) allows the seamless integration of small and intelligent invasive or non-invasive sensor nodes in, on or around a human body for continuous health monitoring. These nodes are expected to use different power-efficient protocols in order to extend the WBAN lifetime. This paper highlights the power consumption and security issues of WBAN for healthcare applications. Numerous power saving mechanisms are discussed and a secure RFID-based protocol for WBAN is proposed. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed and compared with that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols using extensive simulations. It is shown that the proposed protocol is power-efficient and protects patients' data from adversaries. It is less vulnerable to different attacks compared to that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols. For a low traffic load and a single alkaline battery of capacity 2.6 Ah, the proposed protocol could extend the WBAN lifetime, when deployed on patients in hospitals or at homes, to approximately five years. PMID:24061704

  5. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-11-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers. PMID:23175590

  6. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  7. A Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    Effective planning, response, and recovery (PRR) involving terrorist attacks or natural disasters come with a vast array of information needs. Much of the required information originates from disparate sources in widely differing formats. However, one common attribute the information often possesses is physical location. The organization and visualization of this information can be critical to the success of the PRR mission. Organizing information geospatially is often the most intuitive for the user. In the course of developing a field tool for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office for Bombing Prevention, a geospatial integrated problem solving environment software framework was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This framework has proven useful as well in a number of other DHS, Department of Defense, and Department of Energy projects. An overview of the software architecture along with application examples are presented.

  8. Specificity of Correlation Pattern Recognition Methods Application in Security Holograms Identity Control Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, E. Yu.; Starikov, R. S.; Odinokov, S. B.; Tsyganov, I. K.; Talalaev, V. E.; Koluchkin, V. V.

    Automatic inspection of security hologram (SH) identity is highly demanded issue due high distribution of SH worldwide to protect documents such as passports, driving licenses, banknotes etc. While most of the known approaches use inspection of SH design features none of these approaches inspect the features of its surface relief that is a direct contribution to original master matrix used for these holograms production. In our previous works we represented the device that was developed to provide SH identification by processing of coherent responses of its surface elements. Most of the algorithms used in this device are based on application of correlation pattern recognition methods. The main issue of the present article is a description of these methods application specificities.

  9. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patent applications containing classified subject matter. 27.203 Section 27.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.203 Security requirements for patent applications containing...

  10. Satellite services for disaster management and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, Otto; Schrotter, P.

    2007-06-01

    Advantages of communications satellites are the inherent broadcast capability, high bandwidth, reliability and flexibility in network expansion. Small transportable terminals can be made operational very quickly. Recent developments in communications and computer technology allow to provide low-cost equipment, which is affordable even in developing countries. Communications satellites can also play an important role in case of emergencies or natural disasters. The combination of satellite communications and navigation can support new services for emergency teams. At the Institute of Applied Systems Technology and the Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communications highly transportable terminals have been developed, both for star and mesh network topologies. A fully meshed VSAT system is used for symmetrical links. For other applications, which do not require high return link capacity an asymmetrical system is an efficient solution. It uses low-cost DVB technology for the forward link and satellite phones with data capability on the return link. Novel multicast protocols allow to use these asymmetrical links in an efficient way. The paper describes the different systems and their applications in disaster management and security applications. Emphasis is put on transfer of remote sensing images and voice over IP (VoIP) as well as videoconference services.

  11. SEAL: A Secure Communication Library for Building Dynamic Group Key Agreement Applications

    E-print Network

    Lui, John C.S.

    SEAL: A Secure Communication Library for Building Dynamic Group Key Agreement Applications Patrick Abstract We present the SEcure communicAtion Library (SEAL), a Linux-based C language application the efficiency of the group key generation). Using SEAL, we developed a testing tool termed Gauger to evaluate

  12. Bistro: A Scalable and Secure Data Transfer Service for Digital Government Applications

    E-print Network

    Samet, Hanan

    -based massive data collection applications. Furthermore, security, due to the need for privacy and integrityBistro: A Scalable and Secure Data Transfer Service for Digital Government Applications at all levels is a major collector and provider of data. In this project we focus on the collection

  13. Towards a Pattern Language for Security Risk Analysis of Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Stølen, Ketil

    development life cycle. Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.D.9 [Software Engineering]: Management a security requirements pattern, a web application design pattern and a risk analysis model patternTowards a Pattern Language for Security Risk Analysis of Web Applications Yan Li, SINTEF ICT

  14. Enhancing Security of Real-Time Applications on Grids through Dynamic Scheduling

    E-print Network

    Feitelson, Dror

    Enhancing Security of Real-Time Applications on Grids through Dynamic Scheduling Tao Xie Xiao Qin* Department of Computer Science New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, New Mexico 87801-4796 {xietao, xqin}@cs.nmt.edu Abstract Real-time applications with security requirements

  15. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  16. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  17. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  18. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  19. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  20. Bachelor of Science -CyberSecurity -Students Entering Fall 2009 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one) or later

    E-print Network

    Mordohai, Philippos

    Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2009 Study Plan / Application - Secure Systems 3.0 VII CS577 - CyberSecurity Lab 3.0 VIII CS552 - Software Engineering & Practice II 2 3.0 #12;Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2009 Study Plan / Application

  1. Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication

    E-print Network

    W. -Y. Hwang

    2003-05-19

    We propose a decoy-state method to overcome the photon-number-splitting attack for Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution protocol in the presence of high loss: A legitimate user intentionally and randomly replaces signal pulses by multi-photon pulses (decoy-states). Then they check the loss of the decoy-states. If the loss of the decoy-states is abnormally less than that of signal pulses, the whole protocol is aborted. Otherwise, to continue the protocol, they estimate loss of signal multi-photon pulses based on that of decoy-states. This estimation can be done with an assumption that the two losses have similar values, that we justify.

  2. Environmental security planning : an application to the Longwood Medical Area

    E-print Network

    Garmaise, Miriam Gail

    1982-01-01

    The thesis is a study of the security problems due to street crime in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston. The first part of the thesis defines the theories and practices of environmental security .planning, the urban ...

  3. On KLJN-based Secure Key Distribution in Vehicular Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Saez, Y.; Pesti, G.; Kish, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    In a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett. 13 (2014) 1450020] we introduced a vehicular communication system with unconditionally secure key exchange based on the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme. In this paper, we address the secure KLJN key donation to vehicles. This KLJN key donation solution is performed lane-by-lane by using roadside key provider equipment embedded in the pavement. A method to compute the lifetime of the KLJN key is also given. This key lifetime depends on the car density and gives an upper limit of the lifetime of the KLJN key for vehicular communication networks.

  4. Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate

    E-print Network

    A. R. Dixon; Z. L. Yuan; J. F. Dynes; A. W. Sharpe; A. J. Shields

    2008-10-06

    We report the first gigahertz clocked decoy-protocol quantum key distribution (QKD). Record key rates have been achieved thanks to the use of self-differencing InGaAs avalanche photodiodes designed specifically for high speed single photon detection. The system is characterized with a secure key rate of 1.02 Mbit/s for a fiber distance of 20 km and 10.1 kbit/s for 100 km. As the present advance relies upon compact non-cryogenic detectors, it opens the door towards practical and low cost QKD systems to secure broadband communication in future.

  5. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution: Finite-Key Analysis of Composable Security against Coherent Attacks

    E-print Network

    Furrer, Fabian; Berta, Mario; Scholz, Volkher B; Tomamichel, Marco; Werner, Reinhard F

    2011-01-01

    We provide a security analysis for continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols based on the transmission of squeezed vacuum states measured via homodyne detection. We employ a version of the entropic uncertainty relation for smooth entropies to give a lower bound on the number of secret bits which can be extracted from a finite number of runs of the protocol. This bound is valid under general coherent attacks, and gives rise to keys which are composably secure. For comparison, we also give a lower bound valid under the assumption of collective attacks. For both scenarios, we find positive key rates using experimental parameters reachable today.

  6. Continuous variable quantum key distribution: finite-key analysis of composable security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Furrer, F; Franz, T; Berta, M; Leverrier, A; Scholz, V B; Tomamichel, M; Werner, R F

    2012-09-01

    We provide a security analysis for continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols based on the transmission of two-mode squeezed vacuum states measured via homodyne detection. We employ a version of the entropic uncertainty relation for smooth entropies to give a lower bound on the number of secret bits which can be extracted from a finite number of runs of the protocol. This bound is valid under general coherent attacks, and gives rise to keys which are composably secure. For comparison, we also give a lower bound valid under the assumption of collective attacks. For both scenarios, we find positive key rates using experimental parameters reachable today. PMID:23005270

  7. 76 FR 8755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-032 Official Passport Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--032 Official Passport Application and...Department of Homeland Security/ ALL--032 Official Passport Application and...Washington, DC 20528. Instructions: All submissions received must include the...

  8. Bacteriorhodopsin-based photochromic pigments for optical security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Norbert A.; Fischer, Thorsten; Neebe, Martin

    2002-04-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin is a two-dimensional crystalline photochromic protein which is astonishingly stable towards chemical and thermal degradation. This is one of the reasons why this is one of the very few proteins which may be used as a biological pigment in printing inks. Variants of the naturally occurring bacteriorhodopsin have been developed which show a distinguished color change even with low light intensities and without the requirement of UV-light. Several pigments with different color changes are available right now. In addition to this visual detectable feature, the photochromism, the proteins amino acid sequence can be genetically altered in order to code and identify specific production lots. For advanced applications the data storage capability of bacteriorhodopsin will be useful. Write-once-read-many (WORM) recording of digital data is accomplished by laser excitation of printed bacteriorhodopsin inks. A density of 1 MBit per square inch is currently achieved. Several application examples for this biological molecule are described where low and high level features are used in combination. Bacteriorhodopsin-based inks are a new class of optical security pigments.

  9. Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

    2004-06-01

    There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

  10. A versatile digital video engine for safeguards and security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S.; DeKeyser, P.

    1996-08-01

    The capture and storage of video images have been major engineering challenges for safeguard and security applications since the video camera provided a method to observe remote operations. The problems of designing reliable video cameras were solved in the early 1980`s with the introduction of the CCD (charged couple device) camera. The first CCD cameras cost in the thousands of dollars but have now been replaced by cameras costing in the hundreds. The remaining problem of storing and viewing video images in both attended and unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems is being solved by sophisticated digital compression systems. One such system is the PC-104 three card set which is literally a ``video engine`` that can provide power for video storage systems. The use of digital images in surveillance systems makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems, portable video surveillance units, image review stations, and authenticated camera modules. This paper discusses the video card set and how it can be used in many applications.

  11. Practical Security Bounds Against the Trojan-Horse Attack in Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Ward, M. B.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    In the quantum version of a Trojan-horse attack, photons are injected into the optical modules of a quantum key distribution system in an attempt to read information direct from the encoding devices. To stop the Trojan photons, the use of passive optical components has been suggested. However, to date, there is no quantitative bound that specifies such components in relation to the security of the system. Here, we turn the Trojan-horse attack into an information leakage problem. This allows us to quantify the system security and relate it to the specification of the optical elements. The analysis is supported by the experimental characterization, within the operation regime, of reflectivity and transmission of the optical components most relevant to security.

  12. Practical security bounds against the Trojan-horse attack in quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Marco Lucamarini; Iris Choi; Martin B. Ward; James F. Dynes; Zhiliang Yuan; Andrew J. Shields

    2015-08-03

    In the quantum version of a Trojan-horse attack, photons are injected into the optical modules of a quantum key distribution system in an attempt to read information direct from the encoding devices. To stop the Trojan photons, the use of passive optical components has been suggested. However, to date, there is no quantitative bound that specifies such components in relation to the security of the system. Here, we turn the Trojan-horse attack into an information leakage problem. This allows us quantify the system security and relate it to the specification of the optical elements. The analysis is supported by the experimental characterization, within the operation regime, of reflectivity and transmission of the optical components most relevant to security.

  13. Rapid response radiation sensors for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory is developing a rapid response radiation detection system for homeland security field applications. The intelligence-driven system is deployed only when non-radiological information about the target is verifiable. The survey area is often limited, so the detection range is small; in most cases covering a distance of 10 meters or less suffices. Definitive response is required in no more than 3 seconds and should minimize false negative alarms, but can err on the side of positive false alarms. The detection system is rapidly reconfigurable in terms of size, shape, and outer appearance; it is a plug-and-play system. Multiple radiation detection components (viz., two or more sodium iodide scintillators) are used to independently "over-determine" the existence of the threat object. Rapid response electronic dose rate meters are also included in the equipment suite. Carefully studied threat signatures are the basis of the decision making. The use of Rad-Detect predictive modeling provides information on the nature of the threat object. Rad-Detect provides accurate dose rate from heavily shielded large sources; for example those lost in Mexico were Category 1 radiation sources (~3,000 Ci of 60Co), the most dangerous of five categories defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Taken out of their shielding containers, Category 1 sources can kill anyone who is exposed to them at close range for a few minutes to an hour. Whenever possible sub-second data acquisition will be attempted, and, when deployed, the system will be characterized for false alarm rates. Although the radiation detection materials selected are fast (viz., faster scintillators), their speed is secondary to sensitivity, which is of primary importance. Results from these efforts will be discussed and demonstrated.

  14. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to customization to include radioactive waste management or responses to catastrophic releases of radioactive material due to terrorist actions. (authors)

  15. Application of the JDL data fusion process model for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2010-04-01

    A number of cyber security technologies have proposed the use of data fusion to enhance the defensive capabilities of the network and aid in the development of situational awareness for the security analyst. While there have been advances in fusion technologies and the application of fusion in intrusion detection systems (IDSs), in particular, additional progress can be made by gaining a better understanding of a variety of data fusion processes and applying them to the cyber security application domain. This research explores the underlying processes identified in the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model and further describes them in a cyber security context.

  16. Security engineering: systems engineering of security through the adaptation and application of risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Feather, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) Security Risk Management is a critical task in the organization, which must protect its resources and data against the loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. As systems become more complex and diverse, and more vulnerabilities are discovered while attacks from intrusions and malicious content increase, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage IT security. This paper describes an approach to address IT security risk through risk management and mitigation in both the institution and in the project life cycle.

  17. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

  18. Practical security analysis of two-way quantum-key-distribution protocols based on nonorthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, C. Ivan; Serra, Roberto M.

    2015-11-01

    Within the broad research scenario of quantum secure communication, two-way quantum key distribution (TWQKD) is a relatively new proposal for sharing secret keys that is not yet fully explored. We analyze the security of TWQKD schemes that use qubits prepared in nonorthogonal states to transmit the key. Investigating protocols that employ an arbitrary number of bases for the channel preparation, we show, in particular, that the security of the LM05 protocol cannot be improved by the use of more than two preparation bases. We also provide an alternative proof of unconditional security for a deterministic TWQKD protocol recently proposed in Beaudry et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.062302. In addition, we introduce a deterministic protocol named "TWQKD six-state" and compute an analytical lower bound (which can be tightened) for the maximum amount of information that an eavesdropper could extract in this case. An interesting advantage of our approach to the security analysis of TWQKD is the great simplicity and transparency of the derivations.

  19. Unconditional security of coherent-state quantum key distribution with strong phase-reference pulse

    E-print Network

    Masato Koashi

    2004-03-18

    We prove the unconditional security of a quantum key distribution protocol in which bit values are encoded in the phase of a weak coherent-state pulse relative to a strong reference pulse. In contrast to implementations in which a weak pulse is used as a substitute for a single-photon source, the achievable key rate is found to decrease only linearly with the transmission of the channel.

  20. Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Miller, Eric M.; Sage, Steen P.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a Secure, Autonomous, and Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations. It includes a description of current improvements to existing Virtual Mission Operations Center technology being used by US Department of Defense and originally developed under NASA funding. The report also highlights a technology demonstration performed in partnership with the United States Geological Service for Earth Resources Observation and Science using DigitalGlobe(Registered TradeMark) satellites to obtain space-based sensor data.

  1. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  2. CAN and Zigbee Based Distributed Control Architecture for Electroplating Applications

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    CAN and Zigbee Based Distributed Control Architecture for Electroplating Applications Alex W.H Choy: Distributed Control, Field Bus, Plating Line Control, Condition Monitoring, CAN, ZigBee 1. INTRODUCTION

  3. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  4. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)

    PubMed Central

    Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

  5. NASA guidelines for assuring the adequacy and appropriateness of security safeguards in sensitive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-71, transmittal Memorandum No. 1, requires that each agency establish a management control process to assure that appropriate administrative, physical and technical safeguards are incorporated into all new computer applications. In addition to security specifications, the management control process should assure that the safeguards are adequate for the application. The security activities that should be integral to the system development process are examined. The software quality assurance process to assure that adequate and appropriate controls are incorporated into sensitive applications is also examined. Security for software packages is also discussed.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Yoo, Jong H.; Liu Chunyi; Plumer, John R.; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers rapid, localized chemical analysis of solid or liquid materials with high spatial resolution in lateral and depth profiling, without the need for sample preparation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares algorithms were applied to identify a variety of complex organic and inorganic samples. This work illustrates how LIBS analyzers can answer a multitude of real-world needs for rapid analysis, such as determination of lead in paint and children's toys, analysis of electronic and solder materials, quality control of fiberglass panels, discrimination of coffee beans from different vendors, and identification of generic versus brand-name drugs. Lateral and depth profiling was performed on children's toys and paint layers. Traditional one-element calibration or multivariate chemometric procedures were applied for elemental quantification, from single laser shot determination of metal traces at {approx}10 {mu}g/g to determination of halogens at 90 {mu}g/g using 50-shot spectral accumulation. The effectiveness of LIBS for security applications was demonstrated in the field by testing the 50-m standoff LIBS rasterizing detector.

  7. Recent Advances in Infrasound Science for National Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Blom, P. S.; Marcillo, O. E.; Whitaker, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Infrasound is sound below the frequency-threshold of human hearing, covering the frequency range from 0.01 - 20 Hz. Infrasound science studies the generation, propagation, measurement, and analysis of infrasound. Sources of infrasound include a wide variety of energetic natural and manmade phenomena that include chemical and nuclear explosions, rockets and missiles, and aircraft. The dominant factors influencing the propagation of infrasound are the spatial and temporal variations in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In recent years, Infrasound Science has experienced a renaissance due to the installation of an international monitoring system of 60 infrasound arrays for monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and to the demonstrated value of regional infrasound networks for both scientific and applied purposes. Furthermore, in the past decade, significant advances have been made on using measurements of infrasound to invert for these properties of the atmosphere at altitudes where alternative measurement techniques are extremely costly. This presentation provides a review of recent advances in infrasound science as relevant to National Security applications.

  8. A Novel Framework using Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Extremely Secure Transmission in Distributed Privacy Preserving Data Mining

    E-print Network

    Kiran, P; Kavya, N P

    2012-01-01

    Privacy Preserving Data Mining is a method which ensures privacy of individual information during mining. Most important task involves retrieving information from multiple data bases which is distributed. The data once in the data warehouse can be used by mining algorithms to retrieve confidential information. The proposed framework has two major tasks, secure transmission and privacy of confidential information during mining. Secure transmission is handled by using elliptic curve cryptography and data distortion for privacy preservation ensuring highly secure environment.

  9. IDCDACS: IDC's Distributed Application Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertl, Martin; Boresch, Alexander; Kiani?ka, Ján; Sudakov, Alexander; Tomuta, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO is an international organization based in Vienna, Austria. Its mission is to establish a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans all nuclear explosions. For this purpose time series data from a global network of seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasound (SHI) sensors are transmitted to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna in near-real-time, where it is processed to locate events that may be nuclear explosions. We newly designed the distributed application control system that glues together the various components of the automatic waveform data processing system at the IDC (IDCDACS). Our highly-scalable solution preserves the existing architecture of the IDC processing system that proved successful over many years of operational use, but replaces proprietary components with open-source solutions and custom developed software. Existing code was refactored and extended to obtain a reusable software framework that is flexibly adaptable to different types of processing workflows. Automatic data processing is organized in series of self-contained processing steps, each series being referred to as a processing pipeline. Pipelines process data by time intervals, i.e. the time-series data received from monitoring stations is organized in segments based on the time when the data was recorded. So-called data monitor applications queue the data for processing in each pipeline based on specific conditions, e.g. data availability, elapsed time or completion states of preceding processing pipelines. IDCDACS consists of a configurable number of distributed monitoring and controlling processes, a message broker and a relational database. All processes communicate through message queues hosted on the message broker. Persistent state information is stored in the database. A configurable processing controller instantiates and monitors all data processing applications. Due to decoupling by message queues the system is highly versatile and failure tolerant. The implementation utilizes the RabbitMQ open-source messaging platform that is based upon the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP), an on-the-wire protocol (like HTML) and open industry standard. IDCDACS uses high availability capabilities provided by RabbitMQ and is equipped with failure recovery features to survive network and server outages. It is implemented in C and Python and is operated in a Linux environment at the IDC. Although IDCDACS was specifically designed for the existing IDC processing system its architecture is generic and reusable for different automatic processing workflows, e.g. similar to those described in (Olivieri et al. 2012, Kværna et al. 2012). Major advantages are its independence of the specific data processing applications used and the possibility to reconfigure IDCDACS for different types of processing, data and trigger logic. A possible future development would be to use the IDCDACS framework for different scientific domains, e.g. for processing of Earth observation satellite data extending the one-dimensional time-series intervals to spatio-temporal data cubes. REFERENCES Olivieri M., J. Clinton (2012) An almost fair comparison between Earthworm and SeisComp3, Seismological Research Letters, 83(4), 720-727. Kværna, T., S. J. Gibbons, D. B. Harris, D. A. Dodge (2012) Adapting pipeline architectures to track developing aftershock sequences and recurrent explosions, Proceedings of the 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, 776-785.

  10. EPC RFID Tags in Security Applications: Passport Cards, Enhanced Drivers Licenses, and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Kohno, Tadayoshi

    EPC RFID Tags in Security Applications: Passport Cards, Enhanced Drivers Licenses, and Beyond Karl for security ap- plications. As a central case study, we examine the recently issued United States Passport tags. We explore several issues: 1. Cloning: We report on the data format of Passport Cards and WA EDLs

  11. Active Millimeter-Wave and Sub-Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2011-09-02

    Active imaging at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths has been developed for security applications including concealed weapon detection. The physical properties that affect imaging performance are discussed along with a review of the current state-of-the-art and future potential for security imaging systems.

  12. Securing Location Services Infrastructures: Practical Criteria for Application Developers and Solutions Architects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamanian, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory, normative study examined the security and privacy of location based services in mobile applications. This study explored risk, and controls to implement privacy and security. This study was addressed using components of the FIPS Risk Management Framework. This study found that risk to location information was…

  13. 78 FR 72132 - RBS Securities Inc. and Citizens Investment Advisors; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RBS Securities Inc. and Citizens Investment Advisors; Notice of Application and Temporary Order... Advisors (``Citizens IA''), a separately identifiable department of RBS Citizens, N.A. (each an...

  14. A New Security Definition for Public Key Encryption Schemes and Its Applications

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    A New Security Definition for Public Key Encryption Schemes and Its Applications Guomin Yang, Duncan S. Wong, Qiong Huang, and Xiaotie Deng Department of Computer Science City University of Hong Kong. The strongest security definition for public key encryption (PKE) schemes is indistinguishability against

  15. Security Challenges for User-Oriented RFID Applications within the `Internet of Things'

    E-print Network

    Hancke, Gerhard

    Security Challenges for User-Oriented RFID Applications within the `Internet of Things' G.P. HANCKE will need to address. Keywords: RFID, NFC, security, `Internet of Things', user-oriented architecture 1 to be an important building block of the `Internet of Things' and examine how RFID, assisted by the deployment of NFC

  16. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural productivity. Subsequent studies on land and energy resources combined with legal aspects in the UAE, will be used to obtain a food security atlas. These results will lead to a more efficient management of the resources not only on a national scale but also on a regional scale that can aid in sustainable development and a better resource use in the UAE and ultimately, in the gulf region.

  17. 26 CFR 1.355-6 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation. 1.355-6 Section 1.355-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders §...

  18. 26 CFR 1.355-7 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be acquired. (3) Effect of distribution on trading in stock. The fact that the distribution made all or a part of the stock of Controlled available for trading or made Distributing's or Controlled's... stock or securities in connection with an acquisition. 1.355-7 Section 1.355-7 Internal Revenue...

  19. 26 CFR 1.355-7 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... be acquired. (3) Effect of distribution on trading in stock. The fact that the distribution made all or a part of the stock of Controlled available for trading or made Distributing's or Controlled's... stock or securities in connection with an acquisition. 1.355-7 Section 1.355-7 Internal Revenue...

  20. 26 CFR 1.355-7 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... be acquired. (3) Effect of distribution on trading in stock. The fact that the distribution made all or a part of the stock of Controlled available for trading or made Distributing's or Controlled's... stock or securities in connection with an acquisition. 1.355-7 Section 1.355-7 Internal Revenue...

  1. Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States and Homodyne Detection S. Iblisdir, G. Van Assche, and N. J. Cerf

    E-print Network

    Cerf, Nicolas

    Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States and Homodyne Detection S. Iblisdir, G.1103/PhysRevLett.93.170502 PACS numbers: 03.67.Dd, 03.67.Hk Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses quantum me key distribution protocol relying on the transmission of Gaussian-modulated coherent states

  2. Secure Evaluation of Private Linear Branching Programs with Medical Applications

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    @research.bell-labs.com 3 Horst G¨ortz Institute for IT-Security, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany {ahmad.sadeghi,thomas.schneider}@trust.rub of privacy of both parties. On the one hand, the user's data might be sensitive and security-critical (e diagnostics, trade- and work-flow information in benchmarking of enterprises). On the other hand, the service

  3. Finding Application Errors and Security Flaws Using PQL

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    stores (API violations)Bad session stores (API violations) SQL injections (security flaws)SQL injections Example: SQL Injection Unvalidated user input passed to aUnvalidated user input passed to a database flawsOne of the top web security flaws #12;SQL Injection 1 HttpServletRequest req = /* ... */;Http

  4. Bachelor of Science -CyberSecurity -Students Entering Fall 2011 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one)

    E-print Network

    Mordohai, Philippos

    Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2011 Study Plan / Application - Concurrent Programming 3.0 VII CS576 - Secure Systems 3.0 VII CS577 - CyberSecurity Lab 3.0 VIII CS424 ­ Senior Design II 2 3.0 #12;Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2011 Study Plan

  5. Bachelor of Science -CyberSecurity -Students Entering Fall 2008 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one) or later

    E-print Network

    Mordohai, Philippos

    Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2008 Study Plan / Application CS573 - Fundamentals of CyberSecurity 3.0 VI CS488 - Computer Architecture 3.0 VI CS492 - Operating551 - Software Engineering & Practice I 2 3.0 VII CS576 - Secure Systems 3.0 VII CS577 - CyberSecurity

  6. 76 FR 8755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-032 Official Passport Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--032 Official... titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/ ALL--032 Official Passport Application and Maintenance Records..., Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528. Instructions: All...

  7. On Achieving Software Diversity for Improved Network Security using Distributed Coloring Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Sethu, Harish

    , Security, Management Keywords Network security, survivability, software monoculture, soft- ware diversity research has recently been devoted to the security implications of the soft- ware monoculture present

  8. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    E-print Network

    Leverrier, Anthony

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for ...

  9. 2010 Patrick Townsend Security Solutions. May be freely distributed in its entirety without modification. Alliance Key Manager

    E-print Network

    © 2010 Patrick Townsend Security Solutions. May be freely distributed in its entirety without/28/2009 PT Initial draft with questions. 0.2 4/2/2009 atsec, PT atsec sent comments, Patrick updated. 0.3 4

  10. Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Akihiro; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily flawed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called ‘rejected data analysis’, and showed that its security—in the limit of infinitely long keys—is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably secure communication with imperfect light sources.

  11. Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources

    E-print Network

    Akihiro Mizutani; Marcos Curty; Charles Ci Wen Lim; Nobuyuki Imoto; Kiyoshi Tamaki

    2015-04-30

    In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily awed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly-dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called rejected data analysis, and showed that its security|in the limit of infinitely long keys|is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably-secure communication with imperfect light sources.

  12. How secure is the Internet for healthcare applications?

    PubMed

    Campbell, L A

    1996-01-01

    The Internet has grown faster than any other communications medium or consumer electronics technology--including the fax machine and personal computer. It offers new possibilities for providing economical and good quality patient care, but how secure is it? Is it prudent to communicate patient information over the Internet? For confidential patient information to be transmitted appropriately on the Internet, the originator must be clearly identified without any chance of impersonation; the information must be transmitted without any possibility of corruption or alteration; and the process must be secure. Many experts recognize the need to secure privacy of information, and there are some standards for electronic signatures and data encryption. However, no one has yet come up with a plan that offers a comprehensive solution. Appropriate confidentiality and security legislation has not yet been passed by the U.S. Congress. The following security technologies are currently available and are described in this article: cryptography, authentication devices, electronic signature systems, firewalls, secure hypertext transfer protocol and secure sockets layer protocol. Until proper standards are developed and accepted, providers should use available technologies to protect both patient records and themselves. The legal consequences of mishandling confidential patient information can be disastrous. PMID:10154332

  13. Microholographic computer generated holograms for security applications: Microtags

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Kravitz, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a method for encoding phase and amplitude in microscopic computer-generated holograms (microtags) for security applications. Eight-by-eight-cell and 12 x 12-cell phase-only and phase-and-amplitude microtag designs has been exposed in photoresist using the extreme-ultraviolet (13.4 nm) lithography (EUVL) tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Using EUVL, we have also fabricated microtags consisting of 150-nm lines arranged to form 300-nm-period gratings. The microtags described in this report were designed for readout at 632.8 nm and 442 nm. The smallest microtag measures 56 {mu}m x 80 {mu}m when viewed at normal incidence. The largest microtag measures 80 by 160 microns and contains features 0.2 {mu}m wide. The microtag design process uses a modified iterative Fourier-transform algorithm to create either phase-only or phase-and-amplitude microtags. We also report on a simple and compact readout system for recording the diffraction pattern formed by a microtag. The measured diffraction patterns agree very well with predictions. We present the results of a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) of microtags. Microtags are CD modeled as consisting of sub-wavelength gratings of a trapezoidal profile. Transverse-electric (TE) and TM readout polarizations are modeled. The objective of our analysis is the determination of optimal microtag-grating design parameter values and tolerances on those parameters. The parameters are grating wall-slope angle, grating duty cycle, grating depth, and metal-coating thickness. Optimal microtag-grating parameter values result in maximum diffraction efficiency. Maximum diffraction efficiency is calculated at 16% for microtag gratings in air and 12% for microtag gratings underneath a protective dielectric coating, within fabrication constraints. TM-microtag gratings. Finally, we suggest several additional microtag concepts, such as two-dimensional microtags and pixel-code microtags.

  14. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  15. Copy-proof machine-readable holograms for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausmann, Guenther J.; Menz, Irina; Gnaedig, Klaus; Yang, Zishao

    1996-03-01

    The most frequently used optical security features to protect documents and goods against counterfeiting are various types of rainbow holograms and diffractive optical variable devices (OVDs). Although these features offer a fair degree of security and most known falsifications are rather crude imitations it is still possible to copy them with all hidden and visible information. In our opinion it would be helpful to have copy proof holograms containing a machine readable feature to achieve a doubtfree verification at point of sale and other sites. We present our work towards the development of a copy proof and machine readable hologram with an optically encoded security feature.

  16. Control and Communication for a Secure and Reconfigurable Power Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomoni, Anthony Michael

    A major transformation is taking place throughout the electric power industry to overlay existing electric infrastructure with advanced sensing, communications, and control system technologies. This transformation to a smart grid promises to enhance system efficiency, increase system reliability, support the electrification of transportation, and provide customers with greater control over their electricity consumption. Upgrading control and communication systems for the end-to-end electric power grid, however, will present many new security challenges that must be dealt with before extensive deployment and implementation of these technologies can begin. In this dissertation, a comprehensive systems approach is taken to minimize and prevent cyber-physical disturbances to electric power distribution systems using sensing, communications, and control system technologies. To accomplish this task, an intelligent distributed secure control (IDSC) architecture is presented and validated in silico for distribution systems to provide greater adaptive protection, with the ability to proactively reconfigure, and rapidly respond to disturbances. Detailed descriptions of functionalities at each layer of the architecture as well as the whole system are provided. To compare the performance of the IDSC architecture with that of other control architectures, an original simulation methodology is developed. The simulation model integrates aspects of cyber-physical security, dynamic price and demand response, sensing, communications, intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs), and dynamic optimization and reconfiguration. Applying this comprehensive systems approach, performance results for the IEEE 123 node test feeder are simulated and analyzed. The results show the trade-offs between system reliability, operational constraints, and costs for several control architectures and optimization algorithms. Additional simulation results are also provided. In particular, the advantages of an IDSC architecture are highlighted when an intermittent DER is present on the system.

  17. Client Assignment for Improving Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications

    E-print Network

    Tang, Xueyan

    Client Assignment for Improving Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications Lu Zhang systems that allow multiple participants to interact with one another in real time. Wide spreads of client requirements of the applications. In the distributed server architecture, how the clients are assigned

  18. 12 CFR 303.203 - Applications for capital distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for capital distributions. 303.203 Section 303.203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action § 303.203 Applications for capital distributions. (a)...

  19. Bachelor of Science -CyberSecurity -Students Entering Fall 2010 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one)

    E-print Network

    Mordohai, Philippos

    Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2010 Study Plan / Application.0 VII CS577 - CyberSecurity Lab 3.0 VIII CS424 - Software Engineering Practice II 2 3.0 #12;Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2010 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one

  20. 78 FR 14847 - Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities Exchange Under Section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 March 1, 2013. On July 3, 2012, Topaz Exchange, LLC (``Topaz Exchange'' or ``Applicant'') submitted to the Securities and Exchange...

  1. 76 FR 28482 - Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 May 12, 2011. The Securities and Exchange Commission gives notice that BF Enterprises, Inc. has filed an application under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. BF...

  2. Security bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Alber, Gernot

    2005-09-15

    We investigate the security bounds of quantum-cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution scheme to higher dimensions. Under the assumption of general coherent attacks, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of such quantum-cryptography schemes. This bound is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions such an equivalence is generally no longer valid.

  3. Distributed Cloud Computing: Applications, Status Quo, and Challenges

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Stefan

    Distributed Cloud Computing: Applications, Status Quo, and Challenges Report on Dagstuhl Seminar for this article's technical content. Comments can be posted through CCR Online. ABSTRACT A distributed cloud on Distributed Cloud Computing, which took place in February 2015 at Schloss Dagstuhl. Categories and Subject

  4. DOE integrated safeguards and security (DISS) system a nation-wide distributed information system for personnel security

    SciTech Connect

    Block, B.

    1997-06-05

    DISS uses secure client-server and relational database technology across open networks to address the problems of security clearance request processing and tracking of security clearances for the Department of energy. The system supports the entire process from data entry by the prospective clearance holders through tracking of all DOE clearances, and use of standard DOE badges in automated access control systems throughout the DOE complex.

  5. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  6. Secure and efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution with inexact pulse intensities

    E-print Network

    X. B. Wang

    2006-11-22

    We present a general theorem for the efficient verification of the lower bound of single-photon transmittance. We show how to do decoy-state quantum key distribution efficiently with large random errors in the intensity control. In our protocol, the linear terms of fluctuation disappear and only the quadratic terms take effect. We then show the unconditional security of decoy-state method with whatever error pattern in intensities of decoy pulses and signal pulses provided that the intensity of each decoy pulse is less than $\\mu$ and the intensity of each signal pulse is larger than $\\mu'$.

  7. A Rigorous and Complete Proof of Finite Key Security of Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Marco Tomamichel; Anthony Leverrier

    2015-06-28

    The goal of this work is to provide a largely self-contained, rigorous proof of the security of quantum key distribution in the finite key regime. For our analysis we consider an entanglement-based protocol based on BBM92 as well as a prepare-and-measure protocol based on BB84. Our presentation differs from previous work in that we are careful to model all the randomness that is used throughout the protocol and take care of all the transcripts of the communication over the public channel. We hope that this work will be a good starting point for readers interested in finite key analysis of protocols in quantum cryptography.

  8. Contributions to Human Errors and Breaches in National Security Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D. J.; Houghton, F. K.; Gilmore, W. E.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has recognized that security infractions are often the consequence of various types of human errors (e.g., mistakes, lapses, slips) and/or breaches (i.e., deliberate deviations from policies or required procedures with no intention to bring about an adverse security consequence) and therefore has established an error reduction program based in part on the techniques used to mitigate hazard and accident potentials. One cornerstone of this program, definition of the situational and personal factors that increase the likelihood of employee errors and breaches, is detailed here. This information can be used retrospectively (as in accident investigations) to support and guide inquiries into security incidents or prospectively (as in hazard assessments) to guide efforts to reduce the likelihood of error/incident occurrence. Both approaches provide the foundation for targeted interventions to reduce the influence of these factors and for the formation of subsequent 'lessons learned.' Overall security is enhanced not only by reducing the inadvertent releases of classified information but also by reducing the security and safeguards resources devoted to them, thereby allowing these resources to be concentrated on acts of malevolence.

  9. Secure and Oblivious Maximum Bipartite Matching Size Algorithm with Applications to Secure Fingerprint Identification

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Fingerprint Identification Marina Blanton and Siddharth Saraph Department of Computer Science and Engineering-preserving matching of two fingerprints (used for secure fingerprint authentication or identification) using traditional minutia-based representation of fingerprints that leads to the most discriminative (i.e., accurate

  10. Security Issues Associated With Error Correction And Privacy Amplification In Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Horace Yuen

    2014-11-10

    Privacy amplification is a necessary step in all quantum key distribution protocols, and error correction is needed in each except when signals of many photons are used in the key communication in quantum noise approach. No security analysis of error correcting code information leak to the attacker has ever been provided, while an ad hoc formula is currently employed to account for such leak in the key generation rate. It is also commonly believed that privacy amplification allows the users to at least establish a short key of arbitrarily close to perfect security. In this paper we show how the lack of rigorous error correction analysis makes the otherwise valid privacy amplification results invalid, and that there exists a limit on how close to perfect a generated key can be obtained from privacy amplification. In addition, there is a necessary tradeoff between key rate and security, and the best theoretical values from current theories would not generate enough near-uniform key bits to cover the message authentication key cost in disturbance-information tradeoff protocols of the BB84 variety.

  11. A distributed application server for automatic differentiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B.; Hovland, P. D.

    2000-11-30

    The ADIC Application Server brings the accuracy and efficiency of automatic differentiation to the World Wide Web. Users of the ADIC Application Server can upload source code written in ANSI-C, manage remote files, differentiate selected functions, and download code augmented with derivative computations. Using a simple driver and linking to the appropriate libraries, the user can compile and run the differentiated code locally. We discuss the unique requirements for an automatic differentiation application server and describe the implementation of the ADIC Application Server.

  12. Application of Lightweight Formal Methods to Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Powell, John D.; Bishop, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Formal specification and verification of security has proven a challenging task. There is no single method that has proven feasible. Instead, an integrated approach which combines several formal techniques can increase the confidence in the verification of software security properties. Such an approach which species security properties in a library that can be reused by 2 instruments and their methodologies developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are described herein The Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) is a model based verijkation instrument that uses Promela and the SPIN model checker. The Property Based Tester (PBT) uses TASPEC and a Text Execution Monitor (TEM). They are used to reduce vulnerabilities and unwanted exposures in software during the development and maintenance life cycles.

  13. Security bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits Georgios M. Nikolopoulos and Gernot Alber

    E-print Network

    of quantum-cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use twoSecurity bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits Georgios M mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution scheme to higher

  14. Distribution automation applications of fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold; Johnston, A.; Friend, H.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for interest and research in distribution automation are discussed. The communication requirements of distribution automation are examined and shown to exceed the capabilities of power line carrier, radio, and telephone systems. A fiber optic based communication system is described that is co-located with the distribution system and that could satisfy the data rate and reliability requirements. A cost comparison shows that it could be constructed at a cost that is similar to that of a power line carrier system. The requirements for fiber optic sensors for distribution automation are discussed. The design of a data link suitable for optically-powered electronic sensing is presented. Empirical results are given. A modeling technique that was used to understand the reflections of guided light from a variety of surfaces is described. An optical position-indicator design is discussed. Systems aspects of distribution automation are discussed, in particular, the lack of interface, communications, and data standards. The economics of distribution automation are examined.

  15. Insider-proof encryption with applications for quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Matthew McKague; Lana Sheridan

    2013-04-15

    It has been pointed out that current protocols for device independent quantum key distribution can leak key to the adversary when devices are used repeatedly and that this issue has not been addressed. We introduce the notion of an insider-proof channel. This allows us to propose a means by which devices with memories could be reused from one run of a device independent quantum key distribution protocol to the next while bounding the leakage to Eve, under the assumption that one run of the protocol could be completed securely using devices with memories.

  16. A technology acquisition strategy for the security of water distribution networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, Wayne; Love, Adam; Alai, Maureen; Glascoe, Lee G.

    2005-04-01

    This slide presentation outlines information on a technology acquisition strategy for the security of water distribution networks. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has tasked a multi-laboratory team to evaluate current and future needs to protect the nation's water distribution infrastructure by supporting an objective evaluation of current and new technologies. The primary deliverables from this Operational Technology Demonstration (OTD) are the following: establishment of an advisory board for review and approval of testing protocols, technology acquisition processes and recommendations for technology test and evaluation in laboratory and field settings; development of a technology acquisition process; creation of laboratory and field testing and evaluation capability; and, testing of candidate technologies for insertion into a water early warning system. The initial phase of this study involves the development of two separate but complementary strategies to be reviewed by the advisory board: a technology acquisition strategy; and, a technology evaluation strategy. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories are tasked with the first strategy, while Los Alamos, Pacific Northwest, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories are tasked with the second strategy. The first goal of the acquisition strategy is the development of a technology survey process that includes a review of current test programs and development of a method to solicit and select existing and emerging sensor technologies for evaluation and testing. The second goal is to implement the acquisition strategy to provide a set of recommendations for candidate technologies for laboratory and field testing.

  17. On Security Analysis of PHP Web Applications David Hauzar and Jan Kofron

    E-print Network

    , and missing authorization. The most common programming language used at the server side is PHP [13]. PHPOn Security Analysis of PHP Web Applications David Hauzar and Jan Kofron Faculty of Mathematics-application development, such as PHP, suffer from a relatively high false-positive rate and low coverage of real errors

  18. AndroSAT: Security Analysis Tool for Android Applications Saurabh Oberoi, Weilong Song, Amr M. Youssef

    E-print Network

    Youssef, Amr M.

    AndroSAT: Security Analysis Tool for Android Applications Saurabh Oberoi, Weilong Song, Amr M Abstract--With about 1.5 million Android device activations per day and billions of application installation from Google Play, Android is becoming one of the most widely used operating systems

  19. Applications of omics for food safety and security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety and food security are important global issues. Research employing 'omics' technologies, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, is helping to elucidate pathogen behavior at the molecular level and to develop better detection and typing systems. Omics-based tools enable resear...

  20. 77 FR 1965 - Central Securities Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Committee will also have the authority to make provision for payment of cash or other property in respect of... Eligible Person, plus (i) the number of Shares withheld in payment of any taxes relating to any Award...

  1. Findings Security Errors in Java Applications Using Lightweight Static Analysis

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    environment. 2.2 SQL injections SQL injections arise from allowing user-controlled strings to be used as part in the set of sources and the set of sinks. In the case of SQL injection using servlets, methods that read ISSUES We address the following two common security issues in this paper: "bad session stores" and SQL

  2. Security Analysis and Improvement Model for Web-based Applications 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yong

    2010-01-14

    be conceptually expressed in the discrete states of (web_client_good; web_server_good, web_server_vulnerable, web_server_attacked, web_server_security_failed; database_server_good, database_server_vulnerable, database_server_attacked, database...

  3. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...traded on a securities exchange or...communications network; or (3...communications network; or (4) Exercises of securities. The exercise...communications network; or (7...in Rule 144A securities....

  4. 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.

    2013-08-01

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications – expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations – including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

  5. Distributed Consensus Technologies in Cryptocurrency Applications Francisco Rivera

    E-print Network

    Frank, Michael P.

    Distributed Consensus Technologies in Cryptocurrency Applications Francisco Rivera July 15, 2014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 Proposed Cryptocurrencies 11 3.1 NDCoin] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 Cryptocurrencies Market Cap as of July 9, 2014 at 11:37PM [4

  6. An algorithm for recovery of distributed applications with directed dependencies 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jiantian

    1996-01-01

    been found. We carefully define the problem to be solved and its motivation; relate its system model to a general object model for automatic fault recovery of distributed applications; describe all the assumptions necessary for the algorithm to work...

  7. Fine Grained Computations and Interactive Distributed Applications

    E-print Network

    Vialle, Stéphane

    and Grid computing Super-computers (2) Cray-T90, 60 gigaflops Cray-SV1 1 teraflop Cray-SGI Cray-Tera Cray-SV2 Cray-Tera In ricordo di Amelia ­ 2007, June 21 Two important Issues in Parallel, Distributed super-computers ... - Bull ­ « Tera » machine at CEA France - Quadrics high speed interconnexion network

  8. Energy Reduction in Distributed Real-Time Embedded Applications

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Flávio Rech

    physically-distributed processing units, but they also need to be able to communicate, to solve the problem in a cooperative way. Distributed embedded real-time (DERT) applications demand good performance to fulfill time. Using the event approach, tasks waiting for messages can sleep until the messages arrive, thus opening

  9. Distributed MEMS Transmission Lines for Tunable Filter Applications

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    Distributed MEMS Transmission Lines for Tunable Filter Applications Yu Liu, Andrea Borgioli, Amit S: This paper describes the design and fabrication of a distributed MEMS ( )transmission line DMTL , used is a coplanar waveguide periodically loaded with continuously-variable MEMS capacitors. A tunable bandpass

  10. Deterministic Replay of Distributed Java Applications Ravi Konuru

    E-print Network

    Choi, Jong-Deok

    . An application of this framework was previously pub­ lished in the context of a system called DejaVu that pro(JVM). In contrast, this pa­ per focuses on distributed DejaVu that provides determinis­ tic replay of distributed, implementation and preliminary performance results of dis­ tributed DejaVu that supports both multi

  11. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  12. HEART : A Software Architecture for Distributed Multimedia Multiuser Applications

    E-print Network

    Kwon, Taekyoung

    HEART : A Software Architecture for Distributed Multimedia Multiuser Applications T. Kwon, S. Park complex communication services. In this paper, we present HEART; a software architecture to support distributed multimedia multiuser applica­ tions in high­speed networks. The proposed HEART software

  13. Aggregate Congestion Control for Distributed Multimedia Applications

    E-print Network

    Fuchs, Henry

    the Coordination Protocol (CP) architecture, we show how aggregate congestion control can be achieved to capture video data from a number of different angles and viewpoints. Data Path Aggregation Point App. C-to-C application model. These video streams (along with other sensor information

  14. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social security number may apply for one by filing a signed form SS-5, “Application for A Social Security Number... security office may distribute a quantity of form SS-5 applications to labor unions, employers, or...

  15. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social security number may apply for one by filing a signed form SS-5, “Application for A Social Security Number... security office may distribute a quantity of form SS-5 applications to labor unions, employers, or...

  16. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social security number may apply for one by filing a signed form SS-5, “Application for A Social Security Number... security office may distribute a quantity of form SS-5 applications to labor unions, employers, or...

  17. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social security number may apply for one by filing a signed form SS-5, “Application for A Social Security Number... security office may distribute a quantity of form SS-5 applications to labor unions, employers, or...

  18. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social security number may apply for one by filing a signed form SS-5, “Application for A Social Security Number... security office may distribute a quantity of form SS-5 applications to labor unions, employers, or...

  19. Consideration of non-Poisson distributions for lidar applications

    E-print Network

    Ruf, Christopher

    -detection lidar applications as well as a number of coherent-detection systems , scattered photons from a given transmitted laser pulse are collected and counted by a receiver and sorted into range-resolved bins or rangeConsideration of non-Poisson distributions for lidar applications Andrew J. Gerrard, Timothy J

  20. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  1. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  2. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  3. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  4. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  5. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  6. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  7. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  8. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  9. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  10. Distributed data mining on grids: services, tools, and applications.

    PubMed

    Cannataro, Mario; Congiusta, Antonio; Pugliese, Andrea; Talia, Domenico; Trunfio, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    Data mining algorithms are widely used today for the analysis of large corporate and scientific datasets stored in databases and data archives. Industry, science, and commerce fields often need to analyze very large datasets maintained over geographically distributed sites by using the computational power of distributed and parallel systems. The grid can play a significant role in providing an effective computational support for distributed knowledge discovery applications. For the development of data mining applications on grids we designed a system called Knowledge Grid. This paper describes the Knowledge Grid framework and presents the toolset provided by the Knowledge Grid for implementing distributed knowledge discovery. The paper discusses how to design and implement data mining applications by using the Knowledge Grid tools starting from searching grid resources, composing software and data components, and executing the resulting data mining process on a grid. Some performance results are also discussed. PMID:15619945

  11. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  12. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-15

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  13. Security analysis on some experimental quantum key distribution systems with imperfect optical and electrical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-10-01

    In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].

  14. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with 1 Mbps secure key rate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Wang, Chao; Liu, Weiqi; Fang, Shuanghong; Peng, Jinye; Huang, Peng; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-06-29

    We report the first continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) experiment to enable the creation of 1 Mbps secure key rate over 25 km standard telecom fiber in a coarse wavelength division multiplexers (CWDM) environment. The result is achieved with two major technological advances: the use of a 1 GHz shot-noise-limited homodyne detector and the implementation of a 50 MHz clock system. The excess noise due to noise photons from local oscillator and classical data channels in CWDM is controlled effectively. We note that the experimental verification of high-bit-rate CVQKD in the multiplexing environment is a significant step closer toward large-scale deployment in fiber networks. PMID:26191758

  15. MDPHnet: secure, distributed sharing of electronic health record data for public health surveillance, evaluation, and planning.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua; Brown, Jeffrey S; Land, Thomas; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Electronic health record systems contain clinically detailed data from large populations of patients that could significantly enrich public health surveillance. Clinical practices' security, privacy, and proprietary concerns, however, have limited their willingness to share these data with public health agencies. We describe a novel distributed network for public health surveillance called MDPHnet. The system allows the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) to initiate custom queries against participating practices' electronic health records while the data remain behind each practice's firewall. Practices can review proposed queries before execution and approve query results before releasing them to the health department. MDPH is using the system for routine surveillance for priority conditions and to evaluate the impact of public health interventions. PMID:25322301

  16. Forensic and homeland security applications of modern portable Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L

    2010-10-10

    Modern detection and identification of chemical and biological hazards within the forensic and homeland security contexts may well require conducting the analysis in field while adapting a non-contact approach to the hazard. Technological achievements on both surface and resonance enhancement Raman scattering re-developed Raman spectroscopy to become the most adaptable spectroscopy technique for stand-off and non-contact analysis of hazards. On the other hand, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy proved to be very valuable for non-invasive chemical analysis of hazards concealed within non-transparent containers and packaging. PMID:20395087

  17. Time Scaling of Chaotic Systems: Application to Secure Communications

    E-print Network

    Donatello Materassi; Michele Basso

    2007-10-25

    The paper deals with time-scaling transformations of dynamical systems. Such scaling functions operate a change of coordinates on the time axis of the system trajectories preserving its phase portrait. Exploiting this property, a chaos encryption technique to transmit a binary signal through an analog channel is proposed. The scheme is based on a suitable time-scaling function which plays the role of a private key. The encoded transmitted signal is proved to resist known decryption attacks offering a secure and reliable communication.

  18. Practical security for multi-user web application databases

    E-print Network

    Redfield, Catherine M. S

    2012-01-01

    Online web applications are continuously vulnerable to attacks on their users' data. Outside adversaries can gain unauthorized access by exploiting unknown vulnerabilities; curious or malicious database administrators can ...

  19. Application of TEDPED to analyze serum enzyme distributions in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, R.D.; Fields, D.E.; Gentry, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The most common assumption regarding the natural probability distribution of data is that the data are normally distributed. However, many natural phenomena are not normally distributed. The most frequently assumed one tail distribution for continuous data is the lognormal distribution. A computer code, TEDPED, was written for testing the hypothesis that a data set is normally or lognormally distributed. The application of this code to analyze the distribution of specific serum enzymes as determined by commercial assays is illustrated. Three clinically important enzymes: alkaline phosphatase, AP; serum alanine amino transaminase, SAAT; and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, were selected for analysis with standard commercial assays. Experimental data were determined from healthy mature New Zealand white rabbits. The AP assay was from General Diagnostic. The LDH and SAAT assays were from Fisher Scientific. The standard employed to calibrate the assays was Validate by General Diagnostic. The alkaline phosphatase data fitted a normal distribution with an r/sup 2/ = 0.979. However, these same data also fitted a lognormal distribution with logarithmically transformed distribution with r/sup 2/ = 0.957. The results for the other two enzymes were similar. The LDH data fit a normal distribution with r/sup 2/ = 0.974 and logarithmically transformed distribution with r/sup 2/ = 0.978. The SAAT data fit a normal distribution with r/sup 2/ = 0.935 and a log transformed distribution with r/sup 2/ = 0.961. The interpretation of this analysis indicates that although the enzyme concentrations can only be positive and appear with reasonable r/sup 2/ values to be lognormally distributed, they can also be assumed to be normally distributed for the purpose of applying t-tests to compare either independent or paired samples. (ERB)

  20. Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication vulnerability for security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, H. Timothy

    2010-07-01

    RF toxicity and Information Warfare (IW) are becoming omnipresent posing threats to the protection of nuclear assets, and within theatres of hostility or combat where tactical operation of wireless communication without detection and interception is important and sometimes critical for survival. As a result, a requirement for deployment of many security systems is a highly secure wireless technology manifesting stealth or covert operation suitable for either permanent or tactical deployment where operation without detection or interruption is important The possible use of ultra wideband (UWB) spectrum technology as an alternative physical medium for wireless network communication offers many advantages over conventional narrowband and spread spectrum wireless communication. UWB also known as fast-frequency chirp is nonsinusoidal and sends information directly by transmitting sub-nanosecond pulses without the use of mixing baseband information upon a sinusoidal carrier. Thus UWB sends information using radar-like impulses by spreading its energy thinly over a vast spectrum and can operate at extremely low-power transmission within the noise floor where other forms of RF find it difficult or impossible to operate. As a result UWB offers low probability of detection (LPD), low probability of interception (LPI) as well as anti-jamming (AJ) properties in signal space. This paper analyzes and compares the vulnerability of UWB to narrowband and spread spectrum wireless network communication.

  1. Numerically Efficient Water Quality Modeling and Security Applications 

    E-print Network

    Mann, Angelica

    2013-02-04

    Chemical and biological contaminants can enter a drinking water distribution system through one of the many access points to the network and can spread quickly affecting a very large area. This is of great concern, and ...

  2. Inlined Monitors for Security Policy Enforcement in Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Katsaros, Panagiotis

    . INTRODUCTION Web Application vulnerabilities such as cross-site script- ing (XSS) and SQL injection are caused that may be not adequate for all types of SQL injections and XSS attacks. If the application incorporates a reference monitor inlining ap- proach that treats input injection vulnerabilities as a cross- cutting

  3. Applications Analysis: Principles and Examples from Various Distributed Computer Applications at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Dennis; Evans, David; Jensen, Dal; Nelson, Spencer

    1999-08-01

    As information systems have become distributed over many computers within the enterprise, managing those applications has become increasingly important. This is an emerging area of work, recognized as such by many large organizations as well as many start-up companies. In this report, we present a summary of the move to distributed applications, some of the problems that came along for the ride, and some specific examples of the tools and techniques we have used to analyze distributed applications and gain some insight into the mechanics and politics of distributed computing.

  4. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR Sections... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

  5. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR Sections... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

  6. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form SIP, for application for... § 249.1001 Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to...

  7. Implementation of Quantum Key Distribution with Composable Security Against Coherent Attacks using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Tobias Gehring; Vitus Händchen; Jörg Duhme; Fabian Furrer; Torsten Franz; Christoph Pacher; Reinhard F. Werner; Roman Schnabel

    2015-02-10

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution (QKD) this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art QKD requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of samples. Here, we present the first implementation of QKD satisfying this requirement and additionally achieving security which is independent of any possible flaws in the implementation of the receiver. By distributing strongly Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled continuous variable (CV) light in a table-top arrangement, we generated secret keys using a highly efficient error reconciliation algorithm. Since CV encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, we consider our work to be a major promotion for commercialized QKD providing composable security against the most general channel attacks.

  8. Passive 350 GHz Video Imaging Systems for Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, E.; May, T.; Born, D.; Zieger, G.; Anders, S.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, H.-G.; Schäffel, C.

    2015-10-01

    Passive submillimeter-wave imaging is a concept that has been in the focus of interest as a promising technology for personal security screening for a number of years. In contradiction to established portal-based millimeter-wave scanning techniques, it allows for scanning people from a distance in real time with high throughput and without a distinct inspection procedure. This opens up new possibilities for scanning, which directly address an urgent security need of modern societies: protecting crowds and critical infrastructure from the growing threat of individual terror attacks. Considering the low radiometric contrast of indoor scenes in the submillimeter range, this objective calls for an extremely high detector sensitivity that can only be achieved using cooled detectors. Our approach to this task is a series of passive standoff video cameras for the 350 GHz band that represent an evolving concept and a continuous development since 2007. Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), operated at temperatures below 1 K, are used as radiation detectors. By this means, background limited performance (BLIP) mode is achieved, providing the maximum possible signal to noise ratio. At video rates, this leads to a temperature resolution well below 1 K. The imaging system is completed by reflector optics based on free-form mirrors. For object distances of 5-25 m, a field of view up to 2 m height and a diffraction-limited spatial resolution in the order of 1-2 cm is provided. Opto-mechanical scanning systems are part of the optical setup and capable of frame rates of up to 25 frames per second.

  9. Optical detection of random features for high security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haist, T.; Tiziani, H. J.

    1998-02-01

    Optical detection of random features in combination with digital signatures based on public key codes in order to recognize counterfeit objects will be discussed. Without applying expensive production techniques objects are protected against counterfeiting. Verification is done off-line by optical means without a central authority. The method is applied for protecting banknotes. Experimental results for this application are presented. The method is also applicable for identity verification of a credit- or chip-card holder.

  10. Incorruptible Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance and Its Application to DNS Security

    E-print Network

    Sood, Arun K.

    Incorruptible Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance and Its Application to DNS Security Yih Huang. In prior work, we developed a Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance (SCIT) architecture that achieves the above goal by constantly cleansing the servers and rotating the role of individual servers

  11. Meteor: Seeding a Security-Enhancing Infrastructure for Multi-market Application Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Van Oorschot, Paul

    --Application markets providing one-click software in- stallation have become common to smartphones and are emerging history) from a configurable set of security information sources. We build a proof-of-concept Android ap valuable decision- making criteria useful not only for smartphone users, but technology consumers

  12. 20 CFR 416.305 - You must file an application to receive supplemental security income benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Filing of Applications...receiving benefits because you are disabled or blind and you are 65 years old before the date we determine that you are no longer blind or disabled. (4) A...

  13. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  14. 49 CFR 1572.19 - Applicant responsibilities for a TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, applicants must provide the information required in 49 CFR 1572... Transportation Security Administration. If an individual is disqualified from holding a TWIC under 49 CFR 1572.5... immediate revocation under 49 CFR 1572.5(b) and/or civil penalties. (d) Continuing responsibilities....

  15. 49 CFR 1572.19 - Applicant responsibilities for a TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, applicants must provide the information required in 49 CFR 1572... Transportation Security Administration. If an individual is disqualified from holding a TWIC under 49 CFR 1572.5... immediate revocation under 49 CFR 1572.5(b) and/or civil penalties. (d) Continuing responsibilities....

  16. 49 CFR 1572.19 - Applicant responsibilities for a TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, applicants must provide the information required in 49 CFR 1572... Transportation Security Administration. If an individual is disqualified from holding a TWIC under 49 CFR 1572.5... immediate revocation under 49 CFR 1572.5(b) and/or civil penalties. (d) Continuing responsibilities....

  17. 49 CFR 1572.19 - Applicant responsibilities for a TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, applicants must provide the information required in 49 CFR 1572... Transportation Security Administration. If an individual is disqualified from holding a TWIC under 49 CFR 1572.5... immediate revocation under 49 CFR 1572.5(b) and/or civil penalties. (d) Continuing responsibilities....

  18. 49 CFR 1572.19 - Applicant responsibilities for a TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, applicants must provide the information required in 49 CFR 1572... Transportation Security Administration. If an individual is disqualified from holding a TWIC under 49 CFR 1572.5... immediate revocation under 49 CFR 1572.5(b) and/or civil penalties. (d) Continuing responsibilities....

  19. An Analysis Framework for Security in Web Applications Gary Wassermann Zhendong Su

    E-print Network

    Su, Zhendong

    in the context of web applica- tions. In particular, we study how to prevent the class of SQL command injection. The source language is Java or Perl, and the target language is SQL. 1.1 SQL Command Injection For web applications, one common class of security prob- lems is the so-called SQL command injection attacks [9,23]. We

  20. Wireless LAN Location-Sensing for Security Applications ptao@ece.rice.edu

    E-print Network

    Wallach, Dan

    Wireless LAN Location-Sensing for Security Applications Ping Tao ptao@ece.rice.edu Algis Rudys arudys@cs.rice.edu Andrew M. Ladd aladd@cs.rice.edu Dan S. Wallach dwallach@cs.rice.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Computer Science Rice University Houston, TX ABSTRACT

  1. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1496A Rochon*, G., Szlag*, D., Daniel*, F.B., and Chifos**, C. Remote Sensing Applications for Sustainable Watershed Management and Food Security. Proceedings of the 21st European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Symposium, Marne-La-Valle, France, 5/14-16/200...

  2. Amulet: A secure architecture for mHealth applications for low-power wearable devices

    E-print Network

    Kotz, David

    Amulet: A secure architecture for mHealth applications for low-power wearable devices Andres Molina not be able to carry them (e.g., while in a contact sport). A low-power wearable device can provide higher of a resource monitor on far less power than would be consumed by a mobile device running Linux or Android. Our

  3. ECHO - An Infrastructure for Distributed Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, R.; Weinstein, B.; Wichmann, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO) has been operational for two years and enables a "marketplace" of science data and service providers, and consumers. To accomplish this goal, ECHO provides two registries. The first is a registry of metadata that is updated on a regular basis by the data providers. These metadata describe science content and data acquisition details about the data holdings. The second is a registry of services. Together these registries support discovery, access and delivery capabilities. ECHO makes these available to clients so that clients appear to have all the metadata in their system without the burden of managing it all. ECHO also offers its clients a single interface for placing orders, and then brokers them on behalf of the users. ECHO provides some user account management capabilities. In the future, ECHO will broker service and data transactions. This all serves to simplify client development and streamline data and service access by end users. It also alleviates the burden on the scientist of having to find and apply data services to the data. Scientists can focus their time on their jobs of analysis and research. ECHO also provides tools to help in use of the APIs. This presentation discusses the capability and resources available to help providers of data and services, client developers and applications developers in using ECHO as their data and service access infrastructure.

  4. A Topology Visualization Early Warning Distribution Algorithm for Large-Scale Network Security Incidents

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

  5. Proposals to modify the taxation of Social Security benefits: options and distributional effects.

    PubMed

    Pattison, D; Harrington, D E

    1993-01-01

    This article presents simulation estimates of the income-distributional effects in 1994 of several proposals to modify the taxation of Social Security benefits under the Federal personal income tax. Under the benefit-taxation provisions that have been in effect since 1984, up to 50 percent of benefits are included in taxable income for taxpayers with incomes above certain thresholds. In 1994 about 20 percent of beneficiary families will pay a larger income tax as a result of these provisions. Because of the benefit taxation thresholds, the affected families are concentrated in the upper half of the income distribution: about 70 percent of these families have incomes that put them in the top 30 percent of families by income. If the current taxation thresholds were kept and the percentage of benefits includable in taxable income were raised above 50 percent, the tax effect would remain concentrated on the upper income families. If, on the other hand, the percentage includable were kept at 50 percent while the taxation thresholds were lowered or eliminated, more beneficiary families with incomes in the middle deciles would become affected. The lowest income beneficiary families, however, would remain unaffected, because their benefits would be protected from income taxation by exemptions and the standard deduction. The simulations indicate that only a very few families in the bottom 20 percent of families by income would be affected even if the benefit taxation thresholds were eliminated entirely. PMID:8211567

  6. A topology visualization early warning distribution algorithm for large-scale network security incidents.

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

  7. Influence of avalanche-photodiode dead time on the security of high-speed quantum-key distribution systems

    E-print Network

    photodiodes (APDs) in quantum cryptographic systems. A simultaneous hold-off of the APDs (SHA) techniqueInfluence of avalanche-photodiode dead time on the security of high-speed quantum-key distribution Communications; (040.5570) Quantum detectors; 1. Introduction It is of great interest to develop high

  8. Studies in Income Distribution. Estimation of Social Security Taxes on the March Current Population Survey. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Benjamin, Jr.; Johnston, Mary P.

    The impact of the tax-transfer system on the distribution of income among economic units is the subject of a number of studies by the Office of Research and Statistics of the Social Security Administration. One of the most important data sources for the work is the Census Bureau's March Current Population Survey (CPS). To conduct such studies, the…

  9. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  10. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  11. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  12. An Integrated System for Secure Code Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks Consorzio Ferrara Ricerche

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Michele

    , Michele Rossi and Michele Zorzi Department of Information Engineering (DEI) University of Padova via for the owner. There are mainly three security aspects to be considered in the desing of a Secure Code Update

  13. Securing While Sampling in Wireless Body Area Networks With Application to Electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Dautov, Ruslan; Tsouri, Gill R

    2016-01-01

    Stringent resource constraints and broadcast transmission in wireless body area network raise serious security concerns when employed in biomedical applications. Protecting data transmission where any minor alteration is potentially harmful is of significant importance in healthcare. Traditional security methods based on public or private key infrastructure require considerable memory and computational resources, and present an implementation obstacle in compact sensor nodes. This paper proposes a lightweight encryption framework augmenting compressed sensing with wireless physical layer security. Augmenting compressed sensing to secure information is based on the use of the measurement matrix as an encryption key, and allows for incorporating security in addition to compression at the time of sampling an analog signal. The proposed approach eliminates the need for a separate encryption algorithm, as well as the predeployment of a key thereby conserving sensor node's limited resources. The proposed framework is evaluated using analysis, simulation, and experimentation applied to a wireless electrocardiogram setup consisting of a sensor node, an access point, and an eavesdropper performing a proximity attack. Results show that legitimate communication is reliable and secure given that the eavesdropper is located at a reasonable distance from the sensor node and the access point. PMID:25373134

  14. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  15. Applications of Photonuclear Physics for International Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; Hall, J M; McNabb, D P; McFarland, J; Norman, E; Bertozzi, W; Korbly, S; Ledoux, R; Park, W

    2010-04-16

    Studies of nuclear resonance fluorescence based applications are presented. Important for these applications are data for isotopes such as {sup 239}Pu. Nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements of {sup 239}Pu were performed at the free electron laser facility at UC Santa Barbara using photons from a bremsstrahlung beam with an endpoint energies between 4.0 MeV and 5.5 MeV. Though no discrete states with significant confidence level were measured, we have excluded the region above 27(3) eV-barns, or 4-sigma, where we would expect only a small chance of false positives. Details of the measurements and the results are presented here.

  16. The application of artificial intelligence techniques to large distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubyah, R.; Smith, T. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Data accessibility and transfer of information, including the land resources information system pilot, are structured as large computer information networks. These pilot efforts include the reduction of the difficulty to find and use data, reducing processing costs, and minimize incompatibility between data sources. Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques were suggested to achieve these goals. The applicability of certain AI techniques are explored in the context of distributed problem solving systems and the pilot land data system (PLDS). The topics discussed include: PLDS and its data processing requirements, expert systems and PLDS, distributed problem solving systems, AI problem solving paradigms, query processing, and distributed data bases.

  17. A Component-based Programming Model for Composite, Distributed Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eidson, Thomas M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The nature of scientific programming is evolving to larger, composite applications that are composed of smaller element applications. These composite applications are more frequently being targeted for distributed, heterogeneous networks of computers. They are most likely programmed by a group of developers. Software component technology and computational frameworks are being proposed and developed to meet the programming requirements of these new applications. Historically, programming systems have had a hard time being accepted by the scientific programming community. In this paper, a programming model is outlined that attempts to organize the software component concepts and fundamental programming entities into programming abstractions that will be better understood by the application developers. The programming model is designed to support computational frameworks that manage many of the tedious programming details, but also that allow sufficient programmer control to design an accurate, high-performance application.

  18. "Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.

  19. Iodine-129 AMS for Earth Science, Biomedical, and National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G; Brown, T; Tumey, S; Marchetti, A; Vu, A

    2007-02-20

    This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project created the capability to analyze the radionuclide iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the CAMS facility at LLNL, and enhanced our scientific foundation for its application through development of sample preparation technology required for environmental, biomedical, and national security applications. The project greatly improved our environmental iodine extraction and concentration methodology, and developed new techniques for the analysis of small quantities of {sup 129}I. The project can be viewed as having two phases, one in which the basic instrumental and chemical extraction methods necessary for general {sup 129}I analysis were developed, and a second in which these techniques were improved and new techniques were developed to enable broader and more sophisticated applications. The latter occurred through the mechanism of four subprojects that also serve as proof-of-principle demonstrations of our newly developed {sup 129}I capabilities. The first subproject determined the vertical distribution of bomb-pulse {sup 129}I ({sup 129}Iv distributed globally as fallout from 1950's atmospheric nuclear testing) through 5 meters in the upper vadose zone in the arid southwestern United States. This characterizes migration mechanisms of contaminant {sup 129}I, or {sup 129}I released by nuclear fuel reprocessing, as well as the migration of labile iodine in soils relative to moisture flux, permitting a determination of nutrient cycling. The second subproject minimized the amount of iodine required in an AMS sample target. Because natural iodine abundances are very low in almost all environments, many areas of research had been precluded or made extremely difficult by the demands of sample size. Also, certain sample types of potential interest to national security are intrinsically small - for example iodine on air filters. The result of this work is the ability to measure the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio at the 2E-07 level or higher in a sample as small as a single raindrop. The third subproject tested the feasibility of using bomb-pulse {sup 129}I in shallow groundwaters in the Sierra Nevada to determine the source of waters entering into the Merced River. The sources of water and their time (age) within the hydrologic system is crucial to understanding the effects of climate change on California waters. The project is in collaboration with faculty and students at the University of California - Merced, and is now the subject of a follow-on Ph.D. dissertation project funded by the LLNL-URP University Education Participation Program. The fourth subproject examined the requirements for using the decay of {sup 129}I to date pore waters associated with continental shelf methane hydrate deposits. Understanding the age of formation and the historical stability of these hydrates is important in determining their response to climate change. Thawing of the world's methane hydrates would quickly and dramatically increase greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The calculations and testing performed on this project have led to a follow on project that selectively implants {sup 127}I to the exclusion of {sup 129}I, creating an analytical iodine carrier with a substantially lower {sup 129}I background than is available from natural sources. This will permit measurement of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios at sub-10-14 levels, thereby providing a method for dating hydrate pore waters that are tens of millions of years old.

  20. Securing Web Applications with Static and Dynamic Information Flow Tracking

    E-print Network

    Lam, Monica

    Microsoft Research livshits@microsoft.com John Whaley Moka5, Inc. jwhaley@moka5.com Abstract SQL injection, Reliability Keywords pattern matching, web applications, SQL injection, cross-site scripting, static analysis, which an at- tacker will turn to unexpected purposes. SQL injection is one of the top five external

  1. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  2. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  3. Security Technologies for Open Networking Environments (STONE)

    SciTech Connect

    Muftic, Sead

    2005-03-31

    Under this project SETECS performed research, created the design, and the initial prototype of three groups of security technologies: (a) middleware security platform, (b) Web services security, and (c) group security system. The results of the project indicate that the three types of security technologies can be used either individually or in combination, which enables effective and rapid deployment of a number of secure applications in open networking environments. The middleware security platform represents a set of object-oriented security components providing various functions to handle basic cryptography, X.509 certificates, S/MIME and PKCS No.7 encapsulation formats, secure communication protocols, and smart cards. The platform has been designed in the form of security engines, including a Registration Engine, Certification Engine, an Authorization Engine, and a Secure Group Applications Engine. By creating a middleware security platform consisting of multiple independent components the following advantages have been achieved - Object-oriented, Modularity, Simplified Development, and testing, Portability, and Simplified extensions. The middleware security platform has been fully designed and a preliminary Java-based prototype has been created for the Microsoft Windows operating system. The Web services security system, designed in the project, consists of technologies and applications that provide authentication (i.e., single sign), authorization, and federation of identities in an open networking environment. The system is based on OASIS SAML and XACML standards for secure Web services. Its topology comprises three major components: Domain Security Server (DSS) is the main building block of the system Secure Application Server (SAS) Secure Client In addition to the SAML and XACML engines, the authorization system consists of two sets of components An Authorization Administration System An Authorization Enforcement System Federation of identities in multi-domain scenarios is supported by a set of security engines that represent the core of the Federated Identities Management Server, which is also an extension of the Domain Security Server. The Federated Identity Management server allows users to federate their identities or terminate the federation between the service provider and the identity provider. At the service provider web site, the users are offered a list of identity providers to which they can choose to federate their identities. After users federate their identity, they can perform Single Sign-On protocol in an environment of federated domains. The group security system consists of a number of security technologies under a unified architecture, which supports creation of secure groups and execution of secure group transactions and applications in an open networking environment. The system is based on extensions of the GSAKMP standard for group key distribution and management. The Top layer is the Security Infrastructure with the Security Management and Administration System components and protocols that provide security functions common to all secure network applications The Middle layer is the Secure Group Protocols and Applications layer, consisting of the Policy and Group Key Distribution Server and Web-based (thin) Client. The Bottom layer is the supporting Middleware Security Platform, the cryptographic platform already described above. The group security system is designed to perform the functions necessary to create secure groups and enable secure group applications. Specifically, the system can manage group roles, create and disseminate a group security policy, perform authentication and authorization of users using PKI certificates and Web services security, generate group keys, and recover from compromises. In accordance with the GSAKMP standard, the group security system must perform all the required group life-cycle functions: group definition, group establishment, group maintenance, and group removal. The group security system has been designed to support four roles: The Security Domain Ad

  4. Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovi, Vlado

    2006-05-01

    The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources (137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is ''non-specific'' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are ''blind'' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as protecting armed forces and infrastructure.

  5. Secure Distributed Storage and Retrieval \\Lambda Juan A. Garay y Rosario Gennaro z Charanjit Jutla z Tal Rabin z

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    of IDA in Appendix A.) In addition to its optimal space complexity, the IDA technique has very attractive. Our protocols achieve this while maintaining the (asymptotical) space optimality of the above methods application of our work is a system for the secure deposit of sensitive data. We also extend SSRI

  6. 78 FR 35043 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and Request for Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and... (TSA) announces the renewal of the charter for the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC). The... the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal section below. Comments, identified by...

  7. Virtualized Audio as a Distributed Interactive Application Peter A. Dinda

    E-print Network

    Dinda, Peter A.

    - alized audio would require only that a user have a collec- tion of high quality microphones and a high quality set of headphones. However, the virtualized audio model is not limited to this equipment, and weVirtualized Audio as a Distributed Interactive Application Peter A. Dinda Department of Computer

  8. Optimizing Client Assignment for Enhancing Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications

    E-print Network

    Tang, Xueyan

    1 Optimizing Client Assignment for Enhancing Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications to interact with each other. Wide spreads of client locations in large-scale DIAs often require geographical architecture, the network latencies involved in the interactions between clients are directly affected by how

  9. SOIL PHOSPHOROUS SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN PASTURES RECEIVING POULTRY LITTER APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally-based P management strategies could be improved by delineating management zones incorporating the effects of landscape position on soil morphology, hydrology, and soil P distribution. Three farm pasture sites in SW Missouri receiving long-term poultry litter applications were sampled...

  10. Distributed Consensus Technologies in Cryptocurrency Applications Francisco Rivera, Sathvik Palakurty

    E-print Network

    Frank, Michael P.

    Distributed Consensus Technologies in Cryptocurrency Applications Francisco Rivera, Sathvik cryptocurrencies: · Requires more memory and time to hash a message · Discourages participation from ASICs (a type to the idea of NDCoin. Other Cryptocurrencies Hundreds of other crypto-currencies have developed, and although

  11. Concepts and applications of wireless security systems for tactical, portable, and fixed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    Intrusion detection systems sometimes use radio signals to convey sensor status in areas that wire conduits do not service or as a redundant path to wired systems. Some applications benefit from radio technology by minimizing setup time and reducing installation and operation costs. In recent years with the explosion in wireless communications, these radio-based security systems have become more capable while lowering costs, size, and power consumption. However, the very nature of radio communication raises issues regarding setup, operation, and security of these systems. Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with government and industry, has addressed many of these issues through the analysis and development of security systems, communications protocols, and operational procedures. Message encryption and frequent channel supervision are used to enhance security. Installation and maintenance of these systems are simplified by incorporating built-in radio link analysis, menu-driven configuration equipment, and other techniques. Commercial communications satellites and spread-spectrum radios are also being integrated to provide unique capabilities to the security community. The status of this work is presented here along with details of its development.

  12. Virtualization and Programming Support for Video Sensor Networks with Application to Wireless and Physical Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestavros, Azer; Ocean, Michael J.

    Network Security Systems are heavily anchored in the digital plane of "cyber space" and hence cannot be used effectively to derive the physical identity of an intruder in order to prevent further malicious wireless broadcasts (i.e., escorting an intruder off the premises based on physical evidence). Embedded Sensor Networks (SNs) can be used to bridge the gap between digital and physical security planes, and thus can provide reciprocal benefit to security tasks on both planes. Toward that end, we present our experience integrating wireless networking security services into snBench (the Sensor Network workBench). snBench provides an extensible framework that enables the rapid development and automated deployment of SN applications on a shared, embedded sensing and actuation infrastructure. snBench's extensible architecture allows an engineer to quickly integrate new sensing and response capabilities into the snBench framework, while high-level languages, compilers and execution environments allow novice SN programmers to compose SN service logic, unaware of the lower-level components on which their services rely. Concrete examples are provided to illustrate the power and potential of Wireless Security Services that span both the physical and digital plane.

  13. Wireless video monitoring and robot control in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurkkala, Eero A.; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roning, Juha

    1998-10-01

    This research focuses on applications based on wireless monitoring and robot control, utilizing motion image and augmented reality. These applications include remote services and surveillance-related functions such as remote monitoring. A remote service can be, for example, a way to deliver products at a hospital or old people's home. Due to the mobile nature of the system, monitoring at places with privacy concerns is possible. On the other hand, mobility demands wireless communications. Suitable and present technologies for wireless video transfer are weighted. Identification of objects with the help of Radio Frequency Identifying (RFID) technology and facial recognition results in intelligent actions, for example, where the control of a robot does not require extensive workload from the user. In other words, tasks can be partially autonomous, RFID can be also used in augmentation of the video view with virtual objects. As a real-life experiment, a prototype environment is being constructed that consists of a robot equipped with a video camera and wireless links to the network and multimedia computer.

  14. A distributed trust evaluation model and its application scenarios for medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2012-11-01

    The development of medical sensor networks (MSNs) is imperative for e-healthcare, but security remains a formidable challenge yet to be resolved. Traditional cryptographic mechanisms do not suffice given the unique characteristics of MSNs, and the fact that MSNs are susceptible to a variety of node misbehaviors. In such situations, the security and performance of MSNs depend on the cooperative and trust nature of the distributed nodes, and it is important for each node to evaluate the trustworthiness of other nodes. In this paper, we identify the unique features of MSNs and introduce relevant node behaviors, such as transmission rate and leaving time, into trust evaluation to detect malicious nodes. We then propose an applicationindependent and distributed trust evaluation model for MSNs. The trust management is carried out through the use of simple cryptographic techniques. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can be used to effectively identify malicious behaviors and thereby exclude malicious nodes. This paper also reports the experimental results of the Collection Tree Protocol with the addition of our proposed model in a network of TelosB motes, which show that the network performance can be significantly improved in practice. Further, some suggestions are given on how to employ such a trust evaluation model in some application scenarios. PMID:22623434

  15. Bachelor of Science -CyberSecurity -Students Entering Fall 2014 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one)

    E-print Network

    Mordohai, Philippos

    Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2014 Study Plan / Application/MA503 - Discrete Math for Cryptography 3.0 V CS576 - Secure Systems 3.0 V CS577 - CyberSecurity Lab 3 in a Networked World 3.0 VI CS579 - Foundations of Cryptography 3.0 VII CS425 ­ Cybersecurity Capstone I 3.0 VII

  16. Bachelor of Science -CyberSecurity -Students Entering Fall 2013 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one)

    E-print Network

    Mordohai, Philippos

    Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2013 Study Plan / Application/MA503 - Discrete Math for Cryptography 3.0 V CS576 - Secure Systems 3.0 V CS577 - CyberSecurity Lab 3 in a Networked World 3.0 VI CS579 - Foundations of Cryptography 3.0 VII CS425 ­ Cybersecurity Capstone I 3.0 VII

  17. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  18. Minimalist identification system based on venous map for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto G., Edwar; Martínez S., Fredy; Martínez S., Fernando

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a technique and an algorithm used to build a device for people identification through the processing of a low resolution camera image. The infrared channel is the only information needed, sensing the blood reaction with the proper wave length, and getting a preliminary snapshot of the vascular map of the back side of the hand. The software uses this information to extract the characteristics of the user in a limited area (region of interest, ROI), unique for each user, which applicable to biometric access control devices. This kind of recognition prototypes functions are expensive, but in this case (minimalist design), the biometric equipment only used a low cost camera and the matrix of IR emitters adaptation to construct an economic and versatile prototype, without neglecting the high level of effectiveness that characterizes this kind of identification method.

  19. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  20. Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

    2011-02-24

    Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

  1. CORBA-based platform for distributed multimedia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Christian; Molva, Refik

    1997-01-01

    As distributed multimedia applications are starting to be offered as services in enterprise and residential cable networks, there is a growing interest in platforms that provide a standard framework for the development and deployment of these applications. Key issues in platform design are service diversity, service portability and interoperability of user terminal equipment. We propose a platform architecture for the provision of multimedia communication services which logically separates application processing from media processing. Applications are installed in application pools from where they control a set of communicating multimedia terminals. Application-specific intelligence is downloaded into the terminals in the from of Tcl/Tk or Java scripts that generate graphical user interfaces, control media processing components, and communicate with the application in the pool. The platform architecture is based on CORBA and is defined as an extensible set of IDL interfaces for control and stream interfaces for multimedia communication. The platform architecture is based on CORBA and is defined as an extensible set of IDL interfaces for control and stream interfaces for multimedia communication. The platform supports applications development with high-level programming interfaces.

  2. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  3. National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors - Mostly Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W.

    2009-12-16

    As with science, so with security--in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  4. Bachelor of Science -CyberSecurity -Students Entering Fall 2014 Study Plan / Application for Candidacy(check one)

    E-print Network

    Mordohai, Philippos

    Bachelor of Science - CyberSecurity - Students Entering Fall 2014 Study Plan / Application 3.0 V CS577 - CyberSecurity Lab 3.0 VI CS488 - Computer Architecture 3.0 VI CS492 - Operating425 ­ Cybersecurity Capstone I 3.0 VII CS485 ­ Societal Impact of IT 1.0 VII CS595 ­ Information

  5. ESC/Java2 as a Tool to Ensure Security in the Source Code of Java Applications

    E-print Network

    Chrzaszcz, Jacek

    ESC/Java2 as a Tool to Ensure Security in the Source Code of Java Applications Aleksy Schubert1 static checking tools like ESC/Java2 can be used to ensure source code security properties of Java is further accompanied by a presentation on how these threats can be controlled by JML specifications and ESC/Java

  6. Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging Signatures for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Seifert, Allen; Flynn, Michael J.

    2011-06-13

    Gratings-based phase contrast imaging is a promising new radiographic technique providing three distinct contrast mechanisms, absorption, phase, and scatter, using a conventional x-ray tube source. We investigate the signatures available in these three contrast mechanisms with particular attention towards potential homeland security applications. We find that the scatter mode in particular is sensitive to textured materials, enabling lowered detection limits than absorption for materials such as powders. We investigate the length scales to which our imaging system is sensitive.

  7. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF... registered investment company issuing any redeemable security, no person designated in such...

  8. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF... registered investment company issuing any redeemable security, no person designated in such...

  9. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF... registered investment company issuing any redeemable security, no person designated in such...

  10. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF... registered investment company issuing any redeemable security, no person designated in such...

  11. BAF: An Efficient Publicly Verifiable Secure Audit Logging Scheme for Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Ning, Peng

    A. Yavuz and Peng Ning Department of Computer Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, USA and resource-constrained systems. Keywords-Applied cryptography; secure audit logging; digital forensics; forward security; signature aggregation. I. INTRODUCTION Audit logs are a fundamental digital forensic

  12. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lucja; Bo?kowski, Mike; Leszczy?ski, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-05-01

    The latest developments in AlGaInN laser diode technology are reviewed for defence and security applications such as underwater communications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries.

  13. 75 FR 4595 - BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...Release No. 34-61400; File No. 10-198] BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application...1934 January 22, 2010. On October 20, 2009, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Y Exchange'') submitted to the Securities...

  14. Applicability of the FASTBUS standard to distributed control

    SciTech Connect

    Deiss, S.R.; Downing, R.W.; Gustavson, D.B.; Larsen, R.S.; Logg, C.A.; Paffrath, L.

    1981-03-01

    The new FASTBUS standard has been designed to provide a framework for distributed processing in both experimental data acquisition and accelerator control. The features of FASTBUS which support distributed control are a priority arbitration scheme which allows intercrate as well as intracrate message flow between processors and slave devices; and a high bandwidth to permit efficient sharing of the data paths by high-speed devices. Sophisticated diagnostic aids permit system-wide error checking and/or correction. Software has been developed for large distributed systems. This consists of a system data base description, and initialization algorithms to allocate address space and establish preferred message routes. A diagnostics package is also being developed, based on an independent Ethernet-like serial link. The paper describes available hardware and software, on-going developments, and current applications.

  15. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition. PMID:21117426

  16. High-Resolution Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used in Homeland Security and Forensic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Wullschleger, Stan D; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Martin, Rodger Carl; Grissino-Mayer, Henri

    2006-01-01

    The technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect elements for a variety of homeland security applications such as nuclear materials identification and inventory,and forensic applications has been demonstrated. For nuclear materials applications, we detected and profiled metals in coatings that were used to encapsulate nuclear fuel. Multivariate analysis has been successfully employed in the quantification of elements present in treated wood and engineered wood composites. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications related to homeland security. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) are sufficient; (2) samples can be analyzed by LIBS very rapidly, and (3) biological materials such as human and animal bones and wood can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation. For forensic applications they have used LIBS to determine differences in animal and human bones. They have also applied this technique in the determination of counterfeit and non-counterfeit currency. They recently applied LIBS in helping to solve a murder case.

  17. Neutron Generators Developed at LBNL for Homeland Security andImaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, Jani

    2006-08-13

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

  18. 77 FR 15148 - Order Granting an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 March 8, 2012. I BF Enterprises, Inc. (``BF Enterprises'' or the ``company'') has filed an application... investors.'' \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78l(h). \\2\\ 15 U.S.C. 78l(g). In its application, BF Enterprises states that...

  19. Implementing MDA-based distributed, interoperable, flexible, scalable, portable, and secure EHR systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems provide the kernel application of health information systems and health networks which should be independent of complexity, localisation constraints, platforms, protocols, etc. Based on shared care information systems' requirements for high level interoperability, a generic component architecture has been introduced. For implementing, running and maintaining acceptable and useable health information systems components, all views of the ISO Reference Model-Open Distributed Processing have to be considered. Following the Model Driven Architecture paradigm, a reference model as well as concept-representing domain models both independent of platforms must be specified, which are combined and harmonised as well as automatically transferred into platform-specific models using appropriate tools. PMID:15747946

  20. To appear in Proceedings of the 16th USENIX Security Symposium (Security '07) SIF: Enforcing Confidentiality and Integrity in Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Myers, Andrew C.

    Science, Cornell University Abstract SIF (Servlet Information Flow) is a novel software framework flows, providing stronger security assurance [28]. Therefore, we have developed Servlet Information Flow applications, in exchange for trust in the servlet framework and the Jif 3.0 compiler--a good bargain be- cause

  1. Security Policy: Stealth MXP and Stealth MXP Passport Date: August 5, 2008 Copyright 2008 MXI. Distribution of this document by the Cryptographic Module Validation

    E-print Network

    Security Policy: Stealth MXP and Stealth MXP Passport Date: August 5, 2008 Copyright © 2008 MXI Cryptographic Module Security Policy For Stealth MXP and Stealth MXP Passport (Non-Proprietary) FIPS 140 and Stealth MXP Passport Date: August 5, 2008 Copyright © 2008 MXI. Distribution of this document

  2. DAMT - DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION MONITOR TOOL (HP9000 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, B.

    1994-01-01

    Typical network monitors measure status of host computers and data traffic among hosts. A monitor to collect statistics about individual processes must be unobtrusive and possess the ability to locate and monitor processes, locate and monitor circuits between processes, and report traffic back to the user through a single application program interface (API). DAMT, Distributed Application Monitor Tool, is a distributed application program that will collect network statistics and make them available to the user. This distributed application has one component (i.e., process) on each host the user wishes to monitor as well as a set of components at a centralized location. DAMT provides the first known implementation of a network monitor at the application layer of abstraction. Potential users only need to know the process names of the distributed application they wish to monitor. The tool locates the processes and the circuit between them, and reports any traffic between them at a user-defined rate. The tool operates without the cooperation of the processes it monitors. Application processes require no changes to be monitored by this tool. Neither does DAMT require the UNIX kernel to be recompiled. The tool obtains process and circuit information by accessing the operating system's existing process database. This database contains all information available about currently executing processes. Expanding the information monitored by the tool can be done by utilizing more information from the process database. Traffic on a circuit between processes is monitored by a low-level LAN analyzer that has access to the raw network data. The tool also provides features such as dynamic event reporting and virtual path routing. A reusable object approach was used in the design of DAMT. The tool has four main components; the Virtual Path Switcher, the Central Monitor Complex, the Remote Monitor, and the LAN Analyzer. All of DAMT's components are independent, asynchronously executing processes. The independent processes communicate with each other via UNIX sockets through a Virtual Path router, or Switcher. The Switcher maintains a routing table showing the host of each component process of the tool, eliminating the need for each process to do so. The Central Monitor Complex provides the single application program interface (API) to the user and coordinates the activities of DAMT. The Central Monitor Complex is itself divided into independent objects that perform its functions. The component objects are the Central Monitor, the Process Locator, the Circuit Locator, and the Traffic Reporter. Each of these objects is an independent, asynchronously executing process. User requests to the tool are interpreted by the Central Monitor. The Process Locator identifies whether a named process is running on a monitored host and which host that is. The circuit between any two processes in the distributed application is identified using the Circuit Locator. The Traffic Reporter handles communication with the LAN Analyzer and accumulates traffic updates until it must send a traffic report to the user. The Remote Monitor process is replicated on each monitored host. It serves the Central Monitor Complex processes with application process information. The Remote Monitor process provides access to operating systems information about currently executing processes. It allows the Process Locator to find processes and the Circuit Locator to identify circuits between processes. It also provides lifetime information about currently monitored processes. The LAN Analyzer consists of two processes. Low-level monitoring is handled by the Sniffer. The Sniffer analyzes the raw data on a single, physical LAN. It responds to commands from the Analyzer process, which maintains the interface to the Traffic Reporter and keeps track of which circuits to monitor. DAMT is written in C-language for HP-9000 series computers running HP-UX and Sun 3 and 4 series computers running SunOS. DAMT requires 1Mb of disk space and 4Mb of RAM for execution. This package requires MIT's X Win

  3. Multi-channel thermal infrared communications using engineered blackbody radiation for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, F.; Liang, X.; Lucyszyn, S.

    2014-10-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands, typically from 20-40 THz and 60-100 THz, are best known for applications in thermography, such as target acquisition, surveillance, night vision, and remote sensing. This unregulated part of the spectral range offers opportunities for the development of short-range secure communications. The `THz Torch' concept was recently demonstrated by the authors. This technology fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation, by partitioning thermally-generated spectral noise power into pre-defined frequency channels. The energy in each channel is then independently pulse-modulated, transmitted and detected, creating a robust form of short-range secure communications in the far/mid infrared. In this paper, recent progress for the `THz Torch' technology will be presented; the physical level integrity for multichannel proof-of-concept working demonstrators will be evaluated. By exploring a diverse range of methods, significant enhancements to both data rate and distance can be expected. Our thermodynamics-based approach represents a new paradigm in the sense that 19th century physics can be exploited with 20th century multiplexing concepts for low-cost 21st century ubiquitous security and defence applications in the thermal infrared range.

  4. Cryptographic security of the quantum key distribution from the triangle inequality

    E-print Network

    Pawel Kurzynski; Marcin Markiewicz; Dagomir Kaszlikowski

    2014-09-22

    We show that the Csiszar-Korner sufficient condition for secure cryptographic key generation with the help of quantum theory can be easily derived using the triangle inequality for an information-theoretic distance.

  5. 78 FR 79298 - Securities Exempted; Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-End Management Investment Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Business Investment Companies, 23 FR 10484 (Dec. 30, 1958). \\2\\ Amendments to the Offering Exemption Under Regulation E of the Securities Act of 1933, 49 FR 35342 (Sept. 7, 1984). As part of Regulation E, rule...

  6. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to determine future benefit payments. Our estimates of the earnings function permit us to make highly differentiated predictions of future earnings for each member of our sample. By combining the historical information on individual earnings with our prediction of future earnings up through the normal retirement age, our first approach produces tens of thousands of predicted career earnings paths that can be used in microsimulation policy analysis. Our second approach to creating lifetime earnings profiles is similar in some ways to the traditional method. For example, it is based on the creation of only a handful of "stylized" career earnings patterns. An important difference with the traditional method, however, is that we define the career earnings patterns so that they are truly representative of patterns observed in the workforce. We use simple mathematical formulas to characterize each stylized earnings pattern, and we then produce estimates of the average path of annual earnings for workers whose career earning path falls within each of the stylized patterns we have defined. Finally, we calculate the percentage of workers in successive birth-year cohorts who have earnings profiles that match each of the stylized earnings patterns. Although this method may seem simple, it allows the analyst to create stylized earnings patterns that are widely varied but still representative of earnings patterns observed among sizable groups of U.S. workers. The effects of policy reforms can then be calculated for workers with each of the stylized earnings patterns. Our analysis of U.S. lifetime earnings patterns and of the impact of selected policy reforms produces a number of findings about past trends in earnings, typical earnings patterns in the population, and the potential impact of reform. The analysis focuses on men and women born between 1931 and 1960. Along with earlier analysts, we find that men earn substantially higher lifetime wages than women and typically attain their peak career earnings at a somewhat earlier age. However, the difference in career earnin

  7. Mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions for homeland security, defense, and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim; Carapezza, Edward M.

    2015-05-01

    It is desirable for executive officers of law enforcement agencies and other executive officers in homeland security and defense, as well as first responders, to have some basic information about the latest trend on mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions available on the market. This paper reviews and discusses a number of studies on the use and effectiveness of wireless video recording solutions. It provides insights into the features of wearable video recording devices that offer excellent applications for the category of security agencies listed in this paper. It also provides answers to key questions such as: how to determine the type of video recording solutions most suitable for the needs of your agency, the essential features to look for when selecting a device for your video needs, and the privacy issues involved with wearable video recording devices.

  8. The AIRS Applications Pipeline, from Identification to Visualization to Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Teixeira, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. AIRS provides observations of temperature and water vapor along the atmospheric column and is sensitive to many atmospheric constituents in the mid-troposphere, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and ozone. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, we are finding that AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under most of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. Currently in development are temperature inversion maps that can potentially correlate to respiratory health problems, dengue fever and West Nile virus outbreak prediction maps, maps that can be used to make assessments of air quality, and maps of volcanic ash burden. This poster will communicate the Project's approach and efforts to date of its applications pipeline, which includes identifying applications, utilizing science expertise, hiring outside experts to assist with development and dissemination, visualization along application themes, and leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving and distribution. In addition, a new web-based browse tool being developed by the AIRS Project for easy access to application product imagery will also be described.

  9. DAVE: A plug and play model for distributed multimedia application development

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.F.; Friesen, J.A.; Yang, C.L.

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents a model being used for the development of distributed multimedia applications. The Distributed Audio Video Environment (DAVE) was designed to support the development of a wide range of distributed applications. The implementation of this model is described. DAVE is unique in that it combines a simple ``plug and play`` programming interface, supports both centralized and fully distributed applications, provides device and media extensibility, promotes object reuseability, and supports interoperability and network independence. This model enables application developers to easily develop distributed multimedia applications and create reusable multimedia toolkits. DAVE was designed for developing applications such as video conferencing, media archival, remote process control, and distance learning.

  10. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business combination related shell company, each as defined in Rule 405 (§ 230.405); or (C) An issuer for... the regular course of its business and such publication or distribution does not represent the... reports in the regular course of its business and, at the time of the publication or distribution of...

  11. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... business combination related shell company, each as defined in Rule 405 (§ 230.405); or (C) An issuer for... the regular course of its business and such publication or distribution does not represent the... reports in the regular course of its business and, at the time of the publication or distribution of...

  12. Application-level distributed denial of service prevention in a replicated system

    E-print Network

    Vandiver, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of DFQ (Distributed Fair Queueing), a distributed system for defending a replicated set of HTTP servers against application-level distributed denial of service (DDoS) ...

  13. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  14. Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

  15. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  16. VOLUME 85, NUMBER 2 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 10 JULY 2000 Simple Proof of Security of the BB84 Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    E-print Network

    Preskill, John

    of the BB84 Quantum Key Distribution Protocol Peter W. Shor1 and John Preskill2 1 AT&T Labs Research and Brassard (BB84) for quantum key distribution is secure. We first give a key distribution protocol based of the security of quantum key distribution protocols have been discovered; however, none is entirely satisfactory

  17. Security model for VM in cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaparti, Venkataramana; Naveen K., R.; Rajani, S.; Padmvathamma, M.; Anitha, C.

    2013-03-01

    Cloud computing is a new approach emerged to meet ever-increasing demand for computing resources and to reduce operational costs and Capital Expenditure for IT services. As this new way of computation allows data and applications to be stored away from own corporate server, it brings more issues in security such as virtualization security, distributed computing, application security, identity management, access control and authentication. Even though Virtualization forms the basis for cloud computing it poses many threats in securing cloud. As most of Security threats lies at Virtualization layer in cloud we proposed this new Security Model for Virtual Machine in Cloud (SMVC) in which every process is authenticated by Trusted-Agent (TA) in Hypervisor as well as in VM. Our proposed model is designed to with-stand attacks by unauthorized process that pose threat to applications related to Data Mining, OLAP systems, Image processing which requires huge resources in cloud deployed on one or more VM's.

  18. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...order to satisfy the “regular course of its business” condition; 2. At the time of publishing or disseminating a research report, be publishing or distributing projections with respect to that issuer; and 3. For purposes of...

  19. Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Imhof, Martin; Hampp, Norbert; Rhinow, Daniel

    2014-02-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

  20. THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, John F.; Schulkin, Brian; Huang, Feng; Gary, Dale; Barat, Robert; Oliveira, Filipe; Zimdars, David

    2005-07-01

    Over the past 5 years, there has been a significant interest in employing terahertz (THz) technology, spectroscopy and imaging for security applications. There are three prime motivations for this interest: (a) THz radiation can detect concealed weapons since many non-metallic, non-polar materials are transparent to THz radiation; (b) target compounds such as explosives and illicit drugs have characteristic THz spectra that can be used to identify these compounds and (c) THz radiation poses no health risk for scanning of people. In this paper, stand-off interferometric imaging and sensing for the detection of explosives, weapons and drugs is emphasized. Future prospects of THz technology are discussed.