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1

Enforcing Security Policies for Distributed Objects Applications  

E-print Network

In this paper we present the design and the implementation of a policy engine for enforcing security policies for distributed applications. Such policies, represented by using the RBAC model, include both how the distributed, shared and replicated objects are used, by mean of role certificates and how these roles are managed by means of administrative roles. The policy engine can enforce not only privileges to invoke methods with particular parameters and under specific conditions but also the permissions to execute such methods. The engine is o#ered as a middleware service such that application developers can concntrate on specify the security policies for their applications and they are realesed from the burden of implementing the mechanisms for the actual enforcement of such policies.

Bogdan C. Popescu; Bruno Crispo; Andrew S. Tanenbaum; Maas Zeeman

2003-01-01

2

Ripley: Automatically Securing Distributed Web Applications  

E-print Network

are becoming increasingly distributed, as demon- strated by the popularity of AJAX/Web 2.0 applications such as Hotmail, Google Maps, Facebook, and many others. A typical multi-tier AJAX application con- sists complex and representative AJAX applications suggests that RIPLEY is a promising method for building

Livshits, Ben

3

Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

2013-03-01

4

An Immunological Model of Distributed Detection and Its Application to Computer Security  

E-print Network

An Immunological Model of Distributed Detection and Its Application to Computer Security By Steven vii #12;#12;An Immunological Model of Distributed Detection and Its Application to Computer Security By Steven Andrew Hofmeyr Doctor of Philosophy Computer Science May 1999 #12;#12;An Immunological Model

Forrest, Stephanie

5

Design and Applications of a Secure and Decentralized Distributed Hash Table  

E-print Network

, creating many fake identities is cheap; (2) an attacker can subvert periodic routing table maintenanceDesign and Applications of a Secure and Decentralized Distributed Hash Table by Christopher T and Applications of a Secure and Decentralized Distributed Hash Table by Christopher T. Lesniewski-Laas Submitted

6

Possible Applications of Distributed, Networked Architectures to Port Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agenda of the presentation: *Introduction *Basic Questions; *Applying Net-Centric Operations to Port Security; *Adaptation vs. Optimization; *Port Security Modeled as a Complex Network; *Important Complex Network Properties and Considerations; *Applicatio...

D. Garvey, D. A. Jarvis

2004-01-01

7

Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications  

SciTech Connect

Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

2007-08-30

8

Multipartite secure state distribution  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation der Oesterreichischen, Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Calsamiglia, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2005-04-01

9

Distributed Internet Security and Measurement  

E-print Network

#12;Distributed Internet Security and Measurement by Josh Karlin B.A., Computer Science Internet Security and Measurement by Josh Karlin ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION Submitted in Partial Fulfillment, New Mexico May, 2009 #12;Distributed Internet Security and Measurement by Josh Karlin B.A., Computer

Forrest, Stephanie

10

Improved Proxy Re-Encryption Schemes with Applications to Secure Distributed Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, Blaze, Bleumer, and Strauss (BBS) proposed an application called atomic proxy re-encryption, in which a semi-trusted proxy converts a ciphertext for Alice into a ciphertext for Bob without seeing the underlying plaintext. We predict that fast and secure re-en cryption will become increasingly popular as a method for managing encrypted file systems. Although efficie ntly computable, the wide-spread

Giuseppe Ateniese; Kevin Fu; Matthew Green; Susan Hohenberger

2005-01-01

11

Secure quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

2014-08-01

12

Security for Distributed Web-Applications via Aspect-Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity Management is becoming more and more important in business systems as they are opened for third parties including trading partners, consumers and suppliers. This paper presents an approach securing a system without any knowledge of the system source code. The security module adds to the existing system authentication and authorisation based on as- pect oriented programming and the liberty

Nicolai Kuntze; Thomas Rauch; Andreas U. Schmidt

2005-01-01

13

DIRAC distributed secure framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by users to a MyProxy service, and DIRAC retrieves new short delegated proxies when necessary. This contribution discusses the details of the implementation of this security infrastructure in DIRAC.

Casajus, A.; Graciani, R.; LHCb DIRAC Team

2010-04-01

14

Design of a security platform for CORBA based application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a security platform, SCAP(Security platform for CORBA based APplication), to cope with potential threats in a distributed object system. SOAP supports CORBA security specification announced by OMG. SOAP is composed of four functional blocks which co-work with ORB to provide security services: Authentication Block, Security Association Block, Access Control Block, and Security Information Management Block. It is

Rakman Choi; Jung-chan Na; Kwonil Lee; Eunmi Kim; Wooyong Han

1997-01-01

15

Secure Distributed Human Computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

16

Mobile Security for Internet Applications  

E-print Network

Mobile Security for Internet Applications Roger Kehr1 · Joachim Posegga2 Roland Schmitz1 · Peter this technology can be used for securing services over the Internet and describes several concrete application will not explicitly refer to UMTS; however, our approach can easily be #12;2 Mobile Security for Internet Applications

Posegga, Joachim

17

Design and applications of a secure and decentralized Distributed Hash Table  

E-print Network

Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) are a powerful building block for highly scalable decentralized systems. They route requests over a structured overlay network to the node responsible for a given key. DHTs are subject to the ...

Lesniewski-Laas, Christopher T. (Christopher Tur), 1980-

2011-01-01

18

Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key distribution scheme for dynamic conferences is a method by which initiallyan (off-line) trusted server distributes private individual pieces of informationto a set of users. Later, each member of any group of users of a given size (a dynamicconference) can compute a common secure group key. In this paper westudy the theory and applications of such perfectly secure systems.

Carlo Blundo; Alfredo De Santis; Amir Herzberg Shay Kutten; Ugo Vaccaro

1993-01-01

19

The Digital Distributed System Security Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Digital Distributed System Security Architecture is a comprehensive specification for security in a distributed system that employs state-of-the-art concepts to address the needs of both commercial and government environments. The architecture covers user and system authentication, mandatory and discretionary security, secure initialization and loading, and delegation in a general-purpose computing environment of heterogeneous systems where there are no central

Andy Goldstein; Butler Lampson; Charlie Kaufman; Morrie Gasser

1989-01-01

20

Security of Distributed Digital Criminal Dossiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Securely managing shared information in dis- tributed environments across multiple organisations is a challenge. Distributed information management systems must be able to support individual organisations' informa- tion policies whilst securing global consistency and com- pleteness. This paper proposes a multi-agent approach to a distributed multi-organisational system design based on this principle, focusing on the example of the distributed digital criminal

Martijn Warnier; Frances M. T. Brazier; Anja Oskamp

2008-01-01

21

A secure communications infrastructure for high-performance distributed computing  

SciTech Connect

Applications that use high-speed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers, databases, and scientific instruments may operate over open networks and access valuable resources. Hence, they can require mechanisms for ensuring integrity and confidentially of communications and for authenticating both users and resources. Security solutions developed for traditional client-server applications do not provide direct support for the program structures, programming tools, and performance requirements encountered in these applications. The authors address these requirements via a security-enhanced version of the Nexus communication library; which they use to provide secure versions of parallel libraries and languages, including the Message Passing Interface. These tools permit a fine degree of control over what, where, and when security mechanisms are applied. In particular, a single application can mix secure and nonsecure communication, allowing the programmer to make fine-grained security/performance tradeoffs. The authors present performance results that quantify the performance of their infrastructure.

Foster, I.; Koenig, G.; Tuecke, S. [and others

1997-08-01

22

Web application security Executive brief  

E-print Network

, such as credit card data, social security numbers and health records. Therefore, it's more impor- tant than ever, incidents of Web application breaches resulting in data theft are popping up as front-page news standards, such as the Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standards*--a protocol that includes

23

Cryptographic security of quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

This work is intended as an introduction to cryptographic security and a motivation for the widely used Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) security definition. We review the notion of security necessary for a protocol to be usable in a larger cryptographic context, i.e., for it to remain secure when composed with other secure protocols. We then derive the corresponding security criterion for QKD. We provide several examples of QKD composed in sequence and parallel with different cryptographic schemes to illustrate how the error of a composed protocol is the sum of the errors of the individual protocols. We also discuss the operational interpretations of the distance metric used to quantify these errors.

Christopher Portmann; Renato Renner

2014-09-11

24

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Application for a Social Security Card  

E-print Network

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Application for a Social Security Card Applying for a Social and evidence to any Social Security office. Follow instructions below. HOW TO COMPLETE THE APPLICATION Most agency explaining why you need a Social Security number and that you meet all the requirements

Li, Mo

25

Specification of Secure Distributed Collaboration Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is on a specification model for defining security and coordination policies for distributed collaboration and workflow systems. This work is motivated by the objective to build distributed collaboration systems from their high level specifications. We identify here unique requirements for secure collaboration, specifically role ad- mission and activation constraints, separation of duties, dy- namic access

Anand R. Tripathi; Tanvir Ahmed; Richa Kumar

2003-01-01

26

Application Instructions for: Cyber Security Fundamentals Certificate  

E-print Network

Application Instructions for: Cyber Security Fundamentals Certificate Naval Postgraduate School Center for Information Systems Security Studies and Research (CISR) Monterey, CA 93943 cyber@nps.edu #12;Cyber Security Fundamentals Certificate - Online Application Instructions 1. Go to https

27

Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

Blaser, Tammy M.

2003-01-01

28

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Application-Centric Security  

E-print Network

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Application-Centric Security: How to Get There Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security (ICS) University of Texas at San Antonio Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security (ICS) University of Texas at San Antonio

Sandhu, Ravi

29

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Application-Centric Security Models  

E-print Network

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY 1 Application-Centric Security Models Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security University of Texas at San Antonio June 2009 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com © Ravi Sandhu #12;INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Dr. Robert W. Gracy Vice President

Sandhu, Ravi

30

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Application-Centric Security Models  

E-print Network

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY 1 Application-Centric Security Models Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security University of Texas at San Antonio July 2009 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com © Ravi Sandhu #12;INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Dr. Robert W. Gracy Vice President

Sandhu, Ravi

31

Network aware distributed applications  

SciTech Connect

Most distributed applications today manage to utilize only a small percentage of the needed and available network bandwidth. Often application developers are not aware of the potential bandwidth of the network, and therefore do not know what to expect. Even when application developers are aware of the specifications of the machines and network links, they have few resources that can help determine why the expected performance was not achieved. What is needed is a ubiquitous and easy-to-use service that provides reliable, accurate, secure, and timely estimates of dynamic network properties. This service will help advise applications on how to make use of the network's increasing bandwidth and capabilities for traffic shaping and engineering. When fully implemented, this service will make building currently unrealizable levels of network awareness into distributed applications a relatively mundane task. For example, a remote data visualization application could choose between sending a wireframe, a pre-rendered image, or a 3-D representation, based on forecasts of CPU availability and power, compression options, and available bandwidth. The same service will provide on-demand performance information so that applications can compare predicted with actual results, and allow detailed queries about the end-to-end path for application and network tuning and debugging.

Agarwal, Deborah; Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Johnston, William

2001-02-04

32

Security seal. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to fingerprints are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

Gobeli, G.W.

1981-11-17

33

Secure Multicast Key Distribution for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

E-print Network

Many emerging applications in mobile adhoc networks involve group-oriented communication. Multicast is an efficient way of supporting group oriented applications, mainly in mobile environment with limited bandwidth and limited power. For using such applications in an adversarial environment as military, it is necessary to provide secure multicast communication. Key management is the fundamental challenge in designing secure multicast communications. In many multicast interactions, new member can join and current members can leave at any time and existing members must communicate securely using multicast key distribution within constrained energy for mobile adhoc networks. This has to overcome the challenging element of "1 affects n" problem which is due to high dynamicity of groups. Thus this paper shows the specific challenges towards multicast key management protocols for securing multicast key distribution in mobile ad hoc networks, and present relevant multicast key management protocols in mobile ad hoc n...

SuganyaDevi, D

2010-01-01

34

THINK: a secure distributed systems architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present THINK, our distributed systems architecture, and the research we have conducted to provide the system programmer with an architecture he can use to build efficient and secure operating systems. By specifying and implementing elementary tools that can be used by the system programmer to implement a chosen security policy, we prove that flexibility can be

Christophe Rippert; Jean-bernard Stefani

2002-01-01

35

Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key distribution scheme for dynamic conferences is a method by which initially an (off-line) trusted server distributes private individ- ual pieces of information to a set of users. Later any group of users of a given size (a dynamic conference) is able to compute a common secure key. In this paper we study the theory and applications of such

Carlo Blundo; Alfredo De Santis; Amir Herzberg; Shay Kutten; Ugo Vaccaro; Moti Yung

1992-01-01

36

Integrating security in a group oriented distributed system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A distributed security architecture is proposed for incorporation into group oriented distributed systems, and in particular, into the Isis distributed programming toolkit. The primary goal of the architecture is to make common group oriented abstractions robust in hostile settings, in order to facilitate the construction of high performance distributed applications that can tolerate both component failures and malicious attacks. These abstractions include process groups and causal group multicast. Moreover, a delegation and access control scheme is proposed for use in group oriented systems. The focus is the security architecture; particular cryptosystems and key exchange protocols are not emphasized.

Reiter, Michael; Birman, Kenneth; Gong, LI

1992-01-01

37

Computer security in DOE distributed computing systems  

SciTech Connect

The modernization of DOE facilities amid limited funding is creating pressure on DOE facilities to find innovative approaches to their daily activities. Distributed computing systems are becoming cost-effective solutions to improved productivity. This paper defines and describes typical distributed computing systems in the DOE. The special computer security problems present in distributed computing systems are identified and compared with traditional computer systems. The existing DOE computer security policy supports only basic networks and traditional computer systems and does not address distributed computing systems. A review of the existing policy requirements is followed by an analysis of the policy as it applies to distributed computing systems. Suggested changes in the DOE computer security policy are identified and discussed. The long lead time in updating DOE policy will require guidelines for applying the existing policy to distributed systems. Some possible interim approaches are identified and discussed. 2 refs.

Hunteman, W.J.

1990-01-01

38

Application Instructions for: Cyber Security Defense Certificate  

E-print Network

Application Instructions for: Cyber Security Defense Certificate Naval Postgraduate School Center for Information Systems Security Studies and Research (CISR) Monterey, CA 93943 cyber@nps.edu #12;Cyber Security ­ Cyber Security Defense iv. Academic Year/ Quarter: SELECT THE FOLLOWING START DATE: a. Quarter 3 Start

39

Improving security in the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of high speed packet switched fiber optic LAN's has allowed local area design architectures to be used for larger metropolitan area network (MAN) implementations. The current LAN security mechanisms used in larger and faster fiber optic LAN's and MAN's are often inappropriate or unacceptable for use with emerging applications. The protocol of the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

Benjamin E. Jones

1992-01-01

40

Security of Distributed-Phase-Reference Quantum Key Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution stands out for its easy implementation with present day technology. For many years, a full security proof of these schemes in a realistic setting has been elusive. We solve this long-standing problem and present a generic method to prove the security of such protocols against general attacks. To illustrate our result, we provide lower bounds on the key generation rate of a variant of the coherent-one-way quantum key distribution protocol. In contrast to standard predictions, it appears to scale quadratically with the system transmittance.

Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Thinh, Le Phuc; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas

2012-12-01

41

Security of distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

Distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution stands out for its easy implementation with present day technology. Since many years, a full security proof of these schemes in a realistic setting has been elusive. For the first time, we solve this long standing problem and present a generic method to prove the security of such protocols against general attacks. To illustrate our result we provide lower bounds on the key generation rate of a variant of the coherent-one-way quantum key distribution protocol. In contrast to standard predictions, it appears to scale quadratically with the system transmittance.

Tobias Moroder; Marcos Curty; Charles Ci Wen Lim; Le Phuc Thinh; Hugo Zbinden; Nicolas Gisin

2012-07-23

42

Security of distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution.  

PubMed

Distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution stands out for its easy implementation with present day technology. For many years, a full security proof of these schemes in a realistic setting has been elusive. We solve this long-standing problem and present a generic method to prove the security of such protocols against general attacks. To illustrate our result, we provide lower bounds on the key generation rate of a variant of the coherent-one-way quantum key distribution protocol. In contrast to standard predictions, it appears to scale quadratically with the system transmittance. PMID:23368542

Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Thinh, Le Phuc; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas

2012-12-28

43

Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states  

E-print Network

We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e^r=1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel.

Daniel Gottesman; John Preskill

2000-08-09

44

Integrating security in a large distributed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrew is a distributed computing environment that is a synthesis of the personal computing and timesharing paradigms. When mature, it is expected to encompass over 5,000 workstations spanning the Carnegie Mellon University campus. This paper examines the security issues that arise in such an environment and describes the mechanisms that have been developed to address them. These mechanisms include the

Mahadev Satyanarayanan

1989-01-01

45

CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test bed is expected to demonstrate NPSS CORBASec-specific policy functionality, confirm adequate performance, and validate the required Internet configuration in a distributed collaborative aerospace propulsion environment.

Blaser, Tammy M.

2003-01-01

46

Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

Quantum cryptography (QC) can provide unconditional secure communication between two authorized parties based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. However, imperfect practical conditions limit its transmission distance and communication speed. Here we implemented the differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) with up-conversion assisted hybrid photon detector (HPD) and achieved 1.3 M bits per second secure key rate over a 10-km fiber, which is tolerant against the photon number splitting (PNS) attack, general collective attacks on individual photons, and any other known sequential unambiguous state discrimination (USD) attacks.

Zhang, Q; Honjo, T; Wen, K; Hirohata, T; Suyama, M; Takiguchi, Y; Kamada, H; Tokura, Y; Tadanaga, O; Nishida, Y; Asobe, M; Yamamoto, Y

2008-01-01

47

Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

Quantum cryptography (QC) can provide unconditional secure communication between two authorized parties based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. However, imperfect practical conditions limit its transmission distance and communication speed. Here we implemented the differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) with up-conversion assisted hybrid photon detector (HPD) and achieved 1.3 M bits per second secure key rate over a 10-km fiber, which is tolerant against the photon number splitting (PNS) attack, general collective attacks on individual photons, and any other known sequential unambiguous state discrimination (USD) attacks.

Q. Zhang; H. Takesue; T. Honjo; K. Wen; T. Hirohata; M. Suyama; Y. Takiguchi; H. Kamada; Y. Tokura; O. Tadanaga; Y. Nishida; M. Asobe; Y. Yamamoto

2008-09-23

48

Network and Application Security in Mobile e-Health Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different IT applications require different network and application security services. We have been working in the area of\\u000a e-health applications in mobile environments, and we have needed to integrate security services therein. This paper presents\\u000a a specification of such network and application security services for mobile e-health applications and how we have implemented\\u000a them. First, various security threats specific of e-health

Ramon Martí; Jaime Delgado; Xavier Perramon

2004-01-01

49

Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

Zhou, Yicong

2010-01-01

50

Virtual Cyber-Security Testing Capability for Large Scale Distributed Information Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security, reliability and interoperability are indispensable in today's distributed heterogeneous information infrastructure. For government and military applications, it is crucial to conduct effective and efficient testing of security properties for newly developed systems, which are to be integrated into existing information system. Yet little progress has been made in the technology advancement of rigorous and automated security testing. In this

Perry Pederson; D. Lee; Guoqiang Shu; Dongluo Chen; Zhijun Liu; Na Li; Lifeng Sang

2008-01-01

51

Towards Collaborative Robots for Infrastructure Security Applications  

E-print Network

, infrastructure security and monitoring of sensitive national security sites (e.g. nuclear facilities, power applications. A vast number of critical facilities, including power plants, military bases, water plants, air and chemical plants), building and parking lot security, warehouse guard duty, monitoring restricted access

Guo, Yi

52

Video performance for high security applications.  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivity of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.

Connell, Jack C.; Norman, Bradley C.

2010-06-01

53

Secure coprocessing applications and research issues  

SciTech Connect

The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

Smith, S.W.

1996-08-01

54

Title: Abstracting Application-Level Web Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-level web security refers to vulnerabilities inherent in the code of a web-application itself (irrespective of the technologies in which it is implemented or the security of the web- server\\/back-end database on which it is built). In the last few months application-level vulner- abilities have been exploited with serious consequences: hackers have tricked e-commerce sites into shipping goods for no

55

Abstracting application-level web security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-level web security refers to vulnerabilities inherent in the code of a web-application itself (irrespective of the technologies in which it is implemented or the security of the web-server\\/back-end database on which it is built). In the last few months application-level vulnerabilities have been exploited with serious consequences: hackers have tricked e-commerce sites into shipping goods for no charge, user-names

David Scott; Richard Sharp

2002-01-01

56

The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge  

E-print Network

.ics.utsa.edu Institute for Cyber Security The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge Prof. Ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com www.ics.utsa.edu Institute for Cyber Security 1 The Data and Application Security But not securable by academically taught cyber security not studied as a success story missing technologies highly

Sandhu, Ravi

57

Collaborative Robots for Infrastructure Security Applications  

E-print Network

.g. nuclear facilities, power and chemical plants), building and parking lot security, warehouse guard duty facilities, including power plants, military bases, water plants, air fields, and so forth, must be protected9 Collaborative Robots for Infrastructure Security Applications Yi Guo1 , Lynne E. Parker2

Parker, Lynne E.

58

Web Applications and Security Web protocol overview  

E-print Network

Web Applications and Security Web protocol overview Web forms Cookies Attacks against Web>University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Basic Web scripting There are two basic HTTP request methods, GET and POST descriptor. #12;Securing basic web apps is easy DON'T TRUST USER INPUT, EVER... Never execute code provide

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

59

Secure voice for mobile satellite applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

1990-01-01

60

Secure voice for mobile satellite applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

61

Programming Secure and Robust Pervasive Computing Applications  

E-print Network

and demonstrate its utility for building context-aware, secure, fault-tolerant pervasive computing applications on the contextual information. A user's physical location has been one of the most prominent context information

Minnesota, University of

62

Distributed Wind Market Applications  

SciTech Connect

Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

2007-11-01

63

Unconditional Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Practical Devices  

E-print Network

numbers. The goal of a quantum key distribution system is to provide users with the comforting ideaUnconditional Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Practical Devices H.J. Hupkes Mathematical for the unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol which was given by Mayers. We remove

Hupkes, Hermen Jan

64

Efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution with quantified security.  

PubMed

We analyse the finite-size security of the efficient Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol implemented with decoy states and apply the results to a gigahertz-clocked quantum key distribution system. Despite the enhanced security level, the obtained secure key rates are the highest reported so far at all fibre distances. PMID:24150299

Lucamarini, M; Patel, K A; Dynes, J F; Fröhlich, B; Sharpe, A W; Dixon, A R; Yuan, Z L; Penty, R V; Shields, A J

2013-10-21

65

Energy-Memory-Security Tradeoffs in Distributed Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security for sensor networks is challenging due to the resource-constrained nature of individual nodes, particularly their energy limitations. However, designing merely for energy savings may not result in a suitable security architecture. This paper investigates the inherent tradeoffs involved between energy, memory, and security robustness in distributed sensor networks. As a driver for the investigation, we intro- duce an energy-scalable

David D. Hwang; Bo-Cheng Charles Lai; Ingrid Verbauwhede

2004-01-01

66

A correct security evaluation of quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

There is no doubt that quantum key distribution is an excellent result as a science. However, this paper presents a view on quantum key distribution (QKD) wherein QKD may have a difficulty to provide a sufficient security and good communication performance in real world networks. In fact, a one-time pad forwarded by QKD model with $\\bar{\\epsilon}=10^{-6}$ may be easily decrypted by key estimation. Despite that researchers know several criticisms on the theoretical incompleteness on the security evaluation, Portmann and Rennner, and others still avert from the discussion on criticism, and experimental groups tend to make exaggerated claims about their own work by making it seems that QKD is applicable to commercial communication systems. All such claims are based on a misunderstanding of the meaning of criteria of information theoretic security in cryptography. A severe situation has arisen as a result, one that will impair a healthy development of quantum information science (QIS). Thus, the author hopes that this paper will help to stimulate discussions on developing a more detailed theory.

Osamu Hirota

2014-09-21

67

Guest Editorial: Special Section on Security in Distributed Computing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

has always been of utmost importance, particularly in recent years as orchestrated attacks have sought to cripple critical infrastructures. Security issues in distributed com-puting systems involve reducing vulnerabilities as well as giving system management the insight and control needed to defend distributed information systems. All aspects of business and government operations and services are dependent upon the security and integrity

Wei Zhao

2003-01-01

68

Improving application security with data flow assertions  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESIN is a new language runtime that helps prevent security vulner- abilities, by allowing programmers to specify application-level data flow assertions. RESIN provides policy objects, which programmers use to specify assertion code and metadata; data tracking, which allows programmers to associate assertions with application data, and to keep track of assertions as the data flow through the appli- cation; and

Alexander Yip; Xi Wang; Nickolai Zeldovich; M. Frans Kaashoek

2009-01-01

69

IPv6 Distributed Security: Problem Statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deployment of IPv6 enabled devices and networks brings some issues, which must be addressed by security administrators in order to guarantee at least the same level of security obtained nowadays with IPv4 and network-based security schemes, allowing at the same time all the IPv6 advantages and possibilities. The most important issues are the rediscovery of end-to-end communication, the availability

Alvaro Vives; Jordi Palet

2005-01-01

70

MEMS and MOEMS for national security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major opportunities for microsystem insertion into commercial applications, such as telecommunications and medical prosthesis, are well known. Less well known are applications that ensure the security of our nation, the protection of its armed forces, and the safety of its citizens. Microsystems enable entirely new possibilities to meet National Security needs, which can be classed along three lines: anticipating security needs and threats, deterring the efficacy of identified threats, and defending against the application of these threats. In each of these areas, specific products that are enabled by MEMS and MOEMS are discussed. In the area of anticipating needs and threats, sensored microsystems designed for chem/bio/nuclear threats, and sensors for border and asset protection can significantly secure our borders, ports, and transportation systems. Key features for these applications include adaptive optics and spectroscopic capabilities. Microsystems to monitor soil and water quality can be used to secure critical infrastructure, food safety can be improved by in-situ identification of pathogens, and sensored buildings can ensure the architectural safety of our homes and workplaces. A challenge to commercializing these opportunities, and thus making them available for National Security needs, is developing predictable markets and predictable technology roadmaps. The integrated circuit manufacturing industry provides an example of predictable technology maturation and market insertion, primarily due to the existence of a "unit cell" that allows volume manufacturing. It is not clear that microsystems can follow an analogous path. The possible paths to affordable low-volume production, as well as the prospects of a microsystems unit cell, are discussed.

Scott, Marion W.

2003-01-01

71

Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections  

E-print Network

We consider the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), with arbitrary individual imperfections simultaneously in the source and detectors. We provide the secure key generation rate, and show that only two parameters must be bounded to ensure security; the basis dependence of the source and a detector blinding parameter. The system may otherwise be completely uncharacterized and contain large losses.

Øystein Marøy; Lars Lydersen; Johannes Skaar

2009-03-20

72

Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections  

SciTech Connect

We consider the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for quantum key distribution, with arbitrary individual imperfections simultaneously in the source and detectors. We provide the secure key generation rate and show that three parameters must be bounded to ensure security; the basis dependence of the source, a detector-blinding parameter, and a detector leakage parameter. The system may otherwise be completely uncharacterized and contain large losses.

Maroey, Oystein; Lydersen, Lars; Skaar, Johannes [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway and University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

2010-09-15

73

Fundamental Security Issues in Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution  

E-print Network

Several fundamental issues in establishing security in continuous variable quantum key distribution are discussed, in particular on reverse reconciliation and security under heterodyne attack. It appears di?cult to derive quantum advantage in a concrete realistic protocol due to source and loss uncertainties, apart from the problem of bounding Eve's information after reconciliation. The necessity of proving robust security for QKD protocols is indicated.

Horace P. Yuen

2012-08-29

74

Terahertz Imaging and Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies could vastly improve the security of personnel checkpoints, because of the penetration through clothing and spatial resolution available in this spectral range. Since 9/11, the social need for improved checkpoint screening has been obvious and great. However, although efforts to develop such imagers had been underway for many years before that, practical low-cost systems, analogous to IR uncooled imagers, still don't exist. An emphasis on purely passive imaging places very stringent sensitivity requirements on such imagers. A number of long-term efforts, which I briefly mention, are underway to improve the sensitivity of such passive imagers. However, most of the emphasis in our program is on active imaging. With this approach, much simpler and lower-cost detectors, such as (uncooled) antenna-coupled microbolometers can be used, at the expense of incorporating slightly more complex optics and illumination components. I discuss several tradeoffs presented in the design of active imaging systems for the 100 to 1000 GHz frequency range, describe how we have addressed them in the design of a scanning, 95 GHz, bolometer-based imager for concealed weapons detection that is nearing completion, and describe how the system architecture can be modified to scale the operating frequency to the 650 GHz atmospheric window. Co-authors: Arttu Luukanen and Aaron Miller

Grossman, Erich

2005-03-01

75

17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities. 230.139 Section 230.139 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2013-04-01

76

17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.  

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities. 230.139 Section 230.139 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2014-04-01

77

Distributed, Secure Load Balancing with Skew, Heterogeneity, and Churn  

E-print Network

Distributed, Secure Load Balancing with Skew, Heterogeneity, and Churn Jonathan Ledlie and Margo (heterogeneity). Other approaches tackle these less-than- ideal conditions, but give up on important security throughput by 20% in a widely heterogeneous system in our experiments. I. INTRODUCTION Decentralized

78

Blue versus Red: Towards a Model of Distributed Security Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper analyzes the threat of distributed attacks by de- veloping a two-sided multiplayer model of security in which attackers aim to deny service and defenders strategize to secure their assets. Attack- ers benet from the successful compromise of target systems, however, may suer,penalties for increased attack activity. Defenders weigh the likelihood of an attack against the cost of

Neal Fultz; Jens Grossklags

2009-01-01

79

An Application-Driven Perspective on Wireless Sensor Network Security  

E-print Network

objectives such as energy efficiency, cost, and application level performance with security to a degreeAn Application-Driven Perspective on Wireless Sensor Network Security Eric Sabbah, Adnan Majeed- tant applications. Securing WSNs is challenging due to their unique nature as an application

Kang, Kyoung-Don

80

Women's secure hospital services: national bed numbers and distribution  

PubMed Central

A mapping exercise as part of a pathway study of women in secure psychiatric services in the England and Wales was conducted. It aimed to (i) establish the extent and range of secure service provision for women nationally and (ii) establish the present and future care needs and pathways of care of women mentally disordered offenders (MDO) currently in low, medium and enhanced medium secure care. The study identified 589 medium secure beds, 46 enhanced medium secure beds (WEMSS) and 990 low secure beds for women nationally. Of the 589 medium secure beds, the majority (309, 52%) are in the NHS and under half (280, 48%) are in the independent sector (IS). The distribution of low secure beds is in the opposite direction, the majority (745, 75%) being in the IS and 254 (25%) in the NHS. Medium secure provision for women has grown over the past decade, but comparative data for low secure provision are not available. Most women are now in single sex facilities although a small number of mixed sex units remain. The findings have implications for the future commissioning of secure services for women. PMID:23236263

Harty, Mari; Somers, Nadia; Bartlett, Annie

2012-01-01

81

Audit trails in the Aeolus distributed security platform  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a complete design and implementation of audit trail collection and storage for Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. An information flow control system regulates ...

Popic, Victoria

2010-01-01

82

Audit Trails in the Aeolus Distributed Security Platform  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a complete design and implementation of audit trail collection and storage for Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. An information flow control system regulates ...

Popic, Victoria

2010-09-29

83

A stateful CSG-based distributed firewall architecture for robust distributed security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed firewalls have been developed in order to provide networks with a higher level of protection than traditional firewalling mechanisms like gateway and host-based firewalls. Although distributed firewalls provide higher security, they too have limitations. This work presents the design & implementation of a new distributed firewall model, based on stateful Cluster Security Gateway (CSG) architecture, which addresses those shortcomings.

V. Ramsurrun; K. M. S. Soyjaudah

2009-01-01

84

Photonic sensor applications in transportation security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a broad range of security sensing applications in transportation that can be facilitated by using fiber optic sensors and photonic sensor integrated wireless systems. Many of these vital assets are under constant threat of being attacked. It is important to realize that the threats are not just from terrorism but an aging and often neglected infrastructure. To specifically address transportation security, photonic sensors fall into two categories: fixed point monitoring and mobile tracking. In fixed point monitoring, the sensors monitor bridge and tunnel structural health and environment problems such as toxic gases in a tunnel. Mobile tracking sensors are being designed to track cargo such as shipboard cargo containers and trucks. Mobile tracking sensor systems have multifunctional sensor requirements including intrusion (tampering), biochemical, radiation and explosives detection. This paper will review the state of the art of photonic sensor technologies and their ability to meet the challenges of transportation security.

Krohn, David A.

2007-09-01

85

Security for Multimedia Space Data Distribution over the Internet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distribution of interactive multimedia to remote investigators will be required for high quality science on the International Space Station (ISS). The Internet with the World Wide Web (WWW) and the JAVA environment are a good match for distribution of data, video and voice to remote science centers. Utilizing the "open" Internet in a secure manner is the major hurdle in making use of this cost effective, off-the-shelf, universal resource. This paper examines the major security threats to an Internet distribution system for payload data and the mitigation of these threats. A proposed security environment for the Space Station Biological Research Facility (SSBRP) is presented with a short description of the tools that have been implemented or planned. Formulating and implementing a security policy, firewalls, host hardware and software security are also discussed in this paper. Security is a vast topic and this paper can only give an overview of important issues. This paper postulates that a structured approach is required and stresses that security must be built into a network from the start. Ignoring security issues or putting them off until late in the development cycle can be disastrous.

Stone, Thom; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

86

Security Policy Reconciliation in Distributed Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major hurdle in sharing resources between organizations is heterogeneity. Therefore, in order for two organizations to collaborate their policies have to be resolved. The process of resolving different policies is known as policy reconciliation, which in general is an intractable problem. This paper ad- dresses policy reconciliation in the context of security. We present a formal framework and hierarchical

Hao Wang; Somesh Jha; Miron Livny; Patrick Drew Mcdaniel

2004-01-01

87

Securing Provenance of Distributed Processes in an Untrusted Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is much concern about the provenance of distributed processes, that is about the documentation of the origin and the processes to produce an object in a distributed system. The provenance has many applications in the forms of medical records, documentation of processes in the computer systems, recording the origin of data in the cloud, and also documentation of human-executed processes. The provenance of distributed processes can be modeled by a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where each node represents an entity, and an edge represents the origin and causal relationship between entities. Without sufficient security mechanisms, the provenance graph suffers from integrity and confidentiality problems, for example changes or deletions of the correct nodes, additions of fake nodes and edges, and unauthorized accesses to the sensitive nodes and edges. In this paper, we propose an integrity mechanism for provenance graph using the digital signature involving three parties: the process executors who are responsible in the nodes' creation, a provenance owner that records the nodes to the provenance store, and a trusted party that we call the Trusted Counter Server (TCS) that records the number of nodes stored by the provenance owner. We show that the mechanism can detect the integrity problem in the provenance graph, namely unauthorized and malicious “authorized” updates even if all the parties, except the TCS, collude to update the provenance. In this scheme, the TCS only needs a very minimal storage (linear with the number of the provenance owners). To protect the confidentiality and for an efficient access control administration, we propose a method to encrypt the provenance graph that allows access by paths and compartments in the provenance graph. We argue that encryption is important as a mechanism to protect the provenance data stored in an untrusted environment. We analyze the security of the integrity mechanism, and perform experiments to measure the performance of both mechanisms.

Syalim, Amril; Nishide, Takashi; Sakurai, Kouichi

88

17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution. ...Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2013-04-01

89

17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01... Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution. ...Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2012-04-01

90

17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01... Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution. ...Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2011-04-01

91

17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution. ...Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2010-04-01

92

17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.  

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01... Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution. ...Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2014-04-01

93

Now accepting applications for Sam Nunn Security Program Fellows  

E-print Network

Scarcity o Climate Change o Energy Security o Infrastructure Protection o Disaster Management o Mass's origins are in national and international security policy. However, security relevant policy has alwaysNow accepting applications for Sam Nunn Security Program Fellows for the 2014/15 Academic Year What

Jacobs, Laurence J.

94

Scalable, Secure, and Highly Available Distributed File Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of and historical perspective on work done to implement easy-to-share distributed file systems based on the Unix model are presented. Andrew and Coda are distributed Unix file systems that embody many of the recent advances in solving the problem of data sharing in large, physically dispersed workstation environments. The Andrew architecture is presented, the scalability and security of

Mahadev Satyanarayanan

1990-01-01

95

Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization for Securing Large Water Distribution Networks  

E-print Network

Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization for Securing Large Water Distribution Networks Andreas the problem of deploying sensors in a large water distribution net- work, in order to detect the malicious of detection time and the population protected from consuming contaminated water ­ exhibit an important

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

96

Security proof of practical quantum key distribution schemes  

E-print Network

This paper provides a security proof of the Bennett-Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol in practical implementation. To prove the security, it is not assumed that defects in the devices are absorbed into an adversary's attack. In fact, the only assumption in the proof is that the source is characterized. The proof is performed by lower-bounding adversary's Renyi entropy about the key before privacy amplification. The bound reveals the leading factors reducing the key generation rate.

Yodai Watanabe

2005-06-29

97

Information Geometric Security Analysis of Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution Protocol  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes the information-theoretical security of the Differential Phase Shift (DPS) Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocol, using efficient computational information geometric algorithms. The DPS QKD protocol was introduced for practical reasons, since the earlier QKD schemes were too complicated to implement in practice. The DPS QKD protocol can be an integrated part of current network security applications, hence it's practical implementation is much easier with the current optical devices and optical networks. The proposed algorithm could be a very valuable tool to answer the still open questions related to the security bounds of the DPS QKD protocol.

Laszlo Gyongyosi; Sandor Imre

2012-07-18

98

Semantically Rich Application-Centric Security in Android  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smartphones are now ubiquitous. However, the security requirements of these relatively new systems and the applications they support are still being understood. As a result, the security infrastructure available in current smart- phone operating systems is largely underdeveloped. In this paper, we consider the security requirements of smartphone applications and augment the existing Android operating system with a framework to

Machigar Ongtang; Stephen E. Mclaughlin; William Enck; Patrick Drew Mcdaniel

2009-01-01

99

Key distribution for secure VSAT satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modified Yacobi (1989) scheme that does not use the secret key provided by the key distribution center, but uses instead a random number generated by the user. This paper also presents the modified Diffie-Hellman (1976) and ID (identity) method which has directly mutual authentication between users and is able to defend the network from impostors. The proposed

Jeong-Hyun Park; Sun-Bae Lim

1998-01-01

100

Key distribution for secure VSAT satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modified Yacobi scheme that does not use the secret key provided by the key distribution center, but uses instead a random number generated by the user. This paper also presents a modified Diffie-Hellnan (DH) scheme with ID (identity) which has directly mutual authentication between users and is able to defend the network from impostors. The proposed

Jeong-Hyun Park; Sun-Bae Lim

1997-01-01

101

Secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We report two key distribution schemes achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. Using two Bell states, two bits of secret key can be shared between two distant parties that play symmetric and equal roles. We also address eavesdropping attacks against the schemes.

Song, Daegene [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8910, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2004-03-01

102

Distributed virtual environment scalability and security  

E-print Network

Distributed virtual environments (DVEs) have been an active area of research and engineering for more than 20 years. The most widely deployed DVEs are network games such as Quake, Halo, and World of Warcraft (WoW), with millions of users...

Miller, John

2011-11-08

103

ReDiSen: Reputation-based Secure Cooperative Sensing in Distributed Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

ReDiSen: Reputation-based Secure Cooperative Sensing in Distributed Cognitive Radio Networks Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 {tozhang, rei, zongpeng}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Cognitive radio techniques channel, and is therefore more applicable in dynamic cognitive radio networks. Index Terms--Cognitive

Li, Zongpeng

104

Information theory for key distribution systems secured by mesoscopic coherent states  

SciTech Connect

This work analyzes a key distribution system presented earlier [Phys. Rev. A 68, 052307 (2003)] using elements of information theory. Mutual information functions describing the information content shared by Alice and Bob, the legitimate users, and between Alice and Eve, the attacker, are obtained. These results support the original claims that the overall security level to be obtained with the M-ry key distribution system can be made arbitrarily high and thus secure for any practical application. Effects of losses and amplifiers in the optical channel are also analyzed.

Barbosa, Geraldo A. [Northwestern University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 2145 N. Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2005-06-15

105

Passive terahertz imaging for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

106

KEY DISTRIBUTION PROTOCOLS FOR SECURE MULTICAST COMMUNICATION SURVIVABLE IN MANETs.(*)  

E-print Network

1 KEY DISTRIBUTION PROTOCOLS FOR SECURE MULTICAST COMMUNICATION SURVIVABLE IN MANETs.(*) Maria Research University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742 INTRODUCTION A MANET is a collection, without the help of fixed infrastructure. In MANETs, high mobility may result in nodes frequently going

Baras, John S.

107

Security Proof for Quantum Key Distribution Using Qudit Systems  

E-print Network

We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use $d$-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with $d$. The finite-key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to $d\\lesssim 20$.

Lana Sheridan; Valerio Scarani

2010-03-29

108

Mobile Applications for Public Sector: Balancing Usability and Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mobile software applications for use in specific domains such as Public Security must conform to stringent security requirements. While mobile devices have many known limitations, assuring complex fine-grained security policies poses an additional challenge to quality mobile services and raises usability concerns. We address these challenges by means of a novel approach to authentication and gradual multi-factor authorization

Yuri NATCHETOI; Viktor KAUFMAN; Konstantin BEZNOSOV

2008-01-01

109

Radiation Detection for Homeland Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past twenty years or so, there have been significant changes in the strategy and applications for homeland security. Recently there have been significant at deterring and interdicting terrorists and associated organizations. This is a shift in the normal paradigm of deterrence and surveillance of a nation and the `conventional' methods of warfare to the `unconventional' means that terrorist organizations resort to. With that shift comes the responsibility to monitor international borders for weapons of mass destruction, including radiological weapons. As a result, countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments at land, rail, air, and sea ports of entry in the US and in European and Asian countries. Radioactive signatures of concern include radiation dispersal devices (RDD), nuclear warheads, and special nuclear material (SNM). Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are used as the main screening tool for vehicles and cargo at borders, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. This talk will present an overview of radiation detection equipment with emphasis on radiation portal monitors. In the US, the deployment of radiation detection equipment is being coordinated by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office within the Department of Homeland Security, and a brief summary of the program will be covered. Challenges with current generation systems will be discussed as well as areas of investigation and opportunities for improvements. The next generation of radiation portal monitors is being produced under the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program and will be available for deployment in the near future. Additional technologies, from commercially available to experimental, that provide additional information for radiation screening, such as density imaging equipment, will be reviewed. Opportunities for further research and development to improve the current equipment and methodologies for radiation detection for the important task of homeland security will be the final topic to be discussed.

Ely, James

2008-05-01

110

76 FR 17158 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assumptions that underlie current security architectures. Challenging those assumptions both...Provide Security''. Distributed data architectures, such as cloud computing, offer very...much discussion about securing such architectures, and it is generally felt that...

2011-03-28

111

Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution.  

PubMed

Characterizing the physical channel and calibrating the cryptosystem hardware are prerequisites for establishing a quantum channel for quantum key distribution (QKD). Moreover, an inappropriately implemented calibration routine can open a fatal security loophole. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to induce a large temporal detector efficiency mismatch in a commercial QKD system by deceiving a channel length calibration routine. We then devise an optimal and realistic strategy using faked states to break the security of the cryptosystem. A fix for this loophole is also suggested. PMID:22026652

Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Makarov, Vadim; Leuchs, Gerd

2011-09-01

112

Security proof of quantum key distribution with detection efficiency mismatch  

E-print Network

In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) offers unconditional security based on the laws of physics. However, as demonstrated in recent quantum hacking theory and experimental papers, detection efficiency loophole can be fatal to the security of practical QKD systems. Here, we describe the physical origin of detection efficiency mismatch in various domains including spatial, spectral, and time domains and in various experimental set-ups. More importantly, we prove the unconditional security of QKD even with detection efficiency mismatch. We explicitly show how the key generation rate is characterized by the maximal detection efficiency ratio between the two detectors. Furthermore, we prove that by randomly switching the bit assignments of the detectors, the effect of detection efficiency mismatch can be completely eliminated.

Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Kiyoshi Tamaki; Bing Qi; Hoi-Kwong Lo; Xiongfeng Ma

2008-02-26

113

49 CFR 1572.9 - Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment. 1572.9 Section...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION...

2012-10-01

114

Assessing Night Vision Goggle Performance in Security Applications  

E-print Network

Assessing Night Vision Goggle Performance in Security Applications Robert S. Allisona , Pearl Police and border security operations are an important and growing application of night vision devices (NVDs). NVDs improve visibility at night but suffer from a variety of perceptual artifacts and human

Allison, Robert

115

Securing a Quantum Key Distribution Network Using Secret Sharing  

E-print Network

We present a simple new technique to secure quantum key distribution relay networks using secret sharing. Previous techniques have relied on creating distinct physical paths in order to create the shares. We show, however, how this can be achieved on a single physical path by creating distinct logical channels. The technique utilizes a random 'drop-out' scheme to ensure that an attacker must compromise all of the relays on the channel in order to access the key.

Barnett, Stephen M

2012-01-01

116

Cryptographic Security for a High-Performance Distributed File System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage systems are increasingly subject to attacks. Cryp- tographic file systems mitigate the danger of exposing data by using encryption and integrity protection methods and guarantee end-to-end security for their clients. This pa- per describes a generic design for cryptographic file sys- tems and its realization in a distributed storage-area net- work (SAN) file system. Key management is integrated with

Roman Pletka; Christian Cachin

2007-01-01

117

Cryptographic Security for a High-Performance Distributed File System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage systems are increasingly subject to attacks. Cryptographic file systems mitigate the danger of exposing data by using encryption and integrity protection methods and guarantee end-to-end security for their clients. This paper describes a generic design for cryptographic file systems and its realization in a distributed storage-area network (SAN) file system. Key management is integrated with the meta-data service of

Roman Pletka; Christian Cachin

2007-01-01

118

JigDFS: A secure distributed file system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous connectivity and availability of P2P resources creates opportunities for building new services. This paper describes Jigsaw Distributed File System (JigDFS) which can be used to securely store and retrieve files on a P2P network anonymously. JigDFS is designed to provide strong encryption and a certain level of plausible deniability. Files in JigDFS are sliced into small segments using an

Jiang Bian; Remzi Seker

2009-01-01

119

On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification  

SciTech Connect

In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-04-01

120

Security of quantum key distribution with state-dependent imperfections  

E-print Network

In practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, the state preparation and measurement are imperfect comparing with the ideal BB84 protocol, which are always state-dependent in practical realizations. If the state-dependent imperfections can not be regarded as an unitary transformation, it should not be considered as part of quantum channel noise introduced by the eavesdropper, the commonly used secret key rate formula GLLP can not be applied correspondingly. In this paper, the unconditional security of quantum key distribution with state-dependent imperfection has been analyzed by estimating the upper bound of the phase error rate about the quantum channel.

Hong-Wei Li; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Zheng-Fu Han; Wan-Su Bao; Guang-Can Guo

2010-09-06

121

Web Application Security Standards and Practices Page 1 of 13 Web Application Security Standard Operating Environment (SOE) V1 1 (2).  

E-print Network

Web Application Security Standards and Practices Page 1 of 13 Web Application Security Standard Operating Environment (SOE) V1 1 (2). Columbia University Web Application Security Standards and Practices Objective and Scope Effective Date: January 2011 This Web Application Security Standards and Practices

Grishok, Alla

122

Globally reasoning about localised security policies in distributed systems  

E-print Network

In this report, we aim at establishing proper ways for model checking the global security of distributed systems, which are designed consisting of set of localised security policies that enforce specific issues about the security expected. The systems are formally specified following a syntax, defined in detail in this report, and their behaviour is clearly established by the Semantics, also defined in detail in this report. The systems include the formal attachment of security policies into their locations, whose intended interactions are trapped by the policies, aiming at taking access control decisions of the system, and the Semantics also takes care of this. Using the Semantics, a Labelled Transition System (LTS) can be induced for every particular system, and over this LTS some model checking tasks could be done. We identify how this LTS is indeed obtained, and propose an alternative way of model checking the not-yet-induced LTS, by using the system design directly. This may lead to over-approximation th...

Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

2012-01-01

123

Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution  

SciTech Connect

Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an 'effective' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

Renes, Joseph M. [IAKS Prof. Beth, Arbeitsgruppe Quantum Computing, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten 5, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Quantum Information Theory Group, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, and Max-Planck-Forschungsgruppe, Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Grassl, Markus [IAKS Prof. Beth, Arbeitsgruppe Quantum Computing, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten 5, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2006-08-15

124

Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

Bisbee, T.L.

1997-06-01

125

Information flow for secure distributed applications  

E-print Network

Private and confidential information is increasingly stored online and increasingly being exposed due to human errors as well as malicious attacks. Information leaks threaten confidentiality, lead to lawsuits, damage ...

Cheng, Winnie Wing-Yee

2009-01-01

126

Information Flow for Secure Distributed Applications  

E-print Network

Private and confidential information is increasingly stored online and increasingly being exposed due to human errors as well as malicious attacks. Information leaks threaten confidentiality, lead to lawsuits, damage ...

Cheng, Winnie Wing-Yee

2009-08-27

127

20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section...I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule...application for title II Social Security benefits, which you may be...

2010-04-01

128

Specifying and Enforcing Application-Level Web Security Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-level Web security refers to vulnerabilities inherent in the code of a Web-application itself (irrespective of the technologies in which it is implemented or the security of the Web-server\\/back-end database on which it is built). In the last few months, application-level vulnerabilities have been exploited with serious consequences: Hackers have tricked e-commerce sites into shipping goods for no charge, usernames

David Scott; Richard Sharp

2003-01-01

129

Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)  

SciTech Connect

Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

2009-01-01

130

Simultaneous scalability and security for data-intensive web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Web applications in which the database component is the bottleneck, scalability can be provided by a third-party Database Scalability Service Provider (DSSP) that caches application data and supplies query answers on behalf of the application. Cost-effective DSSPs will need to cache data from many applications, inevitably raising concerns about security. However, if all data passing through a DSSP is

Amit Manjhi; Anastassia Ailamaki; Bruce M. Maggs; Todd C. Mowry; Christopher Olston; Anthony Tomasic

2006-01-01

131

Composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states  

E-print Network

We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the Postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption, will find applications elsewhere, for instance for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

Anthony Leverrier

2014-08-25

132

SOCLe: Integrated Design of Software Applications and Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) ? Valcartier, with the support of the CRAC Laboratory at ´ Ecole Polytechnique de Montr´ eal, carried out an ambitious R&D project aiming at developing a tool called SOCLe which integrates the design of software applications with their security. Integrating the design of software applica- tions and security into a unique tool is

Fr Ed Eric Painchaud; Damien Azambre; Val-b Elair; Raveca Maria Oarga

133

Secure quantum key distribution with an uncharacterized source  

E-print Network

We prove the security of the Bennett-Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol for an arbitrary source whose averaged states are basis-independent, a condition that is automatically satisfied if the source is suitably designed. The proof is based on the observation that, to an adversary, the key extraction process is equivalent to a measurement in the sigma_x-basis performed on a pure sigma_z-basis eigenstate. The dependence of the achievable key length on the bit error rate is the same as that established by Shor and Preskill for a perfect source, indicating that the defects in the source are efficiently detected by the protocol.

Masato Koashi; John Preskill

2002-08-26

134

Suggestions for Social Security Disability Applicants  

MedlinePLUS

... and specialty. How much will an attorney cost? Fee Agreement Before the attorney can charge you for ... and your attorney must sign and file a fee agreement with the Social Security Administration. Your attorney ...

135

Machine Intelligence Applications to Securities Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of security documents provides a cache of interesting problems ranging across a broad spectrum. Some of the problems do not have rigorous scientific solutions available at this time and provide opportunities for less structured approaches s...

C. K. Johnson

1987-01-01

136

Application of models in information security management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of information technology on business operations is widely recognized and its role in the emergence of new business models is well-known. In order to leverage the benefits of IT-supported business processes the security of the underlying information systems must be managed. Various so- called best-practice models and information security standards have positioned themselves as generic solutions for a

Danijel Milicevic; Matthias Goeken

2011-01-01

137

Neutron Detection Alternatives to 3He for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Large radiation detection systems deployed for homeland security and proliferation detection applications use such systems. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security and basic research, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This has led to the search for an alternative technology to replace the use of 3He-based neutron detectors. In this paper, we review the testing of currently commercially available alternative technologies for neutron detection in large systems used in various national security applications.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Stromswold, David C.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-11-21

138

A cooperative model for IS security risk management in distributed environment.  

PubMed

Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively. PMID:24563626

Feng, Nan; Zheng, Chundong

2014-01-01

139

A Cooperative Model for IS Security Risk Management in Distributed Environment  

PubMed Central

Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively. PMID:24563626

Zheng, Chundong

2014-01-01

140

20 CFR 703.203 - Application for security deposit determination; information to be submitted; other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...703.203 Application for security deposit determination; information...unsecured obligations and the security deposit required. The application...seeking an exemption from the security deposit requirements based...the Branch and posted on the Internet at...

2012-04-01

141

Consistency and Security in Mobile Real Time Distributed Database (MRTDDB): A Combinational Giant Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many type of Information System are widely used in various fields. With the hasty development of computer network, Information System users care more about data sharing in networks. In traditional relational database, data consistency was controlled by consistency control mechanism when a data object is locked in a sharing mode, other transactions can only read it, but can not update it. If the traditional consistency control method has been used yet, the system's concurrency will be inadequately influenced. So there are many new necessities for the consistency control and security in MRTDDB. The problem not limited only to type of data (e.g. mobile or real-time databases). There are many aspects of data consistency problems in MRTDDB, such as inconsistency between attribute and type of data; the inconsistency of topological relations after objects has been modified. In this paper, many cases of consistency are discussed. As the mobile computing becomes well liked and the database grows with information sharing security is a big issue for researchers. Consistency and Security of data is a big challenge for researchers because when ever the data is not consistent and secure no maneuver on the data (e.g. transaction) is productive. It becomes more and more crucial when the transactions are used in non-traditional environment like Mobile, Distributed, Real Time and Multimedia databases. In this paper we raise the different aspects and analyze the available solution for consistency and security of databases. Traditional Database Security has focused primarily on creating user accounts and managing user privileges to database objects. But in the mobility and nomadic computing uses these database creating a new opportunities for research. The wide spread use of databases over the web, heterogeneous client-server architectures, application servers, and networks creates a critical need to amplify this focus. In this paper we also discuss an overview of the new and old database security challenges.

Gupta, Gyanendra Kr.; Sharma, A. K.; Swaroop, Vishnu

2010-11-01

142

Randomness Quality of CI Chaotic Generators: Applications to Internet Security  

E-print Network

Due to the rapid development of the Internet in recent years, the need to find new tools to reinforce trust and security through the Internet has became a major concern. The discovery of new pseudo-random number generators with a strong level of security is thus becoming a hot topic, because numerous cryptosystems and data hiding schemes are directly dependent on the quality of these generators. At the conference Internet`09, we have described a generator based on chaotic iterations, which behaves chaotically as defined by Devaney. In this paper, the proposal is to improve the speed and the security of this generator, to make its use more relevant in the Internet security context. To do so, a comparative study between various generators is carried out and statistical results are given. Finally, an application in the information hiding framework is presented, to give an illustrative example of the use of such a generator in the Internet security field.

Bahi, Jacques M; Guyeux, Christophe; Wang, Qianxue

2011-01-01

143

Security Certificate Revocation List Distribution for VANET Kenneth P. Laberteaux  

E-print Network

safety hazards. For car-to-car (C2C) safety applications to succeed, received information must Center Ann Arbor, MI, U.S.A. klaberte@acm.org Jason J. Haas and Yih-Chun Hu Dept. of Electrical a method for car-to-car epidemic distribution of certifi- cate revocation lists which is quick

Hu, Yih-Chun

144

Optimal Service Distribution in WSN Service System Subject to Data Security Constraints  

PubMed Central

Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. PMID:25093346

Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

2014-01-01

145

Integrated Network Security Protocol Layer for Open-Access Power Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power distribution system cyber-security concerns are increasing rapidly with growing demands for open accesses to the distribution systems for electricity generation and trading imposed by new government deregulations. This paper proposes a new integrated network security protocol layer, located below the data-link layer of DNP3 - a popular utility protocol, to enhance the data transmission cyber-security for power distribution systems.

Todd Mander; Farhad Nabhani; Lin Wang; Richard Cheung

2007-01-01

146

A SECURE JAILING SYSTEM FOR CONFINING UNTRUSTED APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

A SECURE JAILING SYSTEM FOR CONFINING UNTRUSTED APPLICATIONS Guido van 't Noordende, ´Ad´am Balogh, Application Confinement, Jailing. Abstract: System call interception based jailing is a well-known method an overview of the most important threats to jailing systems, and presents novel mechanisms for implementing

Tanenbaum, Andrew S.

147

Securing web application code by static analysis and runtime protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security remains a major roadblock to universal acceptance of the Web for many kinds of transactions, especially since the recent sharp increase in remotely exploitable vulnerabilities have been attributed to Web application bugs. Many verification tools are discovering previously unknown vulnerabilities in legacy C programs, raising hopes that the same success can be achieved with Web applications. In this paper,

Yao-Wen Huang; Fang Yu; Christian Hang; Chung-Hung Tsai; Der-Tsai Lee; Sy-Yen Kuo

2004-01-01

148

Privacy, Security and Interoperability of Mobile Health Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper will discuss the security, privacy and interoperability of mobile health applications (MHAs) and how these issues\\u000a must be reconciled in order for MHA devices to be implemented in the most robust fashion. Balance is needed between privacy\\u000a and accessibility, between security and interoperability and between flexibility and standardization. The interoperability\\u000a of diverse MHA devices must be a goal

Josette F. Jones; Sara A. Hook; Seong C. Park; LaSha M. Scott

149

Cyber-Physical Security via Geometric Control: Distributed Monitoring and Malicious Attacks  

E-print Network

Cyber-Physical Security via Geometric Control: Distributed Monitoring and Malicious Attacks Fabio and extends our results on the security of cyber-physical systems based on geometric control theory: (i) we, and by various industrial security incidents [6], cyber-physical systems are prone to failures and attacks

Bullo, Francesco

150

Design of a Policy-Driven Middleware for Secure Distributed Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the execution model of a policy-driven mid- dleware for building secure distributed collaboration systems from their high level specifications. Our specification model supports nested collaboration activities and uses role based security policies and event count based coordination spec- ification. From the specifications of a collaboration envi- ronment, appropriate policy modules are derived for enforc- ing security and

Anand R. Tripathi; Tanvir Ahmed; Richa Kumar; Shremattie Jaman

2002-01-01

151

Security in Distributed, Grid, and Pervasive Computing Yang Xiao,(Eds.) pp. -  

E-print Network

and energy reserves of wireless sensor nodes while also securing them against attackers. All aspectsSecurity in Distributed, Grid, and Pervasive Computing Yang Xiao,(Eds.) pp. ­ - ­ c 2006 Auerbach Publications, CRC Press Chapter 17 Wireless Sensor Network Security: A Survey John Paul Walters, Zhengqiang

Shi, Weisong

152

Unconditionally secure quantum key distribution over 50km of standard telecom fibre  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a weak pulse quantum key distribution system using the BB84 protocol which is secure against all individual attacks, including photon number splitting. By carefully controlling the weak pulse intensity we demonstrate the maximum secure bit rate as a function of the fibre length. Unconditionally secure keys can be formed for standard telecom fibres exceeding 50 km in length.

C. Gobby; Z. L. Yuan; A. J. Shields

2004-12-22

153

Proof of Security of a High-Capacity Quantum Key Distribution Protocol  

E-print Network

We prove the security of a high-capacity quantum key distribution protocol over noisy channels. By using entanglement purification protocol, we construct a modified version of the protocol in which we separate it into two consecutive stages. We prove their securities respectively and hence the security of the whole protocol.

Xiao-Wei Zhang; Kai Wen; Gui Lu Long

2005-12-25

154

Energy-efficiency and Security Issues in the Cisco Nexus Virtual Distributed Benjamin Peterson  

E-print Network

Energy-efficiency and Security Issues in the Cisco Nexus Virtual Distributed Switching Benjamin--Virtualization technologies have brought with them the promise of increased security and energy saving. Such was the case with the Cisco Nexus virtual switching environment. However, possible security issues of this environment have

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

155

A secure distributed logistic regression protocol for the detection of rare adverse drug events  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited capacity to assess the comparative risks of medications after they enter the market. For rare adverse events, the pooling of data from multiple sources is necessary to have the power and sufficient population heterogeneity to detect differences in safety and effectiveness in genetic, ethnic and clinically defined subpopulations. However, combining datasets from different data custodians or jurisdictions to perform an analysis on the pooled data creates significant privacy concerns that would need to be addressed. Existing protocols for addressing these concerns can result in reduced analysis accuracy and can allow sensitive information to leak. Objective To develop a secure distributed multi-party computation protocol for logistic regression that provides strong privacy guarantees. Methods We developed a secure distributed logistic regression protocol using a single analysis center with multiple sites providing data. A theoretical security analysis demonstrates that the protocol is robust to plausible collusion attacks and does not allow the parties to gain new information from the data that are exchanged among them. The computational performance and accuracy of the protocol were evaluated on simulated datasets. Results The computational performance scales linearly as the dataset sizes increase. The addition of sites results in an exponential growth in computation time. However, for up to five sites, the time is still short and would not affect practical applications. The model parameters are the same as the results on pooled raw data analyzed in SAS, demonstrating high model accuracy. Conclusion The proposed protocol and prototype system would allow the development of logistic regression models in a secure manner without requiring the sharing of personal health information. This can alleviate one of the key barriers to the establishment of large-scale post-marketing surveillance programs. We extended the secure protocol to account for correlations among patients within sites through generalized estimating equations, and to accommodate other link functions by extending it to generalized linear models. PMID:22871397

El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Arbuckle, Luk; Tamblyn, Robyn; Earle, Craig; Kantarcioglu, Murat

2013-01-01

156

System for efficient and secure distribution of medical images on the Internet.  

PubMed Central

Because of the high compressibility of the medical images, data compression is desirable for digital storage despite the availability of inexpensive hardware for mass storage. A progressive transmission algorithm with automatic security filtering features for on-line medical image distribution using Daubechies' wavelets has been developed and is discussed in this paper. The system is practical for real-world applications, processing and coding each 12-bit image of size 512 x 512 within 2 seconds on a Pentium Pro. Besides its exceptional speed, the security filter has demonstrated a remarkable accuracy in detecting sensitive textual information within current or digitized previous medical images. The algorithm is of linear run time. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9929350

Wang, J. Z.; Wiederhold, G.

1998-01-01

157

Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System  

SciTech Connect

AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

2005-06-29

158

Provably Secure and Practical Quantum Key Distribution over 307 km of Optical Fibre  

E-print Network

Proposed in 1984, quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two users to exchange provably secure keys via a potentially insecure quantum channel. Since then, QKD has attracted much attention and significant progress has been made in both theory and practice. On the application front, however, the operating distance of practical fibre-based QKD systems is limited to about 150 km, which is mainly due to the high background noise produced by commonly used semiconductor single-photon detectors (SPDs) and the stringent demand on the minimum classical- post-processing (CPP) block size. Here, we present a compact and autonomous QKD system that is capable of distributing provably-secure cryptographic key over 307 km of ultra-low-loss optical fibre (51.9 dB loss). The system is based on a recently developed standard semiconductor (inGaAs) SPDs with record low background noise and a novel efficient finite-key security analysis for QKD. This demonstrates the feasibility of practical long-distance QKD based on standard fibre optic telecom components.

Boris Korzh; Charles Ci Wen Lim; Raphael Houlmann; Nicolas Gisin; Ming Jun Li; Daniel Nolan; Bruno Sanguinetti; Rob Thew; Hugo Zbinden

2014-07-28

159

Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.  

PubMed

This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the proceeds to buy either of two annuities that provide level payments from age 62 until death: a unisex annuity that is based on the average life expectancy of the birth cohort or an age-adjusted annuity that is based on the worker's own life expectancy. On the permanent income measure, OASI is generally more favorable to people in higher income quintiles. Moreover, it is particularly unfavorable to those in the lowest quintile. Because people in the lowest quintile have a shorter life expectancy, they receive OASI benefits for a shorter period. This group would receive greater benefits in retirement if they invested their payroll taxes in the age-adjusted annuity. OASI is more favorable to them than the unisex annuity, however, OASI is becoming more progressive in that the net benefits it provides drop more rapidly among higher income quintiles than lower ones. This article also examines how OASI affects individuals by educational attainment, race, and sex. On both the lifetime covered earnings and the permanent income measures, OASI is more favorable to workers with less education and more favorable to women. The results by race and ethnicity are mixed. When people are ranked by the present value of their shared lifetime covered earnings, OASI appears more favorable to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics than to non-Hispanic whites. When people are ranked by shared permanent income in retirement, however, OASI produces negative returns for both non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites in the most recent birth cohorts, with non-Hispanic blacks faring relatively worse. The changes across cohorts occur partly because of changes in tax rates and benefits, but more importantly because of changing demographics and earnings patterns of the workforce. Of particular importance is the increasing share of beneficiaries who receive worker benefits instead of auxiliary benefits as wives or widows. OASI benefits are based on the lifetime covered earnings of current or former married couples, as well as on earned retirement benefits of individuals. The reduced importance of auxil

Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

160

Secure Online Examination Architecture Based on Distributed Firewall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online (Web-based) examination is an effective solution for mass education evaluation. However, due to the incomplete of network security, students can communicate with each other, and we can't prevent the cheating. Therefore, keeping the security of a online examination has become an important issue. This paper focuses on how to implement a secure environment for online-examination in the general academic

Chi-chien Pan; Kai-hsiang Yang; Tzao-lin Lee

2004-01-01

161

Wireless structural monitoring for homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the development of a robust, low-cost, low power, and high performance autonomous wireless monitoring system for civil assets such as large facilities, new construction, bridges, dams, commercial buildings, etc. The role of the system is to identify the onset, development, location and severity of structural vulnerability and damage. The proposed system represents an enabling infrastructure for addressing structural vulnerabilities specifically associated with homeland security. The system concept is based on dense networks of "intelligent" wireless sensing units. The fundamental properties of a wireless sensing unit include: (a) interfaces to multiple sensors for measuring structural and environmental data (such as acceleration, displacements, pressure, strain, material degradation, temperature, gas agents, biological agents, humidity, corrosion, etc.); (b) processing of sensor data with embedded algorithms for assessing damage and environmental conditions; (c) peer-to-peer wireless communications for information exchange among units(thus enabling joint "intelligent" processing coordination) and storage of data and processed information in servers for information fusion; (d) ultra low power operation; (e) cost-effectiveness and compact size through the use of low-cost small-size off-the-shelf components. An integral component of the overall system concept is a decision support environment for interpretation and dissemination of information to various decision makers.

Kiremidjian, Garo K.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Lynch, Jerome P.

2004-07-01

162

Data Mining Applications for Fraud Detection in Securities Market  

E-print Network

Data Mining Applications for Fraud Detection in Securities Market Koosha Golmohammadi, Osmar R. Zaiane Department of Computing Science University of Alberta, Canada Edmonton, Canada {golmoham, zaiane review of data mining methods that are used to address the issue. We identify the best practices

Zaiane, Osmar R.

163

Privacy and security in biomedical applications of wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor network applications in healthcare and biomedical technology have received increasing attention, while associated security and privacy issues remain open areas of consideration. The relevance of this technology to our growing elderly population, as well as our increasingly over-crowded and attention-drained healthcare systems, is promising. However, prior to the emergence of these systems as a ubiquitous technology, healthcare providers

Ellen Stuart; Melody Moh; Teng-Sheng Moh

2008-01-01

164

Innovative methods to enhance transaction security of banking applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of identity theft incidents such as credit card fraud, card duplication and internet attacks threaten the banking business that is mainly based on customer trust. Information and communication technologies create new business opportunities and innovative applications but do also enable new attack scenarios. Therefore, maintaining security and integrity is essential for the future economic success of banking.Biometric

Gregor Költzsch

2006-01-01

165

Solving Some Modeling Challenges when Testing Rich Internet Applications for Security  

E-print Network

Solving Some Modeling Challenges when Testing Rich Internet Applications for Security Suryakant applications, so-called Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). RIAs present new security and crawling challenges, Rich Internet Applications, State Equivalence I. INTRODUCTION The concerns on the security of the web

Jourdan, Guy-Vincent

166

Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Imaging in Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively short wavelength of mm-wave and THz radiation coupled with good transmission through many dielectric materials allows images to be formed of concealed objects. This chapter gives an overview of the detectors, their associated circuitry, and system developments over the past 10 years, focussing on personnel security screening. We will discuss the phenomenology of imaging at these wavelengths, introduce the reader to the basic architectures being used and developed for image forming instruments, show examples of systems, and also discuss the feasibility of spectroscopic THz imaging for security screening applications.

Luukanen, Arttu; Appleby, Roger; Kemp, Mike; Salmon, Neil

167

(Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications)  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices.

Not Available

1987-01-01

168

17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...  

...securities trading on a designated offshore securities market as defined...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...Be inconsistent with the offshore transaction requirement...

2014-04-01

169

17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...securities trading on a designated offshore securities market as defined...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...Be inconsistent with the offshore transaction requirement...

2012-04-01

170

17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...securities trading on a designated offshore securities market as defined...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...Be inconsistent with the offshore transaction requirement...

2013-04-01

171

78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...an Application for Registration as a National Securities Exchange (``Form 1...Application.\\6\\ Topaz Exchange submitted a detailed response to comments on July...

2013-08-01

172

A distributed security policy for neuroradiology data sharing  

E-print Network

, aimed at improving research and clinical care of cerebral aneurisms [9]. Grid technologies have for long set the security infrastructure at the heart of mid- dleware design and grid services interoperability

Boyer, Edmond

173

Neutron resonance radiography for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method, with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In the NRR method, a 2-D elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images taken at different neutron energies chosen to cover the resonance cross section features of one or more elements. Images are formed using a lens-coupled plastic scintillator-CCD combination. In preliminary experiments, we have produced NRR images of various simulants using a variable energy neutron beam based on the Li(p,n)Be reaction and a variable energy proton beam. In order to overcome practical limitations to this method, we have studied NRR imaging using the D-D reaction at a fixed incident D energy and scanning through various neutron energies by using the angular variation in neutron energy. The object-detector assembly rotates around the neutron source and different energy (2-6 MeV) neutrons can be obtained at different angles from a D-D neutron source. The radiographic image provides a 2-D mapping of the sum of elemental contents (weighted by the attenuation coefficients). Transmission measurements taken at different neutron energies (angles) form a set of linear equations, which can then be solved to map individual elemental contents.

Lanza, Richard C.

2002-11-01

174

Security of differential phase shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks  

E-print Network

We derive a proof of security for the Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution (DPSQKD) protocol under the assumption that Eve is restricted to individual attacks. The security proof is derived by bounding the average collision probability, which leads directly to a bound on Eve's mutual information on the final key. The security proof applies to realistic sources based on pulsed coherent light. We then compare individual attacks to sequential attacks and show that individual attacks are more powerful.

Edo Waks; Hiroki Takesue; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2005-08-15

175

Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel  

E-print Network

Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analyzed. Assuming the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare and measurement scheme and entanglement-based scheme are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

Yong Shen; Jian Yang; Hong Guo

2009-04-08

176

Semantic information assurance for secure distributed knowledge management: a business process perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure knowledge management for eBusiness processes that span multiple organizations requires intraorganizational and interorganizational perspectives on security and access control issues. There is paucity in research on information assurance of distributed interorganizational eBusiness processes from a business process perspective. This paper presents a framework for secure semantic eBusiness processes integrating three streams of research, namely: 1) eBusiness processes; 2) information

Rahul Singh; Al Farooq Salam

2006-01-01

177

Business Models and Business Model Innovation in a “Secure and Distributed Cloud Clustering (DISC) Society”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and innovation of business models to a secure distributed cloud clustering society (DISC)—is indeed still\\u000a a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. Numerous types of security technologies are in these years proposed\\u000a and in the “slip stream” of these the study of secure business models and how business models can be operated and innovated\\u000a in

Peter Lindgren; Yariv Taran

2011-01-01

178

Reflection support for adaptive distributed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DART (Distributed Adaptive Run-Time) project is developing an adaptive software environment for general-purpose distributed applications. The goal of the project is to provide a software run-time system that allows application authors to quickly develop distributed software, such as network or World Wide Web software, without having to deal with the details of the distribution technology. DART compile-time and run-time

Pierre-Guillaume Raverdy; Rodger Lea

1999-01-01

179

Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

2009-06-09

180

A dynamic technique for enhancing the security and privacy of web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web application security and privacy became a central concern among the security community. The problems that are faced once an application is compromised necessarily demands special attention. The emerging programming languages, which allow unexperienced users to quickly develop applications, still fail to introduce mechanisms for pre- venting the aforementioned attacks. We introduce a technique for en- hancing the security and

Ariel Futoransky; Ezequiel Gutesman; Ariel Waissbein

181

Security evaluation of the quantum key distribution system with two-mode squeezed states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum key distribution (QKD) system with two-mode squeezed states has been demonstrated by Pereira et al. [Phys. Rev. A 62, 042311 (2000)]. They evaluate the security of the system based on the signal to noise ratio attained by a homodyne detector. In this paper, we discuss its security based on the error probability individually attacked by eavesdropper with the

M. Osaki; M. Ban

2003-01-01

182

Security and implementation of differential phase shift quantum key distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum information processing has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of the promise it holds for faster, better, and more secure future communications. The most advanced field in quantum information processing is quantum cryptography, also referred to as quantum key distribution (QKD), which uses the quantum properties of light to ensure the unconditionally secure transmission of a

Eleni Diamanti

2006-01-01

183

Topic 7 : Smart Grid Privacy and Security 1Networking and Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

Topic 7 : Smart Grid Privacy and Security 1Networking and Distributed Systems Department Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid 2 · Smart Meter Privacy · Concerns · Possible Solutions · Smart Grid Security · Load Altering Attacks · False Data Injection Attacks · Impact

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

184

NEUTRON AND GAMMA RAY DETECTION FOR BORDER SECURITY APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments in the U.S. and in a number of other countries by governments and international organizations. Most deployed radiation portal monitor systems are based on plastic scintillator for gamma-ray detection and 3He tubes for neutron detection. The approach to this homeland security application, and lessons learned, are discussed.

Kouzes, Richard T.

2010-05-21

185

Transmission pricing of distributed multilateral energy transactions to ensure system security and guide economic dispatch  

E-print Network

In this paper we provide a simulations-based demonstration of a hybrid electricity market that combines the distributed competitive advantages of decentralized markets with the system security guarantees of centralized ...

Ilic, Marija D.

2002-01-01

186

Unconditional Security of Time-Energy Entanglement Quantum Key Distribution Using Dual-Basis Interferometry  

E-print Network

High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous ...

Zhang, Zheshen

187

Some Physics And System Issues In The Security Analysis Of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols  

E-print Network

In this paper we review a number of issues on the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that bear directly on the relevant physics or mathematical representation of the QKD cryptosystem. It is shown that the cryptosystem representation itself may miss out many possible attacks which are not accounted for in the security analysis and proofs. Hence the final security claims drawn from such analysis are not reliable, apart from foundational issues about the security criteria that are discussed elsewhere. The cases of continuous-variable QKD and multi-photon sources are elaborated upon.

Horace P. Yuen

2014-05-07

188

Some physics and system issues in the security analysis of quantum key distribution protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we review a number of issues on the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that bear directly on the relevant physics or mathematical representation of the QKD cryptosystem. It is shown that the cryptosystem representation itself may miss out many possible attacks, which are not accounted for in the security analysis and proofs. Hence, the final security claims drawn from such analysis are not reliable, apart from foundational issues about the security criteria that are discussed elsewhere. The cases of continuous-variable QKD and multi-photon sources are elaborated upon.

Yuen, Horace P.

2014-10-01

189

An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications  

SciTech Connect

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IP networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)

Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Virginia, Box 400743, 351 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904-4743 (United States)

2006-07-01

190

Secure Middleware for Situation-Aware Naval C2 and Combat Systems In Proc. 9th International Workshop on Future Trends of Distributed Computing Systems FTDCS 2003  

E-print Network

Secure Middleware for Situation-Aware Naval C2 and Combat Systems In Proc. 9th International and Marine Corps for building distributed situation-aware applications that are rapidly recon gurable and sur for constructing situation-aware Command and Con- trol C2 and combat applications. We pay particu- lar attention

191

Enhancing ip security by integrating quantum key distribution into communication processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications of quantum cryptography are linked to telecommunication services that require very high level of security. Quantum cryptography could be integrated in various existing concepts and protocols to secure communications. One of the possible use of quantum cryptography is within IPSEC or IPv6. The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of quantum cryptography within IPSEC to

M. A. Sfaxi; S. Ghernaouti-Helie; G. Ribordy; O. Gay

2005-01-01

192

Lightweight Task Graph Inference for Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent paradigm shifts in distributed computing such as the advent of cloud computing pose new challenges to the analysis of distributed executions. One important new characteristic is that the management staff of computing platforms and the developers of applications are separated by corporate boundaries. The net result is that once applications go wrong, the most readily available debugging aids for

Bin Xin; Patrick Th. Eugster; Xiangyu Zhang; Jinlin Yang

2010-01-01

193

Secure wireless collection and distribution of commercial airplane health data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of wireless communication capabilities supporting transfer of sensor data and information on board commercial airplanes as well as between airplanes and supporting ground systems has the potential to significantly improve the safely and efficiency of air travel. The benefits, however, come at the cost of information security vulnerabilities introduced by data networks. Regulatory institutions, including the FAA, are

Krishna Sampigethaya; Mingyan Li; Radha Poovendran; Richard Robinson; Linda Bushnell; Scott Lintelman

2007-01-01

194

Secure wireless collection and distribution of commercial airplane health data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of wireless communication capabilities supporting transfer of sensor data and information on-board commercial airplanes as well as between airplanes and supporting ground systems has the potential to significantly improve the safety and efficiency of air travel. The benefits, however, come at the cost of information security vulnerabilities introduced by data networks. Regulatory institutions, including the FAA, are aware

Krishna Sampigethaya; Radha Poovendran; Linda Bushnell; Mingyan Li; Richard Robinson; Scott Lintelman

2009-01-01

195

Efficient Security Mechanisms for the Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a secure data communication environment for the three-tiered wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that continues to operate correctly in a hostile medium is proposed. Considering the energy and hardware constraints of the sensor nodes, the low complex data confidential and authentication algorithms are proposed. Performance analysis of our protocol shows that it satisfies the energy and hardware limitations

Prasan Kumar Sahoo; Jonathan Jen-rong Chen; Ping-tai Sun

2005-01-01

196

A knowledgeable security model for distributed health information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realising the vision of pervasive healthcare will generate new challenges to system security. Such challenges are fundamentally different from issues and problems that we face in centralised approaches as well as non- clinical scenarios. In this paper, we reflect upon our experiences in the HealthAgents project wherein a prototype system was developed and a novel approach employed that supports data

Liang Xiao; Bo Hu; Madalina Croitoru; Paul H. Lewis; Srinandan Dasmahapatra

2010-01-01

197

A Distributed Trust Model for Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mobile ad hoc networks, the security enforcement and its implementation becoming increasingly difficult due to quasi-static nature of the mobile nodes (wireless communication devices), no fixed network topology and more importantly absence of centralized authority. In such networks, communication links between nodes may be bandwidth constrained, messages typically roamed in multi-hoped fashion, nodes may be powered by limited energy

Pushpita Chatterjee; Indranil Sengupta; Santosh Ghosh

2010-01-01

198

The Role of Trust Management in Distributed Systems Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Existing authorization mechanisms fail to provide powerfuland robust tools for handling security at the scale necessary for today'sInternet. These mechanisms are coming under increasing strain from thedevelopment and deployment of systems that increase the programmabilityof the Internet. Moreover, this "increased flexibility through programmability" trend seems to be accelerating with the advent of proposalssuch as Active Networking and Mobile Agents.The

Matt Blaze; Joan Feigenbaum; Angelos D. Keromytis

1999-01-01

199

The Role of Trust Management in Distributed Systems Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing authorization mechanisms fail to provide powerful and robust tools for handling security at the scale necessary for today's Internet. These mechanisms are coming under increasing strain from the development and deployment of systems that increase the programma- bility of the Internet. Moreover, this \\

Matt Blaze; Joan Feigenbaum; John Ioannidis; Angelos D. Keromytis

1998-01-01

200

Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

201

Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report.

Murray, D.W.

1987-07-01

202

TR-IIS-05-012 An Application-layer Security  

E-print Network

TR-IIS-05-012 An Application-layer Security Control for Real-time Video Streaming Chia-Hui Wang of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan in 2004. #12;An Application-layer Security Control for Real preserve privacy and commercial values. Thus, it's very important to secure real-time video streaming

Chen, Sheng-Wei

203

Intelligent Facial Recognition Systems: Technology advancements for security applications  

SciTech Connect

Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just credentials or badges) in a given sensitive area and provide full time personnel accountability. One approach desirable at Department of Energy facilities for access control and/or personnel identification is an Intelligent Facial Recognition System (IFRS) that is non-invasive to personnel. Automatic facial recognition does not require the active participation of the enrolled subjects, unlike most other biological measurement (biometric) systems (e.g., fingerprint, hand geometry, or eye retinal scan systems). It is this feature that makes an IFRS attractive for applications other than access control such as emergency evacuation verification, screening, and personnel tracking. This paper discusses current technology that shows promising results for DOE and other security applications. A survey of research and development in facial recognition identified several companies and universities that were interested and/or involved in the area. A few advanced prototype systems were also identified. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating facial recognition systems that are in the advanced prototype stage. The initial application for the evaluation is access control in a controlled environment with a constant background and with cooperative subjects. Further evaluations will be conducted in a less controlled environment, which may include a cluttered background and subjects that are not looking towards the camera. The outcome of the evaluations will help identify areas of facial recognition systems that need further development and will help to determine the effectiveness of the current systems for security applications.

Beer, C.L.

1993-07-01

204

Intelligent Assessment of Distributed Security in TCP\\/IP Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the increase of the dynamics of networks interconnection, security issues became a critical point that needs to be considered.\\u000a The widely adopted solution considers a mix of routers, switches, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs) together with\\u000a the deployment of intrusion detection systems (IDSs) and vulnerability assessment tools. In a proactive approach for intrusions,\\u000a vulnerability assessment tools allow the

Rui Costa Cardoso; Mário Marques Freire

2004-01-01

205

Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.  

PubMed

Many e-Health strategies rely on the secure integration of datasets that have previously resided in isolated locations, but can now in principle be accessed over the Internet. Of paramount importance in the health domain is the need for the security and privacy of data that is transmitted across these networks. One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors. The rarity of the tumors under study means the value of accessing, aggregating and comparing data from many centres is great indeed. However this is especially challenging given that ENSAT require clinical and genomic data to be seamlessly linked, but in such a way that the information governance, ethics and privacy concerns of the patients and associated stakeholders involved are visibly satisfied. Key to this is the clear separation of clinical and genomic data sets and support for rigorous patient-identity protecting access control. This is especially challenging when such data sets exist across different organisational boundaries. In this paper we describe a prototype solution offering a security-oriented tailored portal supported by a layered encryption-driven linkage technology (VANGUARD) that offers precisely such patient-privacy protecting capabilities. We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network. PMID:20543447

Stell, Anthony; Sinnott, Richard; Jiang, Jipu

2010-01-01

206

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National's climate change scenarios. Major results showed that the climate in the future decades in the twenty Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Presentation Title: Projected Drought Severity and Food Security

Miami, University of

207

18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.  

...Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES...

2014-04-01

208

18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES...

2011-04-01

209

18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES...

2013-04-01

210

18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES...

2012-04-01

211

18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES...

2010-04-01

212

Passive millimeter-wave imaging for airborne and security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of its relatively short wavelength coupled with relatively high penetration of such things as fog, bad weather and clothing, millimeter-wave imaging provides a powerful tool for both airborne and security type applications. By using a passive approach such as that implemented here, it is possible to image through bad weather or detect concealed weapons and articles all without generating any form of radiation that might either help an enemey or raise health concerns. In this paper we will show imagery from our second generation state-of-the-art unit and discuss the technology involved.

Clark, Stuart E.; Lovberg, John A.; Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

2003-08-01

213

Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters  

PubMed Central

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

2013-01-01

214

Toward Secure Key Distribution in Truly AdHoc Networks Aram Khalili  

E-print Network

Toward Secure Key Distribution in Truly Ad­Hoc Networks Aram Khalili Jonathan Katz William A) Abstract Ad­hoc networks --- and in particular wireless mobile ad­hoc networks --- have unique or the presence of a common PKI. Thus, the issue of key distribution in ad­hoc networks repre­ sents an important

Katz, Jonathan

215

A Formal Approach to Unconditional Security Proofs for Quantum Key Distribution  

E-print Network

A Formal Approach to Unconditional Security Proofs for Quantum Key Distribution Takahiro Kubota1 verifi- cation, formal methods 1 Introduction A quantum key distribution protocol (QKD) allows two, which is a system for formal verification of quantum pro- grams. We show also that this method can

Banbara, Mutsunori

216

Security and Privacy Behavior-Based Access Control for Distributed Healthcare Systems  

E-print Network

information technology with traditional healthcare workflows for sharing patient profiles has made the wholeSecurity and Privacy Behavior-Based Access Control for Distributed Healthcare Systems M. Yarmand, K requirements for using patient profiles in distributed healthcare environments. The amalgamation of new

Sartipi, Kamran

217

Secure resilient high performance file system for distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While client server distributed file systems, such as NFS (Network File System) or Sprite, do not scale with respect to the number of clients and exhibit a single point of failure, our work in this paper has the potential to cope with an increasing number of participants. Although most of the current distributed file systems ensure authentication and file access

Sunil Chakravarthy; Chittaranjan Hota

2010-01-01

218

New network cyber-security architecture for smart distribution system operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new network cyber-security architecture for smart (energy-efficient, environmental-friendly, cost-effective, etc.) power distribution system operations. The focus is on providing cyber-security for smart (time-of-use scheduling, smart metering, dispersed generation tracking, etc.) load-management devices that are networked for collaborative operations and accessible by utility staff and consumers. The proposed architecture utilizes DNP3 to produce protocols disjoint between DNP3

Todd Mander; Helen Cheung; Alexander Hamlyn; Lin Wang; Cungang Yang; Richard Cheung

2008-01-01

219

Unconditional security of time-energy entanglement quantum key distribution using dual-basis interferometry.  

PubMed

High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and show that it is secure against collective attacks. Its security rests upon visibility data-obtained from Franson and conjugate-Franson interferometers-that probe photon-pair frequency correlations and arrival-time correlations. From these measurements, an upper bound can be established on the eavesdropper's Holevo information by translating the Gaussian-state security analysis for continuous-variable quantum key distribution so that it applies to our protocol. We show that visibility data from just the Franson interferometer provides a weaker, but nonetheless useful, secure-key rate lower bound. To handle multiple-pair emissions, we incorporate the decoy-state approach into our protocol. Our results show that over a 200-km transmission distance in optical fiber, time-energy entanglement HDQKD could permit a 700-bit/sec secure-key rate and a photon information efficiency of 2 secure-key bits per photon coincidence in the key-generation phase using receivers with a 15% system efficiency. PMID:24724641

Zhang, Zheshen; Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk; Wong, Franco N C; Shapiro, Jeffrey H

2014-03-28

220

Unconditional Security of Time-Energy Entanglement Quantum Key Distribution Using Dual-Basis Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and show that it is secure against collective attacks. Its security rests upon visibility data—obtained from Franson and conjugate-Franson interferometers—that probe photon-pair frequency correlations and arrival-time correlations. From these measurements, an upper bound can be established on the eavesdropper's Holevo information by translating the Gaussian-state security analysis for continuous-variable quantum key distribution so that it applies to our protocol. We show that visibility data from just the Franson interferometer provides a weaker, but nonetheless useful, secure-key rate lower bound. To handle multiple-pair emissions, we incorporate the decoy-state approach into our protocol. Our results show that over a 200-km transmission distance in optical fiber, time-energy entanglement HDQKD could permit a 700-bit/sec secure-key rate and a photon information efficiency of 2 secure-key bits per photon coincidence in the key-generation phase using receivers with a 15% system efficiency.

Zhang, Zheshen; Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

2014-03-01

221

Unconditional Security of Time-energy Entanglement Quantum Key Distribution using Dual-basis Interferometry  

E-print Network

High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion, and show that it is secure against collective attacks. Its security rests upon visibility data -- obtained from Franson and conjugate-Franson interferometers -- that probe photon-pair frequency correlations and arrival-time correlations. From these measurements an upper bound can be established on the eavesdropper's Holevo information by translating the Gaussian-state security analysis for continuous-variable quantum key distribution so that it applies to our protocol. We show that visibility data from just the Franson interferometer provides a weaker, but nonetheless useful, secure-key rate lower bound. To handle multiple-pair emissions, we incorporate the decoy-state approach into our protocol. Our results show that over 200\\,km transmission distance in optical fiber, time-energy entanglement HDQKD could permit a 700 bit/sec secure-key rate, and a photon information efficiency of 2 secure-key bits per photon coincidence in the key-generation phase using receivers with 15% system efficiency.

Zheshen Zhang; Jacob Mower; Dirk Englund; Franco N. C. Wong; Jeffrey H. Shapiro

2013-11-04

222

Unconditional Security of Single-Photon Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution  

E-print Network

In this Letter, we prove the unconditional security of single-photon differential phase shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) protocol, based on the conversion to an equivalent entanglement-based protocol. We estimate the upper bound of the phase error rate from the bit error rate, and show that DPS-QKD can generate unconditionally secure key when the bit error rate is not greater than 4.12%. This proof is the first step to the unconditional security proof of coherent state DPS-QKD.

Kai Wen; Kiyoshi Tamaki; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2008-06-16

223

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF SIMULATED ANNEALING Fred E. Goldman Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5.1 INTRODUCTION The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained

Mays, Larry W.

224

InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System  

PubMed Central

InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

Hofmann, Owen S.; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M.; Lee, Michael Z.; Witchel, Emmett

2014-01-01

225

Application of telecom planar lightwave circuits for homeland security sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, a massive effort has been made in the development of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) for application in optical telecommunications. Major advances have been made, on both the technological and functional performance front. Highly sophisticated software tools that are used to tailor designs to required functional performance support these developments. In addition extensive know-how in the field of packaging, testing, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been built up in the struggle for meeting the stringent Telcordia requirements that apply to telecom products. As an example, silica-on-silicon is now a mature technology available at several industrial foundries around the world, where, on the performance front, the arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) has evolved into an off-the-shelf product. The field of optical chemical-biological (CB) sensors for homeland security application can greatly benefit from the advances as described above. In this paper we discuss the currently available technologies, device concepts, and modeling tools that have emerged from the telecommunications arena and that can effectively be applied to the field of homeland security. Using this profound telecom knowledge base, standard telecom components can readily be tailored for detecting CB agents. Designs for telecom components aim at complete isolation from the environment to exclude impact of environmental parameters on optical performance. For sensing applications, the optical path must be exposed to the measurand, in this area additional development is required beyond what has already been achieved in telecom development. We have tackled this problem, and are now in a position to apply standard telecom components for CB sensing. As an example, the application of an AWG as a refractometer is demonstrated, and its performance evaluated.

Veldhuis, Gert J.; Elders, Job; van Weerden, Harm; Amersfoort, Martin

2004-03-01

226

High-speed secure key distribution over an optical network based on computational correlation imaging.  

PubMed

We present a protocol for an optical key distribution network based on computational correlation imaging, which can simultaneously realize privacy amplification and multiparty distribution. With current technology, the key distribution rate could reach hundreds of Mbit/s with suitable choice of parameters. The setup is simple and inexpensive, and may be employed in real networks where high-speed long-distance secure communication is required. PMID:23939004

Li, Shen; Yao, Xu-Ri; Yu, Wen-Kai; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie

2013-06-15

227

Task Assignment Heuristics for Distributed CFD Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CFD applications require high-performance computational platforms: 1. Complex physics and domain configuration demand strongly coupled solutions; 2. Applications are CPU and memory intensive; and 3. Huge resource requirements can only be satisfied by teraflop-scale machines or distributed computing.

Lopez-Benitez, N.; Djomehri, M. J.; Biswas, R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

228

A Rich Client-Server Based Framework for Convenient Security and Management of Mobile Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact lists, Emails, SMS or custom applications on a professional smartphone could hold very confidential or sensitive information. What could happen in case of theft or accidental loss of such devices? Such events could be detected by the separation between the smartphone and a Bluetooth companion device. This event should typically block the applications and delete personal and sensitive data. Here, a solution is proposed based on a secured framework application running on the mobile phone as a rich client connected to a security server. The framework offers strong and customizable authentication and secured connectivity. A security server manages all security issues. User applications are then loaded via the framework. User data can be secured, synchronized, pushed or pulled via the framework. This contribution proposes a convenient although secured environment based on a client-server architecture using external authentications. Several features of the proposed system are exposed and a practical demonstrator is described.

Badan, Stephen; Probst, Julien; Jaton, Markus; Vionnet, Damien; Wagen, Jean-Frédéric; Litzistorf, Gérald

229

The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge  

E-print Network

for Cyber Security Executive Director and Endowed Chair March 29, 2012 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge . Ravi Sandhu Institute for Cyber Security 1 and Endowed Chair March 29, 2012 growing But not securable by academically taught cyber security not studied as a success story The ATM

Sandhu, Ravi

230

100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors  

E-print Network

We present a quantum key distribution experiment in which keys that were secure against all individual eavesdropping attacks allowed by quantum mechanics were distributed over 100 km of optical fiber. We implemented the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol and used low timing jitter 1.55 um single-photon detectors based on frequency up-conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides and silicon avalanche photodiodes. Based on the security analysis of the protocol against general individual attacks, we generated secure keys at a practical rate of 166 bit/s over 100 km of fiber. The use of the low jitter detectors also increased the sifted key generation rate to 2 Mbit/s over 10 km of fiber.

Eleni Diamanti; Hiroki Takesue; Carsten Langrock; M. M. Fejer; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2006-08-13

231

100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors  

E-print Network

We present a quantum key distribution experiment in which keys that were secure against all individual eavesdropping attacks allowed by quantum mechanics were distributed over 100 km of optical fiber. We implemented the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol and used low timing jitter 1.55 um single-photon detectors based on frequency up-conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides and silicon avalanche photodiodes. Based on the security analysis of the protocol against general individual attacks, we generated secure keys at a practical rate of 166 bit/s over 100 km of fiber. The use of the low jitter detectors also increased the sifted key generation rate to 2 Mbit/s over 10 km of fiber.

Diamanti, E; Langrock, C; Takesue, H; Yamamoto, Y; Diamanti, Eleni; Langrock, Carsten; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

2006-01-01

232

Verification of secure distributed systems in higher order logic: A modular approach using generic components  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a generalization of McCullough's restrictiveness model as the basis for proving security properties about distributed system designs. We mechanize this generalization and an event-based model of computer systems in the HOL (Higher Order Logic) system to prove the composability of the model and several other properties about the model. We then develop a set of generalized classes of system components and show for which families of user views they satisfied the model. Using these classes we develop a collection of general system components that are instantiations of one of these classes and show that the instantiations also satisfied the security property. We then conclude with a sample distributed secure system, based on the Rushby and Randell distributed system design and designed using our collection of components, and show how our mechanized verification system can be used to verify such designs. 16 refs., 20 figs.

Alves-Foss, J.; Levitt, K.

1991-01-01

233

A scalable distributed security infrastructure for industrial control and sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographically remote installations can not always be connected to their parent enterprise infrastructure, making centralised security impractical. Data confidentiality at the factory's Industrial Control and Sensor Network must be preserved to prevent industrial espionage or sabotage. We propose an application-level decentralised security architecture for enterprise networks containing IEEE 802.15.4 compatible wireless ICSNs. Our design relies on Zigbee, 6LowPAN or WirelessHART

Flutra Osmani; Adriaan Slabbert

2009-01-01

234

Preventing Secure Web Applications Overload through Dynamic Resource Provisioning and Admission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overload control mechanisms such as admission control and connections differentiation have been proven effective for preventing overload of application servers running secure web applications. However, achieving optimal results in overload prevention is only possible when considering some kind of resource management in addition to these mechanisms. In this paper we propose an overload control strategy for secure web applications that

Jordi Guitart; David Carrera

235

Dynamic CPU provisioning for self-managed secure web applications in SMP hosting platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overload control mechanisms such as admission control and connection differentiation have proven effective for pre- venting overload of application servers running secure web applications. However, achieving optimal results in overload prevention is only possible when some kind of resource management is considered in addition to these mechanisms. In this paper we propose an overload control strategy for secure web applications

Jordi Guitart; David Carrera; Vicenç Beltran; Jordi Torres; Eduard Ayguadé

2008-01-01

236

Cyber security strategy for future distributed energy delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy delivery systems in future manner will be referred to a modernization of delivery system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimize the operation of its interconnected elements. Its contain power generations, transmission network and user automation. It characterized by two way flow of electricity and information to create an automated distributed energy delivery system. From the viewing side of

Tinton Dwi Atmaja; Fitriana

2011-01-01

237

Web-Based Training Applications in Safeguards and Security  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires all employees who hold a security clearance and have access to classified information and/or special nuclear material to be trained in the area of Safeguards and Security. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, personnel who are responsible for training have capitalized on this communication medium to develop and deliver Web-based training. Unlike traditional computer based training where the student was required to find a workstation where the training program resided, one of Web-based training strongest advantage is that the training can be delivered right to the workers desk top computer. This paper will address reasons for the driving forces behind the utilization of Web-based training at the Laboratory with a brief explanation of the different types of training conducted. Also discussed briefly is the different types of distance learning used in conjunction with Web-based training. The implementation strategy will be addressed and how the Laboratory utilized a Web-Based Standards Committee to develop standards for Web-based training applications. Web-based problems resulting from little or no communication between training personnel across the Laboratory will be touched on and how this was solved. Also discussed is the development of a ''Virtual Training Center'' where personnel can shop on-line for their training needs. Web-based training programs within the Safeguards and Security arena will be briefly discussed. Specifically, Web-based training in the area of Materials Control and Accountability will be explored. A Web-based example of what a student would experience during a training session is also discussed. A short closing statement of what the future of Web-based Training holds in the future is offered.

Lopez, R.L.

1999-05-21

238

A Distributed Key Based Security Framework for Private Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing in its various forms continues to grow in popularity as organizations of all sizes seek to capitalize on the cloud’s scalability, externalization of infrastructure and administration and generally reduced application deployment costs. But while the attractiveness of these public cloud services is obvious, the ability to capitalize on these benefits is significantly limited for those organization requiring high

Ali Shahbazi; Julian Brinkley; Ali Karahroudy; Nasseh Tabrizi

2013-01-01

239

A novel key distribution scheme for securing satellite IP multicast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to improve the efficiency of key distribution is one of the emphases in the research area of satellite IP multicast networks in recent years. This paper presents a novel framework based on layered principle. This scheme divides original monolayer multicast key distribution structure into two layer, and makes rekeying modification happen only on its encapsulated individual group layer. A modified LKH based on member behavior activity is also proposed to decreases the amount of key update information transmission. So, this scheme can realize rapid rekeying by decreasing message transmission amount via satellite links and saving limited bandwidth resources, so as to provide significant performance gain for satellite multicast system. The simulation curves indicate that, compared with monolayer LKH mechanism in satellite multicast, our proposal is definitely advantageous in the condition of frequent join-leave, especially when the quantity of join member and leave member are about equal. So, it is concluded that the proposed key distribution scheme can provide scalability and high performance for large dynamic satellite multicast.

Huang, Zhan; Guo, Qing; Gu, Xuemai

2007-11-01

240

Secure PVM  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

1996-09-01

241

Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

2009-01-01

242

17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 ...X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or affiliated securities association. 249.801 Section 249.801...

2011-04-01

243

Security proof of differential phase shift quantum key distribution in the noiseless case  

E-print Network

Differential phase shift quantum key distribution systems have a high potential for achieving high speed key generation. However, its unconditional security proof is still missing, even though it has been proposed for many years. Here, we prove its security against collective attacks with a weak coherent light source in the noiseless case (i.e. no bit error). The only assumptions are that quantum theory is correct, the devices are perfect and trusted and the key size is infinite. Our proof works on threshold detectors. We compute the lower bound of the secret key generation rate using the information-theoretical security proof method. Our final result shows that the lower bound of the secret key generation rate per pulse is linearly proportional to the channel transmission probability if Bob's detection counts obey the binomial distribution.

Yi-Bo Zhao; Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Zheng-Fu Han; Guang-Can Guo

2008-06-12

244

Environmental security planning : an application to the Longwood Medical Area  

E-print Network

The thesis is a study of the security problems due to street crime in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston. The first part of the thesis defines the theories and practices of environmental security .planning, the urban ...

Garmaise, Miriam Gail

1982-01-01

245

Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.  

PubMed

Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

2012-01-01

246

Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

2012-01-01

247

Secure Distributed Solution for Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid  

E-print Network

is crucial to optimize the energy usage with its production cost, so that the price paid by the users varying energy prices, giving incentive for using energy at off-peak hours. Smart grids provide innovativeSecure Distributed Solution for Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid Mohammad

Shehab, Mohamed

248

The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge  

E-print Network

for Cyber Security Executive Director and Endowed Chair 11/11/11 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com www) Challenge . Ravi Sandhu Institute for Cyber Security 1 and Endowed Chair 11/11/11 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www by academically taught cyber security not studied as a success story The ATM "Paradox" not studied as a success

Sandhu, Ravi

249

Secure Large-Scale Airport Simulations Using Distributed Computational Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fully conduct research that will support the far-term concepts, technologies and methods required to improve the safety of Air Transportation a simulation environment of the requisite degree of fidelity must first be in place. The Virtual National Airspace Simulation (VNAS) will provide the underlying infrastructure necessary for such a simulation system. Aerospace-specific knowledge management services such as intelligent data-integration middleware will support the management of information associated with this complex and critically important operational environment. This simulation environment, in conjunction with a distributed network of supercomputers, and high-speed network connections to aircraft, and to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline and other data-sources will provide the capability to continuously monitor and measure operational performance against expected performance. The VNAS will also provide the tools to use this performance baseline to obtain a perspective of what is happening today and of the potential impact of proposed changes before they are introduced into the system.

McDermott, William J.; Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Tran, Peter; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

250

Security and entanglement in differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

The differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol is formalised as a prepare-and-measure scheme and translated into an equivalent entanglement-based protocol. A necessary condition for security is that Bob's measurement can detect the entanglement of the distributed state in the entanglement-based translation, which implies that his measurement is described by non-commuting POVM elements. This condition is shown to be met.

Adriana Marais; Thomas Konrad; Francesco Petruccione

2010-02-04

251

Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance.

2014-01-01

252

Security mechanism based on hospital authentication server for secure application of implantable medical devices.  

PubMed

After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

Park, Chang-Seop

2014-01-01

253

A Secure Environment for Untrusted Helper Applications: Confining the Wily Hacker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many popular programs, such as Netscape, use untrusted helper applications to process data from the network. Unfortunately, the unauthenticated network data they interpret could well have been created by an adversary, and the helper applications are usually too complex to be bug-free. This raises significant security concerns. Therefore, it is desirable to create a secure environment to contain untrusted helper

Ian Goldberg; David Wagner; Randi Thomas; Eric Brewer

1996-01-01

254

Quantum key distribution for security guarantees over QoS-driven 3D satellite networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, quantum-based communication is emerging as a new technique for ensuring secured communications because it can guarantee absolute security between two different remote entities. Quantum communication performs the transmission and exchange of quantum information among distant nodes within a network. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a methodology for generating and distributing random encryption keys using the principles of quantum physics. In this paper, we investigate the techniques on how to efficiently use QKD in 3D satellite networks and propose an effective method to overcome its communications-distance limitations. In order to implement secured and reliable communications over wireless satellite links, we develop a free-space quantum channel model in satellite communication networks. To enlarge the communications distances over 3D satellite networks, we propose to employ the intermediate nodes to relay the unconditional keys and guarantee the Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER) for security requirement over 3D satellite networks. We also propose the communication model for QKD security-Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee and an adaptive cooperative routing selection scheme to optimize the throughput performance of QKD-based satellite communications networks. The obtained simulation results verify our proposed schemes.

Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

2014-06-01

255

31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae...

2010-07-01

256

USING DISTRIBUTED SOURCE CODING TO SECURE FINGERPRINT BIOMETRICS Stark C. Draper, Ashish Khisti, Emin Martinian, Anthony Vetro, Jonathan S. Yedidia  

E-print Network

USING DISTRIBUTED SOURCE CODING TO SECURE FINGERPRINT BIOMETRICS Stark C. Draper, Ashish Khisti Broadway Ave, Cambridge MA, 02139 ABSTRACT We describe a method to encode fingerprint biometrics securely fingerprint. Our approach is based on the use of distributed source coding techniques implemented with graph

Khisti, Ashish

257

High Speed Communication For Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributed applications of the 1990s, especially those related to factory automation, will require a new set of com- munications services and will demand a iiew standard of p~rf,-11- mance. In this paper we discuss the design of the Xpress Transfer Protocol which is intended to provide these new services. We explain its history and motivation as well as its

Alfred C. Weaver

1992-01-01

258

A versatile digital video engine for safeguards and security applications  

SciTech Connect

The capture and storage of video images have been major engineering challenges for safeguard and security applications since the video camera provided a method to observe remote operations. The problems of designing reliable video cameras were solved in the early 1980`s with the introduction of the CCD (charged couple device) camera. The first CCD cameras cost in the thousands of dollars but have now been replaced by cameras costing in the hundreds. The remaining problem of storing and viewing video images in both attended and unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems is being solved by sophisticated digital compression systems. One such system is the PC-104 three card set which is literally a ``video engine`` that can provide power for video storage systems. The use of digital images in surveillance systems makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems, portable video surveillance units, image review stations, and authenticated camera modules. This paper discusses the video card set and how it can be used in many applications.

Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeKeyser, P. [Fast Forward Video, Irvine, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

259

Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

2004-06-01

260

Applications of shape analysis to domestic and international security.  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly growing area of cooperative international security calls for pervasive deployment of smart sensors that render valuable information and reduce operational costs and errors. Among the sensors used, vision sensors are by far the most versatile, tangible, and rich in the information they provide about their environment. On the flip side, they are also the most complex to analyze automatically for the extraction of high-level information. The ability to process imagery in a useful manner requires at least partial functional emulation of human capabilities of visual understanding. Of all visual cues available in image data, shape is perhaps the most important for understanding the content of an image. In this paper we present an overview of ongoing research at LANL on geometric shape analysis. The objective of our research is to develop a computational framework for multiscale characterization, analysis, and recognition of shapes. This framework will enable the development of a comprehensive and connected body of mathematical methods and algorithms, based on the topological, metrical, and morphological properties of shapes. We discuss its potential applications to automated surveillance, monitoring, container tracking and inspection, weapons dismantlement, and treaty verification. The framework will develop a geometric filtering scheme for extracting semantically salient shape features. This effort creates a paradigm for solving shape-related problems in Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision, and Image Understanding in a conceptually cohesive and algorithmically amenable manner. The research aims to develop an advanced image analysis capability at LANL for solving a wide range of problems in automated facility surveillance, nuclear materials monitoring, treaty verification, and container inspection and tracking. The research provides the scientific underpinnings that will enable us to build smart surveillance cameras, with a direct practical impact on LANL's capabilities in domestic and international safeguards and security.

Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A. N. (Alexei N.); Doak, J. E. (Justin E.)

2002-01-01

261

Rapid response radiation sensors for homeland security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory is developing a rapid response radiation detection system for homeland security field applications. The intelligence-driven system is deployed only when non-radiological information about the target is verifiable. The survey area is often limited, so the detection range is small; in most cases covering a distance of 10 meters or less suffices. Definitive response is required in no more than 3 seconds and should minimize false negative alarms, but can err on the side of positive false alarms. The detection system is rapidly reconfigurable in terms of size, shape, and outer appearance; it is a plug-and-play system. Multiple radiation detection components (viz., two or more sodium iodide scintillators) are used to independently "over-determine" the existence of the threat object. Rapid response electronic dose rate meters are also included in the equipment suite. Carefully studied threat signatures are the basis of the decision making. The use of Rad-Detect predictive modeling provides information on the nature of the threat object. Rad-Detect provides accurate dose rate from heavily shielded large sources; for example those lost in Mexico were Category 1 radiation sources (~3,000 Ci of 60Co), the most dangerous of five categories defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Taken out of their shielding containers, Category 1 sources can kill anyone who is exposed to them at close range for a few minutes to an hour. Whenever possible sub-second data acquisition will be attempted, and, when deployed, the system will be characterized for false alarm rates. Although the radiation detection materials selected are fast (viz., faster scintillators), their speed is secondary to sensitivity, which is of primary importance. Results from these efforts will be discussed and demonstrated.

Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

2014-09-01

262

Security of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the security of reverse reconciliation two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source noise at both legitimate sides. Because the source noise originates from imperfect devices, we ascribe it to the legitimate sides rather than the eavesdropper. The trusted model consists of a thermal noise injected into a beam splitter. The expressions of secret key rate are derived against collective entangling cloner attacks for homodyne and heterodyne detections. Simulation results show that by applying the trusted model, the security bound of the reverse reconciliation two-way protocols can be tightened, while the advantage over one-way protocols still maintains.

Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong

2014-11-01

263

Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses  

E-print Network

We report here a complete experimental realization of one-way decoy-pulse quantum key distribution, demonstrating an unconditionally secure key rate of 5.51 kbps for a 25.3 km fibre length. This is two orders of magnitudes higher than the value that can be obtained with a non-decoy system. We introduce also a simple test for detecting the photon number splitting attack and highlight that it is essential for the security of the technique to fully characterize the source and detectors used.

Z. L. Yuan; A. W. Sharpe; A. J. Shields

2006-10-03

264

Security of a practical semi-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD.

Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Chun; Li, Yuan

2014-08-01

265

Application of the JDL data fusion process model for cyber security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of cyber security technologies have proposed the use of data fusion to enhance the defensive capabilities of the network and aid in the development of situational awareness for the security analyst. While there have been advances in fusion technologies and the application of fusion in intrusion detection systems (IDSs), in particular, additional progress can be made by gaining a better understanding of a variety of data fusion processes and applying them to the cyber security application domain. This research explores the underlying processes identified in the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model and further describes them in a cyber security context.

Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

2010-04-01

266

On Secure JAVA Application in SOA-Based PKI Mobile Government Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we describe a possible model of secure m-government system based on secure JAVA mobile application and SOA-Based\\u000a m-government platform. The proposed model consists of additional external entities\\/servers, such as: PKI, XKMS, STS, UDDI\\u000a and TSA. The main parts of the proposed model are secure JAVA mobile application and secure Web Service implemented on the\\u000a SOA-based platform. One

Milan Markovi?; Goran ?or?evi?

267

Defense and homeland security applications of multi-agent simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of Defense and Homeland Security analysts are increasingly using multi-agent simulation (MAS) to exam- ine national security issues. This paper summarizes three MAS national security studies conducted at the Naval Post- graduate School. The first example explores equipment and employment options for protecting critical infrastructure. The second case considers non-lethal weapons within the spectrum of force-protection options in a

Thomas W. Lucas; Susan M. Sanchez; Felix Martinez; Lisa R. Sickinger; Jonathan W. Roginski

2007-01-01

268

Defense and homeland security applications of multi-agent simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of defense and homeland security analysts are increasingly using multi-agent simulation (MAS) to examine national security issues. This paper summarizes three MAS national security studies conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School. The first example explores equipment and employment options for protecting critical infrastructure. The second case considers non-lethal weapons within the spectrum of force-protection options in a maritime environment.

Thomas W. Lucas; Susan M. Sanchez; Felix Martinez; Lisa R. Sickinger; J. W. Roginski

2007-01-01

269

Secure authentication protocol for Internet applications over CATV network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An authentication protocol is proposed in this paper to implement secure functions which include two way authentication and key management between end users and head-end. The protocol can protect transmission from frauds, attacks such as reply and wiretap. Location privacy is also achieved. A rest protocol is designed to restore the system once when systems fail. The security is verified by taking several security and privacy requirements into consideration.

Chin, Le-Pond

1998-02-01

270

Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

Technology & Learning, 2008

2008-01-01

271

Secure Systems Development with UML  

E-print Network

Secure Systems Development with UML: Applications to Telemedicine Jan Jürjens Software & Systems://www.jurjens.de/jan #12;Jan Jürjens, TU Munich: Secure Systems Development with UML: Telemedicine 2 A need for Security Society and economies rely on computer networks for communication, finance, energy distribution

Jurjens, Jan

272

76 FR 8755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-032 Official Passport Application and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--032 Official Passport Application and...Department of Homeland Security/ ALL--032 Official Passport Application and...Washington, DC 20528. Instructions: All submissions received must include the...

2011-02-15

273

Advanced applications to security of IR smart microbolometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced IR emitters and sensors are under development for high detection probability, low false alarm rate and identification capability of toxic gases. One of the most reliable technique to identify the gas species is Spectroscopy, especially in the infrared spectral range, where most of existing toxic compounds exhibit their stronger roto-vibrational absorption bands. Following the results obtained from simulations and analysis of expected absorption spectra, a compact non dispersive infrared multi-spectral system has been designed and developed for security applications. It utilizes a few square millimeters thermal source, a novel design multipass cell, and a smart architecture microbolometric sensor array coupled to a linear variable spectral filter to perform toxic gases detection and identification. This is done by means of differential absorption spectroscopic measurements in the spectral range of the LWIR (Long Wavelength Infrared) spectral region. Preliminary tests for sensitivity and selectivity are undergoing using mixtures of ammonia and ethylene. Detection capability down to tens of ppm has been demonstrated. Possible improvements owing to open path sensor or hollow-fiber based sensor implementation are also presented for future systems evolution.

Corsi, C.; Liberatore, N.; Mengali, S.; Mercuri, A.; Viola, R.; Zintu, D.

2007-10-01

274

Application of wireless sensor system on security network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we developed wireless sensor system for security application. We have used geophone to detect seismic signals which are generated by footsteps. Geophones are resonant devices. Therefore, vibration on the land can generate seismic waveforms which could be very similar to the signature by footstep. The signals from human footstep have weak signals to noise ratio and the signal strength is subject to the distance between the sensor and human. In order to detect weak signals from footstep, we designed and fabricated 2-stage amplification circuit which consists of active and RC filters and amplifiers. The bandwidth of filter is 0.7Hz-150Hz and the gain of amplifier is set to 1000. The wireless sensor system also developed to monitor the sensing signals at the remote place. The wireless sensor system consists of 3 units; a wireless sensor unit, a wireless receiver unit, and a monitoring unit. The wireless sensor unit transmits amplified signals from geophone with Zigbee, and the wireless receiver unit which has both Zigbee and Wi-Fi module receives signals from the sensor unit and transmits signals to the monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve the low power consumption and wide range coverage.

Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Yoon, Hargsoon; Varadan, Vijay K.

2010-04-01

275

SECURING WEB 2.0 APPLICATIONS THROUGH REPLICATED EXECUTION  

E-print Network

Client-side computation Server-side computation Client-side rendering Static HTML Web 1.0 Web 2.0 3 for performance #12;Motivation Security vs. Performance 9 responsiveness security Web 1.0: · ASP.NET · PHP Web 2

Livshits, Ben

276

Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to security screening, either to simplify or speed up the checking process,

William R. Tribe; David A. Newnham; Philip F. Taday; Michael C. Kemp

277

Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

2012-09-01

278

Distributed Computing Framework for Synthetic Radar Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing an extensible software framework, in response to Air Force and NASA needs for distributed computing facilities for a variety of radar applications. The objective of this work is to develop a Python based software framework, that is the framework elements of the middleware that allows developers to control processing flow on a grid in a distributed computing environment. Framework architectures to date allow developers to connect processing functions together as interchangeable objects, thereby allowing a data flow graph to be devised for a specific problem to be solved. The Pyre framework, developed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and now being used as the basis for next-generation radar processing at JPL, is a Python-based software framework. We have extended the Pyre framework to include new facilities to deploy processing components as services, including components that monitor and assess the state of the distributed network for eventual real-time control of grid resources.

Gurrola, Eric M.; Rosen, Paul A.; Aivazis, Michael

2006-01-01

279

Unit Testing and Action-Level Security Solution of Struts Web Applications Based on MVC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MVC design pattern is very useful for architecting Web applications, which encourages developers to partition the applications as early as in the design phase. Nowadays, Struts Web applications based on MVC have become more and more popular in various fields, the unit testing and action-level security are the most important method for guaranteeing the applications quality.In this paper, we

Qinglin Wu; Yanzhong Hu; Yan Wang

2010-01-01

280

Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes a Secure, Autonomous, and Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations. It includes a description of current improvements to existing Virtual Mission Operations Center technology being used by US Department of Defense and originally developed under NASA funding. The report also highlights a technology demonstration performed in partnership with the United States Geological Service for Earth Resources Observation and Science using DigitalGlobe® satellites to obtain space-based sensor data.

Ivancic, W. D.; Paulsen, P. E.; Miller, E. M.; Sage, S. P.

281

Security of quantum key distribution using weak coherent states with nonrandom phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove the security of the Bennett-Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol in the case where the key information is encoded in the relative phase of a coherent-state reference pulse and a weak coherent-state signal pulse, as in some practical implementations of the protocol. In contrast to previous work, our proof applies even if the eavesdropper knows the phase of

Hoi-Kwong Lo; John Preskill

2006-01-01

282

NASA guidelines for assuring the adequacy and appropriateness of security safeguards in sensitive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-71, transmittal Memorandum No. 1, requires that each agency establish a management control process to assure that appropriate administrative, physical and technical safeguards are incorporated into all new computer applications. In addition to security specifications, the management control process should assure that the safeguards are adequate for the application. The security activities that should be integral to the system development process are examined. The software quality assurance process to assure that adequate and appropriate controls are incorporated into sensitive applications is also examined. Security for software packages is also discussed.

Tompkins, F. G.

1984-01-01

283

acta physica slovaca vol. 48 No. 3, 1 { 8 June 1998 APPLICATION OF QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION FOR MUTUAL  

E-print Network

acta physica slovaca vol. 48 No. 3, 1 { 8 June 1998 APPLICATION OF QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION's). To circumvent this di culty, the well known quantum key distribution procedure (QKD), based on BB84 protocol 1 Republic A secure quantum identi cation system combining a classical identi cation procedure and quan- tum

Dusek, Miloslav

284

Security Challenges for User-Oriented RFID Applications within the `Internet of Things'  

E-print Network

Security Challenges for User-Oriented RFID Applications within the `Internet of Things' G.P. HANCKE to be an important building block of the `Internet of Things' and examine how RFID, assisted by the deployment of NFC will need to address. Keywords: RFID, NFC, security, `Internet of Things', user-oriented architecture 1

Hancke, Gerhard

285

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

of climate change on human health and security. In this study, we contribute to these efforts and the growingNOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Poster Presentation Title: Measuring El Niño and Climate Impacts

Miami, University of

286

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop, Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop, Climate Services for National Security Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the nations of the world have pledged to limit for Understanding and Creating a Secure Future Presenter: Andrew P. Jones, Climate Interactive, Co-Director, 8

Miami, University of

287

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

and Climate Change Projections: Assessing National Security Implications and Impacts on Water and Natural. In its 2007 publication "National Security and the Threat of Climate Change," the CNA CorporationNOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National

Miami, University of

288

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

economic and global security implications of different climate change scenarios. A changing climate that are trained and equipped to serve as decisionmakers on issues of national and global security in a changingNOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National

Miami, University of

289

Meteor: Seeding a Security-Enhancing Infrastructure for Multi-market Application Ecosystems  

E-print Network

Meteor: Seeding a Security-Enhancing Infrastructure for Multi-market Application Ecosystems David enabling the flexibility and independence of a multi-market environment. We propose Meteor as a security- plication (Meteorite) to demonstrate the technical feasibility of our proposal. The Meteor approach provides

Van Oorschot, Paul

290

Dark states ultra-long fiber laser for practically secure key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and demonstrate a novel ultra-long fiber laser key distribution system (UFL-KDS). The scheme quenches the lasing process when in its secure states, thus forming "dark states" which provide simple detection on one hand and increased difficulty of eavesdropping on the other. We analyze the practical aspects of previously studied UFL-KDS schemes as well as those of the one presented here and demonstrate successful key distribution across a 200 km link with bit-rates that can exceed 0.5 kbps. Spectral and temporal passive attack strategies are analyzed and discussed in details.

Kotlicki, Omer; Scheuer, Jacob

2014-10-01

291

Microholographic computer generated holograms for security applications: Microtags  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a method for encoding phase and amplitude in microscopic computer-generated holograms (microtags) for security applications. Eight-by-eight-cell and 12 x 12-cell phase-only and phase-and-amplitude microtag designs has been exposed in photoresist using the extreme-ultraviolet (13.4 nm) lithography (EUVL) tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Using EUVL, we have also fabricated microtags consisting of 150-nm lines arranged to form 300-nm-period gratings. The microtags described in this report were designed for readout at 632.8 nm and 442 nm. The smallest microtag measures 56 {mu}m x 80 {mu}m when viewed at normal incidence. The largest microtag measures 80 by 160 microns and contains features 0.2 {mu}m wide. The microtag design process uses a modified iterative Fourier-transform algorithm to create either phase-only or phase-and-amplitude microtags. We also report on a simple and compact readout system for recording the diffraction pattern formed by a microtag. The measured diffraction patterns agree very well with predictions. We present the results of a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) of microtags. Microtags are CD modeled as consisting of sub-wavelength gratings of a trapezoidal profile. Transverse-electric (TE) and TM readout polarizations are modeled. The objective of our analysis is the determination of optimal microtag-grating design parameter values and tolerances on those parameters. The parameters are grating wall-slope angle, grating duty cycle, grating depth, and metal-coating thickness. Optimal microtag-grating parameter values result in maximum diffraction efficiency. Maximum diffraction efficiency is calculated at 16% for microtag gratings in air and 12% for microtag gratings underneath a protective dielectric coating, within fabrication constraints. TM-microtag gratings. Finally, we suggest several additional microtag concepts, such as two-dimensional microtags and pixel-code microtags.

Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Kravitz, S.H. [and others

1998-01-01

292

Secure positioning of wireless devices with application to sensor networks  

E-print Network

information in order to cheat on their locations. Malicious attackers can modify the measured positions present a security and performance analysis of SPINE through simulations. The organization of the rest

Capkun, Srdjan

293

A Provably Secure NybergRueppel Signature Variant with Applications  

E-print Network

secure, self­certified, identity­based scheme (SCID). SCID schemes combine some of the best features to change identifier strings) and ID­based ones (lower bandwidth requirements). The new SCID scheme matches

294

A Provably Secure Nyberg-Rueppel Signature Variant with Applications  

E-print Network

of a provably secure, self-certified, identity-based scheme (SCID). SCID schemes combine some of the best the need to change identifier strings) and ID-based ones (lower bandwidth requirements). The new SCID

Amir, Yair

295

Reviews of computing technology: Securing network applications, Kerberos and RSA  

SciTech Connect

This paper will focus on the first step in establishing network security, authentication, and describe the basic function of both RSA and Kerberos as used to provide authentication and confidential data transfer services. It will also discuss the Digital Signature Standard and the market acceptance of each. Proper identification of the principals involved in a network dialog is a necessary first step in providing network-wide security comparable to that of stand-alone systems.

Johnson, S.M.

1992-06-01

296

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Presentation Title: Forecasting Global Ecosystem Change Pressure, 217-373-4530, james.westervelt@us.army.mil Presentation Abstract: To many, climate change remains

Miami, University of

297

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Presentation Title: Hurricanes and climate change: What mightNOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Abstract: Climate variability and any resulting change in the characteristics of tropical cyclones

Miami, University of

298

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Presentation Title: Improved climate resilience of US corn Abstract: Climate change is already significantly impacting agricultural production systems worldwide

Miami, University of

299

31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of...

2013-07-01

300

31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of...

2011-07-01

301

31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of...

2012-07-01

302

Secure interoperation for effective data mining in border control and homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our NSF funded project aims at providing decision makers with the ability to extract and fuse information from multiple, hetertgeneous sources in response to a query while operating under a decentralized security administration. Our motivation comes from US Customs, which embarked on a major modernization initiative of its Information Technology systems. Drawing in data from Customs trade systems, targeting inspectors

Nabil R. Adam; Vijayalakshmi Atluri; Rey Koslowski; Robert Grossman; Vandana Pursnani Janeja; Janice Warner

2006-01-01

303

DOE integrated safeguards and security (DISS) system a nation-wide distributed information system for personnel security  

SciTech Connect

DISS uses secure client-server and relational database technology across open networks to address the problems of security clearance request processing and tracking of security clearances for the Department of energy. The system supports the entire process from data entry by the prospective clearance holders through tracking of all DOE clearances, and use of standard DOE badges in automated access control systems throughout the DOE complex.

Block, B.

1997-06-05

304

Bistro: A Scalable and Secure Data Transfer Service for Digital Government Applications  

E-print Network

]. One compelling example of such an application is IRS' electronic submission of income tax forms. Other submissions; and so on. All these applications have scalability and security needs in-common. The poor-scale applications can lead to poor performance for individual clients (as they receive only a very small share

Samet, Hanan

305

Control and Communication for a Secure and Reconfigurable Power Distribution System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major transformation is taking place throughout the electric power industry to overlay existing electric infrastructure with advanced sensing, communications, and control system technologies. This transformation to a smart grid promises to enhance system efficiency, increase system reliability, support the electrification of transportation, and provide customers with greater control over their electricity consumption. Upgrading control and communication systems for the end-to-end electric power grid, however, will present many new security challenges that must be dealt with before extensive deployment and implementation of these technologies can begin. In this dissertation, a comprehensive systems approach is taken to minimize and prevent cyber-physical disturbances to electric power distribution systems using sensing, communications, and control system technologies. To accomplish this task, an intelligent distributed secure control (IDSC) architecture is presented and validated in silico for distribution systems to provide greater adaptive protection, with the ability to proactively reconfigure, and rapidly respond to disturbances. Detailed descriptions of functionalities at each layer of the architecture as well as the whole system are provided. To compare the performance of the IDSC architecture with that of other control architectures, an original simulation methodology is developed. The simulation model integrates aspects of cyber-physical security, dynamic price and demand response, sensing, communications, intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs), and dynamic optimization and reconfiguration. Applying this comprehensive systems approach, performance results for the IEEE 123 node test feeder are simulated and analyzed. The results show the trade-offs between system reliability, operational constraints, and costs for several control architectures and optimization algorithms. Additional simulation results are also provided. In particular, the advantages of an IDSC architecture are highlighted when an intermittent DER is present on the system.

Giacomoni, Anthony Michael

306

Security bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the security bounds of quantum-cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution scheme to higher dimensions. Under the assumption of general coherent attacks, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of such quantum-cryptography schemes. This bound is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions such an equivalence is generally no longer valid.

Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

2005-09-15

307

Contributions to Human Errors and Breaches in National Security Applications.  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has recognized that security infractions are often the consequence of various types of human errors (e.g., mistakes, lapses, slips) and/or breaches (i.e., deliberate deviations from policies or required procedures with no intention to bring about an adverse security consequence) and therefore has established an error reduction program based in part on the techniques used to mitigate hazard and accident potentials. One cornerstone of this program, definition of the situational and personal factors that increase the likelihood of employee errors and breaches, is detailed here. This information can be used retrospectively (as in accident investigations) to support and guide inquiries into security incidents or prospectively (as in hazard assessments) to guide efforts to reduce the likelihood of error/incident occurrence. Both approaches provide the foundation for targeted interventions to reduce the influence of these factors and for the formation of subsequent 'lessons learned.' Overall security is enhanced not only by reducing the inadvertent releases of classified information but also by reducing the security and safeguards resources devoted to them, thereby allowing these resources to be concentrated on acts of malevolence.

Pond, D. J. (Daniel J.); Houghton, F. K. (Florence Kay); Gilmore, W. E. (Walter E.)

2002-01-01

308

Developing secure Web-applicationsSecurity criteria for the development of e-Democracy Web-applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important requirements in government websites is the security. The Data Protection Act, Human Rights Act and\\u000a other legislation require that privacy is respected. Beyond this, Government websites must be secure to build trust and maintain\\u000a the reputation of electronic government. This will be seriously damaged if websites are defaced, services are unavailable\\u000a or sensitive information is

António Pacheco; Carlos Serrão

309

Transparent Process Migration for Distributed Applications in a Beowulf Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful, low-cost clusters of personal computers, such as Beowulf clusters, have fueled the potential for widespread distributed computation. While these Beowulf clusters typically have software that facilitates development of distributed applications, there is stil l a need for effective distributed computation that is transparent to the application programmer. This paper describes the design and development of the PANTS Application Node

Mark Claypool; David Finkel

2002-01-01

310

CAPTCHAs: An Artificial Intelligence Application to Web Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, it is hard to find a popular Web site with a registration form that is not protected by an automated human proof test which displays a sequence of characters in an image, and requests the user to enter the sequence into an input field. This security mechanism is based on the Turing Test—one of the oldest concepts in Artificial

José María Gómez Hidalgo; Gonzalo Alvarez

2011-01-01

311

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

312

Security applications and architecture for an open market  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased energy use, very little new transmission, and open access, the electric power system is experiencing much greater levels of regional transfers. These new requirements push the system to its limits for maximum economic benefit, while maintaining adequate security margins requires online real-time network analysis. An interconnected system can collapse due to a number of different limits being exceeded:

P. Hirsch; S. Lee

1999-01-01

313

Encrypting Java Archives and its Application to Mobile Agent Security  

E-print Network

to keep confidential data unaccessible while resid- ing on untrusted hosts. However, additional protective measures are required in order to prevent Cut & Paste attacks on mobile agents by malicious hosts. One profile management in an electronic commerce setting. Keywords: mobile agent security, Java Archives

Roth, Volker

314

Dynamic Analysis and Debugging of Binary Code for Security Applications  

E-print Network

the binary code, e.g. to help automate some of the most tedious and yet non- trivial analysis in security practice. One example is white-box fuzzing [1], where the goal is to systematically generate test inputs indispensable. For example, an exhaustive white-box fuzzer can merely exercise all fea- sible program paths

Wang, Chao

315

Security Analysis and Improvement Model for Web-based Applications  

E-print Network

be conceptually expressed in the discrete states of (web_client_good; web_server_good, web_server_vulnerable, web_server_attacked, web_server_security_failed; database_server_good, database_server_vulnerable, database_server_attacked, database...

Wang, Yong

2010-01-14

316

SCanDroid: Automated Security Certification of Android Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Android is a popular mobile-device platform developed by Google. Android's application model is designed to encourage applications to share their code and data with other applications. While such sharing can be tightly con- trolled with permissions, in general users cannot determine what applications will do with their data, and thereby can- not decide what permissions such applications should run with.

Adam P. Fuchs; Avik Chaudhuri; Jeffrey S. Foster

317

Problems of Security Proofs and Fundamental Limit on Key Generation Rate in Quantum Key Distribution  

E-print Network

It is pointed out that treatments of the error correcting code in current quantum key distribution protocols of the BB84 type are not correct under joint attack, and the general interpretation of the trace distance security criterion is also incorrect. With correct interpretation of the criterion as well as a correct treatment of the error correcting code and privacy amplification code, it is shown that even for an ideal system under just collective attack, the maximum tolerable quantum bit error rate is about 1.5% and a net key cannot actually be generated with practical error correcting codes even at such low rates, contrary to claims in the literature.

Horace P. Yuen

2012-05-16

318

Problems of Security Proofs and Fundamental Limit on Key Generation Rate in Quantum Key Distribution  

E-print Network

It is pointed out that treatments of the error correcting code in current quantum key distribution protocols of the BB84 type are not correct under joint attack, and the general interpretation of the trace distance security criterion is also incorrect. With correct interpretation of the criterion as well as a correct treatment of the error correcting code and privacy amplification code, it is shown that even for an ideal system under just collective attack, the maximum tolerable quantum bit error rate is about 1.5% and a net key cannot actually be generated with practical error correcting codes even at such low rates, contrary to claims in the literature.

Yuen, Horace P

2012-01-01

319

Enhancing practical security of quantum key distribution with a few decoy states  

E-print Network

Quantum key distribution establishes a secret string of bits between two distant parties. Of concern in weak laser pulse schemes is the especially strong photon number splitting attack by an eavesdropper, but the decoy state method can detect this attack with current technology, yielding a high rate of secret bits. In this Letter, we develop rigorous security statements in the case of finite statistics with only a few decoy states, and we present the results of simulations of an experimental setup of a decoy state protocol that can be simply realized with current technology.

Jim W. Harrington; J. Mark Ettinger; Richard J. Hughes; Jane E. Nordholt

2005-03-01

320

A Management Information Repository for Distributed Applications Management 1  

E-print Network

the areas of configuration management, fault management, performance management, and application metrics configuration management, fault management, performance management and application metrics and modeling. More1 A Management Information Repository for Distributed Applications Management 1 November 1995

Graham, Nick

321

A Management Information Repository for Distributed Applications Management1  

E-print Network

the areas of configuration management, fault management, performance management, and application metrics configuration management, fault management, performance management and application metrics and modeling. More1 A Management Information Repository for Distributed Applications Management1 November 1995

Graham, Nick

322

Security of biased BB84 quantum key distribution with finite resource  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the original BB84 quantum key distribution protocol, the states are prepared and measured randomly, which lose the unmatched detection results. To improve the sifting efficiency, biased bases selection BB84 protocol is proposed. Meanwhile, a practical quantum key distribution protocol can only transmit a finite number of signals, resulting in keys of finite length. The previous techniques for finite-key analysis focus mainly on the statistical fluctuations of the error rates and yields of the qubits. However, the prior choice probabilities of the two bases also have fluctuations by taking into account the finite-size effect. In this paper, we discuss the security of biased decoy state BB84 protocol with finite resources by considering all of the statistical fluctuations. The results can be directly used in the experimental realizations.

Zhao, Liang-Yuan; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; You, Juan; Han, Zheng-Fu

2014-10-01

323

An application of integral engineering technique to information security standards analysis and refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work demonstrates practical application of information security integral engineering technique to solve standards analysis and refinement problem. The application was exemplified by the development and analysis of the ISMS standards (ISO\\/IEC 27000 series) dictionary object model. Standards refinement process consisting of model development, model and standards modification was described. As a result of the research the weaknesses related to

Dmitry V. Cheremushkin; Alexander V. Lyubimov

2010-01-01

324

Estimating the Labor Market Impact of Voluntary Military Service Using Social Security Data on Military Applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Social Security data on the earnings of military applicants to the all-volunteer forces to compare the earnings of Armed Forces veterans with the earnings of military applicants who did not enlist. Matching, regression, and Instrumental Variables (IV) estimates are presented. The matching and regression estimates control for most of the characteristics used by the military to select

Joshua D. Angrist

1995-01-01

325

Homeland Security, Medical, Pharmaceutical and Non-destructive Testing Applications of Terahertz Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum (300GHz-10THz) spans the region between radio and light. Recent advances in terahertz source, detector and systems technology are enabling new applications across a number of fields, based on both terahertz imaging and spectroscopy. This paper reviews our recent work on the development of practical systems and applications in security screening for the detection

Michael Kemp

2005-01-01

326

The AVISPA Tool for the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

AVISPA is a push-button tool for the automated validation of Internet security-sensitive protocols and applications. It provides a modular and expressive formal language for specifying protocols and their security properties, and integrates different back-ends that imple- ment a variety of state-of-the-art automatic analysis techniques. To the best of our knowledge, no other tool exhibits the same level of scope and

Alessandro Armando; David A. Basin; Yohan Boichut; Yannick Chevalier; Luca Compagna; Jorge Cuéllar; Paul Hankes Drielsma; Pierre-cyrille Héam; Olga Kouchnarenko; Jacopo Mantovani; Sebastian Mödersheim; David Von Oheimb; Michaël Rusinowitch; Judson Santiago; Mathieu Turuani; Luca Viganò; Laurent Vigneron

2005-01-01

327

Influence of avalanche-photodiode dead time on the security of high-speed quantum-key distribution systems  

E-print Network

-speed quantum key distribution (QKD) systems in short-distance fiber networks, such as local area networks (LANsInfluence of avalanche-photodiode dead time on the security of high-speed quantum-key distribution photodiodes (APDs) in quantum cryptographic systems. A simultaneous hold-off of the APDs (SHA) technique

328

Services Supporting Management of Distributed Applications and Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed computing system consists of heterogeneous computing devices, communicationnetworks, operating system services and applications. As organisations movetoward distributed computing environments, there will be a corresponding growth in distributedapplications central to the enterprise.The design, development, and management of distributed applications presents manydifficult challenges. As these systems grow to hundreds or even thousands of devices andsimilar or greater...

Michael A. Bauer; Richard B. Bunt; Asham El Rayess; Patrick J. Finnigan; Thomas Kunz; Hanan Lutfiyya; Andrew D. Marshall; Patrick Martin; Gregory M. Oster; Wendy Powley; Jerome A. Rolia; David J. Taylor; C. Murray Woodside

1997-01-01

329

Provisions and Obligations in Policy Management and Security Applications  

E-print Network

and only "yes/no" deci- sions are made. For modern applications (e.g., business-to- business or business requirements. As an example, consider a loan application and manage- ment (payment collection etc.) system. It allows users to initiate a loan application process if they are already regis- tered in the system. All

Wang, Xiaoyang "Sean"

330

Scaling Social Media Applications into Geo-Distributed Clouds  

E-print Network

Scaling Social Media Applications into Geo-Distributed Clouds Yu Wu, Chuan Wu, Bo Li, Linquan Zhang-distributed cloud is ideal for supporting large-scale social media streaming applications (e.g., YouTube-like sites media application. By exploiting social influences among users, this paper proposes efficient proactive

Li, Zongpeng

331

Comparing Access Techniques on Databases in Distributed Application Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares various access models on databases within distributed applications in order to give consistent solutions to application design problems. In this respect, we implement and compare 3 modules with similar to identical processing goals but based on different access principles, for handling the same database - containing an accounting plan, which is accessed by distributed applications. The implemented

Daniel Stuparu; Alina Andreica; Iulia Mantu

332

Finite-key-size security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 quantum-key-distribution protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The postselection technique was introduced by Christandl, König, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.020504] in order to simplify the security of quantum-key-distribution schemes. Here, we present how it can be applied to study the security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 trine-state protocol, a symmetric version of the Bennett 1992 protocol.

Mafu, Mhlambululi; Garapo, Kevin; Petruccione, Francesco

2014-09-01

333

Modelling and Verification of Layered Security Protocols  

E-print Network

for Security Society and economies rely on computer networks for communication, finance, energy distributionModelling and Verification of Layered Security Protocols: A Bank Application Software & Systems secaron AG Munich #12;Jan Jürjens (TU Munich) et. al.: Verification of Layered Security Protocols 2 A Need

Jurjens, Jan

334

Practical security for multi-user web application databases  

E-print Network

Online web applications are continuously vulnerable to attacks on their users' data. Outside adversaries can gain unauthorized access by exploiting unknown vulnerabilities; curious or malicious database administrators can ...

Redfield, Catherine M. S

2012-01-01

335

A SECURE PROGRAMMABLE ARCHITECTURE WITH A DEDICATED TECH-MAPPING ALGORITHM: APPLICATION TO A CRYPTO-PROCESSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

With worldwide communications, information technology and confidentiality have become a major issue for exchanging and securing data. Nevertheless the ASIC high costs and the frequent updates in cryptographic standards used in security applications such as homeland security or banking have made the ciphering algorithms on an embedded FPGA (e-FPGA) co-processor a viable alternative. This paper presents a secure e-FPGA architecture

Taha Beyrouthy; Laurent Fesquet; Alin Razafindraibe; Sumanta Chaudhuri; Sylvain Guille; Philippe Hoogvorst; Jean-Luc Danger; Marc Renaudin

336

Security analysis on some experimental quantum key distribution systems with imperfect optical and electrical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].

Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan

2014-10-01

337

Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols  

SciTech Connect

We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

Renner, Renato [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

2005-07-15

338

Simultaneous Scalability and Security for Data-Intensive Web Applications  

E-print Network

Ailamaki Bruce M. Maggs Todd C. Mowry Christopher Olston Anthony Tomasic March 2006 CMU-CS-06-116 School of the application. Cost-effective DSSPs will need to cache data from many applications, inevitably raising concerns impacting scalability. Experiments over a prototype DSSP system show the effectiveness of our static

339

Generalized Role-Based Access Control for Securing Future Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computing technology becomes more pervasive and broadband services are deployed into residential commu- nities, new applications will emerge for the home and community environment. These applications will assist people in a variety of daily activities by enabling them to create, access, and manipulate information about the residents and resources in their homes. In a connected community, resources in the

Michael J. Covington; Matthew J. Moyer; Mustaque Ahamad

340

Smart Card Applications in Security and Data Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The several security elements of the smart card are based on phisical and logical barriers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Materially, the smart card is a monolithic component including a microprocessor and a memory of 8 K bits, this memory being indelible.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a In addition entry test points have been destroyed before activating the smart card.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a In practice it is impossible to read,

Jean Goutay

1984-01-01

341

A FRAMEWORK FOR MIGRATING OBJECTS IN DISTRIBUTED GRAPHICS APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

A FRAMEWORK FOR MIGRATING OBJECTS IN DISTRIBUTED GRAPHICS APPLICATIONS by Vijay Machiraju A thesis migration, and migration of objects of all granularities in particular, provides an elegant solution Applications : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 2. OBJECT MIGRATION

Utah, University of

342

A key transport protocol based on secret sharing applications to information security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital multimedia content is delivered to homes via the Internet, satellite, terrestrial and cable networks. Scrambling is a common approach used by conditional access systems to prevent unauthorized access to audio\\/visual data. The descrambling keys are securely distributed to the receivers in the same transmission channel. Their protection is an important part of the key management problem. Although public-key cryptography

Ahmet M. Eskicioglu; Edward J. Delp

2002-01-01

343

MDPHnet: Secure, Distributed Sharing of Electronic Health Record Data for Public Health Surveillance, Evaluation, and Planning.  

PubMed

Electronic health record systems contain clinically detailed data from large populations of patients that could significantly enrich public health surveillance. Clinical practices' security, privacy, and proprietary concerns, however, have limited their willingness to share these data with public health agencies. We describe a novel distributed network for public health surveillance called MDPHnet. The system allows the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) to initiate custom queries against participating practices' electronic health records while the data remain behind each practice's firewall. Practices can review proposed queries before execution and approve query results before releasing them to the health department. MDPH is using the system for routine surveillance for priority conditions and to evaluate the impact of public health interventions. PMID:25322301

Vogel, Joshua; Brown, Jeffrey S; Land, Thomas; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

2014-12-01

344

Research on fully distributed optical fiber sensing security system localization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fully distributed optical fiber sensing and location technology based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometers is studied. In this security system, a new climbing point locating algorithm based on short-time average zero-crossing rate is presented. By calculating the zero-crossing rates of the multiple grouped data separately, it not only utilizes the advantages of the frequency analysis method to determine the most effective data group more accurately, but also meets the requirement of the real-time monitoring system. Supplemented with short-term energy calculation group signal, the most effective data group can be quickly picked out. Finally, the accurate location of the climbing point can be effectively achieved through the cross-correlation localization algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can realize the accurate location of the climbing point and meanwhile the outside interference noise of the non-climbing behavior can be effectively filtered out.

Wu, Xu; Hou, Jiacheng; Liu, Kun; Liu, Tiegen

2013-12-01

345

Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.

He, Guang Ping

2011-11-01

346

Transparent Process Migration for Distributed Applications in a Beowulf Cluster  

E-print Network

Transparent Process Migration for Distributed Applications in a Beowulf Cluster Mark Claypool. This transparency allows an increased range of applications to benefit from process migration. Under PANTS, existing to migrate the individual processes of the application to other #12;nodes. As far as the application

Claypool, Mark

347

Wavelet methods and statistical applications: network security and bioinformatics  

E-print Network

Wavelet methods possess versatile properties for statistical applications. We would like to explore the advantages of using wavelets in the analyses in two different research areas. First of all, we develop an integrated tool for online detection...

Kwon, Deukwoo

2005-11-01

348

WEB SECURITY Browser Security  

E-print Network

WEB SECURITY 1 Browser Security: Lessons from Google Chrome Google Chrome developers focused can attack users through their Web browsers. Browsers face the challenge of keeping their users safe while providing a rich platform for Web applications. Browsers are an appealing target for attackers

Tomkins, Andrew

349

A Whitebox Approach for Automated Security Testing of Android Applications on the Cloud  

E-print Network

A Whitebox Approach for Automated Security Testing of Android Applications on the Cloud Riyadh and robustness of Android apps in a scalable manner. We describe an Android-specific program analysis technique the generated test cases, executes them in parallel on numerous emulated Androids running on the cloud. Keywords-Android

Stavrou, Angelos

350

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Presentation Title: The Impact of Climate Variability on Biofuel that are adapted to climate change conditions. The results of this work were an analysis of indications of annual

Miami, University of

351

Algebraic Manipulation Detection Codes and Their Applications for Design of Secure Cryptographic Devices  

E-print Network

. As an alternative to linear codes, robust codes based on nonlinear encoding functions were proposed [8], [9], [10Algebraic Manipulation Detection Codes and Their Applications for Design of Secure Cryptographic compromised. In this paper, we propose optimal algebraic manipulation detection (AMD) codes based

Karpovsky, Mark

352

Incorruptible Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance and Its Application to DNS Security  

E-print Network

Incorruptible Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance and Its Application to DNS Security Yih Huang. In prior work, we developed a Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance (SCIT) architecture that achieves the above goal by constantly cleansing the servers and rotating the role of individual servers

Sood, Arun K.

353

Application of an explosive detection device based on quadrupole resonance (QR) technology in aviation security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration has deployed Advanced Technology (AT) based explosive detection devices for screening checked baggage in US domestic airports. The paper addresses the application of quadrupole resonance (QR) technology to detect explosives in checked baggage in aviation security. This technology was deployed in combination with advanced X-ray by the US government. The paper focuses on the quadrupole resonance

Ed Rao; William J. Hughes

2001-01-01

354

Nanomaterials : a review of the definitions, applications, health effects. How to implement secure development  

E-print Network

, individual molecules and bulk material". On the other hand, "Health Canada" distinguished manufactured goodsNanomaterials : a review of the definitions, applications, health effects. How to implement secure agences en matière de sécurité. Abstract: Nanomaterials are an active area of research but also

Boyer, Edmond

355

Game Theory with Costly Computation: Formulation and Application to Protocol Security  

E-print Network

Game Theory with Costly Computation: Formulation and Application to Protocol Security Joseph Y a general game-theoretic framework for reasoning about strategic agents performing possibly costly computation. In this framework, many traditional game-theoretic results (such as the existence of a Nash equi

Keinan, Alon

356

A Survey on Mix Networks and Their Secure Applications  

E-print Network

on the verification mechanisms employed for robust- ness. The construction of mixnets is presented under a common Advances in communication technology over the years have broken geographical barriers, making communication networks and for network applications requiring privacy. In this paper, we provide a tutorial review of mix

Poovendran, Radha

357

REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

358

Network Distribution of Security Policies via Ant-like Foraging Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of media time given to computer security breaches added to a general culture of emphasizing problems rather than solutions make it appear, in many ways, that researchers in computer security are loosing the battle against attackers. Furthermore, current trends tend to show that if novel approaches to solving security problems are not explored, things are likely to get

Attila Ondi; Ronaldo Menezes; Richard Ford

2007-01-01

359

The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

Hungerford, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

360

78 FR 79298 - Securities Exempted; Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-End Management Investment Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is correcting outdated cross-references in rule 602 under the Securities Act of 1933 (``Securities Act'') and rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Investment Company Act'') and correcting an inadvertent error in rule 17d-1 under the Investment Company Act as published in the Federal Register on January 22,...

2013-12-30

361

Secure E-Business applications based on the European Citizen Card  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of ID cards enhanced with electronic authentication services opens up the possibility to use these for identification and authentication in e-business applications. To avoid incompatible national solutions, the specification of the European Citizen Card aims at defining interoperable services for such use cases. Especially the given device authentication methods can help to eliminate security problems with current e-business and online banking applications.

Zipfel, Christian; Daum, Henning; Meister, Gisela

362

Idea: Java vs. PHP: Security Implications of Language Choice for Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While Java and PHP are two of the most popular languages for open source web applications found at \\u000a freshmeat.net\\u000a , Java has had a much better security reputation than PHP. In this paper, we examine whether that reputation is deserved.\\u000a We studied whether the variation in vulnerability density is greater between languages or between different applications written\\u000a in a single

James Walden; Maureen Doyle; Robert Lenhof; John Murray

2010-01-01

363

Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources (137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is ''non-specific'' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are ''blind'' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as protecting armed forces and infrastructure.

Valkovi, Vlado

2006-05-01

364

A topology visualization early warning distribution algorithm for large-scale network security incidents.  

PubMed

It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

2013-01-01

365

A Topology Visualization Early Warning Distribution Algorithm for Large-Scale Network Security Incidents  

PubMed Central

It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

2013-01-01

366

Transparent Checkpoint-Restart of Distributed Applications on Commodity Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created ZapC, a novel system for transparent coordinated checkpoint-restart of distributed network ap- plications on commodity clusters. ZapC provides a thin virtualization layer on top of the operating system that de- couples a distributed application from dependencies on the cluster nodes on which it is executing. This decoupling en- ables ZapC to checkpoint an entire distributed application across

Oren Laadan; Dan B. Phung; Jason Nieh

2005-01-01

367

Ripley: Automatically Securing Web 2.0 Applications Through Replicated Execution  

E-print Network

are becoming increasingly distributed, as demonstrated by the popularity of AJAX or Web 2.0 applications such as Facebook, Google Maps, Hotmail and many others. A typ- ical multi-tier AJAX application consists representative AJAX applications built in Volta and also on Hotmail, a large widely-used AJAX application. Our

Livshits, Ben

368

Studies in Income Distribution. Estimation of Social Security Taxes on the March Current Population Survey. No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the tax-transfer system on the distribution of income among economic units is the subject of a number of studies by the Office of Research and Statistics of the Social Security Administration. One of the most important data sources for the work is the Census Bureau's March Current Population Survey (CPS). To conduct such studies, the…

Bridges, Benjamin, Jr.; Johnston, Mary P.

369

Bayesian performance metrics and small system integration in recent homeland security and defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Bayesian inference is applied to performance metrics definition of the important class of recent Homeland Security and defense systems called binary sensors, including both (internal) system performance and (external) CONOPS. The medical analogy is used to define the PPV (Positive Predictive Value), the basic Bayesian metrics parameter of the binary sensors. Also, Small System Integration (SSI) is discussed in the context of recent Homeland Security and defense applications, emphasizing a highly multi-technological approach, within the broad range of clusters ("nexus") of electronics, optics, X-ray physics, ?-ray physics, and other disciplines.

Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Patton, Edward; Pradhan, Ranjit; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Savant, Gajendra; Shie, Rick; Forrester, Thomas

2010-04-01

370

978-1-4244-2677-5/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE 1 of 7 ON MODELING ENERGY-SECURITY TRADE-OFFS FOR DISTRIBUTED  

E-print Network

978-1-4244-2677-5/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE 1 of 7 ON MODELING ENERGY-SECURITY TRADE the energy-security tradeoffs for individual monitoring and propose an energy efficient design an attractive choice for both commercial and military applications. In these networks, security and energy

Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

371

Efficient Distributed Skyline Queries for Mobile Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider skyline queries in a mobile and distributed environment, where data objects are distributed in\\u000a some sites (database servers) which are interconnected through a high-speed wired network, and queries are issued by mobile\\u000a units (laptop, cell phone, etc.) which access the data objects of database servers by wireless channels. The inherent properties\\u000a of mobile computing environment

Ying-Yuan Xiao; Yue-Guo Chen

2010-01-01

372

Distribution automation applications of fiber optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motivations for interest and research in distribution automation are discussed. The communication requirements of distribution automation are examined and shown to exceed the capabilities of power line carrier, radio, and telephone systems. A fiber optic based communication system is described that is co-located with the distribution system and that could satisfy the data rate and reliability requirements. A cost comparison shows that it could be constructed at a cost that is similar to that of a power line carrier system. The requirements for fiber optic sensors for distribution automation are discussed. The design of a data link suitable for optically-powered electronic sensing is presented. Empirical results are given. A modeling technique that was used to understand the reflections of guided light from a variety of surfaces is described. An optical position-indicator design is discussed. Systems aspects of distribution automation are discussed, in particular, the lack of interface, communications, and data standards. The economics of distribution automation are examined.

Kirkham, Harold; Johnston, A.; Friend, H.

1989-01-01

373

Some applications of the fractional Poisson probability distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and mathematical applications of the recently invented fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers of the second kind. The appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural

Nick Laskin; Nick

2009-01-01

374

Iodine-129 AMS for Earth Science, Biomedical, and National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project created the capability to analyze the radionuclide iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the CAMS facility at LLNL, and enhanced our scientific foundation for its application through development of sample preparation technology required for environmental, biomedical, and national security applications. The project greatly improved our environmental iodine extraction and concentration methodology, and developed new techniques for the analysis of small quantities of {sup 129}I. The project can be viewed as having two phases, one in which the basic instrumental and chemical extraction methods necessary for general {sup 129}I analysis were developed, and a second in which these techniques were improved and new techniques were developed to enable broader and more sophisticated applications. The latter occurred through the mechanism of four subprojects that also serve as proof-of-principle demonstrations of our newly developed {sup 129}I capabilities. The first subproject determined the vertical distribution of bomb-pulse {sup 129}I ({sup 129}Iv distributed globally as fallout from 1950's atmospheric nuclear testing) through 5 meters in the upper vadose zone in the arid southwestern United States. This characterizes migration mechanisms of contaminant {sup 129}I, or {sup 129}I released by nuclear fuel reprocessing, as well as the migration of labile iodine in soils relative to moisture flux, permitting a determination of nutrient cycling. The second subproject minimized the amount of iodine required in an AMS sample target. Because natural iodine abundances are very low in almost all environments, many areas of research had been precluded or made extremely difficult by the demands of sample size. Also, certain sample types of potential interest to national security are intrinsically small - for example iodine on air filters. The result of this work is the ability to measure the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio at the 2E-07 level or higher in a sample as small as a single raindrop. The third subproject tested the feasibility of using bomb-pulse {sup 129}I in shallow groundwaters in the Sierra Nevada to determine the source of waters entering into the Merced River. The sources of water and their time (age) within the hydrologic system is crucial to understanding the effects of climate change on California waters. The project is in collaboration with faculty and students at the University of California - Merced, and is now the subject of a follow-on Ph.D. dissertation project funded by the LLNL-URP University Education Participation Program. The fourth subproject examined the requirements for using the decay of {sup 129}I to date pore waters associated with continental shelf methane hydrate deposits. Understanding the age of formation and the historical stability of these hydrates is important in determining their response to climate change. Thawing of the world's methane hydrates would quickly and dramatically increase greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The calculations and testing performed on this project have led to a follow on project that selectively implants {sup 127}I to the exclusion of {sup 129}I, creating an analytical iodine carrier with a substantially lower {sup 129}I background than is available from natural sources. This will permit measurement of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios at sub-10-14 levels, thereby providing a method for dating hydrate pore waters that are tens of millions of years old.

Nimz, G; Brown, T; Tumey, S; Marchetti, A; Vu, A

2007-02-20

375

Security Technologies for Open Networking Environments (STONE)  

SciTech Connect

Under this project SETECS performed research, created the design, and the initial prototype of three groups of security technologies: (a) middleware security platform, (b) Web services security, and (c) group security system. The results of the project indicate that the three types of security technologies can be used either individually or in combination, which enables effective and rapid deployment of a number of secure applications in open networking environments. The middleware security platform represents a set of object-oriented security components providing various functions to handle basic cryptography, X.509 certificates, S/MIME and PKCS No.7 encapsulation formats, secure communication protocols, and smart cards. The platform has been designed in the form of security engines, including a Registration Engine, Certification Engine, an Authorization Engine, and a Secure Group Applications Engine. By creating a middleware security platform consisting of multiple independent components the following advantages have been achieved - Object-oriented, Modularity, Simplified Development, and testing, Portability, and Simplified extensions. The middleware security platform has been fully designed and a preliminary Java-based prototype has been created for the Microsoft Windows operating system. The Web services security system, designed in the project, consists of technologies and applications that provide authentication (i.e., single sign), authorization, and federation of identities in an open networking environment. The system is based on OASIS SAML and XACML standards for secure Web services. Its topology comprises three major components: Domain Security Server (DSS) is the main building block of the system Secure Application Server (SAS) Secure Client In addition to the SAML and XACML engines, the authorization system consists of two sets of components An Authorization Administration System An Authorization Enforcement System Federation of identities in multi-domain scenarios is supported by a set of security engines that represent the core of the Federated Identities Management Server, which is also an extension of the Domain Security Server. The Federated Identity Management server allows users to federate their identities or terminate the federation between the service provider and the identity provider. At the service provider web site, the users are offered a list of identity providers to which they can choose to federate their identities. After users federate their identity, they can perform Single Sign-On protocol in an environment of federated domains. The group security system consists of a number of security technologies under a unified architecture, which supports creation of secure groups and execution of secure group transactions and applications in an open networking environment. The system is based on extensions of the GSAKMP standard for group key distribution and management. The Top layer is the Security Infrastructure with the Security Management and Administration System components and protocols that provide security functions common to all secure network applications The Middle layer is the Secure Group Protocols and Applications layer, consisting of the Policy and Group Key Distribution Server and Web-based (thin) Client. The Bottom layer is the supporting Middleware Security Platform, the cryptographic platform already described above. The group security system is designed to perform the functions necessary to create secure groups and enable secure group applications. Specifically, the system can manage group roles, create and disseminate a group security policy, perform authentication and authorization of users using PKI certificates and Web services security, generate group keys, and recover from compromises. In accordance with the GSAKMP standard, the group security system must perform all the required group life-cycle functions: group definition, group establishment, group maintenance, and group removal. The group security system has been designed to support four roles: The Security Domain Ad

Muftic, Sead

2005-03-31

376

Presentation Support for Distributed Multimedia Applications  

E-print Network

Olivetti Research Limited Sesame Street is c flThe Childrens' Television Workshop UNIX is a registered trademark in this dissertation is published as [Bates94]. A demon­ stration video showing experimental applications is also

Haddadi, Hamed

377

Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

Clark, G A

2002-10-08

378

Virtualization and Programming Support for Video Sensor Networks with Application to Wireless and Physical Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network Security Systems are heavily anchored in the digital plane of "cyber space" and hence cannot be used effectively to derive the physical identity of an intruder in order to prevent further malicious wireless broadcasts (i.e., escorting an intruder off the premises based on physical evidence). Embedded Sensor Networks (SNs) can be used to bridge the gap between digital and physical security planes, and thus can provide reciprocal benefit to security tasks on both planes. Toward that end, we present our experience integrating wireless networking security services into snBench (the Sensor Network workBench). snBench provides an extensible framework that enables the rapid development and automated deployment of SN applications on a shared, embedded sensing and actuation infrastructure. snBench's extensible architecture allows an engineer to quickly integrate new sensing and response capabilities into the snBench framework, while high-level languages, compilers and execution environments allow novice SN programmers to compose SN service logic, unaware of the lower-level components on which their services rely. Concrete examples are provided to illustrate the power and potential of Wireless Security Services that span both the physical and digital plane.

Bestavros, Azer; Ocean, Michael J.

379

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

380

Miniature EO/IR sensors for border security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geographic lines of the land borders between the United States and Mexico total over 6,000 miles. The vast majority of those borders are in difficult to reach remote landscape. This makes it nearly impossible to patrol with any reasonable amount of personal or budget. Thus, the primary approach has been to mix a combination of low cost acoustic/seismic sensors with remotely controlled EO cameras. While moderately successful in controlled locations, these systems are expensive to install and expensive to man. The cost of these systems rises further when operation is required in night and adverse weather conditions. A lower cost of installation and maintenance could be achieved with miniaturized EO/IR cameras combined with intelligent remote and central processing. Advances in both VNIR and LW infrared sensors and developments in integrated signal processing now make possible a distributed low cost surveillance system. The ability now exists to detect, track, and classify people and equipment prior to notification of the responding agent.

Hornback, William B.

2006-05-01

381

Synchronizable Objects in Distributed Multimedia Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In training and gaming systems, distributed multimedia are often used, in which the basic content elements must be conveyed or presented in a synchronized order at synchronized moments over multiple devices and in many cases over a network. These content elements are often presented or represented as \\\\Synchronizable Objects\\

Jun Hu; Loe M. G. Feijs

2010-01-01

382

Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

2012-01-01

383

Distributed Simulation for Formation Flying Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High delit y engineering simulation plays a key role in the rapidly developing eld of space-based formation ying. This paper describes the design and implementation of the Formation Algorithms and Simulation Testbed (FAST).1 This testbed was designed to provide real-time, high-delit y engineering simulation of multiple spacecraft operating in formation. By distributing the simulation across multiple CPUs, the FAST provides

Garett A. Sohl; Santi Udomkesmalee; Jennifer L. Kellogg

384

Declarative Development of Distributed Applications Alexander Bohm  

E-print Network

protocols and technologies including Web Services [2], RSS/Atom feeds, REST [12] and AJAX [14] provide applications and offer communica- tion mechanisms such as SOAP and AJAX, these systems usually incorporate- ities and reliable, asynchronous messaging operations. As a consequence, development gets unnecessarily

Mannheim, Universität

385

The Cambridge CFD Grid for Large Scale Distributed CFD Applications  

E-print Network

The Cambridge CFD (computational fluid dynamics) Grid is a distributed problem solving environment for large-scale CFD applications set up between the Cambridge eScience Centre and the CFD Lab in the Engineering Department at the University...

Yang, Xiaobo; Hayes, Mark; Jenkins, K; Cant, Stewart R

2005-01-01

386

Applications of an electronic transformer in a power distribution system  

E-print Network

In electrical power distribution and power electronic applications, a transformer is an indispensable component which performs many functions. At its operating frequency (60/50 Hz), it is one of the most bulky and expensive components. The concept...

Ratanapanachote, Somnida

2005-11-01

387

International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards  

SciTech Connect

As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

Rabin, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

388

National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors - Mostly Nuclear Safeguards  

SciTech Connect

As with science, so with security--in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

2009-12-16

389

Enforceable and Verifiable Stale-Safe Security Properties in Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

, Model Checking, Security Properties, Stale-Safety Author's Address: Jianwei Niu (niu@cs.utsa.edu), Jared.krishnan@utsa.edu), Institute for Cyber Security, and Department of Electrical and Com- puter Engineering, UTSA. Preliminary/hard copy of all or part of this material without fee for personal or classroom use provided that the copies

Texas at San Antonio, University of

390

Classification: //Dell SecureWorks/Confidential -Limited External Distribution: Better TogetherMay 13, 2014  

E-print Network

: Dell SecureWorks & NWRDC Counter Threat Unit Research Team ­ Elite cyber intelligence talent focuses applies intelligence to protect thousands of customers worldwide Global Security Operations Centers ­ 7 and our intellectual property," James Comey, FBI Director Percentage of U.S. adults who named online

Sura, Philip

391

26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.  

...the security within five years of either the...the security within five years of the date...Anti-stuffing rule. Paragraph...section 731(c) second, and finally section... (ii) Within five years of the contribution...taxpayers may apply the rules of this section...

2014-04-01

392

Modeling the energy consumption of distributed IDS: A step towards Green security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the proliferation of wideband and Internet technologies in the last decade, the risk of security threats hidden in single packets arose. This had taken ISP networks to the adoption of Intrusion Detection Systems, enhancing the basic routing with packets inspection, in order to provide a secure connection service. Currently, packet analysis is provided by almost each ISP but

Mauro Migliardi; Alessio Merlo

2011-01-01

393

Secure and quality of service assurance scheduling scheme for WBAN with application to eHealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is gaining popularity due to its large scale of applications in eHealth. Due to its critical and real-time nature, eHealth care system must provide security, privacy, and quality of service (QoS) support, in order to provide an efficient, valuable and fully reliable assistance to patients. This paper studies packet scheduling schemes for real- time transmission

Mrinmoy Barua; M. S. Alam; Xiaohui Liang

2011-01-01

394

Developing Energy Crops for Thermal Applications: Optimizing Fuel Quality, Energy Security and GHG Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unprecedented opportunities for biofuel development are occurring as a result of increasing energy security concerns and the\\u000a need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This chapter analyzes the potential of growing energy crops for thermal energy\\u000a applications, making a case-study comparison of bioheat, biogas and liquid biofuel production from energy crops in Ontario.\\u000a Switchgrass pellets for bioheat and corn silage

Roger Samson; Claudia Ho Lem; Stephanie Bailey Stamler; Jeroen Dooper

395

Vibration non-sensitive lithographic system for writing individualized holograms for data storage and security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vibration non-sensitive lithographic system for writing individual computer-generated micro-holograms into a polymer material for data storage and security application is described. The robust lithograph is the central element of the data storage system consisting of the calculation of a computer-generated micro-hologram (CGH), the writing process and the retrieval of the data stored. The writing process is based on the

Robert C. Thomann; Matthias Gerspach; Steffen Noehte

2005-01-01

396

17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...time of the publication or distribution of the research report...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...dealer's publication or distribution of a research report shall...Be inconsistent with the offshore transaction requirement...

2012-04-01

397

Application of tube formula to distributional problems in multiway layouts  

E-print Network

which are of practical importance but hardly handled by conventional methods. Null distributions of test is to survey several recent applications of the tube method to distributional problems in multiway layouts statistics of the following three testing problems are discussed: (i) A test for interaction in three

Kuriki, Satoshi

398

SCADA System Security ECE 478 Network Security  

E-print Network

SCADA System Security ECE 478 ­ Network Security Oregon State University March 7, 2005 David Goeke water treatment systems; electric power transmission, distribution, and generation; petroleum storage . . . . . . 4 2. Security Overview . . . . . 5 2.1. RTU Security . . . . . 6 2.2. Server Security . . . . 6 2

399

Shared State Consistency for Time-Sensitive Distributed Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed applications that share a dynamically changing state are increasingly being deployed in wide-area environments. Such applications must access the state in a consistent manner, but the consistency requirements vary significantly from other systems. For example, shared memory models, such as sequential consistency, focus on the ordering of operations, and the same level of consistency is provided to each process.

Vijaykumar Krishnaswamy; Mustaque Ahamad; Michel Raynal; David E. Bakken

2001-01-01

400

Component-based middleware for distributed augmented reality applications  

E-print Network

Component-based middleware for distributed augmented reality applications Mehdi Chouiten IBISC to Augmented Reality / Mixed Reality (AR/MR) applications. The goal is to offer an environment. This comparison being meant as a starting point to extend our own framework (ARCS: Augmented Reality Component

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

Investigation of forward flow distributed combustion for gas turbine application  

Microsoft Academic Search

New innovative advanced combustion design methodology for gas turbine applications is presented that is focused on the quest towards zero emissions. The new design methodology is called colorless distributed combustion (CDC) and is significantly different from the currently used methodology. In this paper forward flow modes of CDC have been investigated for application to gas turbine combustors. The CDC provides

Vaibhav K. Arghode; Ashwani K. Gupta

2011-01-01

402

Development of a self-navigating mobile interior robot application as a security guard/sentry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a mobile robot system designed to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or signposts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and the ability to communicate information either directly to the electronic portion of the security system or to a manned central control center. Other desirable features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can be operated either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where direct human control can be limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for alarm assessment or roving patrol, as a point sensor (sentry) in routine security applications, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to ''walk-test'' intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system will be briefly described herein.

Klarer, P.R.; Harrington, J.J.

1986-07-01

403

GridAgents™: Intelligent agent applications for integration of distributed energy resources within distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infotilitypsilas GridAgentstrade software is being used for large-scale integration of distributed energy and renewable energy resources into distribution systems with specific applications on SmartGrid based energy networks including Microgrid management, intelligent load control and smart charging applications, including photovoltaics & storage, load control, and future assets such as plug-in hybrid cars. The GridAgentstrade EAM Suite is an advanced software foundation

D. A. Cohen

2008-01-01

404

Unconditional security of coherent-state-based differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol with block-wise phase randomization  

E-print Network

We prove the unconditional security of coherent-state-based differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol (DPSQKD) with block-wise phase randomization. Our proof is based on the conversion of DPSQKD to an equivalent entanglement-distillation protocol where the estimated phase error rate determines the amount of the privacy amplification. The generated final key has a contribution from events where the sender emits two or more photons, indicating the robustness of DPSQKD against photon-number-splitting attacks.

Kiyoshi Tamaki; Masato Koashi; Go Kato

2012-08-09

405

The Security of SARG04 Protocol in Plug and Play Quantum Key Distribution system with an Untrusted Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SARG04 protocol is one of the most frequently used protocol in commercial plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where an eavesdropper can completely control or change the photon number statistics of the QKD source. To ensure the security of SARG04 protocol in plug-and-play QKD system with an unknown and untrusted source, the bounds of a few statistical parameters of

Bingjie Xu; Xiang Peng; Hong Guo

2011-01-01

406

Distributed data mining on grids: services, tools, and applications.  

PubMed

Data mining algorithms are widely used today for the analysis of large corporate and scientific datasets stored in databases and data archives. Industry, science, and commerce fields often need to analyze very large datasets maintained over geographically distributed sites by using the computational power of distributed and parallel systems. The grid can play a significant role in providing an effective computational support for distributed knowledge discovery applications. For the development of data mining applications on grids we designed a system called Knowledge Grid. This paper describes the Knowledge Grid framework and presents the toolset provided by the Knowledge Grid for implementing distributed knowledge discovery. The paper discusses how to design and implement data mining applications by using the Knowledge Grid tools starting from searching grid resources, composing software and data components, and executing the resulting data mining process on a grid. Some performance results are also discussed. PMID:15619945

Cannataro, Mario; Congiusta, Antonio; Pugliese, Andrea; Talia, Domenico; Trunfio, Paolo

2004-12-01

407

75 FR 4595 - BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 34-61400; File No. 10-198] BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application...1934 January 22, 2010. On October 20, 2009, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Y Exchange'') submitted to the Securities...

2010-01-28

408

Loop topology based white light interferometric fiber optic sensor network for application of perimeter security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A loop topology based white light interferometric sensor network for perimeter security has been designed and demonstrated. In the perimeter security sensing system, where fiber sensors are packaged in the suspended cable or buried cable, a bi-directional optical path interrogator is built by using Michelson or Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A practical implementation of this technique is presented by using an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source and standard single mode fiber, which are common in communication industry. The sensor loop topology is completely passive and absolute length measurements can be obtained for each sensing fiber segment so that it can be used to measure quasi-distribution strain perturbation. For the long distance perimeter monitoring, this technique not only extends the multiplexing potential, but also provides a redundancy for the sensing system. One breakdown point is allowed in the sensor loop because the sensing system will still work even if the embedded sensor loop breaks somewhere.

Yuan, Libo; Dong, Yongtao

2011-09-01

409

Building a high-performance, programmable secure coprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure coprocessors enable secure distributed applications by providing safe havens where an application program can execute (and accumulate state), free of observation and interference by an adversary with direct physical access to the device. However, for these coprocessors to be effective, participants in such applications must be able to verify that they are interacting with an authentic program on an

Sean W. Smith; Ron Perez

1999-01-01

410

Effects of preparation and measurement misalignments on the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ideal Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum-key-distribution protocol is based on the preparation and measurement of qubits in two alternative bases differing by an angle of ?/2. Any real implementation of the protocol, though, will inevitably introduce misalignments in the preparation of the states and in the alignment of the measurement bases with respect to this ideal situation. Various security proofs take into account (at least partially) such errors, i.e., show how Alice and Bob can still distill a secure key in the presence of these imperfections. Here, we consider the complementary problem: How can Eve exploit misalignments to obtain more information about the key than would be possible in an ideal implementation? Specifically, we investigate the effects of misalignment errors on the security of the BB84 protocol in the case of individual attacks, where necessary and sufficient conditions for security are known. Though the effects of these errors are small for expected deviations from the perfect situation, our results nevertheless show that Alice and Bob can incorrectly conclude that they have established a secure key if the inevitable experimental errors in the state preparation and in the alignment of the measurements are not taken into account. This gives further weight to the idea that the formulation and security analysis of any quantum cryptography protocol should be based on realistic assumptions about the properties of the apparatus used. Additionally, we note that BB84 seems more robust against alignment imperfections if both the x and z bases are used to generate the key.

Woodhead, Erik; Pironio, Stefano

2013-03-01

411

Adapting the Pretty Good Privacy Security Style to Power System Distributed Network Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system modernization with increasing operation automation and integration results in growing computer network access. This facilitates cyber-attackers' capabilities to assume control over power system operations that could cause serious blackouts. Security therefore becomes a critical issue for DNP3, a commonly used protocol for power system communications. This paper proposes cyber-security based on Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) for DNP3 to

T. Mander; Lin Wang; R. Cheung; F. Nabhani

2006-01-01

412

7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM...273.6 Social security numbers. (a...participation in the Food Stamp Program provide...agency with the social security number (SSN...regarding individual Food Stamp Program applicants...XVI of the Social Security Act to...

2010-01-01

413

Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.  

PubMed

In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to determine future benefit payments. Our estimates of the earnings function permit us to make highly differentiated predictions of future earnings for each member of our sample. By combining the historical information on individual earnings with our prediction of future earnings up through the normal retirement age, our first approach produces tens of thousands of predicted career earnings paths that can be used in microsimulation policy analysis. Our second approach to creating lifetime earnings profiles is similar in some ways to the traditional method. For example, it is based on the creation of only a handful of "stylized" career earnings patterns. An important difference with the traditional method, however, is that we define the career earnings patterns so that they are truly representative of patterns observed in the workforce. We use simple mathematical formulas to characterize each stylized earnings pattern, and we then produce estimates of the average path of annual earnings for workers whose career earning path falls within each of the stylized patterns we have defined. Finally, we calculate the percentage of workers in successive birth-year cohorts who have earnings profiles that match each of the stylized earnings patterns. Although this method may seem simple, it allows the analyst to create stylized earnings patterns that are widely varied but still representative of earnings patterns observed among sizable groups of U.S. workers. The effects of policy reforms can then be calculated for workers with each of the stylized earnings patterns. Our analysis of U.S. lifetime earnings patterns and of the impact of selected policy reforms produces a number of findings about past trends in earnings, typical earnings patterns in the population, and the potential impact of reform. The analysis focuses on men and women born between 1931 and 1960. Along with earlier analysts, we find that men earn substantially higher lifetime wages than women and typically attain their peak career earnings at a somewhat earlier age. However, the difference in career earnin

Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

2000-01-01

414

Color dynamics of diffraction gratings: evaluation and applications in optical security.  

PubMed

We looked for design methodologies that cope with optical specifications described in terms of trajectories in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) 1976 chromaticity diagram in the context of low-cost mass-reproduction processes that inevitably introduce changes in the design of a diffractive device for security applications. The mathematics of the design process can be strongly simplified if the theory of planar waveguides (in integrated optics) is used to estimate, with sufficient accuracy, the position of Wood singularities, responsible for the more-interesting visual features of a grating. We show how to use such a model to assess color dynamics variations that are due to production and to estimate domains within the space of grating parameters that enable both first- and second-level security features to be implemented simultaneously. All the results are compared with the values obtained by rigorous coupled-wave analysis. PMID:18324265

Pires, P; Rebordão, J M

1999-12-11

415

Color dynamics of diffraction gratings: evaluation and applications in optical security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We looked for design methodologies that cope with optical specifications described in terms of trajectories in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l Eclairage) 1976 chromaticity diagram in the context of low-cost mass-reproduction processes that inevitably introduce changes in the design of a diffractive device for security applications. The mathematics of the design process can be strongly simplified if the theory of planar waveguides (in integrated optics) is used to estimate, with sufficient accuracy, the position of Wood singularities, responsible for the more-interesting visual features of a grating. We show how to use such a model to assess color dynamics variations that are due to production and to estimate domains within the space of grating parameters that enable both first- and second-level security features to be implemented simultaneously. All the results are compared with the values obtained by rigorous coupled-wave analysis.

Pires, Paulo; Rebordo, Jose Manuel

1999-12-01

416

Applications Analysis: Principles and Examples from Various Distributed Computer Applications at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

As information systems have become distributed over many computers within the enterprise, managing those applications has become increasingly important. This is an emerging area of work, recognized as such by many large organizations as well as many start-up companies. In this report, we present a summary of the move to distributed applications, some of the problems that came along for the ride, and some specific examples of the tools and techniques we have used to analyze distributed applications and gain some insight into the mechanics and politics of distributed computing.

Bateman, Dennis; Evans, David; Jensen, Dal; Nelson, Spencer

1999-08-01

417

Occupational impairment and disability among applicants for Social Security disability benefits in Pennsylvania.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. The study goal was to assess the extent of workplace-related disease and injury among Social Security Disability Insurance applicants. METHODS. A convenience sample of 240 consecutive applicants to the Pennsylvania Bureau of Disability Determination was studied to assess the prevalence of work-related disorders. An applicant had a work-related condition if there was a clear statement of a workplace illness or injury associated with the impairment, or if the applicant had worked at an occupation with a high likelihood of exposures known or suspected to contribute to the condition of interest. RESULTS. Of the 240 applicants, 166 (69%) were awarded disability insurance benefits; a total of 27 (11%) had work-related conditions, including 14 of the 166 (8%) who were found to be disabled. Forty percent of the 27 had a disorder that was musculoskeletal in origin. Of 59 applicants with cancer, 10.2% had some work-related etiological component. Of an estimated 71,680 adult disability insurance applicants in Pennsylvania in 1990, 5134 new insurance beneficiaries had a projected occupationally related disability. CONCLUSIONS. A substantial number of applicants for disability insurance benefits suffer from an impairment caused or exacerbated by prior workplace exposures. These individuals may serve as sentinel events for initiating follow-up surveillance and prevention activities. PMID:7977918

Bresnitz, E A; Frumkin, H; Goldstein, L; Neumark, D; Hodgson, M; Needleman, C

1994-01-01

418

Ripley: automatically securing web 2.0 applications through replicated execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rich Internet applications are becoming increasingly distributed, as demonstrated by the popularity of AJAX or Web 2.0 applications such as Facebook, Google Maps, Hotmail and many others. A typ- ical multi-tier AJAX application consists, at the least, of a server- side component implemented in Java J2EE, PHP or ASP.NET and a client-side component running JavaScript. The resulting applica- tion is

K. Vikram; Abhishek Prateek; V. Benjamin Livshits

2009-01-01

419

Scaling social media applications into geo-distributed clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federation of geo-distributed cloud services is a trend in cloud computing which, by spanning multiple data centers at different geographical locations, can provide a cloud platform with much larger capacities. Such a geo-distributed cloud is ideal for supporting large-scale social media streaming applications (e.g., YouTube-like sites) with dynamic contents and demands, owing to its abundant on-demand storage\\/bandwidth capacities and geographical

Yu Wu; Chuan Wu; Bo Li; Linquan Zhang; Zongpeng Li; Francis C. M. Lau

2012-01-01

420

Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential-phase-shift (DPS) and the coherent-one-way (COW) are among the most practical protocols for quantum cryptography, and are therefore the object of fast-paced experimental developments. The assessment of their security is also a challenge for theorists: the existing tools, that allow to prove security against the most general attacks, do not apply to these two protocols in any straightforward way. We present new upper bounds for their security in the limit of large distances (dgsim50 km with typical values in optical fibers) by considering a large class of collective attacks, namely those in which the adversary attaches ancillary quantum systems to each pulse or to each pair of pulses. We introduce also two modified versions of the COW protocol, which may prove more robust than the original one.

Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

2008-01-01

421

Preclinical assessment of comfort and secure fit of thermobrachytherapy surface applicator (TBSA) on volunteer subjects.  

PubMed

A thermobrachytherapy surface applicator (TBSA) was developed for simultaneous heat and brachytherapy treatment of chest wall (CW) recurrence of breast cancer. The ability to comfortably secure the applicator over the upper torso relative to the CW target throughout treatment is assessed on volunteers. Male and postmastectomy female volunteers were enrolled to evaluate applicator secure fit to CW. Female subjects with intact breast were also enrolled to assess the ability to treat challenging cases. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of volunteers wearing a TBSA over the upper torso were acquired once every 15 minutes for 90 minutes. Applicator displacement over this time period required for treatment preplanning and delivery was assessed using MR visible markers. Applicator comfort and tolerability were assessed using a questionnaire. Probability estimates of applicator displacements were used to investigate dosimetric impact for the worst-case variation in radiation source-to-skin distance for 5 and 10 mm deep targets spread 17 × 13 cm on a torso phantom. Average and median displacements along lateral and radial directions were less than 1.2 mm over 90 minutes for all volunteers. Maximum lateral and radial displacements were measured to be less than 1 and 1.5 mm, respectively, for all CW volunteers and less than 2 mm for intact breast volunteers, excluding outliers. No complaint of pain or discomfort was reported. Phantom treatment planning for the maximum displacement of 2 mm indicated < 10% increase in skin dose with < 5% loss of homogeneity index (HI) for -2 mm uniform HDR source displacement. For +2 mm uniform displacement, skin dose decreased and HI increased by 20%. The volunteer study demonstrated that such large and uniform displacements should be rare for CW subjects, and the measured variation is expected to be low for multifraction conformal brachytherapy treatment. PMID:22955650

Arunachalam, Kavitha; Craciunescu, Oana I; Markewitz, Edward J; Maccarini, Paolo F; Schlorff, Jaime L; Stauffer, Paul R

2012-01-01

422

Analysis on the threats and spatiotemporal distribution pattern of security in World Natural Heritage Sites.  

PubMed

World Natural Heritage Sites (WNHS) are treasures that need human protection and invite appreciation, which makes conservation of WNHS an urgent task. This paper assesses where in the world threats are most pressing and which WNHS require emergency assistance. Using an analysis of "hot spots" and inverse distance weighting, it finds that Africa is the region where WNHS are least secure. Reports of the state of the conservation of WNHS describe the many threats that exist. Of these, management activities and institutional factors are the primary threats. The paper suggests relevant measures to improve the WNHS security. PMID:25427826

Wang, Zhaoguo; Yang, Zhaoping; Du, Xishihui

2015-01-01

423

Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

2007-12-01

424

A Component-based Programming Model for Composite, Distributed Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of scientific programming is evolving to larger, composite applications that are composed of smaller element applications. These composite applications are more frequently being targeted for distributed, heterogeneous networks of computers. They are most likely programmed by a group of developers. Software component technology and computational frameworks are being proposed and developed to meet the programming requirements of these new applications. Historically, programming systems have had a hard time being accepted by the scientific programming community. In this paper, a programming model is outlined that attempts to organize the software component concepts and fundamental programming entities into programming abstractions that will be better understood by the application developers. The programming model is designed to support computational frameworks that manage many of the tedious programming details, but also that allow sufficient programmer control to design an accurate, high-performance application.

Eidson, Thomas M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

425

Some Applications of the Fractional Poisson Probability Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

New physical and mathematical applications of recently invented fractional\\u000aPoisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical\\u000aapplication, a new family of quantum coherent states have been introduced and\\u000astudied. Mathematical applications are related to the number theory. We have\\u000adeveloped fractional generalization of the Bell polynomials, the Bell numbers,\\u000aand the Stirling numbers of the second kind. The

Nick Laskin

2008-01-01

426

Distortion invariant correlation filters application for quality inspection of master-matrix for security holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Security holograms (SH) are perspective for document and product authenticity protection due to difficulties of such a protection mark falsification. Mass production of SH uses widespread technology of hot foil or lavsan paper stamping. The quality of holograms significantly depends on perfection of nickel master-matrix that is used in stamping equipment. We represent the method of automatic quality inspection of nickel master-matrix based on digital processing of its surface relief microphotographs. Proposed processing algorithm is based on combination of image spatial frequency analysis and image matching using distortion invariant correlation filters. The results of our method application for real SH master-matrices inspection are shown in this paper.

Zlokazov, Evgeny; Shaulskiy, Dmitriy; Starikov, Rostislav; Odinokov, Sergey; Zherdev, Alexander; Koluchkin, Vasiliy; Shvetsov, Ivan; Smirnov, Andrey

2013-03-01

427

Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

Imhof, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Hampp, Norbert

2014-02-01

428

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the. target site that is running the . VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

429

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

430

An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

2014-05-01

431

The application of artificial intelligence techniques to large distributed networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data accessibility and transfer of information, including the land resources information system pilot, are structured as large computer information networks. These pilot efforts include the reduction of the difficulty to find and use data, reducing processing costs, and minimize incompatibility between data sources. Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques were suggested to achieve these goals. The applicability of certain AI techniques are explored in the context of distributed problem solving systems and the pilot land data system (PLDS). The topics discussed include: PLDS and its data processing requirements, expert systems and PLDS, distributed problem solving systems, AI problem solving paradigms, query processing, and distributed data bases.

Dubyah, R.; Smith, T. R.; Star, J. L.

1985-01-01

432

Research on IPv6 transition evolvement and security architecture of smart distribution grid data communication system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart distribution grid needs data communication systems as a support to complete their important functions. The smart distribution grid of the data and information are increasingly adopting internet protocol and Ethernet technology. Smart distribution grid equipment will be more and more within the zone have IP addresses. The current IPv4 protocol occupies a dominant position; therefore, smart distribution grid data

Xin Miao; Xi Chen

2010-01-01

433

Cost-Performance Optimization of SSL-Based Secure Distributed Infrastructures  

E-print Network

. In this paper, we propose an optimization algorithm, which designs the ICT in- frastructure minimizing the total in [5]. Other studies focus on crypto- graphic algorithms [6] and propose optimizations for acceler are available for the deployment of SSL. First, SSL secure connection can be provided in an end-to-end fashion

Bregni, Stefano

434

RSU-Based Distributed Key Management (RDKM) For Secure Vehicular Multicast Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lots of research efforts have focused on group key management (GKM) for secure multicast, existing GKM schemes are inadequate for vehicle communication (VC) systems since they incur unnecessary rekeying overhead without considering the characteristics of VC systems such as Vehicle- to-Infrastructure communications and a great number of high mobility vehicles. Therefore, we propose a GKM scheme, called RSU-based decentralized

Min-Ho Park; Gi-Poong Gwon; Seung-Woo Seo; Han-You Jeong

2011-01-01

435

Security Analysis of the Lee-Lee-Kim-Jeong Hybrid Authentication and Key Distribution Scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lee-Lee-Kim-Jeong proposed a hybrid authentication scheme [1] to alleviate the latent security problems of mobile multi-hop networks. In this letter, we show that the Lee-Lee-Kim-Jeong scheme is insecure against the intercept attack.

Park, Haeryong

436

Fabric: A Platform for Secure Distributed Computation and Storage Jed Liu Michael D. George K. Vikram  

E-print Network

medical errors, with incomplete patient information identified as a leading cause [25]. However, au of two medical institutions that want to securely and quickly share patient information. This goal- tions. It is inadequate to simply transmit a copy of the record in a common format such as XML, because

Myers, Andrew C.

437

Security Aspects for Large Scale Distributed Environments The AutoBAHN use case  

E-print Network

that supports a Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) service, intended to operate in a multi-domain environment using to enforce system security and to prevent unauthorized access and usage of resources. The BoD service modules authentication and authorisation check, the BoD system will apply additional, specific to BoD rules and policies

Bouras, Christos

438

Income Distribution and Social Security in an OECD Perspective Koen Caminada and Kees Goudswaard  

E-print Network

.l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl k.p.goudswaard@law.leidenuniv.nl Leiden University Public Finance Department P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA of Economics at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands. Research areas: social Security at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands, and Crown

Galis, Frietson

439

Enabling Distributed Addition of Secure Access to Patient's Records in A Tele-Referring Group  

E-print Network

of Washington email: myli, radha@ee.washington.edu Abstract-- Protecting the privacy of patients' Electronic that our solutions satisfy the design requirements. Keywords-- medical system security, privacy, electronic on privacy protection of EHR. The importance of patient privacy is highlighted by the federal legislation

Poovendran, Radha

440

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

: National security and climate change Presenters: Larry J. Paxton, Principal Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Presentation Title and decreased resilience. Climate change could exacerbate existing environmental

Miami, University of

441

Some Applications of the Fractional Poisson Probability Distribution  

E-print Network

Physical and mathematical applications of fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have discovered and developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers. Appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been applied to evaluate skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A new representation of Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been obtained. A representation of Schlafli polynomials in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. A new representations of Mittag-Leffler function involving fractional Bell polynomials and fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been discovered. Fractional Stirling numbers of the first kind have been introduced and studied. Two new polynomial sequences associated with fractional Poisson probability distribution have been launched and explored. The relationship between new polynomials and the orthogonal Charlier polynomials has also been investigated. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of quantum optics, the theory of combinatorial numbers and the theory of orthogonal polynomials of discrete variable.

Nick Laskin

2008-12-05

442

Poisson Distributed Noise Generation for Spiking Neural Applications  

E-print Network

Poisson Distributed Noise Generation for Spiking Neural Applications Katherine Cameron, Thomas Clayton, Bruce Rae, Alan Murray, Robert Henderson Institute of Integrated Micro and Nano Systems Joint 3JL, UK Email: k.cameron@ed.ac.uk, t.clayton@ed.ac.uk, bruce.rae@ed.ac.uk, a

Cameron, Katherine

443

Application of a distributed blowing snow model to the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation, sublimation and accumulation of snow dominate snow cover development in the Arctic and produce episodic high evaporative fluxes. Unfortunately, blowing snow processes are not presently incorporated in any hydrological or meteorological models. To demonstrate the application of simple algorithms that represent blowing snow processes, monthly snow accumulation, relocation and sublimation fluxes were calculated and applied in a spatially distributed

J. W. Pomeroy; P. Marsh; D. M. Gray

1997-01-01

444

An Adaptive Multimedia Transmission Protocol for Distributed Multimedia Applications  

E-print Network

An Adaptive Multimedia Transmission Protocol for Distributed Multimedia Applications Shu-Ching Chen of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA Abstract In this paper, an end-to-end real-time adaptive protocol for multimedia transmission is presented. The transmission rate

Chen, Shu-Ching

445

Analysis of Hawaii Biomass Energy Resources for Distributed Energy Applications  

E-print Network

Analysis of Hawaii Biomass Energy Resources for Distributed Energy Applications Prepared for State) concentrations on a unit energy basis for sugar cane varieties and biomass samples of Tables Table 1-A. Analyses of biomass materials found in the State of Hawaii

446

Architectural Support for Dynamic Reconfiguration of Large Scale Distributed Applications  

E-print Network

ORB. 1. Introduction We consider long running distributed applications that will require support such as electronic retailing, home banking, home entertainment, information and service brokerage etc. This paper to run on top of a given ORB. Our system specification is currently under consideration by the OM

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

447

Architectural Support for Dynamic Reconfiguration of Large Scale Distributed Applications  

E-print Network

to run on top of a given ORB. 1. Introduction We consider long running distributed applications such as electronic retailing, home banking, home entertainment, information and service brokerage etc. This paper to run on top of a given ORB. Our system specificat

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

448

Towards an MDA-based development methodology for distributed applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a development methodology for distributed applications based on the principles and concepts of the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA). The paper identifies phases and activities of an MDA-based development trajectory, and defines the roles and products of each activity in accordance with the Software Process Engineering Metamodel (SPEM). The development methodology presented in this paper is being developed and

Anastasius Gavras; Mariano Belaunde; J. P. Andrade Almeida; M. J. van Sinderen; L. Ferreira Pires

2004-01-01

449

Designing security into software  

E-print Network

When people talk about software security, they usually refer to security applications such as antivirus software, firewalls and intrusion detection systems. There is little emphasis on the security in the software itself. ...

Zhang, Chang Tony

2006-01-01

450

17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Securities Associations § 249.801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

2013-04-01

451

17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Securities Associations § 249.801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

2014-04-01

452

17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Securities Associations § 249.801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

2012-04-01

453

17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Securities Associations § 249.801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration...Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

2010-04-01

454

Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

Adler, Richard M.

1994-01-01

455

Field Measurements and Guidelines for the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to the Environment and Security  

PubMed Central

Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow©. Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems. PMID:22303175

Gil Jimenez, Victor P.; Armada, Ana Garcia

2009-01-01

456

Some applications of the fractional Poisson probability distribution  

SciTech Connect

Physical and mathematical applications of the recently invented fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers of the second kind. The appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been introduced and applied to evaluate the skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A representation of the Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of the quantum optics and the theory of combinatorial numbers.

Laskin, Nick [TopQuark Inc., Toronto, Ontario M6P 2P2 (Canada)

2009-11-15

457

CORBA-based platform for distributed multimedia applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As distributed multimedia applications are starting to be offered as services in enterprise and residential cable networks, there is a growing interest in platforms that provide a standard framework for the development and deployment of these applications. Key issues in platform design are service diversity, service portability and interoperability of user terminal equipment. We propose a platform architecture for the provision of multimedia communication services which logically separates application processing from media processing. Applications are installed in application pools from where they control a set of communicating multimedia terminals. Application-specific intelligence is downloaded into the terminals in the from of Tcl/Tk or Java scripts that generate graphical user interfaces, control media processing components, and communicate with the application in the pool. The platform architecture is based on CORBA and is defined as an extensible set of IDL interfaces for control and stream interfaces for multimedia communication. The platform architecture is based on CORBA and is defined as an extensible set of IDL interfaces for control and stream interfaces for multimedia communication. The platform supports applications development with high-level programming interfaces.

Blum, Christian; Molva, Refik

1997-01-01

458

Resilience for Collaborative Applications on Clouds Fault-Tolerance for distributed HPC applications  

E-print Network

Resilience for Collaborative Applications on Clouds Fault-Tolerance for distributed HPC, restart and resume distributed HPC applica- tions on cloud infrastructures in cases of failures. Keywords collaborate for the design of nuclear plants. Long running executions lasting days and even weeks on large HPC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

Applications Cloud Computing Developer World Mobilize Security Central Virtualization Adventures in IT Share or Email | Print | Add a comment | Recommend This  

E-print Network

Applications Cloud Computing Developer World Mobilize Security Central Virtualization Adventures of High Performance Computing in Singapore explain that the new technology could be used in displays "that

Rogers, John A.

460

Securing Application-Level Topology Estimation Networks: Facing the Frog-Boiling Attack  

E-print Network

and live media streaming applications. These archi- tectures vary from distributed approaches, where peers {jcseiber, crisn}@cs.purdue.edu Abstract. Peer-to-peer real-time communication and media streaming applica;[30]. Virtual coordinates consist of mapping each host to a multidimensional metric space

Nita-Rotaru, Cristina

461

Highly purified mussel adhesive protein to secure biosafety for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

Background Unique adhesive and biocompatibility properties of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) are known for their great potential in many tissue engineering and biomedical applications. Previously, it was successfully demonstrated that redesigned hybrid type MAP, fp-151, mass-produced in Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, could be utilized as a promising adhesive biomaterial. However, purification of recombinant fp-151 has been unsatisfactory due to its adhesive nature and polarity which make separation of contaminants (especially, lipopolysaccharide, a toxic Gram-negative cell membrane component) very difficult. Results In the present work, we devised a high resolution purification approach to secure safety standards of recombinant fp-151 for the successful use in in vivo applications. Undesirable impurities were remarkably eliminated as going through sequential steps including treatment with multivalent ion and chelating agent for cell membrane washing, mechanical cell disruption, non-ionic surfactant treatment for isolated inclusion body washing, acid extraction of washed inclusion body, and ion exchange chromatography purification of acid extracted sample. Through various analyses, such as high performance liquid chromatographic purity assay, limulus amoebocyte lysate endotoxin assay, and in vitro mouse macrophage cell tests on inflammation, viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis, we confirmed the biological safety of bacterial-derived purified recombinant fp-151. Conclusions Through this purification design, recombinant fp-151 achieved 99.90% protein purity and 99.91% endotoxin reduction that nearly no inflammation response was observed in in vitro experiments. Thus, the highly purified recombinant MAP would be successfully used as a safety-secured in vivo bioadhesive for tissue engineering and biomedical applications. PMID:24725543

2014-01-01

462

Image sensor for security applications with on-chip data authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors in a networked environment which are used for security applications could be jeopardized by man-in-the-middle or address spoofing attacks. By authentication and secure data transmission of the sensor's data stream, this can be thwart by fusing the image sensor with the necessary digital encryption and authentication circuit, which fulfils the three standard requirements of cryptography: data integrity, confidentiality and non-repudiation. This paper presents the development done by AIM, which led to the unique sensor SECVGA, a high performance monochrome (B/W) CMOS active pixel image sensor. The device captures still and motion images with a resolution of 800x600 active pixels and converts them into a digital data stream. Additional to a standard imaging sensor there is the capability of the on-chip cryptographic engine to provide the authentication of the sensor to the host, based on a one-way challenge/response protocol. The protocol that has been realized uses the exchange of a session key to secure the following video data transmission. To achieve this, we calculate a cryptographic checksum derived from a message authentication code (MAC) for a complete image frame. The imager is equipped with an EEPROM to give it the capability to personalize it with a unique and unchangeable identity. A two-wire I2C compatible serial interface allows to program the functions of the imager, i.e. various operating modes, including the authentication procedure, the control of the integration time, sub-frames and the frame rate.

Stifter, P.; Eberhardt, K.; Erni, A.; Hofmann, K.

2006-04-01

463

Efficient Key Distribution Schemes for Large Scale Mobile Computing Applications  

E-print Network

openers, security cameras etc., equipped with short range radios, will be controlled by hand-held devices networks consisting of large-scale deployments of mobile devices, efficient security mechanisms for securing large scale deployments of mobile devices. I. INTRODUCTION Rapidly lowering costs of computing

464

Application of parallel distributed processing to space based systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of using Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) to enhance automated experiment monitoring and control is explored. Recent very large scale integration (VLSI) advances have made such applications an achievable goal. The PDP machine has demonstrated the ability to automatically organize stored information, handle unfamiliar and contradictory input data and perform the actions necessary. The PDP machine has demonstrated that it can perform inference and knowledge operations with greater speed and flexibility and at lower cost than traditional architectures. In applications where the rule set governing an expert system's decisions is difficult to formulate, PDP can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken.

Macdonald, J. R.; Heffelfinger, H. L.

1987-01-01

465

Secure distribution of watermarked images for a digital library of ancient papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic publishing, storage and distribution of documents is growing increasingly important and will have profound implications for our economy, cul- ture and society. The multimedia digitalisation of li- braries and the distribution of the contents of museums is revolutionising these organisations and will make these resources available to a much wider audience than was previously possible. The main goal

Christian Rauber; Joseph Ó Ruanaidh; Thierry Pun

1997-01-01

466

Determining Global Population Distribution: Methods, Applications and Data  

PubMed Central

Evaluating the total numbers of people at risk from infectious disease in the world requires not just tabular population data, but data that are spatially explicit and global in extent at a moderate resolution. This review describes the basic methods for constructing estimates of global population distribution with attention to recent advances in improving both spatial and temporal resolution. To evaluate the optimal resolution for the study of disease, the native resolution of the data inputs as well as that of the resulting outputs are discussed. Assumptions used to produce different population data sets are also described, with their implications for the study of infectious disease. Lastly, the application of these population data sets in studies to assess disease distribution and health impacts is reviewed. The data described in this review are distributed in the accompanying DVD. PMID:16647969

Balk, D.L.; Deichmann, U.; Yetman, G.; Pozzi, F.; Hay, S.I.; Nelson, A.

2011-01-01

467

A Secured Health Care Application Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems  

E-print Network

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) can be viewed as a new generation of systems with integrated control, communication and computational capabilities. Like the internet transformed how humans interact with one another, cyber-physical systems will transform how people interact with the physical world. Currently, the study of CPS is still in its infancy and there exist many research issues and challenges ranging from electricity power, health care, transportation and smart building etc. In this paper, an introduction of CPeSC3 (cyber physical enhanced secured wireless sensor networks (WSNs) integrated cloud computing for u-life care) architecture and its application to the health care monitoring and decision support systems is given. The proposed CPeSC3 architecture is composed of three main components, namely 1) communication core, 2) computation core, and 3) resource scheduling and management core. Detailed analysis and explanation are given for relevant models such as cloud computing, real time scheduling and secu...

Wang, Jin; Lee, Sungyoung; Shu, Lei; Xia, Feng

2012-01-01

468

Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

2012-09-01

469

Security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks for healthcare applications.  

PubMed

The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in healthcare applications is growing in a fast pace. Numerous applications such as heart rate monitor, blood pressure monitor and endoscopic capsule are already in use. To address the growing use of sensor technology in this area, a new field known as wireless body area networks (WBAN or simply BAN) has emerged. As most devices and their applications are wireless in nature, security and privacy concerns are among major areas of concern. Due to direct involvement of humans also increases the sensitivity. Whether the data gathered from patients or individuals are obtained with the consent of the person or without it due to the need by the system, misuse or privacy concerns may restrict people from taking advantage of the full benefits from the system. People may not see these devices safe for daily use. There may also possibility of serious social unrest due to the fear that such devices may be used for monitoring and tracking individuals by government agencies or other private organizations. In this paper we discuss these issues and analyze in detail the problems and their possible measures. PMID:20703745

Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Liu, Jingwei; Kwak, Kyungsup

2012-02-01

470

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission Presentation Title to climate change Presenters: William H. Swartz, Senior Scientist, The Johns change, which stresses food and water security, public health, natural

Miami, University of

471

20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION...public in applying for benefits under titles II and XVIII of the Social Security Act and the black lung benefits program (Part B,...

2010-04-01

472

76 FR 20820 - Application and Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative. OMB Number: 1550-0123. Form Numbers: MSD-5 and MSD-4. Description: Section 15B(a)(2) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Act) requires, in part,...

2011-04-13

473

76 FR 36625 - Application and Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative. OMB Number: 1550-0123. Form Numbers: MSD-5 and MSD-4. Description: Section 15B(a)(2) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Act) requires, in part,...

2011-06-22

474

An Efficient Distributed Key Generation Protocol for Secure Communications with Causal Ordering  

E-print Network

block. It is built upon common adversary models and is immune to these adversaries. Compared to DKG an elliptic curve based distributed key generation protocol in communication systems with causal ordering

Chronopoulos, Anthony T.

475

Analysis of security vulnerabilities in the movie production and distribution process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unauthorized copying of movies is a major concern for the motion picture industry. While unauthorized copies of movies have been distributed via portable physical media for some time, low-cost, high-bandwidth Internet connections and peer-to-peer file sharing networks provide highly efficient distribution media. Many movies are showing up on file sharing networks shortly after, and in some cases prior to, theatrical

Simon Byers; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Dave Korman; Patrick Drew McDaniel; Eric Cronin

2003-01-01

476

Efficient Use of Distributed Systems for Scientific Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed computing has been regarded as the future of high performance computing. Nationwide high speed networks such as vBNS are becoming widely available to interconnect high-speed computers, virtual environments, scientific instruments and large data sets. One of the major issues to be addressed with distributed systems is the development of computational tools that facilitate the efficient execution of parallel applications on such systems. These tools must exploit the heterogeneous resources (networks and compute nodes) in distributed systems. This paper presents a tool, called PART, which addresses this issue for mesh partitioning. PART takes advantage of the following heterogeneous system features: (1) processor speed; (2) number of processors; (3) local network performance; and (4) wide area network performance. Further, different finite element applications under consideration may have different computational complexities, different communication patterns, and different element types, which also must be taken into consideration when partitioning. PART uses parallel simulated annealing to partition the domain, taking into consideration network and processor heterogeneity. The results of using PART for an explicit finite element application executing on two IBM SPs (located at Argonne National Laboratory and the San Diego Supercomputer Center) indicate an increase in efficiency by up to 36% as compared to METIS, a widely used mesh partitioning tool. The input to METIS was modified to take into consideration heterogeneous processor performance; METIS does not take into consideration heterogeneous networks. The execution times for these applications were reduced by up to 30% as compared to METIS. These results are given in Figure 1 for four irregular meshes with number of elements ranging from 30,269 elements for the Barth5 mesh to 11,451 elements for the Barth4 mesh. Future work with PART entails using the tool with an integrated application requiring distributed systems. In particular this application, illustrated in the document entails an integration of finite element and fluid dynamic simulations to address the cooling of turbine blades of a gas turbine engine design. It is not uncommon to encounter high-temperature, film-cooled turbine airfoils with 1,000,000s of degrees of freedom. This results because of the complexity of the various components of the airfoils, requiring fine-grain meshing for accuracy. Additional information is contained in the original.

Taylor, Valerie; Chen, Jian; Canfield, Thomas; Richard, Jacques

2000-01-01

477

Distribution System Reliability Analysis for Smart Grid Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliability of power systems is a key aspect in modern power system planning, design, and operation. The ascendance of the smart grid concept has provided high hopes of developing an intelligent network that is capable of being a self-healing grid, offering the ability to overcome the interruption problems that face the utility and cost it tens of millions in repair and loss. To address its reliability concerns, the power utilities and interested parties have spent extensive amount of time and effort to analyze and study the reliability of the generation and transmission sectors of the power grid. Only recently has attention shifted to be focused on improving the reliability of the distribution network, the connection joint between the power providers and the consumers where most of the electricity problems occur. In this work, we will examine the effect of the smart grid applications in improving the reliability of the power distribution networks. The test system used in conducting this thesis is the IEEE 34 node test feeder, released in 2003 by the Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. The objective is to analyze the feeder for the optimal placement of the automatic switching devices and quantify their proper installation based on the performance of the distribution system. The measures will be the changes in the reliability system indices including SAIDI, SAIFI, and EUE. The goal is to design and simulate the effect of the installation of the Distributed Generators (DGs) on the utility's distribution system and measure the potential improvement of its reliability. The software used in this work is DISREL, which is intelligent power distribution software that is developed by General Reliability Co.

Aljohani, Tawfiq Masad

478

NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for National Security Challenges: Abstract Submission  

E-print Network

Defense Science Board report, "Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security," highlights the urgency for our Nation's defense mission to develop a climate information system climate on US national security interests. As the future security environment continues to evolve

Miami, University of

479

Application of integer programming to the deployment of security officers within a generic nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SECURity Officer Response Strategies (SECURORS) approach provides a method for determining security force deployment locations within a nuclear power plant to interrupt sequences of adversary actions which could lead to a radioactive release. The technique is applied to a nine-level generic nuclear power plant to determine locations for deployment subsequent to detection of an adversary intrusion. The security officers

Rountree; S. L. K

1983-01-01

480

Encryption and Secure Computer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing growth in the number of computer networks in use and in the kinds of distributed computing applications available on these networks This increase, together with concern about privacy, security, and integrity of information exchange, has created considerable interest in the use of encryptlon to protect information in the networks This survey is directed at the reader who

Gerald J. Popek; Charles S. Kline

1979-01-01

481

Security of the Bennett 1992 quantum-key distribution protocol against individual attack over a realistic channel  

SciTech Connect

The security of two-state quantum-key distribution against individual attack is estimated when the channel has losses and noises. We assume that Alice and Bob use two nonorthogonal single-photon polarization states. To make our analysis simple, we propose a modified B92 protocol in which Alice and Bob make use of inconclusive results, and Bob performs a kind of symmetrization of received states. Using this protocol, Alice and Bob can estimate Eve's information gain as a function of a few parameters that reflect the imperfections of devices, or Eve's disturbance. In some parameter regions, Eve's maximum information gain shows counterintuitive behavior, namely, it decreases as the amount of disturbances increases. For a small noise rate, Eve can extract perfect information in the case where the angle between Alice's two states is small or large, while she cannot extract perfect information for intermediate angles. We also estimate the secret key gain, which is the net growth of the secret key per pulse. We show the region where the modified B92 protocol over a realistic channel is secure against individual attack.

Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki [CREST Research Team for Interacting Carrier Electronics, School of Advanced Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan)

2003-03-01

482

Power-aware applications for scientific cluster and distributed computing  

E-print Network

The aggregate power use of computing hardware is an important cost factor in scientific cluster and distributed computing systems. The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) is a major example of such a distributed computing system, used primarily for high throughput computing (HTC) applications. It has a computing capacity and power consumption rivaling that of the largest supercomputers. The computing capacity required from this system is also expected to grow over the next decade. Optimizing the power utilization and cost of such systems is thus of great interest. A number of trends currently underway will provide new opportunities for power-aware optimizations. We discuss how power-aware software applications and scheduling might be used to reduce power consumption, both as autonomous entities and as part of a (globally) distributed system. As concrete examples of computing centers we provide information on the large HEP-focused Tier-1 at FNAL, and the Tigress High Performance Computing Center at Princeton University, which provides HPC resources in a university context.

David Abdurachmanov; Peter Elmer; Giulio Eulisse; Paola Grosso; Curtis Hillegas; Burt Holzman; Ruben L. Janssen; Sander Klous; Robert Knight; Shahzad Muzaffar

2014-04-28

483

Proceedings of ACSAC'00, 16th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, pages 308-316, 2000. Experience with Software Watermarking  

E-print Network

Proceedings of ACSAC'00, 16th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, pages 308-316, 2000 Zhang CERIAS and Department of Computer Science Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 palsberg) private use, 2) in- dustrial espionage, and 3) further selling for his own profit. In the first case

Palsberg, Jens

484

Proceedings of ACSAC'00, 16th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, pages 308316, 2000. Experience with Software Watermarking  

E-print Network

Proceedings of ACSAC'00, 16th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, pages 308­316, 2000 Zhang CERIAS and Department of Computer Science Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 fpalsberg­ dustrial espionage, and 3) further selling for his own profit. In the first case, Alice's profits may

Kwon, Minseok "James"

485

The Security of SARG04 Protocol in Plug and Play Quantum Key Distribution system with an Untrusted Source  

E-print Network

The SARG04 protocol is one of the most frequently used protocol in commercial plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where an eavesdropper can completely control or change the photon number statistics of the QKD source. To ensure the security of SARG04 protocol in plug-and-play QKD system with an unknown and untrusted source, the bounds of a few statistical parameters of the source need to be monitored. An active or a passive source monitor schemes are proposed to verify these parameters. Furthermore, the practical issues due to statistical fluctuation and detection noise in the source monitoring process are quantitatively analyzed. Our simulation results show that the passive scheme can be efficiently applied to plug-and-play system with SARG04 protocol.

Xu, Bingjie; Guo, Hong

2011-01-01

486

Web-Based Distributed Simulation and Data Management Services for Medical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed a distributed service oriented system with Web-based interface for medical information to promote the practical prediction of clinical prognosis. The proposed system provided hospitals secure access for medical information and processing simulations to examine effects of surgical treatments. Through a Web interface, users could operate the system in order to execute the simulations, access data from\\/to distributed storage,

Masashi Nakagawa; Kazunori Nozaki; Shinji Shimojo

2006-01-01

487

The application of PLC distributed input/output technology offshore  

SciTech Connect

The Programmable Logic Controller is becoming a familiar part of the Process Controls on Offshore Facilities. The current evolution of this expanding technology is Distributed I/O Blocks, and this paper is concerned with the benefits and applications this new technology brings to the Offshore Industry. The advent of the Programmable Logic Controller to the Gulf of Mexico brought greater process control flexibility to Offshore facilities. The offshore control philosophy went from independent pneumatic control of each skid unit to PLC distributed control with field panels that contained the local controls for several skid units and interfaced with control room based PLC visual display stations. The Distributed I/O Block concept allows offshore control systems to eliminate the large field interface panel, along with the associated wiring and hardware cost. This is accomplished by installing Distributed 1/0 Blocks inside the individual skid control panels and then communicating back to the control room based PLC via redundant communication cables. The control wiring between each skid control panel and the control room is now reduced to one power cable and redundant communication cables.

Glendening, J.A.

1995-12-01

488

Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities in the Movie Production and Distribution Process  

E-print Network

directly affects theater attendance and DVD sales, and hence represents a major financial threat to deter- mine what fraction of illegal downloads result in lost revenue for the industry and whether copies via the Internet will increasingly af- fect DVD movie sales and paid Internet distribution

Cranor, Lorrie Faith

489

Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities in the Movie Production and Distribution Process  

E-print Network

of unauthorized copies directly impacts theater atten- dance and DVD sales, and hence represents a major financial because it is difficult to determine what percentage of illegal downloads result in lost rev- enue the Internet will increasingly impact DVD movie sales and paid Internet distribution of movies. As the ease

McDaniel, Patrick Drew

490

Secure wireless data communications for distribution automation in the Smart Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many utilities operators, making their electric grid smarter is an increasingly important task with the goal of creating a system that is optimized for efficient delivery of electricity. Automation has been the primary driver and many electric utilities have already implemented SCADA systems for control over transmission-level equipment. At the distribution automation layer, many critical functions and actions are

Colin Lippincott

2012-01-01

491

Secure media content distribution based on the improved set-top box in IPTV  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some means are proposed to improve the performances of the set-top box (STB) based media distribution schemes for IPTV. Firstly, the lightweight packet encryption is used to replace traditional complete encryption in order to reduce the time cost. Secondly, a method is introduced to form a unique customer code and generates a unique media copy for each

Shiguo Lian; Zhongxuan Liu

2008-01-01

492

Spectroelectrochemistry as a strategy for improving selectivity of sensors for security and defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroelectrochemistry provides improved selectivity for sensors by electrochemically modulating the optical signal associated with the analyte. The sensor consists of an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a film that preconcentrates the target analyte. The OTE functions as an optical waveguide for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, which detects the analyte by absorption. Alternatively, the OTE can serve as the excitation light for fluorescence detection, which is generally more sensitive than absorption. The analyte partitions into the film, undergoes an electrochemical redox reaction at the OTE surface, and absorbs or emits light in its oxidized or reduced state. The change in the optical response associated with electrochemical oxidation or reduction at the OTE is used to quantify the analyte. Absorption sensors for metal ion complexes such as [Fe(CN)6]4- and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and fluorescence sensors for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-hydroxypyrene have been developed. The sensor concept has been extended to binding assays for a protein using avidin-biotin and 17?-estradiol-anti-estradiol antibodies. The sensor has been demonstrated to measure metal complexes in complex samples such as nuclear waste and natural water. This sensor has qualities needed for security and defense applications that require a high level of selectivity and good detection limits for target analytes in complex samples. Quickly monitoring and designating intent of a nuclear program by measuring the Ru/Tc fission product ratio is such an application.

Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Morris, Laura K.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2012-09-01

493

Passive Submillimeter-wave Stand-off Video Camera for Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the concept and experimental set-up of a passive submillimeter-wave stand-off imaging system for security applications. Our ambition is the design of an application-ready and user-friendly camera providing high sensitivity and high spatial resolution at video frame rates. As an intermediate step towards this goal, the current prototype already achieves a frame rate of 10 frames per second and a spatial resolution below 2 cm at 8 m distance. The camera is the result of a continuous development and a unique concept that yielded first high-resolution passive submillimeter-wave images provided by cryogenic sensors in May et al. (2007). It is based on an array of 20 superconducting transition-edge sensors operated at a temperature of 450 mK, a closed-cycle cooling system, a Cassegrain-type optics with a 50 cm main mirror, and an opto-mechanical scanner. Its outstanding features are the scanning solution allowing for high frame rates and the compact and integrated system design.

Heinz, Erik; May, Torsten; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; Anders, Solveig; Thorwirth, Günter; Zakosarenko, Viatcheslav; Schubert, Marco; Krause, Torsten; Starkloff, Michael; Krüger, André; Schulz, Marco; Bauer, Frank; Meyer, Hans-Georg

2010-11-01

494

Enabling distributed simulation multilevel security using virtual machine and virtual private network technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing the accuracy of the portrayal of all of the elements of a simulation environment has long been a prime goal of the modeling and simulation community; a goal that has remained far out of reach for many reasons. One of the greatest hurdles facing simulation developers in the effort to increase simulation accuracy is the need to segregate information across the entire simulation environment according to access restrictions in order to insure the integrity, security, and reliability requirements imposed on the data. However, this need for segregation does not mean that those with the highest access permissions should be forced to use multiple computers and displays to integrate the information that they need or that intelligent agents should be restricted in their access to the information that they need in order to adequately assist their human operators. In this paper, we present a potential solution to the problem of integrating and segregating data, which is the use of virtual machine and virtual private network technology in order to maintain segregation of data, control access, and control intercommunication.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2007-04-01

495

Distributed beamforming designs to improve physical layer security in wireless relay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates security-oriented beamforming designs in a relay network composed of a source-destination pair, multiple relays, and a passive eavesdropper. Unlike most of the earlier works, we assume that only statistical information of the relay-eavesdropper channels is known to the relays. We propose beamforming solutions for amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relay network