Science.gov

Sample records for secure distributed applications

  1. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  2. Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2007-08-30

    Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

  3. Multipartite secure state distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J.; Calsamiglia, J.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

  4. Photonic sensor opportunities for distributed and wireless systems in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David

    2006-10-01

    There are broad ranges of homeland security sensing applications that can be facilitated by distributed fiber optic sensors and photonics integrated wireless systems. These applications include [1]: Pipeline, (Monitoring, Security); Smart structures (Bridges, Tunnels, Dams, Public spaces); Power lines (Monitoring, Security); Transportation security; Chemical/biological detection; Wide area surveillance - perimeter; and Port Security (Underwater surveillance, Cargo container). Many vital assets which cover wide areas, such as pipeline and borders, are under constant threat of being attacked or breached. There is a rapidly emerging need to be able to provide identification of intrusion threats to such vital assets. Similar problems exit for monitoring the basic infrastructure such as water supply, power utilities, communications systems as well as transportation. There is a need to develop a coordinated and integrated solution for the detection of threats. From a sensor standpoint, consideration must not be limited to detection, but how does detection lead to intervention and deterrence. Fiber optic sensor technology must be compatible with other surveillance technologies such as wireless mote technology to facilitate integration. In addition, the multi-functionality of fiber optic sensors must be expanded to include bio-chemical detection. There have been a number of barriers for the acceptance and broad use of smart fiber optic sensors. Compared to telecommunications, the volume is low. This fact coupled with proprietary and custom specifications has kept the price of fiber optic sensors high. There is a general lack of a manufacturing infrastructure and lack of standards for packaging and reliability. Also, there are several competing technologies; some photonic based and other approaches based on conventional non-photonic technologies.

  5. Secure software distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoletti, T.; Dobbs, L.A.; Kelley, M.

    1997-02-01

    Authenticating and upgrading system software plays a critical role in information security, yet practical tools for assessing and installing software are lacking in today`s marketplace. The Secure Software Distribution System (SSDS) will provide automated analysis, notification, distribution, and installation of security patches and related software to network-based computer systems in a vendor-independent fashion. SSDS will assist with the authentication of software by comparing the system`s objects with the patch`s objects. SSDS will monitor vendor`s patch sites to determine when new patches are released and will upgrade system software on target systems automatically. This paper describes the design of SSDS. Motivations behind the project, the advantages of SSDS over existing tools as well as the current status of the project are also discussed. 2 figs.

  6. Secure key storage and distribution

    DOEpatents

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  7. Secure quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  8. Secure Distributed Human Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

    In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

  9. Application Security Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address

  10. Application Security Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  11. Security Data Warehouse Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, Lynn R.; Hennan, Robert; Ortiz, Chris; Gonzalez, Steve; Roane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Security Data Warehouse (SDW) is used to aggregate and correlate all JSC IT security data. This includes IT asset inventory such as operating systems and patch levels, users, user logins, remote access dial-in and VPN, and vulnerability tracking and reporting. The correlation of this data allows for an integrated understanding of current security issues and systems by providing this data in a format that associates it to an individual host. The cornerstone of the SDW is its unique host-mapping algorithm that has undergone extensive field tests, and provides a high degree of accuracy. The algorithm comprises two parts. The first part employs fuzzy logic to derive a best-guess host assignment using incomplete sensor data. The second part is logic to identify and correct errors in the database, based on subsequent, more complete data. Host records are automatically split or merged, as appropriate. The process had to be refined and thoroughly tested before the SDW deployment was feasible. Complexity was increased by adding the dimension of time. The SDW correlates all data with its relationship to time. This lends support to forensic investigations, audits, and overall situational awareness. Another important feature of the SDW architecture is that all of the underlying complexities of the data model and host-mapping algorithm are encapsulated in an easy-to-use and understandable Perl language Application Programming Interface (API). This allows the SDW to be quickly augmented with additional sensors using minimal coding and testing. It also supports rapid generation of ad hoc reports and integration with other information systems.

  12. A secure communications infrastructure for high-performance distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Koenig, G.; Tuecke, S.

    1997-08-01

    Applications that use high-speed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers, databases, and scientific instruments may operate over open networks and access valuable resources. Hence, they can require mechanisms for ensuring integrity and confidentially of communications and for authenticating both users and resources. Security solutions developed for traditional client-server applications do not provide direct support for the program structures, programming tools, and performance requirements encountered in these applications. The authors address these requirements via a security-enhanced version of the Nexus communication library; which they use to provide secure versions of parallel libraries and languages, including the Message Passing Interface. These tools permit a fine degree of control over what, where, and when security mechanisms are applied. In particular, a single application can mix secure and nonsecure communication, allowing the programmer to make fine-grained security/performance tradeoffs. The authors present performance results that quantify the performance of their infrastructure.

  13. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  14. Enhanced Usage of Keys Obtained by Physical, Unconditionally Secure Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Granqvist, Claes-Gran

    2015-04-01

    Unconditionally secure physical key distribution schemes are very slow, and it is practically impossible to use a one-time-pad based cipher to guarantee unconditional security for the encryption of data because using the key bits more than once gives out statistical information, for example via the known-plain-text-attack or by utilizing known components of the protocol and language statistics. Here, we outline a protocol that reduces this speed problem and allows almost-one-time-pad based communication with an unconditionally secure physical key of finite length. The physical, unconditionally secure key is not used for data encryption but is employed in order to generate and share a new software-based key without any known-plain-text component. The software-only-based key distribution is then changed from computationally secure to unconditionally secure, because the communicated key-exchange data (algorithm parameters, one-way functions of random numbers, etc.) are encrypted in an unconditionally secure way with a one-time-pad. For practical applications, this combined physical/software key distribution based communication looks favorable compared to the software-only and physical-only key distribution based communication whenever the speed of the physical key distribution is much lower than that of the software-based key distribution. A mathematical security proof of this new scheme remains an open problem.

  15. Security seal. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, G.W.

    1981-11-17

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to fingerprints are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  16. Computer security in DOE distributed computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The modernization of DOE facilities amid limited funding is creating pressure on DOE facilities to find innovative approaches to their daily activities. Distributed computing systems are becoming cost-effective solutions to improved productivity. This paper defines and describes typical distributed computing systems in the DOE. The special computer security problems present in distributed computing systems are identified and compared with traditional computer systems. The existing DOE computer security policy supports only basic networks and traditional computer systems and does not address distributed computing systems. A review of the existing policy requirements is followed by an analysis of the policy as it applies to distributed computing systems. Suggested changes in the DOE computer security policy are identified and discussed. The long lead time in updating DOE policy will require guidelines for applying the existing policy to distributed systems. Some possible interim approaches are identified and discussed. 2 refs.

  17. Integrating security in a group oriented distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, Michael; Birman, Kenneth; Gong, LI

    1992-01-01

    A distributed security architecture is proposed for incorporation into group oriented distributed systems, and in particular, into the Isis distributed programming toolkit. The primary goal of the architecture is to make common group oriented abstractions robust in hostile settings, in order to facilitate the construction of high performance distributed applications that can tolerate both component failures and malicious attacks. These abstractions include process groups and causal group multicast. Moreover, a delegation and access control scheme is proposed for use in group oriented systems. The focus is the security architecture; particular cryptosystems and key exchange protocols are not emphasized.

  18. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  19. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  20. Security of distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Thinh, Le Phuc; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-12-28

    Distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution stands out for its easy implementation with present day technology. For many years, a full security proof of these schemes in a realistic setting has been elusive. We solve this long-standing problem and present a generic method to prove the security of such protocols against general attacks. To illustrate our result, we provide lower bounds on the key generation rate of a variant of the coherent-one-way quantum key distribution protocol. In contrast to standard predictions, it appears to scale quadratically with the system transmittance. PMID:23368542

  1. Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test bed is expected to demonstrate NPSS CORBASec-specific policy functionality, confirm adequate performance, and validate the required Internet configuration in a distributed collaborative aerospace propulsion environment.

  3. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  4. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and

  5. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  6. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and

  7. Derived virtual devices: a secure distributed file system mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanMeter, Rodney; Hotz, Steve; Finn, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the design of derived virtual devices (DVDs). DVDs are the mechanism used by the Netstation Project to provide secure shared access to network-attached peripherals distributed in an untrusted network environment. DVDs improve Input/Output efficiency by allowing user processes to perform I/O operations directly from devices without intermediate transfer through the controlling operating system kernel. The security enforced at the device through the DVD mechanism includes resource boundary checking, user authentication, and restricted operations, e.g., read-only access. To illustrate the application of DVDs, we present the interactions between a network-attached disk and a file system designed to exploit the DVD abstraction. We further discuss third-party transfer as a mechanism intended to provide for efficient data transfer in a typical NAP environment. We show how DVDs facilitate third-party transfer, and provide the security required in a more open network environment.

  8. Video performance for high security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Jack C.; Norman, Bradley C.

    2010-06-01

    The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivity of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.

  9. Secure coprocessing applications and research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

  10. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  11. Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a “classical” party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution.

  12. Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a “classical” party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution. PMID:26813384

  13. Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a "classical" party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution. PMID:26813384

  14. Implementing a secure client/server application

    SciTech Connect

    Kissinger, B.A.

    1994-08-01

    There is an increasing rise in attacks and security breaches on computer systems. Particularly vulnerable are systems that exchange user names and passwords directly across a network without encryption. These kinds of systems include many commercial-off-the-shelf client/server applications. A secure technique for authenticating computer users and transmitting passwords through the use of a trusted {open_quotes}broker{close_quotes} and public/private keys is described in this paper.

  15. Irradiation applications for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.

    2004-09-01

    In October 2001, first-class mail laced with anthrax was sent to political and media targets resulting in several deaths, illnesses, significant mail-service disruption, and economic loss. The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy established a technical task force on mail decontamination that included three key agencies: National Institute of Standards and Technology with responsibility for radiation dosimetry and coordinating and performing experiments at industrial accelerator facilities; the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute with responsibility for radiobiology; and the US Postal Service with responsibility for radiation-processing quality assurance and quality control. An overview of the anthrax attack decontamination events will be presented as well as expectations for growth in this area and the prospects of other homeland security areas where irradiation technology can be applied.

  16. Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections

    SciTech Connect

    Maroey, Oystein; Lydersen, Lars; Skaar, Johannes

    2010-09-15

    We consider the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for quantum key distribution, with arbitrary individual imperfections simultaneously in the source and detectors. We provide the secure key generation rate and show that three parameters must be bounded to ensure security; the basis dependence of the source, a detector-blinding parameter, and a detector leakage parameter. The system may otherwise be completely uncharacterized and contain large losses.

  17. Applications for cyber security - System and application monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    Standard network security measures are adequate for defense against external attacks. However, many experts agree that the greater threat is from internal sources. Insiders with malicious intentions can change controller instructions, change alarm thresholds, and issue commands to equipment which can damage equipment and compromise control system integrity. In addition to strict physical security the state of the system must be continually monitored. System and application monitoring goes beyond the capabilities of network security appliances. It will include active processes, operating system services, files, network adapters and IP addresses. The generation of alarms is a crucial feature of system and application monitoring. The alarms should be integrated to avoid the burden on operators of checking multiple locations for security violations. Tools for system and application monitoring include commercial software, free software, and ad-hoc tools that can be easily created. System and application monitoring is part of a 'defense-in-depth' approach to a control network security plan. Layered security measures prevent an individual security measure failure from being exploited into a successful security breach. Alarming of individual failures is essential for rapid isolation and correction of single failures. System and application monitoring is the innermost layer of this defense strategy. (authors)

  18. Security for Multimedia Space Data Distribution over the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Thom; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Distribution of interactive multimedia to remote investigators will be required for high quality science on the International Space Station (ISS). The Internet with the World Wide Web (WWW) and the JAVA environment are a good match for distribution of data, video and voice to remote science centers. Utilizing the "open" Internet in a secure manner is the major hurdle in making use of this cost effective, off-the-shelf, universal resource. This paper examines the major security threats to an Internet distribution system for payload data and the mitigation of these threats. A proposed security environment for the Space Station Biological Research Facility (SSBRP) is presented with a short description of the tools that have been implemented or planned. Formulating and implementing a security policy, firewalls, host hardware and software security are also discussed in this paper. Security is a vast topic and this paper can only give an overview of important issues. This paper postulates that a structured approach is required and stresses that security must be built into a network from the start. Ignoring security issues or putting them off until late in the development cycle can be disastrous.

  19. Video motion detection for physical security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Matter, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Physical security specialists have been attracted to the concept of video motion detection for several years. Claimed potential advantages included additional benefit from existing video surveillance systems, automatic detection, improved performance compared to human observers, and cost effectiveness. In recent years significant advances in image processing dedicated hardware and image analysis algorithms and software have accelerated the successful application of video motion detection systems to a variety of physical security applications. Currently Sandia is developing several advanced systems that employ image processing techniques for a broader set of safeguards and security applications. TCATS (Target Cueing and Tracking System) uses a set of powerful, flexible, modular algorithms and software to alarm on purposeful target motion. Custom TCATS hardware optimized for perimeter security applications is currently being evaluated with video input. VISDTA (Video Imaging System for Detection, Tracking, and Assessment) uses some of the same TCATS algorithms and operates with a thermal imager input. In the scan mode, VISDTA detects changes in a scene from the previous image at a given scan point; in the stare mode, VISDTA detects purposeful motion similar to TCATS.

  20. Securing Provenance of Distributed Processes in an Untrusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syalim, Amril; Nishide, Takashi; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Recently, there is much concern about the provenance of distributed processes, that is about the documentation of the origin and the processes to produce an object in a distributed system. The provenance has many applications in the forms of medical records, documentation of processes in the computer systems, recording the origin of data in the cloud, and also documentation of human-executed processes. The provenance of distributed processes can be modeled by a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where each node represents an entity, and an edge represents the origin and causal relationship between entities. Without sufficient security mechanisms, the provenance graph suffers from integrity and confidentiality problems, for example changes or deletions of the correct nodes, additions of fake nodes and edges, and unauthorized accesses to the sensitive nodes and edges. In this paper, we propose an integrity mechanism for provenance graph using the digital signature involving three parties: the process executors who are responsible in the nodes' creation, a provenance owner that records the nodes to the provenance store, and a trusted party that we call the Trusted Counter Server (TCS) that records the number of nodes stored by the provenance owner. We show that the mechanism can detect the integrity problem in the provenance graph, namely unauthorized and malicious authorized updates even if all the parties, except the TCS, collude to update the provenance. In this scheme, the TCS only needs a very minimal storage (linear with the number of the provenance owners). To protect the confidentiality and for an efficient access control administration, we propose a method to encrypt the provenance graph that allows access by paths and compartments in the provenance graph. We argue that encryption is important as a mechanism to protect the provenance data stored in an untrusted environment. We analyze the security of the integrity mechanism, and perform experiments to measure the performance of both mechanisms.

  1. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  2. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  3. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  4. Secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Daegene

    2004-03-01

    We report two key distribution schemes achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. Using two Bell states, two bits of secret key can be shared between two distant parties that play symmetric and equal roles. We also address eavesdropping attacks against the schemes.

  5. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities. 230.139 Section 230.139 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General 230.139 Publications...

  6. New security infrastructure model for distributed computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubenskaya, J.; Kryukov, A.; Demichev, A.; Prikhodko, N.

    2016-02-01

    At the paper we propose a new approach to setting up a user-friendly and yet secure authentication and authorization procedure in a distributed computing system. The security concept of the most heterogeneous distributed computing systems is based on the public key infrastructure along with proxy certificates which are used for rights delegation. In practice a contradiction between the limited lifetime of the proxy certificates and the unpredictable time of the request processing is a big issue for the end users of the system. We propose to use unlimited in time hashes which are individual for each request instead of proxy certificate. Our approach allows to avoid using of the proxy certificates. Thus the security infrastructure of distributed computing system becomes easier for development, support and use.

  7. Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307?km of optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzh, Boris; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Houlmann, Raphael; Gisin, Nicolas; Li, Ming Jun; Nolan, Daniel; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Proposed in 1984, quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two users to exchange provably secure keys via a potentially insecure quantum channel. Since then, QKD has attracted much attention and significant progress has been made both in theory and practice. On the application front, however, the operating distance of practical fibre-based QKD systems is limited to about 150?km (ref. 4), mainly due to the high background noise of practical single-photon detectors and inefficient finite-key security analysis. Here, we present, for the first time, a compact and autonomous QKD system that is capable of distributing provably secure cryptographic keys over 307?km of optical fibre. This is achieved by using semiconductor single-photon detectors with record low background noise and a novel finite-key security analysis, which is efficient even for short key lengths. This demonstrates the feasibility of practical long-distance QKD based on standard fibre-optic telecom components.

  8. Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-09-15

    We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.

  9. Accelerators for Discovery Science and Security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, A. M. M.; Bluem, H. P.; Jarvis, J. D.; Park, J. H.; Rathke, J. W.; Schultheiss, T. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several Advanced Energy Systems (AES) accelerator projects that span applications in Discovery Science and Security are described. The design and performance of the IR and THz free electron laser (FEL) at the Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin that is now an operating user facility for physical chemistry research in molecular and cluster spectroscopy as well as surface science, is highlighted. The device was designed to meet challenging specifications, including a final energy adjustable in the range of 15-50 MeV, low longitudinal emittance (<50 keV-psec) and transverse emittance (<20 π mm-mrad), at more than 200 pC bunch charge with a micropulse repetition rate of 1 GHz and a macropulse length of up to 15 μs. Secondly, we will describe an ongoing effort to develop an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) source that is scheduled for completion in 2015 with prototype testing taking place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). This tabletop X-band system will find application in time-resolved chemical imaging and as a resource for drug-cell interaction analysis. A third active area at AES is accelerators for security applications where we will cover some top-level aspects of THz and X-ray systems that are under development and in testing for stand-off and portal detection.

  10. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outstanding Port Security Card... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.55 Outstanding Port Security Card Applications. A person who has filed an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior...

  11. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outstanding Port Security Card... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.55 Outstanding Port Security Card Applications. A person who has filed an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior...

  12. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outstanding Port Security Card... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.55 Outstanding Port Security Card Applications. A person who has filed an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior...

  13. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outstanding Port Security Card... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.55 Outstanding Port Security Card Applications. A person who has filed an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior...

  14. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outstanding Port Security Card... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.55 Outstanding Port Security Card Applications. A person who has filed an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior...

  15. Drop-in Security for Distributed and Portable Computing Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevelakis, Vassilis; Keromytis, Angelos

    2003-01-01

    Proposes the use of a special purpose drop-in firewall/VPN gateway called Sieve, that can be inserted between the mobile workstation and the network to provide individualized security services for that particular station. Discusses features and advantages of the system and demonstrates how Sieve was used in various application areas such as at

  16. Drop-in Security for Distributed and Portable Computing Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevelakis, Vassilis; Keromytis, Angelos

    2003-01-01

    Proposes the use of a special purpose drop-in firewall/VPN gateway called Sieve, that can be inserted between the mobile workstation and the network to provide individualized security services for that particular station. Discusses features and advantages of the system and demonstrates how Sieve was used in various application areas such as at…

  17. Passive terahertz imaging for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

  18. The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boileau, Jean Christian

    The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on one-way function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for one-way permutation-invariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the Devetak-Winter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain the implication, on the security level, of reducing a QKD protocol to an entanglement or a more general private state distillation protocol. In a different direction, we introduce a QKD protocol with multiple-photon encoding that can be implemented without a shared reference frame. We prove the unconditional security of this protocol, and discuss some features of the efficiency of multiple-photon QKD schemes in general.

  19. Restricted access processor - An application of computer security technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a security guard device that is currently being developed by Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The methods used to provide assurance that the system meets its security requirements include the system architecture, a system security evaluation, and the application of formal and informal verification techniques. The combination of state-of-the-art technology and the incorporation of new verification procedures results in a demonstration of the feasibility of computer security technology for operational applications.

  20. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark; Cooper, Robert; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system is described: a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when pre-existing, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  1. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Cooper, Robert; Wood, Mark; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system (a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software) is described. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real-time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user-defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when preexisting, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  2. Radiation Detection for Homeland Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, James

    2008-05-01

    In the past twenty years or so, there have been significant changes in the strategy and applications for homeland security. Recently there have been significant at deterring and interdicting terrorists and associated organizations. This is a shift in the normal paradigm of deterrence and surveillance of a nation and the `conventional' methods of warfare to the `unconventional' means that terrorist organizations resort to. With that shift comes the responsibility to monitor international borders for weapons of mass destruction, including radiological weapons. As a result, countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments at land, rail, air, and sea ports of entry in the US and in European and Asian countries. Radioactive signatures of concern include radiation dispersal devices (RDD), nuclear warheads, and special nuclear material (SNM). Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are used as the main screening tool for vehicles and cargo at borders, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. This talk will present an overview of radiation detection equipment with emphasis on radiation portal monitors. In the US, the deployment of radiation detection equipment is being coordinated by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office within the Department of Homeland Security, and a brief summary of the program will be covered. Challenges with current generation systems will be discussed as well as areas of investigation and opportunities for improvements. The next generation of radiation portal monitors is being produced under the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program and will be available for deployment in the near future. Additional technologies, from commercially available to experimental, that provide additional information for radiation screening, such as density imaging equipment, will be reviewed. Opportunities for further research and development to improve the current equipment and methodologies for radiation detection for the important task of homeland security will be the final topic to be discussed.

  3. Secure analysis of distributed chemical databases without data integration.

    PubMed

    Karr, Alan F; Feng, Jun; Lin, Xiaodong; Sanil, Ashish P; Young, S Stanley; Reiter, Jerome P

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for performing statistically valid linear regressions on the union of distributed chemical databases that preserves confidentiality of those databases. The method employs secure multi-party computation to share local sufficient statistics necessary to compute least squares estimators of regression coefficients, error variances and other quantities of interest. We illustrate our method with an example containing four companies' rather different databases. PMID:16267693

  4. Machine intelligence applications to securities production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    The production of security documents provides a cache of interesting problems ranging across a broad spectrum. Some of the problems do not have rigorous scientific solutions available at this time and provide opportunities for less structured approaches such as AI. AI methods can be used in conjunction with traditional scientific and computational methods. The most productive applications of AI occur when this marriage of methods can be carried out without motivation to prove that one method is better than the other. Fields such as ink chemistry and technology, and machine inspection of graphic arts printing offer interesting challenges which will continue to intrigue current and future generations of researchers into the 21st century.

  5. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... selling security holders during a distribution. 242.102 Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation M 242.102 Activities by issuers and selling security holders... or on behalf of an issuer or selling security holder, it shall be unlawful for such person, or...

  6. Security Applications Of Computer Motion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Andrew P.; Nelan, Joseph; Riter, Stephen; Frankel, Harry

    1987-05-01

    An important area of application of computer vision is the detection of human motion in security systems. This paper describes the development of a computer vision system which can detect and track human movement across the international border between the United States and Mexico. Because of the wide range of environmental conditions, this application represents a stringent test of computer vision algorithms for motion detection and object identification. The desired output of this vision system is accurate, real-time locations for individual aliens and accurate statistical data as to the frequency of illegal border crossings. Because most detection and tracking routines assume rigid body motion, which is not characteristic of humans, new algorithms capable of reliable operation in our application are required. Furthermore, most current detection and tracking algorithms assume a uniform background against which motion is viewed - the urban environment along the US-Mexican border is anything but uniform. The system works in three stages: motion detection, object tracking and object identi-fication. We have implemented motion detection using simple frame differencing, maximum likelihood estimation, mean and median tests and are evaluating them for accuracy and computational efficiency. Due to the complex nature of the urban environment (background and foreground objects consisting of buildings, vegetation, vehicles, wind-blown debris, animals, etc.), motion detection alone is not sufficiently accurate. Object tracking and identification are handled by an expert system which takes shape, location and trajectory information as input and determines if the moving object is indeed representative of an illegal border crossing.

  7. Secure distributed genome analysis for GWAS and sequence comparison computation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid increase in the availability and volume of genomic data makes significant advances in biomedical research possible, but sharing of genomic data poses challenges due to the highly sensitive nature of such data. To address the challenges, a competition for secure distributed processing of genomic data was organized by the iDASH research center. Methods In this work we propose techniques for securing computation with real-life genomic data for minor allele frequency and chi-squared statistics computation, as well as distance computation between two genomic sequences, as specified by the iDASH competition tasks. We put forward novel optimizations, including a generalization of a version of mergesort, which might be of independent interest. Results We provide implementation results of our techniques based on secret sharing that demonstrate practicality of the suggested protocols and also report on performance improvements due to our optimization techniques. Conclusions This work describes our techniques, findings, and experimental results developed and obtained as part of iDASH 2015 research competition to secure real-life genomic computations and shows feasibility of securely computing with genomic data in practice. PMID:26733307

  8. Scoring recognizability of faces for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Scaggiante, Andrea; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    In security applications the human face plays a fundamental role, however we have to assume non-collaborative subjects. A face can be partially visible or occluded due to common-use accessories such as sunglasses, hats, scarves and so on. Also the posture of the head influence the face recognizability. Given a video sequence in input, the proposed system is able to establish if a face is depicted in a frame, and to determine its degree of recognizability in terms of clearly visible facial features. The system implements features filtering scheme combined with a skin-based face detection to improve its the robustness to false positives and cartoon-like faces. Moreover the system takes into account the recognizability trend over a customizable sliding time window to allow a high level analysis of the subject behaviour. The recognizability criteria can be tuned for each specific application. We evaluate our system both in qualitative and quantitative terms, using a data set of manually annotated videos. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  9. Acoustic cueing for surveillance and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Brian G.; Lo, Kam W.

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic sensing systems are used to detect, localize, track and classify sources of military interest in real time with negligible false alarm rates. Automated acoustic systems are able to cue response systems and devices such as cameras for source identification. Two defense applications are demonstrated: one involves remote land-based surveillance where an array of unattended passive acoustic ground sensors automatically cues a day/night camera to observe the passage of ground vehicles, the landing of air vehicles on an isolated air strip, and the transit of motor-powered watercraft in estuarine waters. The video imagery is compressed and relayed via satellite to a central monitoring facility for input to the decision and intelligence processes. The other application is for in-harbor force protection and port infrastructure security where a high-frequency high-resolution monostatic active sonar automatically detects, localizes and tracks fast inshore surface watercraft in real time. A cavitating propeller forms a bubble wake that lasts several minutes and is highly reflective of the incident sonar energy. The wake, which traces the trajectory of the watercraft, is clearly delineated on the sonar display. The active sonar reliably estimates the instantaneous position of the moving source at each point along its path of travel. The sonar can be used to pan an imaging device to aid identification of the moving source or to vector autonomous response craft for intercept purposes.

  10. Advances in Adaptive Secure Message-Oriented Middleware for Distributed Business-Critical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abie, Habtamu; Savola, Reijo M.; Wang, Jinfu; Rotondi, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Distributed business-critical systems are often implemented using distributed messaging infrastructures with increasingly stringent requirements with regard to resilience, security, adaptability, intelligence and scalability. Current systems have limited ability in meeting these requirements. This paper describes advances in adaptive security, security metrics, anomaly detection and resilience, and authentication architecture in such distributed messaging systems.

  11. Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Renes, Joseph M.; Grassl, Markus

    2006-08-15

    Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an 'effective' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

  12. Lilith: A scalable secure tool for massively parallel distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R.C.; Camp, L.J.; Evensky, D.A.; Gentile, A.C.

    1997-06-01

    Changes in high performance computing have necessitated the ability to utilize and interrogate potentially many thousands of processors. The ASCI (Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative) program conducted by the United States Department of Energy, for example, envisions thousands of distinct operating systems connected by low-latency gigabit-per-second networks. In addition multiple systems of this kind will be linked via high-capacity networks with latencies as low as the speed of light will allow. Code which spans systems of this sort must be scalable; yet constructing such code whether for applications, debugging, or maintenance is an unsolved problem. Lilith is a research software platform that attempts to answer these questions with an end toward meeting these needs. Presently, Lilith exists as a test-bed, written in Java, for various spanning algorithms and security schemes. The test-bed software has, and enforces, hooks allowing implementation and testing of various security schemes.

  13. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    SciTech Connect

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  14. Social Security--Its Application to Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Stanley B., Jr.

    Many school boards are paying for certain fringe benefits that could be utilized to offset some of the costs of other fringe benefits. Perhaps the best example of this is the disability portion of Social Security. Persons disabled for more than one year may collect Social Security benefits equal to what they would receive on retirement at age 65.

  15. Incompleteness and limit of security theory of quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Osamu; Murakami, Dan; Kato, Kentaro; Futami, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    It is claimed in the many papers that a trace distance: d guarantees the universal composition security in quantum key distribution (QKD) like BB84 protocol. In this introduction paper, at first, it is explicitly explained what is the main misconception in the claim of the unconditional security for QKD theory. In general terms, the cause of the misunderstanding on the security claim is the Lemma in the paper of Renner. It suggests that the generation of the perfect random key is assured by the probability (1-d), and its failure probability is d. Thus, it concludes that the generated key provides the perfect random key sequence when the protocol is success. So the QKD provides perfect secrecy to the one time pad. This is the reason for the composition claim. However, the quantity of the trace distance (or variational distance) is not the probability for such an event. If d is not small enough, always the generated key sequence is not uniform. Now one needs the reconstruction of the evaluation of the trace distance if one wants to use it. One should first go back to the indistinguishability theory in the computational complexity based, and to clarify the meaning of the value of the variational distance. In addition, the same analysis for the information theoretic case is necessary. The recent serial papers by H.P.Yuen have given the answer on such questions. In this paper, we show more concise description of Yuen's theory, and clarify that the upper bound theories for the trace distance by Tomamichel et al and Hayashi et al are constructed by the wrong reasoning of Renner and it is unsuitable as the security analysis. Finally, we introduce a new macroscopic quantum communication to replace Q-bit QKD.

  16. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  17. Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bisbee, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

  18. Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.

    Particle accelerators play a key role in a broad set of defense and security applications, including war-fighter and asset protection, cargo inspection, nonproliferation, materials characterization, and stockpile stewardship. Accelerators can replace the high activity radioactive sources that pose a security threat to developing a radiological dispersal device, and, can be used to produce isotopes for medical, industrial, and research purposes. An overview of current and emerging accelerator technologies relevant to addressing the needs of defense and security is presented.

  19. Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

  20. A microwave imaging spectrometer for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirousek, Matthias; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the security of people and critical infrastructures is of increasing interest. Passive microwave sensors in the range of 1 - 100 GHz are suitable for the detection of concealed objects and wide-area surveillance through poor weather and at day and night time. The enhanced extraction of significant information about an observed object is enabled by the use of a spectral sensitive system. For such a spectral radiometer in the microwave range also some depth information can be extracted. The usable frequency range is thereby dependent on the application. For through-wall imaging or detection of covert objects such as for example landmines, the lower microwave range is best suited. On the other hand a high spatial resolution requires higher frequencies or instruments with larger physical dimensions. The drawback of a large system is the required movement of a mirror or a deflecting plate in the case of a mechanical scanner system, or a huge amount of receivers in a fully-electronic instrument like a focal plane array. An innovative technique to overcome these problems is the application of aperture synthesis using a highly thinned array. The combination of spectral radiometric measurements within a wide frequency band, at a high resolution, and requiring a minimum of receivers and only minor moving parts led to the development of the ANSAS instrument (Abbildendes Niederfrequenz-Spektrometer mit Apertursynthese). ANSAS is a very flexible aperture synthesis technology demonstrator for the analysis of main features and interactions concerning high spatial resolution and spectral sensing within a wide frequency range. It consists of a rotated linear thinned array and thus the spatial frequency spectrum is measured on concentric circles. Hence the number of receivers and correlators is reduced considerably compared to a fully two-dimensional array, and measurements still can be done in a reasonable time. In this paper the basic idea of ANSAS and its setup are briefly introduced. Some first imaging results showing the basic capabilities are illustrated. Possible error sources and their impacts are discussed by simulation and compared to the measured data.

  1. The application of Linear Cryptanalysis to Medical Information Security.

    PubMed

    Yunguang, Wang; Dong, Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the key issues of medical information security and is intended to spark discussion and generate comments for improvement. First we produce four definitions and one lemma of linear cryptanalysis about medical information, and then accordingly come to four important application of linear cryptanalysis to medical information security. PMID:17282829

  2. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the security challenges that face the virtual institute and the characteristics of the standards that must be employed. Section Four contains our proposal for documentation of the cybersecurity standards. Section Five contains the conclusion and suggestions for further work.

  3. A cooperative model for IS security risk management in distributed environment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Nan; Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively. PMID:24563626

  4. A Cooperative Model for IS Security Risk Management in Distributed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively. PMID:24563626

  5. Secure control systems with application to cyber-physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2014-01-01

    Control systems are computer-based systems with networked units consisting of sensors, actuators, control processing units, and communication devices. The role of control system is to interact, monitor, and control physical processes. Reactive power control is a fundamental issue in ensuring the security of the power network. It is claimed that Synchronous Condensers (SC) have been used at both distribution and transmission voltage levels to improve stability and to maintain voltages within desired limits under changing load conditions and contingency situations. Performance of PI controller corresponding to various tripping faults are analyzed for SC systems. Most of the eort in protecting these systems has been in protection against random failures or reliability. However, besides failures these systems are subject to various signal attacks for which new analysis are discussed here. When a breach does occur, it is necessary to react in a time commensurate with the physical dynamics of the system as it responds to the attack. Failure to act swiftly enough may result in undesirable, and possibly irreversible, physical eects. Therefore, it is meaningful to evaluate the security of a cyber-physical system, especially to protect it from cyber-attack. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to the SC systems.

  6. Consistency and Security in Mobile Real Time Distributed Database (MRTDDB): A Combinational Giant Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Gyanendra Kr.; Sharma, A. K.; Swaroop, Vishnu

    2010-11-01

    Many type of Information System are widely used in various fields. With the hasty development of computer network, Information System users care more about data sharing in networks. In traditional relational database, data consistency was controlled by consistency control mechanism when a data object is locked in a sharing mode, other transactions can only read it, but can not update it. If the traditional consistency control method has been used yet, the system's concurrency will be inadequately influenced. So there are many new necessities for the consistency control and security in MRTDDB. The problem not limited only to type of data (e.g. mobile or real-time databases). There are many aspects of data consistency problems in MRTDDB, such as inconsistency between attribute and type of data; the inconsistency of topological relations after objects has been modified. In this paper, many cases of consistency are discussed. As the mobile computing becomes well liked and the database grows with information sharing security is a big issue for researchers. Consistency and Security of data is a big challenge for researchers because when ever the data is not consistent and secure no maneuver on the data (e.g. transaction) is productive. It becomes more and more crucial when the transactions are used in non-traditional environment like Mobile, Distributed, Real Time and Multimedia databases. In this paper we raise the different aspects and analyze the available solution for consistency and security of databases. Traditional Database Security has focused primarily on creating user accounts and managing user privileges to database objects. But in the mobility and nomadic computing uses these database creating a new opportunities for research. The wide spread use of databases over the web, heterogeneous client-server architectures, application servers, and networks creates a critical need to amplify this focus. In this paper we also discuss an overview of the new and old database security challenges.

  7. 78 FR 4393 - Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program... Policy, Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Minorities and Retirement... Education (ED or the Department) and the United States Social Security Administration (SSA). The MRS...

  8. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto’s law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around α≈2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

  9. A resilient and secure software platform and architecture for distributed spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, William R.; Dubey, Abhishek; Karsai, Gabor

    2014-06-01

    A distributed spacecraft is a cluster of independent satellite modules flying in formation that communicate via ad-hoc wireless networks. This system in space is a cloud platform that facilitates sharing sensors and other computing and communication resources across multiple applications, potentially developed and maintained by different organizations. Effectively, such architecture can realize the functions of monolithic satellites at a reduced cost and with improved adaptivity and robustness. Openness of these architectures pose special challenges because the distributed software platform has to support applications from different security domains and organizations, and where information flows have to be carefully managed and compartmentalized. If the platform is used as a robust shared resource its management, configuration, and resilience becomes a challenge in itself. We have designed and prototyped a distributed software platform for such architectures. The core element of the platform is a new operating system whose services were designed to restrict access to the network and the file system, and to enforce resource management constraints for all non-privileged processes Mixed-criticality applications operating at different security labels are deployed and controlled by a privileged management process that is also pre-configuring all information flows. This paper describes the design and objective of this layer.

  10. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership distributions of marketable securities. 1.731-2 Section 1.731-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.731-2 Partnership distributions of marketable securities....

  11. Optimal service distribution in WSN service system subject to data security constraints.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. PMID:25093346

  12. Optimal Service Distribution in WSN Service System Subject to Data Security Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. PMID:25093346

  13. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  14. Enhanced Security-Constrained OPF With Distributed Battery Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, YF; Guo, CX; Kirschen, DS; Dong, SF

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how fast-response distributed battery energy storage could be used to implement post-contingency corrective control actions. Immediately after a contingency, the injections of distributed batteries could be adjusted to alleviate overloads and reduce flows below their short-term emergency rating. This ensures that the post-contingency system remains stable until the operator has redispatched the generation. Implementing this form of corrective control would allow operators to take advantage of the difference between the short-and long-term ratings of the lines and would therefore increase the available transmission capacity. This problem is formulated as a two-stage, enhanced security-constrained OPF problem, in which the first-stage optimizes the pre-contingency generation dispatch, while the second-stage minimizes the corrective actions for each contingency. Case studies based on a six-bus test system and on the RTS 96 demonstrate that the proposed method provides effective corrective actions and can guarantee operational reliability and economy.

  15. 76 FR 41829 - J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... COMMISSION J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order July 11, 2011... Act, with respect to an injunction entered against J.P. Morgan Securities LLC (``JPMS'') on July 8...) Limited (``JPMAMUK''), JPMorgan Distribution Services, Inc. (``JPMDS''), J.P. Morgan...

  16. 17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other than those they are distributing. 230.138 Section 230.138 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF...

  17. A secure distributed logistic regression protocol for the detection of rare adverse drug events

    PubMed Central

    El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Arbuckle, Luk; Tamblyn, Robyn; Earle, Craig; Kantarcioglu, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited capacity to assess the comparative risks of medications after they enter the market. For rare adverse events, the pooling of data from multiple sources is necessary to have the power and sufficient population heterogeneity to detect differences in safety and effectiveness in genetic, ethnic and clinically defined subpopulations. However, combining datasets from different data custodians or jurisdictions to perform an analysis on the pooled data creates significant privacy concerns that would need to be addressed. Existing protocols for addressing these concerns can result in reduced analysis accuracy and can allow sensitive information to leak. Objective To develop a secure distributed multi-party computation protocol for logistic regression that provides strong privacy guarantees. Methods We developed a secure distributed logistic regression protocol using a single analysis center with multiple sites providing data. A theoretical security analysis demonstrates that the protocol is robust to plausible collusion attacks and does not allow the parties to gain new information from the data that are exchanged among them. The computational performance and accuracy of the protocol were evaluated on simulated datasets. Results The computational performance scales linearly as the dataset sizes increase. The addition of sites results in an exponential growth in computation time. However, for up to five sites, the time is still short and would not affect practical applications. The model parameters are the same as the results on pooled raw data analyzed in SAS, demonstrating high model accuracy. Conclusion The proposed protocol and prototype system would allow the development of logistic regression models in a secure manner without requiring the sharing of personal health information. This can alleviate one of the key barriers to the establishment of large-scale post-marketing surveillance programs. We extended the secure protocol to account for correlations among patients within sites through generalized estimating equations, and to accommodate other link functions by extending it to generalized linear models. PMID:22871397

  18. System for efficient and secure distribution of medical images on the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. Z.; Wiederhold, G.

    1998-01-01

    Because of the high compressibility of the medical images, data compression is desirable for digital storage despite the availability of inexpensive hardware for mass storage. A progressive transmission algorithm with automatic security filtering features for on-line medical image distribution using Daubechies' wavelets has been developed and is discussed in this paper. The system is practical for real-world applications, processing and coding each 12-bit image of size 512 x 512 within 2 seconds on a Pentium Pro. Besides its exceptional speed, the security filter has demonstrated a remarkable accuracy in detecting sensitive textual information within current or digitized previous medical images. The algorithm is of linear run time. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9929350

  19. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks.

    PubMed

    Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl; Renner, Renato; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2013-01-18

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)]. PMID:23373907

  20. Swedish experience in secure health telematics applications.

    PubMed

    Ribbegrd, Gran

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, some common questions and parallel development of ICT for eGovernment and eHealth in Sweden are discussed. In that context, front office and back office are two areas of information security development. Furthermore, information will be provided on "Catch 22" getting means for eIdentification and eSignature out to a large part of the population. Thereby, the catch of how to use a Government procurement of eIdentification and eSignature must be solved. The paper evaluates the lessons learned and current situation in Sweden for eServices, certificates and smart cards. PMID:15061545

  1. Collaborative Knowledge Discovery & Marshalling for Intelligence & Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Jensen, Russell S.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Ellis, Peter C.; Fligg, Alan K.; McGrath, Liam R.; O'Hara, Kelly A.; Bell, Eric B.

    2010-05-24

    This paper discusses the Knowledge Encapsulation Framework, a flexible, extensible evidence-marshalling environment built upon a natural language processing pipeline and exposed to users via an open-source semantic wiki. We focus our discussion on applications of the framework to intelligence and security applications, specifically, an instantiation of the KEF environment for researching illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.

  2. Digital watermarking in telemedicine applications--towards enhanced data security and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, Aggeliki L; Perakis, Konstantinos; Tagaris, Anastassios; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2006-01-01

    Implementing telemedical solutions has become a trend amongst the various research teams at an international level. Yet, contemporary information access and distribution technologies raise critical issues that urgently need to be addressed, especially those related to security. The paper suggests the use of watermarking in telemedical applications in order to enhance security of the transmitted sensitive medical data, familiarizes the users with a telemedical system and a watermarking module that have already been developed, and proposes an architecture that will enable the integration of the two systems, taking into account a variety of use cases and application scenarios. PMID:17946760

  3. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  4. Quantum cryptography in real-life applications: Assumptions and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi

    Quantum cryptography, or quantum key distribution (QKD), provides a means of unconditionally secure communication. The security is in principle based on the fundamental laws of physics. Security proofs show that if quantum cryptography is appropriately implemented, even the most powerful eavesdropper cannot decrypt the message from a cipher. The implementations of quantum crypto-systems in real life may not fully comply with the assumptions made in the security proofs. Such discrepancy between the experiment and the theory can be fatal to the security of a QKD system. In this thesis we address a number of these discrepancies. A perfect single-photon source is often assumed in many security proofs. However, a weak coherent source is widely used in a real-life QKD implementation. Decoy state protocols have been proposed as a novel approach to dramatically improve the performance of a weak coherent source based QKD implementation without jeopardizing its security. Here, we present the first experimental demonstrations of decoy state protocols. Our experimental scheme was later adopted by most decoy state QKD implementations. In the security proof of decoy state protocols as well as many other QKD protocols, it is widely assumed that a sender generates a phase-randomized coherent state. This assumption has been enforced in few implementations. We close this gap in two steps: First, we implement and verify the phase randomization experimentally; second, we prove the security of a QKD implementation without the coherent state assumption. In many security proofs of QKD, it is assumed that all the detectors on the receiver's side have identical detection efficiencies. We show experimentally that this assumption may be violated in a commercial QKD implementation due to an eavesdropper's malicious manipulation. Moreover, we show that the eavesdropper can learn part of the final key shared by the legitimate users as a consequence of this violation of the assumptions.

  5. Application of homomorphism to secure image sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Hayat, Khizar; Brouzet, Robert

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for sharing images between l players by exploiting the additive and multiplicative homomorphic properties of two well-known public key cryptosystems, i.e. RSA and Paillier. Contrary to the traditional schemes, the proposed approach employs secret sharing in a way that limits the influence of the dealer over the protocol and allows each player to participate with the help of his key-image. With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own key-image using the dealer's public key. The dealer encrypts the secret-to-be-shared image with the same public key and then, the l encrypted key-images plus the encrypted to-be shared image are multiplied homomorphically to get another encrypted image. After this step, the dealer can safely get a scrambled image which corresponds to the addition or multiplication of the l + 1 original images ( l key-images plus the secret image) because of the additive homomorphic property of the Paillier algorithm or multiplicative homomorphic property of the RSA algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need to use keys and the dealer has no role. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own key-image with no specific order from the scrambled image. Thus, the proposed approach provides an opportunity to use operators like multiplication on encrypted images for the development of a secure privacy preserving protocol in the image domain. We show that it is still possible to extract a visible version of the secret image with only l-1 key-images (when one key-image is missing) or when the l key-images used for the extraction are different from the l original key-images due to a lossy compression for example. Experimental results and security analysis verify and prove that the proposed approach is secure from cryptographic viewpoint.

  6. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. 7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Responsibility Matters—Primary Covered Transactions, as required by 7 CFR part 3017; (8) A report by the borrower... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and... Private Financing § 1717.857 Refinancing of existing secured debt—distribution and power supply...

  8. Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

    This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the proceeds to buy either of two annuities that provide level payments from age 62 until death: a unisex annuity that is based on the average life expectancy of the birth cohort or an age-adjusted annuity that is based on the worker's own life expectancy. On the permanent income measure, OASI is generally more favorable to people in higher income quintiles. Moreover, it is particularly unfavorable to those in the lowest quintile. Because people in the lowest quintile have a shorter life expectancy, they receive OASI benefits for a shorter period. This group would receive greater benefits in retirement if they invested their payroll taxes in the age-adjusted annuity. OASI is more favorable to them than the unisex annuity, however, OASI is becoming more progressive in that the net benefits it provides drop more rapidly among higher income quintiles than lower ones. This article also examines how OASI affects individuals by educational attainment, race, and sex. On both the lifetime covered earnings and the permanent income measures, OASI is more favorable to workers with less education and more favorable to women. The results by race and ethnicity are mixed. When people are ranked by the present value of their shared lifetime covered earnings, OASI appears more favorable to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics than to non-Hispanic whites. When people are ranked by shared permanent income in retirement, however, OASI produces negative returns for both non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites in the most recent birth cohorts, with non-Hispanic blacks faring relatively worse. The changes across cohorts occur partly because of changes in tax rates and benefits, but more importantly because of changing demographics and earnings patterns of the workforce. Of particular importance is the increasing share of beneficiaries who receive worker benefits instead of auxiliary benefits as wives or widows. OASI benefits are based on the lifetime covered earnings of current or former married couples, as well as on earned retirement benefits of individuals. The reduced importance of auxiliary benefits (due to the higher lifetime covered earnings of women) and the increased proportion of divorced retirees make OASI more progressive--even as net benefits decline--for current and future cohorts than for cohorts who retired in the 1990s. Analysis of these findings suggests that simulations of policy changes in Social Security must take into account the decreasing importance of auxiliary benefits across birth cohorts and the complex changes in individuals' marital histories. PMID:15218634

  9. Database security and encryption technology research and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li-juan

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the current database information leakage problem, and discuss the important role played by the message encryption techniques in database security, As well as MD5 encryption technology principle and the use in the field of website or application. This article is divided into introduction, the overview of the MD5 encryption technology, the use of MD5 encryption technology and the final summary. In the field of requirements and application, this paper makes readers more detailed and clearly understood the principle, the importance in database security, and the use of MD5 encryption technology.

  10. X-ray imaging for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

  11. Wireless structural monitoring for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiremidjian, Garo K.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2004-07-01

    This paper addresses the development of a robust, low-cost, low power, and high performance autonomous wireless monitoring system for civil assets such as large facilities, new construction, bridges, dams, commercial buildings, etc. The role of the system is to identify the onset, development, location and severity of structural vulnerability and damage. The proposed system represents an enabling infrastructure for addressing structural vulnerabilities specifically associated with homeland security. The system concept is based on dense networks of "intelligent" wireless sensing units. The fundamental properties of a wireless sensing unit include: (a) interfaces to multiple sensors for measuring structural and environmental data (such as acceleration, displacements, pressure, strain, material degradation, temperature, gas agents, biological agents, humidity, corrosion, etc.); (b) processing of sensor data with embedded algorithms for assessing damage and environmental conditions; (c) peer-to-peer wireless communications for information exchange among units(thus enabling joint "intelligent" processing coordination) and storage of data and processed information in servers for information fusion; (d) ultra low power operation; (e) cost-effectiveness and compact size through the use of low-cost small-size off-the-shelf components. An integral component of the overall system concept is a decision support environment for interpretation and dissemination of information to various decision makers.

  12. 26 CFR 1.355-6 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-6 Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities... security agreements. An option that is part of a security arrangement in a typical lending transaction... purpose, a security arrangement includes, for example, an agreement for holding stock in escrow or under...

  13. 26 CFR 1.355-6 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-6 Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities... security agreements. An option that is part of a security arrangement in a typical lending transaction... purpose, a security arrangement includes, for example, an agreement for holding stock in escrow or under...

  14. 26 CFR 1.355-6 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-6 Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities... security agreements. An option that is part of a security arrangement in a typical lending transaction... purpose, a security arrangement includes, for example, an agreement for holding stock in escrow or under...

  15. 26 CFR 1.355-6 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-6 Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities... security agreements. An option that is part of a security arrangement in a typical lending transaction... purpose, a security arrangement includes, for example, an agreement for holding stock in escrow or under...

  16. Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Zeng, Guihua

    2010-04-01

    A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.

  17. Nanomaterials and their application to defense and homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, John G.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2004-01-01

    A critical issue to homeland security and defense is the development of broad range collectors and detectors of weapons of mass destruction. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are increasingly important in the area of such separation and detection. This article presents an overview of the research at the Forensic Science Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop nanostructured materials for applications to forensics and homeland security. Among the many types of nanomaterials reviewed are silica-based materials, molecular imprinted polymers, and silicon platforms. The main aim of the article is to optimize these new classes of materials for the collection concentration and detection of chemical weapons or other related compounds.

  18. Neutron resonance radiography for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    2002-11-01

    Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method, with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In the NRR method, a 2-D elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images taken at different neutron energies chosen to cover the resonance cross section features of one or more elements. Images are formed using a lens-coupled plastic scintillator-CCD combination. In preliminary experiments, we have produced NRR images of various simulants using a variable energy neutron beam based on the Li(p,n)Be reaction and a variable energy proton beam. In order to overcome practical limitations to this method, we have studied NRR imaging using the D-D reaction at a fixed incident D energy and scanning through various neutron energies by using the angular variation in neutron energy. The object-detector assembly rotates around the neutron source and different energy (2-6 MeV) neutrons can be obtained at different angles from a D-D neutron source. The radiographic image provides a 2-D mapping of the sum of elemental contents (weighted by the attenuation coefficients). Transmission measurements taken at different neutron energies (angles) form a set of linear equations, which can then be solved to map individual elemental contents.

  19. Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the infrastructure and protocols necessary to enable near-real-time commanding, access to space-based assets, and the secure interoperation between sensor webs owned and controlled by various entities. Select terrestrial and aeronautics-base sensor webs will be used to demonstrate time-critical interoperability between integrated, intelligent sensor webs both terrestrial and between terrestrial and space-based assets. For this work, a Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller and knowledge generation unit is implemented using Virtual Mission Operation Center technology.

  20. (Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices.

  1. Noble Gas Excimer Detectors for Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Michael V.; Chandra, Rico; Davatz, Giovanna; Lanza, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Noble gas excimer detectors are a technology that is common in particle physics research and less common in applications for security and international safeguards. These detectors offer the capability to detect gammas with an energy resolution similar to NaI and to detect neutrons with good energy resolution as well. Depending on the noble gas selected and whether or not it is in a gaseous or liquid state, the sensitivity to gammas and neutrons can be tuned according to the needs of the application. All of this flexibility can be available at a significant cost saving over alternative technologies. This paper will review this detector technology and its applicability to security and safeguards.

  2. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Distributed Information Brokering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fengjun

    2010-01-01

    As enormous structured, semi-structured and unstructured data are collected and archived by organizations in many realms ranging from business to health networks to government agencies, the needs for efficient yet secure inter-organization information sharing naturally arise. Unlike early information sharing approaches that only involve a small

  3. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Distributed Information Brokering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fengjun

    2010-01-01

    As enormous structured, semi-structured and unstructured data are collected and archived by organizations in many realms ranging from business to health networks to government agencies, the needs for efficient yet secure inter-organization information sharing naturally arise. Unlike early information sharing approaches that only involve a small…

  4. Towards secure quantum key distribution protocol for wireless LANs: a hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, R. Lalu; Reddy, P. Chenna

    2015-12-01

    The primary goals of security such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in communication networks can be achieved with secure key distribution. Quantum mechanisms are highly secure means of distributing secret keys as they are unconditionally secure. Quantum key distribution protocols can effectively prevent various attacks in the quantum channel, while classical cryptography is efficient in authentication and verification of secret keys. By combining both quantum cryptography and classical cryptography, security of communications over networks can be leveraged. Hwang, Lee and Li exploited the merits of both cryptographic paradigms for provably secure communications to prevent replay, man-in-the-middle, and passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme with the combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography for 802.11i wireless LANs. Since quantum cryptography is premature in wireless networks, our work is a significant step forward toward securing communications in wireless networks. Our scheme is known as hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. Our analytical results revealed that the proposed scheme is provably secure for wireless networks.

  5. Towards secure quantum key distribution protocol for wireless LANs: a hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, R. Lalu; Reddy, P. Chenna

    2015-09-01

    The primary goals of security such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in communication networks can be achieved with secure key distribution. Quantum mechanisms are highly secure means of distributing secret keys as they are unconditionally secure. Quantum key distribution protocols can effectively prevent various attacks in the quantum channel, while classical cryptography is efficient in authentication and verification of secret keys. By combining both quantum cryptography and classical cryptography, security of communications over networks can be leveraged. Hwang, Lee and Li exploited the merits of both cryptographic paradigms for provably secure communications to prevent replay, man-in-the-middle, and passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme with the combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography for 802.11i wireless LANs. Since quantum cryptography is premature in wireless networks, our work is a significant step forward toward securing communications in wireless networks. Our scheme is known as hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. Our analytical results revealed that the proposed scheme is provably secure for wireless networks.

  6. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a)...

  7. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partnership distributions of marketable securities. 1.731-2 Section 1.731-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.731-2 Partnership distributions of marketable...

  8. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partnership distributions of marketable securities. 1.731-2 Section 1.731-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.731-2 Partnership distributions of marketable...

  9. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partnership distributions of marketable securities. 1.731-2 Section 1.731-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.731-2 Partnership distributions of marketable...

  10. A strategy for the development of secure telemedicine applications.

    PubMed Central

    Raman, R. S.; Reddy, R.; Jagannathan, V.; Reddy, S.; Cleetus, K. J.; Srinivas, K.

    1997-01-01

    Healthcare applications based on computer-supported collaboration technologies have the potential to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. Such applications can help overcome barriers to quality healthcare in the small, scattered populations of rural areas enabling telemedicine to be a part of the practice of medicine. However the growing concern about the potential for abuse through disclosure of personal health information to unauthorized parties has restricted the deployment and adoption of these potentially valuable tools. The authors, who built ARTEMIS--an Intranet healthcare collaboration facility, now describe their approach to develop secure telemedicine applications for rural healthcare practitioners. PMID:9357645

  11. 26 CFR 1.1081-5 - Distribution solely of stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders 1.1081... such shareholder is made by the distributing corporation in obedience to an order of the Securities...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1081-5 - Distribution solely of stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders 1.1081-5... such shareholder is made by the distributing corporation in obedience to an order of the Securities...

  13. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2015-01-06

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  14. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    SciTech Connect

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2013-07-09

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  15. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  16. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-06-09

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  17. Field test of a fully distributed fiber optic intrusion detection system for long-distance security monitoring of national borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huijuan; Wang, Zinan; Peng, Fei; Peng, Zhengpu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yu; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we presented a successful field test of a fully distributed fiber-optical intrusion detection system for security monitoring of 220km long national borderline in China. Such a fiber fence shows its outstanding ability to operate at extreme weather conditions, like strong wind, heavy snow and storm, wide temperature range from -55 to +50, et al, which may be the most difficult and complicated environment for practical applications of fiber fences.

  18. Security of quantum key distribution using a simplified trusted relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, William; Annabestani, Razieh; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We propose a QKD protocol for trusted node relays. Our protocol shifts the communication and computational weight of classical postprocessing to the end users by reassigning the roles of error correction and privacy amplification, while leaving the exchange of quantum signals untouched. We perform a security analysis for this protocol based on the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol on the level of infinite key formulas, taking into account weak coherent implementations involving decoy analysis.

  19. Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.

    PubMed

    Stell, Anthony; Sinnott, Richard; Jiang, Jipu

    2010-01-01

    Many e-Health strategies rely on the secure integration of datasets that have previously resided in isolated locations, but can now in principle be accessed over the Internet. Of paramount importance in the health domain is the need for the security and privacy of data that is transmitted across these networks. One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors. The rarity of the tumors under study means the value of accessing, aggregating and comparing data from many centres is great indeed. However this is especially challenging given that ENSAT require clinical and genomic data to be seamlessly linked, but in such a way that the information governance, ethics and privacy concerns of the patients and associated stakeholders involved are visibly satisfied. Key to this is the clear separation of clinical and genomic data sets and support for rigorous patient-identity protecting access control. This is especially challenging when such data sets exist across different organisational boundaries. In this paper we describe a prototype solution offering a security-oriented tailored portal supported by a layered encryption-driven linkage technology (VANGUARD) that offers precisely such patient-privacy protecting capabilities. We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network. PMID:20543447

  20. Secure Message Distribution Scheme with Configurable Privacy in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahui; Ma, Jianfeng; Moon, Sangjae

    Security and privacy of wireless sensor networks are key research issues recently. Most existing researches regarding wireless sensor networks security consider homogenous sensor networks. To achieve better security and performance, we adopt a heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) model that consists of physically different types of sensor nodes. This paper presents a secure message distribution scheme with configurable privacy for HWSNs, which takes advantage of powerful high-end sensor nodes. The scheme establishes a message distribution topology in an efficient and secure manner. The sensor node only need generate one signature for all the messages for all the users, which can greatly save the communication and computation cost of the sensor node. On the other hand, the user can only know the messages that let him know based on a pre-set policy, which can meet the requirement of the privacy. We show that the scheme has small bandwidth requirements and it is resilient against the node compromise attack.

  1. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.

  2. Integrating CLIPS applications into heterogeneous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    SOCIAL is an advanced, object-oriented development tool for integrating intelligent and conventional applications across heterogeneous hardware and software platforms. SOCIAL defines a family of 'wrapper' objects called agents, which incorporate predefined capabilities for distributed communication and control. Developers embed applications within agents and establish interactions between distributed agents via non-intrusive message-based interfaces. This paper describes a predefined SOCIAL agent that is specialized for integrating C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS)-based applications. The agent's high-level Application Programming Interface supports bidirectional flow of data, knowledge, and commands to other agents, enabling CLIPS applications to initiate interactions autonomously, and respond to requests and results from heterogeneous remote systems. The design and operation of CLIPS agents are illustrated with two distributed applications that integrate CLIPS-based expert systems with other intelligent systems for isolating and mapping problems in the Space Shuttle Launch Processing System at the NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  3. T3: Secure, Scalable, Distributed Data Movement and Remote System Control for Enterprise Level Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Gregory S.; Nickless, William K.; Thiede, David R.; Gorton, Ian; Pitre, Bill J.; Christy, Jason E.; Faultersack, Elizabeth M.; Mauth, Jeffery A.

    2009-07-20

    Enterprise level cyber security requires the deployment, operation, and monitoring of many sensors across geographically dispersed sites. Communicating with the sensors to gather data and control behavior is a challenging task when the number of sensors is rapidly growing. This paper describes the system requirements, design, and implementation of T3, the third generation of our transport software that performs this task. T3 relies on open source software and open Internet standards. Data is encoded in MIME format messages and transported via NNTP, which provides scalability. OpenSSL and public key cryptography are used to secure the data. Robustness and ease of development are increased by defining an internal cryptographic API, implemented by modules in C, Perl, and Python. We are currently using T3 in a production environment. It is freely available to download and use for other projects.

  4. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information processors: form of application and amendments. 242.609 Section 242.609 Commodity and Securities....609 Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments. (a) An application for the registration of a securities information processor shall be filed on Form SIP (...

  5. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information processors: form of application and amendments. 242.609 Section 242.609 Commodity and Securities....609 Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments. (a) An application for the registration of a securities information processor shall be filed on Form SIP (...

  6. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information processors: form of application and amendments. 242.609 Section 242.609 Commodity and Securities....609 Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments. (a) An application for the registration of a securities information processor shall be filed on Form SIP (...

  7. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... information processors: form of application and amendments. 242.609 Section 242.609 Commodity and Securities....609 Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments. (a) An application for the registration of a securities information processor shall be filed on Form SIP (...

  8. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... information processors: form of application and amendments. 242.609 Section 242.609 Commodity and Securities....609 Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments. (a) An application for the registration of a securities information processor shall be filed on Form SIP (...

  9. An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IP networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)

  10. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  11. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  12. Provably secure time distribution for the electric grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Evans, P. G.; Williams, B. P.; Grice, W. P.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate a quantum time distribution (QTD) method that combines the precision of optical timing techniques with the integrity of quantum key distribution (QKD). Critical infrastructure is dependent on microprocessor- and programmable logic-based monitoring and control systems. The distribution of timing information across the electric grid is accomplished by GPS signals which are known to be vulnerable to spoofing. We demonstrate a method for synchronizing remote clocks based on the arrival time of photons in a modified QKD system. This has the advantage that the signal can be verified by examining the quantum states of the photons similar to QKD.

  13. Provably secure time distribution for the electric grid

    SciTech Connect

    Smith IV, Amos M; Evans, Philip G; Williams, Brian P; Grice, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a quantum time distribution (QTD) method that combines the precision of optical timing techniques with the integrity of quantum key distribution (QKD). Critical infrastructure is dependent on microprocessor- and programmable logic-based monitoring and control systems. The distribution of timing information across the electric grid is accomplished by GPS signals which are known to be vulnerable to spoofing. We demonstrate a method for synchronizing remote clocks based on the arrival time of photons in a modifed QKD system. This has the advantage that the signal can be veried by examining the quantum states of the photons similar to QKD.

  14. Security in Distributed Collaborative Environments: Limitations and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Rachid; Pierson, Jean-Marc; Brunie, Lionel

    The main goal of establishing collaboration between heterogeneous environment is to create such as Pervasive context which provide nomadic users with ubiquitous access to digital information and surrounding resources. However, the constraints of mobility and heterogeneity arise a number of crucial issues related to security, especially authentication access control and privacy. First of all, in this chapter we explore the trust paradigm, specially the transitive capability to enable a trust peer to peer collaboration. In this manner, when each organization sets its own security policy to recognize (authenticate) users members of a trusted community and provide them a local access (access control), the trust transitivity between peers will allows users to gain a broad, larger and controlled access inside the pervasive environment. Next, we study the problem of user's privacy. In fact in pervasive and ubiquitous environments, nomadic users gather and exchange certificates or credential which providing them rights to access by transitivity unknown and trusted environments. These signed documents embeds increasing number of attribute that require to be filtered according to such contextual situation. In this chapter, we propose a new morph signature enabling each certificate owner to preserve his privacy by discloses or blinds some sensitive attributes according to faced situation.

  15. A case for avoiding security-enhanced HTTP tools to improve security for Web-based applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes some of the general weaknesses of the current popular Hypertext Transmission Protocol (HTTP) security standards and products in an effort to show that these standards are not appealing for many applications. The author will then show how one can treat HTTP browsers and servers as untrusted elements in the network so that one can rely on other mechanisms to achieve better overall security than can be attained through today`s security-enhanced HTTP tools.

  16. A Secure Protocol to Distribute Unlinkable Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Bradley; Sweeney, Latanya

    2005-01-01

    Health data that appears anonymous, such as DNA records, can be re-identified to named patients via location visit patterns, or trails. This is a realistic privacy concern which continues to exist because data holders do not collaborate prior to making disclosures. In this paper, we present STRANON, a novel computational protocol that enables data holders to work together to determine records that can be disclosed and satisfy a formal privacy protection model. STRANON incorporates a secure encrypted environment, so no data holder reveals information until the trails of disclosed records are provably unlinkable. We evaluate STRANON on real-world datasets with known susceptibilities and demonstrate data holders can release significant quantities of data with zero trail re-identifiability. PMID:16779087

  17. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  18. Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  19. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J.

    2014-06-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  20. 49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment. 1572.17 Section 1572.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING...

  1. 49 CFR 1572.9 - Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment. 1572.9 Section 1572.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING...

  2. Security Applications of Diodes with Unique Current-Voltage Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhrmair, Ulrich; Jaeger, Christian; Hilgers, Christian; Algasinger, Michael; Csaba, Gyrgy; Stutzmann, Martin

    Diodes are among the most simple and inexpensive electric components. In this paper, we investigate how random diodes with irregular I(U) curves can be employed for crypto and security purposes. We show that such diodes can be used to build Strong Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs), Certificates of Authenticity (COAs), and Physically Obfuscated Keys (POKs), making them a broadly usable security tool. We detail how such diodes can be produced by an efficient and inexpensive method known as ALILE process. Furthermore, we present measurement data from real systems and discuss prototypical implementations. This includes the generation of helper data as well as efficient signature generation by elliptic curves and 2D barcode generation for the application of the diodes as COAs.

  3. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-07-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report.

  4. Task Assignment Heuristics for Distributed CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Benitez, N.; Djomehri, M. J.; Biswas, R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    CFD applications require high-performance computational platforms: 1. Complex physics and domain configuration demand strongly coupled solutions; 2. Applications are CPU and memory intensive; and 3. Huge resource requirements can only be satisfied by teraflop-scale machines or distributed computing.

  5. Intelligent Facial Recognition Systems: Technology advancements for security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just credentials or badges) in a given sensitive area and provide full time personnel accountability. One approach desirable at Department of Energy facilities for access control and/or personnel identification is an Intelligent Facial Recognition System (IFRS) that is non-invasive to personnel. Automatic facial recognition does not require the active participation of the enrolled subjects, unlike most other biological measurement (biometric) systems (e.g., fingerprint, hand geometry, or eye retinal scan systems). It is this feature that makes an IFRS attractive for applications other than access control such as emergency evacuation verification, screening, and personnel tracking. This paper discusses current technology that shows promising results for DOE and other security applications. A survey of research and development in facial recognition identified several companies and universities that were interested and/or involved in the area. A few advanced prototype systems were also identified. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating facial recognition systems that are in the advanced prototype stage. The initial application for the evaluation is access control in a controlled environment with a constant background and with cooperative subjects. Further evaluations will be conducted in a less controlled environment, which may include a cluttered background and subjects that are not looking towards the camera. The outcome of the evaluations will help identify areas of facial recognition systems that need further development and will help to determine the effectiveness of the current systems for security applications.

  6. Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas

    2011-07-15

    By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.

  7. Multi Party Distributed Private Matching, Set Disjointness and Cardinality of Set Intersection with Information Theoretic Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya Narayanan, G.; Aishwarya, T.; Agrawal, Anugrah; Patra, Arpita; Choudhary, Ashish; Pandu Rangan, C.

    In this paper, we focus on the specific problems of Private Matching, Set Disjointness and Cardinality of Set Intersection in information theoretic settings. Specifically, we give perfectly secure protocols for the above problems in n party settings, tolerating a computationally unbounded semi-honest adversary, who can passively corrupt at most t < n/2 parties. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first such information theoretically secure protocols in a multi-party setting for all the three problems. Previous solutions for Distributed Private Matching and Cardinality of Set Intersection were cryptographically secure and the previous Set Disjointness solution, though information theoretically secure, is in a two party setting. We also propose a new model for Distributed Private matching which is relevant in a multi-party setting.

  8. Unconditional security proof of a deterministic quantum key distribution with a two-way quantum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Hua; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Ma Xiongfeng; Cai Qingyu

    2011-10-15

    In a deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol with a two-way quantum channel, Bob sends a qubit to Alice who then encodes a key bit onto the qubit and sends it back to Bob. After measuring the returned qubit, Bob can obtain Alice's key bit immediately, without basis reconciliation. Since an eavesdropper may attack the qubits traveling on either the Bob-Alice channel or the Alice-Bob channel, the security analysis of DQKD protocol with a two-way quantum channel is complicated and its unconditional security has been controversial. This paper presents a security proof of a single-photon four-state DQKD protocol against general attacks.

  9. Security evaluation of the quantum key distribution system with two-mode squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Osaki, M.; Ban, M.

    2003-08-01

    The quantum key distribution (QKD) system with two-mode squeezed states has been demonstrated by Pereira et al. [Phys. Rev. A 62, 042311 (2000)]. They evaluate the security of the system based on the signal to noise ratio attained by a homodyne detector. In this paper, we discuss its security based on the error probability individually attacked by eavesdropper with the unambiguous or the error optimum detection. The influence of the energy loss at transmission channels is also taken into account. It will be shown that the QKD system is secure under these conditions.

  10. Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol for Defense Applications in Military Operations Using Virtual Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    With the advent into the 20th century whole world has been facing the common dilemma of Terrorism. The suicide attacks on US twin towers 11 Sept. 2001, Train bombings in Madrid Spain 11 Mar. 2004, London bombings 7 Jul. 2005 and Mumbai attack 26 Nov. 2008 were some of the most disturbing, destructive and evil acts by terrorists in the last decade which has clearly shown their evil intent that they can go to any extent to accomplish their goals. Many terrorist organizations such as al Quaida, Harakat ul-Mujahidin, Hezbollah, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Toiba, etc. are carrying out training camps and terrorist operations which are accompanied with latest technology and high tech arsenal. To counter such terrorism our military is in need of advanced defense technology. One of the major issues of concern is secure communication. It has to be made sure that communication between different military forces is secure so that critical information is not leaked to the adversary. Military forces need secure communication to shield their confidential data from terrorist forces. Leakage of concerned data can prove hazardous, thus preservation and security is of prime importance. There may be a need to perform computations that require data from many military forces, but in some cases the associated forces would not want to reveal their data to other forces. In such situations Secure Multi-party Computations find their application. In this paper, we propose a new highly scalable Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC) protocol and algorithm for Defense applications which can be used to perform computation on encrypted data. Every party encrypts their data in accordance with a particular scheme. This encrypted data is distributed among some created virtual parties. These Virtual parties send their data to the TTP through an Anonymizer layer. TTP performs computation on encrypted data and announces the result. As the data sent was encrypted its actual value can’t be known by TTP and with the use of Anonymizers we have covered the identity of true source of data. Modifier tokens are generated along encryption of data which are distributed among virtual parties, then sent to TTP and finally used in the computation. Thus without revealing the data, right result can be computed and privacy of the parties is maintained. We have also given a probabilistic security analysis of hacking the protocol and shown how zero hacking security can be achieved.

  11. Using Science Driven Technologies for the Defense and Security Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Zukor, Dorthy; Ambrose, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    For the past three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing enormous amounts of useful data and information in broadening our understanding of our home planet as a system. This research, as it has expanded our learning process, has also generated additional questions. This has further resulted in establishing new science requirements, which have culminated in defining and pushing the state-of-the-art technology needs. NASA s Earth science program has deployed 18 highly complex satellites, with a total of 80 sensors, so far and is in a process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in the next decade. Due to the heightened security alert of the nation, researchers and technologists are paying serious attention to the use of these science driven technologies for dual use. In other words, how such sophisticated observing and measuring systems can be used in detecting multiple types of security concerns with a substantial lead time so that the appropriate law enforcement agencies can take adequate steps to defuse any potential risky scenarios. This paper examines numerous NASA technologies such as laser/lidar systems, microwave and millimeter wave technologies, optical observing systems, high performance computational techniques for rapid analyses, and imaging products that can have a tremendous pay off for security applications.

  12. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  13. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  14. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  15. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  16. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  17. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  18. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  19. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  20. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  1. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  2. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for airborne and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stuart E.; Lovberg, John A.; Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

    2003-08-01

    As a result of its relatively short wavelength coupled with relatively high penetration of such things as fog, bad weather and clothing, millimeter-wave imaging provides a powerful tool for both airborne and security type applications. By using a passive approach such as that implemented here, it is possible to image through bad weather or detect concealed weapons and articles all without generating any form of radiation that might either help an enemey or raise health concerns. In this paper we will show imagery from our second generation state-of-the-art unit and discuss the technology involved.

  3. Image fusion technology for security and surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Tom; Smith, Moira

    2006-09-01

    Image fusion technology offers a range of potential benefits to the security and surveillance community, including increased situational awareness and enhanced detection capabilities. This paper reports on how image fusion technology is being adapted from the military arena (in which it is generally found today) to provide a new and powerful asset in the fight against crime and terrorism. The combination of detection and tracking processing with image fusion is discussed and assessed. Finally, a number of specific examples are presented which include land, air, and sea applications.

  4. Verification of secure distributed systems in higher order logic: A modular approach using generic components

    SciTech Connect

    Alves-Foss, J.; Levitt, K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of McCullough's restrictiveness model as the basis for proving security properties about distributed system designs. We mechanize this generalization and an event-based model of computer systems in the HOL (Higher Order Logic) system to prove the composability of the model and several other properties about the model. We then develop a set of generalized classes of system components and show for which families of user views they satisfied the model. Using these classes we develop a collection of general system components that are instantiations of one of these classes and show that the instantiations also satisfied the security property. We then conclude with a sample distributed secure system, based on the Rushby and Randell distributed system design and designed using our collection of components, and show how our mechanized verification system can be used to verify such designs. 16 refs., 20 figs.

  5. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  6. 78 FR 72132 - RBS Securities Inc. and Citizens Investment Advisors; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...-owned subsidiary of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc (``RBSG''). RBS Securities does not serve as..., controlled by, or under common control, with the other person. ] Applicants state that RBS Securities is...

  7. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of the diver's depth based on the IR surface manifestation. To reduce the impact of measurement and data processing errors in this natural very noisy environment, a computer based analysis process was developed and optimized for this very specific application. Based on its assessment previous contradictions in the bubble growth could be resolved.

  8. Secure Large-Scale Airport Simulations Using Distributed Computational Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermott, William J.; Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Tran, Peter; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To fully conduct research that will support the far-term concepts, technologies and methods required to improve the safety of Air Transportation a simulation environment of the requisite degree of fidelity must first be in place. The Virtual National Airspace Simulation (VNAS) will provide the underlying infrastructure necessary for such a simulation system. Aerospace-specific knowledge management services such as intelligent data-integration middleware will support the management of information associated with this complex and critically important operational environment. This simulation environment, in conjunction with a distributed network of supercomputers, and high-speed network connections to aircraft, and to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline and other data-sources will provide the capability to continuously monitor and measure operational performance against expected performance. The VNAS will also provide the tools to use this performance baseline to obtain a perspective of what is happening today and of the potential impact of proposed changes before they are introduced into the system.

  9. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Virendra V.; Wang, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, `on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA.

  10. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra V; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-14

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, 'on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA. PMID:26554557

  11. Security applications of a remote electric-field sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prance, Robert J.; Harland, Christopher J.; Prance, Helen

    2008-10-01

    A new generation of electric field sensors developed at the University of Sussex is enabling an alternative to contact voltage and non-contact magnetic field measurements. We have demonstrated the capability of this technology in a number of areas including ECG through clothing, remote off-body ECG, through wall movement sensing and electric field imaging. Clearly, there are many applications for a generic sensor technology with this capability, including long term vital sign monitoring. The non-invasive nature of the measurement also makes these sensors ideal for man/machine and human/robot interfacing. In addition, there are obvious security and biometric possibilities since we can obtain physiological data remotely, without the knowledge of the subject. This is a clear advantage if such systems are to be used for evaluating the psychological state of a subject. In this paper we report the results obtained with a new version of the sensor which is capable of acquiring electrophysiological signals remotely in an open unshielded laboratory. We believe that this technology opens up a new area of remote biometrics which could have considerable implications for security applications. We have also demonstrated the ability of EPS to function in closely-packed one and two dimensional arrays for real-time imaging.

  12. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Owen S; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M; Lee, Michael Z; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

  13. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Owen S.; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M.; Lee, Michael Z.; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

  14. Establishing security of quantum key distribution without monitoring disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koashi, Masato

    2015-10-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, the information leak to an eavesdropper is estimated through the basic principle of quantum mechanics dictated in the original version of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The amount of leaked information on a shared sifted key is bounded from above essentially by using information-disturbance trade-off relations, based on the amount of signal disturbance measured via randomly sampled or inserted probe signals. Here we discuss an entirely different avenue toward the private communication, which does not rely on the information disturbance trade-off relations and hence does not require a monitoring of signal disturbance. The independence of the amount of privacy amplification from that of disturbance tends to give it a high tolerance on the channel noises. The lifting of the burden of precise statistical estimation of disturbance leads to a favorable finite-key-size effect. A protocol based on the novel principle can be implemented by only using photon detectors and classical optics tools: a laser, a phase modulator, and an interferometer. The protocol resembles the differential-phase-shift QKD protocol in that both share a simple binary phase shift keying on a coherent train of weak pulses from a laser. The difference lies in the use of a variable-delay interferometer in the new protocol, which randomly changes the combination of pulse pairs to be superposed. This extra randomness has turned out to be enough to upper-bound the information extracted by the eavesdropper, regardless of how they have disturbed the quantum signal.

  15. Web-Based Training Applications in Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.L.

    1999-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires all employees who hold a security clearance and have access to classified information and/or special nuclear material to be trained in the area of Safeguards and Security. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, personnel who are responsible for training have capitalized on this communication medium to develop and deliver Web-based training. Unlike traditional computer based training where the student was required to find a workstation where the training program resided, one of Web-based training strongest advantage is that the training can be delivered right to the workers desk top computer. This paper will address reasons for the driving forces behind the utilization of Web-based training at the Laboratory with a brief explanation of the different types of training conducted. Also discussed briefly is the different types of distance learning used in conjunction with Web-based training. The implementation strategy will be addressed and how the Laboratory utilized a Web-Based Standards Committee to develop standards for Web-based training applications. Web-based problems resulting from little or no communication between training personnel across the Laboratory will be touched on and how this was solved. Also discussed is the development of a ''Virtual Training Center'' where personnel can shop on-line for their training needs. Web-based training programs within the Safeguards and Security arena will be briefly discussed. Specifically, Web-based training in the area of Materials Control and Accountability will be explored. A Web-based example of what a student would experience during a training session is also discussed. A short closing statement of what the future of Web-based Training holds in the future is offered.

  16. Extended inverse Lindley distribution: properties and application.

    PubMed

    Alkarni, Said Hofan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an extension of the inverse Lindley distribution, which offers more flexibility in modeling upside-down bathtub lifetime data. Some statistical properties of the proposed distribution are explicitly derived. These include density and hazard rate functions with their behavior, moments, moment generating function, skewness, kurtosis measures, and quantile function. Maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters and their estimated asymptotic distribution and confidence intervals are derived. Rnyi entropy as a measure of the uncertainty in the model is derived. The application of the model to a real data set i.e., the flood levels for the Susquehanna river at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, over 20 four-year periods from 1890 to 1969 is compared to the fit attained by some other well-known existing distributions. PMID:26576333

  17. A Rich Client-Server Based Framework for Convenient Security and Management of Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badan, Stephen; Probst, Julien; Jaton, Markus; Vionnet, Damien; Wagen, Jean-Frdric; Litzistorf, Grald

    Contact lists, Emails, SMS or custom applications on a professional smartphone could hold very confidential or sensitive information. What could happen in case of theft or accidental loss of such devices? Such events could be detected by the separation between the smartphone and a Bluetooth companion device. This event should typically block the applications and delete personal and sensitive data. Here, a solution is proposed based on a secured framework application running on the mobile phone as a rich client connected to a security server. The framework offers strong and customizable authentication and secured connectivity. A security server manages all security issues. User applications are then loaded via the framework. User data can be secured, synchronized, pushed or pulled via the framework. This contribution proposes a convenient although secured environment based on a client-server architecture using external authentications. Several features of the proposed system are exposed and a practical demonstrator is described.

  18. A secure RFID-based WBAN for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Alamri, Atif

    2013-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) allows the seamless integration of small and intelligent invasive or non-invasive sensor nodes in, on or around a human body for continuous health monitoring. These nodes are expected to use different power-efficient protocols in order to extend the WBAN lifetime. This paper highlights the power consumption and security issues of WBAN for healthcare applications. Numerous power saving mechanisms are discussed and a secure RFID-based protocol for WBAN is proposed. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed and compared with that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols using extensive simulations. It is shown that the proposed protocol is power-efficient and protects patients' data from adversaries. It is less vulnerable to different attacks compared to that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols. For a low traffic load and a single alkaline battery of capacity 2.6 Ah, the proposed protocol could extend the WBAN lifetime, when deployed on patients in hospitals or at homes, to approximately five years. PMID:24061704

  19. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2012-01-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers. PMID:23175590

  20. Applying SOA Concepts to Distributed Industrial Applications Using WCF Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopper, Markus; Gastermann, Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Software Development is subject to a constant process of change. In the meantime web services, access to remote services or distributed applications are already the standard. Simultaneously with their advancement demands on these techniques are rising significantly. Defined support for security issues, coordination of transactions and reliable communications are expected. Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)—as a part of Microsoft Corporation's .NET Framework—supports these requirements in line with wide range interoperability. WCF provides the development of distributed and interconnected software applications by means of a service-oriented programming model. This paper introduces a service-oriented communication concept based on WCF, which is specifically designed for industrial applications within a production environment using a central manufacturing information system (MIS) database. It introduces applied technologies and provides an overview of some important design aspects and base service sets of WCF. Additionally, this paper also shows a factual implementation of the presented service-oriented communication concept in the form of an industrial software application used in plastics industry.

  1. Quantum key distribution for security guarantees over QoS-driven 3D satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, quantum-based communication is emerging as a new technique for ensuring secured communications because it can guarantee absolute security between two different remote entities. Quantum communication performs the transmission and exchange of quantum information among distant nodes within a network. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a methodology for generating and distributing random encryption keys using the principles of quantum physics. In this paper, we investigate the techniques on how to efficiently use QKD in 3D satellite networks and propose an effective method to overcome its communications-distance limitations. In order to implement secured and reliable communications over wireless satellite links, we develop a free-space quantum channel model in satellite communication networks. To enlarge the communications distances over 3D satellite networks, we propose to employ the intermediate nodes to relay the unconditional keys and guarantee the Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER) for security requirement over 3D satellite networks. We also propose the communication model for QKD security-Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee and an adaptive cooperative routing selection scheme to optimize the throughput performance of QKD-based satellite communications networks. The obtained simulation results verify our proposed schemes.

  2. A Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    Effective planning, response, and recovery (PRR) involving terrorist attacks or natural disasters come with a vast array of information needs. Much of the required information originates from disparate sources in widely differing formats. However, one common attribute the information often possesses is physical location. The organization and visualization of this information can be critical to the success of the PRR mission. Organizing information geospatially is often the most intuitive for the user. In the course of developing a field tool for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office for Bombing Prevention, a geospatial integrated problem solving environment software framework was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This framework has proven useful as well in a number of other DHS, Department of Defense, and Department of Energy projects. An overview of the software architecture along with application examples are presented.

  3. An Elliptic Curve Based Schnorr Cloud Security Model in Distributed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Muthurajan, Vinothkumar; Narayanasamy, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing requires the security upgrade in data transmission approaches. In general, key-based encryption/decryption (symmetric and asymmetric) mechanisms ensure the secure data transfer between the devices. The symmetric key mechanisms (pseudorandom function) provide minimum protection level compared to asymmetric key (RSA, AES, and ECC) schemes. The presence of expired content and the irrelevant resources cause unauthorized data access adversely. This paper investigates how the integrity and secure data transfer are improved based on the Elliptic Curve based Schnorr scheme. This paper proposes a virtual machine based cloud model with Hybrid Cloud Security Algorithm (HCSA) to remove the expired content. The HCSA-based auditing improves the malicious activity prediction during the data transfer. The duplication in the cloud server degrades the performance of EC-Schnorr based encryption schemes. This paper utilizes the blooming filter concept to avoid the cloud server duplication. The combination of EC-Schnorr and blooming filter efficiently improves the security performance. The comparative analysis between proposed HCSA and the existing Distributed Hash Table (DHT) regarding execution time, computational overhead, and auditing time with auditing requests and servers confirms the effectiveness of HCSA in the cloud security model creation. PMID:26981584

  4. An Elliptic Curve Based Schnorr Cloud Security Model in Distributed Environment.

    PubMed

    Muthurajan, Vinothkumar; Narayanasamy, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing requires the security upgrade in data transmission approaches. In general, key-based encryption/decryption (symmetric and asymmetric) mechanisms ensure the secure data transfer between the devices. The symmetric key mechanisms (pseudorandom function) provide minimum protection level compared to asymmetric key (RSA, AES, and ECC) schemes. The presence of expired content and the irrelevant resources cause unauthorized data access adversely. This paper investigates how the integrity and secure data transfer are improved based on the Elliptic Curve based Schnorr scheme. This paper proposes a virtual machine based cloud model with Hybrid Cloud Security Algorithm (HCSA) to remove the expired content. The HCSA-based auditing improves the malicious activity prediction during the data transfer. The duplication in the cloud server degrades the performance of EC-Schnorr based encryption schemes. This paper utilizes the blooming filter concept to avoid the cloud server duplication. The combination of EC-Schnorr and blooming filter efficiently improves the security performance. The comparative analysis between proposed HCSA and the existing Distributed Hash Table (DHT) regarding execution time, computational overhead, and auditing time with auditing requests and servers confirms the effectiveness of HCSA in the cloud security model creation. PMID:26981584

  5. Simple proof of the unconditional security of the Bennett 1992 quantum key distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Zhang; Chaojing, Tang

    2002-06-01

    It is generally accepted that quantum key distribution (QKD) could supply legitimate users with unconditional security during their communication. Quite a lot of satisfactory efforts have been achieved on experimentations with quantum cryptography. However, when the eavesdropper has extra-powerful computational ability, has access to a quantum computer, for example, and can carry into execution any eavesdropping measurement that is allowed by the laws of physics, the security against such attacks has not been widely studied and rigorously proved for most QKD protocols. Quite recently, Shor and Preskill proved concisely the unconditional security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Their method is highly valued for its clarity of concept and concision of form. In order to take advantage of the Shor-Preskill technique in their proof of the unconditional security of the BB84 QKD protocol, we introduced in this paper a transformation that can translate the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol into the BB84 protocol. By proving that the transformation leaks no more information to the eavesdropper, we proved the unconditional security of the B92 protocol. We also settled the problem proposed by Lo about how to prove the unconditional security of the B92 protocol with the Shor-Preskill method.

  6. Guidelines for developing distributed virtual environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    1998-08-01

    We have conducted a variety of projects that served to investigate the limits of virtual environments and distributed virtual environment (DVE) technology for the military and medical professions. The projects include an application that allows the user to interactively explore a high-fidelity, dynamic scale model of the Solar System and a high-fidelity, photorealistic, rapidly reconfigurable aircraft simulator. Additional projects are a project for observing, analyzing, and understanding the activity in a military distributed virtual environment, a project to develop a distributed threat simulator for training Air Force pilots, a virtual spaceplane to determine user interface requirements for a planned military spaceplane system, and an automated wingman for use in supplementing or replacing human-controlled systems in a DVE. The last two projects are a virtual environment user interface framework; and a project for training hospital emergency department personnel. In the process of designing and assembling the DVE applications in support of these projects, we have developed rules of thumb and insights into assembling DVE applications and the environment itself. In this paper, we open with a brief review of the applications that were the source for our insights and then present the lessons learned as a result of these projects. The lessons we have learned fall primarily into five areas. These areas are requirements development, software architecture, human-computer interaction, graphical database modeling, and construction of computer-generated forces.

  7. Continuous variable quantum key distribution: finite-key analysis of composable security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Furrer, F; Franz, T; Berta, M; Leverrier, A; Scholz, V B; Tomamichel, M; Werner, R F

    2012-09-01

    We provide a security analysis for continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols based on the transmission of two-mode squeezed vacuum states measured via homodyne detection. We employ a version of the entropic uncertainty relation for smooth entropies to give a lower bound on the number of secret bits which can be extracted from a finite number of runs of the protocol. This bound is valid under general coherent attacks, and gives rise to keys which are composably secure. For comparison, we also give a lower bound valid under the assumption of collective attacks. For both scenarios, we find positive key rates using experimental parameters reachable today. PMID:23005270

  8. On KLJN-based Secure Key Distribution in Vehicular Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Saez, Y.; Pesti, G.; Kish, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    In a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett. 13 (2014) 1450020] we introduced a vehicular communication system with unconditionally secure key exchange based on the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme. In this paper, we address the secure KLJN key donation to vehicles. This KLJN key donation solution is performed lane-by-lane by using roadside key provider equipment embedded in the pavement. A method to compute the lifetime of the KLJN key is also given. This key lifetime depends on the car density and gives an upper limit of the lifetime of the KLJN key for vehicular communication networks.

  9. Intelligent maritime security system with sensor networks for coastal environmental and homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Bucklin, Ann

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes an innovative command and control system design and the use of low, cost distributed sensor networks for an intelligent maritime security system. This concept utilizes a network of small passive and active multi-phenomenological unattended sensors and shore based optical sensors to detect, classify, and track submerged threat objects approaching high value coastal assets, such as ports, harbors, residential, commercial, and military facilities and areas. The network of unattended, in-water sensors perform the initial detection, classification, and coarse tracking and then queues shore based optical laser radar sensors. These shore-based sensors perform a high resolution sector search to develop a precision track on the submerged threat objects. Potential threat objects include submarines, submerged barges, UUV's, swimmers carrying threat objects such as explosives, chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear materials. Reliable systems with low false alarm rates (FAR) are proposed. Tens to hundreds of low cost passive sensors are proposed to be deployed conjunctively with several active acoustic and optical sensors in threat and facility dependant patterns to maximize the detection, tracking and classification of submerged threat objects.

  10. Security engineering: systems engineering of security through the adaptation and application of risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Feather, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) Security Risk Management is a critical task in the organization, which must protect its resources and data against the loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. As systems become more complex and diverse, and more vulnerabilities are discovered while attacks from intrusions and malicious content increase, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage IT security. This paper describes an approach to address IT security risk through risk management and mitigation in both the institution and in the project life cycle.

  11. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

  12. Distributed Computing Framework for Synthetic Radar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurrola, Eric M.; Rosen, Paul A.; Aivazis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We are developing an extensible software framework, in response to Air Force and NASA needs for distributed computing facilities for a variety of radar applications. The objective of this work is to develop a Python based software framework, that is the framework elements of the middleware that allows developers to control processing flow on a grid in a distributed computing environment. Framework architectures to date allow developers to connect processing functions together as interchangeable objects, thereby allowing a data flow graph to be devised for a specific problem to be solved. The Pyre framework, developed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and now being used as the basis for next-generation radar processing at JPL, is a Python-based software framework. We have extended the Pyre framework to include new facilities to deploy processing components as services, including components that monitor and assess the state of the distributed network for eventual real-time control of grid resources.

  13. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  14. Practical Security Bounds Against the Trojan-Horse Attack in Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Ward, M. B.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    In the quantum version of a Trojan-horse attack, photons are injected into the optical modules of a quantum key distribution system in an attempt to read information direct from the encoding devices. To stop the Trojan photons, the use of passive optical components has been suggested. However, to date, there is no quantitative bound that specifies such components in relation to the security of the system. Here, we turn the Trojan-horse attack into an information leakage problem. This allows us to quantify the system security and relate it to the specification of the optical elements. The analysis is supported by the experimental characterization, within the operation regime, of reflectivity and transmission of the optical components most relevant to security.

  15. Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

    2004-06-01

    There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

  16. Bacteriorhodopsin-based photochromic pigments for optical security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Norbert A.; Fischer, Thorsten; Neebe, Martin

    2002-04-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin is a two-dimensional crystalline photochromic protein which is astonishingly stable towards chemical and thermal degradation. This is one of the reasons why this is one of the very few proteins which may be used as a biological pigment in printing inks. Variants of the naturally occurring bacteriorhodopsin have been developed which show a distinguished color change even with low light intensities and without the requirement of UV-light. Several pigments with different color changes are available right now. In addition to this visual detectable feature, the photochromism, the proteins amino acid sequence can be genetically altered in order to code and identify specific production lots. For advanced applications the data storage capability of bacteriorhodopsin will be useful. Write-once-read-many (WORM) recording of digital data is accomplished by laser excitation of printed bacteriorhodopsin inks. A density of 1 MBit per square inch is currently achieved. Several application examples for this biological molecule are described where low and high level features are used in combination. Bacteriorhodopsin-based inks are a new class of optical security pigments.

  17. A versatile digital video engine for safeguards and security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S.; DeKeyser, P.

    1996-08-01

    The capture and storage of video images have been major engineering challenges for safeguard and security applications since the video camera provided a method to observe remote operations. The problems of designing reliable video cameras were solved in the early 1980`s with the introduction of the CCD (charged couple device) camera. The first CCD cameras cost in the thousands of dollars but have now been replaced by cameras costing in the hundreds. The remaining problem of storing and viewing video images in both attended and unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems is being solved by sophisticated digital compression systems. One such system is the PC-104 three card set which is literally a ``video engine`` that can provide power for video storage systems. The use of digital images in surveillance systems makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems, portable video surveillance units, image review stations, and authenticated camera modules. This paper discusses the video card set and how it can be used in many applications.

  18. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

  19. Rapid response radiation sensors for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory is developing a rapid response radiation detection system for homeland security field applications. The intelligence-driven system is deployed only when non-radiological information about the target is verifiable. The survey area is often limited, so the detection range is small; in most cases covering a distance of 10 meters or less suffices. Definitive response is required in no more than 3 seconds and should minimize false negative alarms, but can err on the side of positive false alarms. The detection system is rapidly reconfigurable in terms of size, shape, and outer appearance; it is a plug-and-play system. Multiple radiation detection components (viz., two or more sodium iodide scintillators) are used to independently "over-determine" the existence of the threat object. Rapid response electronic dose rate meters are also included in the equipment suite. Carefully studied threat signatures are the basis of the decision making. The use of Rad-Detect predictive modeling provides information on the nature of the threat object. Rad-Detect provides accurate dose rate from heavily shielded large sources; for example those lost in Mexico were Category 1 radiation sources (~3,000 Ci of 60Co), the most dangerous of five categories defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Taken out of their shielding containers, Category 1 sources can kill anyone who is exposed to them at close range for a few minutes to an hour. Whenever possible sub-second data acquisition will be attempted, and, when deployed, the system will be characterized for false alarm rates. Although the radiation detection materials selected are fast (viz., faster scintillators), their speed is secondary to sensitivity, which is of primary importance. Results from these efforts will be discussed and demonstrated.

  20. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to customization to include radioactive waste management or responses to catastrophic releases of radioactive material due to terrorist actions. (authors)

  1. Practical security analysis of two-way quantum-key-distribution protocols based on nonorthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, C. Ivan; Serra, Roberto M.

    2015-11-01

    Within the broad research scenario of quantum secure communication, two-way quantum key distribution (TWQKD) is a relatively new proposal for sharing secret keys that is not yet fully explored. We analyze the security of TWQKD schemes that use qubits prepared in nonorthogonal states to transmit the key. Investigating protocols that employ an arbitrary number of bases for the channel preparation, we show, in particular, that the security of the LM05 protocol cannot be improved by the use of more than two preparation bases. We also provide an alternative proof of unconditional security for a deterministic TWQKD protocol recently proposed in Beaudry et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.062302. In addition, we introduce a deterministic protocol named "TWQKD six-state" and compute an analytical lower bound (which can be tightened) for the maximum amount of information that an eavesdropper could extract in this case. An interesting advantage of our approach to the security analysis of TWQKD is the great simplicity and transparency of the derivations.

  2. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content

  3. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  4. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  5. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  6. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  7. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  8. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  9. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patent applications containing classified subject matter. 27.203 Section 27.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.203 Security requirements for patent applications containing...

  10. Specificity of Correlation Pattern Recognition Methods Application in Security Holograms Identity Control Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, E. Yu.; Starikov, R. S.; Odinokov, S. B.; Tsyganov, I. K.; Talalaev, V. E.; Koluchkin, V. V.

    Automatic inspection of security hologram (SH) identity is highly demanded issue due high distribution of SH worldwide to protect documents such as passports, driving licenses, banknotes etc. While most of the known approaches use inspection of SH design features none of these approaches inspect the features of its surface relief that is a direct contribution to original master matrix used for these holograms production. In our previous works we represented the device that was developed to provide SH identification by processing of coherent responses of its surface elements. Most of the algorithms used in this device are based on application of correlation pattern recognition methods. The main issue of the present article is a description of these methods application specificities.

  11. Optical characterization of photopolymer and photoresist materials for storage, sensing, and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feid, Timo; Frohmann, Sven; Rass, Jens; Mller, Christian; Orlic, Susanna

    2008-08-01

    Diffractive optical elements with application specific tailored properties can be fabricated by light induced alternation of the material's refractive index. Holographic polymers or photoresists are typically used for permanent optical structurization. Today, photostructurable media become core elements of photonic systems with innovative capabilities. We investigate different classes of organic photosensitive materials in order to optimize the interaction between the material and an optoelectronic system around. Some exemplary applications are microholographic data storage, 3D nano/micro structurization, optical patterning for advanced security features. Key issues include dynamic material response, spectral and temporal grating development, influence of the light intensity distribution, effects of pre-exposure and post-curing, etc. Materials under investigation are cationic and free radical polymerization systems, liquid crystalline polymer nanocomposites, and photoresist systems.

  12. Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Miller, Eric M.; Sage, Steen P.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a Secure, Autonomous, and Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations. It includes a description of current improvements to existing Virtual Mission Operations Center technology being used by US Department of Defense and originally developed under NASA funding. The report also highlights a technology demonstration performed in partnership with the United States Geological Service for Earth Resources Observation and Science using DigitalGlobe(Registered TradeMark) satellites to obtain space-based sensor data.

  13. Secure authentication protocol for Internet applications over CATV network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Le-Pond

    1998-02-01

    An authentication protocol is proposed in this paper to implement secure functions which include two way authentication and key management between end users and head-end. The protocol can protect transmission from frauds, attacks such as reply and wiretap. Location privacy is also achieved. A rest protocol is designed to restore the system once when systems fail. The security is verified by taking several security and privacy requirements into consideration.

  14. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)

    PubMed Central

    Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

  15. Operation of remote mobile sensors for security of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Perelman, By Lina; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-09-01

    The deployment of fixed online water quality sensors in water distribution systems has been recognized as one of the key components of contamination warning systems for securing public health. This study proposes to explore how the inclusion of mobile sensors for inline monitoring of various water quality parameters (e.g., residual chlorine, pH) can enhance water distribution system security. Mobile sensors equipped with sampling, sensing, data acquisition, wireless transmission and power generation systems are being designed, fabricated, and tested, and prototypes are expected to be released in the very near future. This study initiates the development of a theoretical framework for modeling mobile sensor movement in water distribution systems and integrating the sensory data collected from stationary and non-stationary sensor nodes to increase system security. The methodology is applied and demonstrated on two benchmark networks. Performance of different sensor network designs are compared for fixed and combined fixed and mobile sensor networks. Results indicate that complementing online sensor networks with inline monitoring can increase detection likelihood and decrease mean time to detection. PMID:23764572

  16. Development and application of distributed marine simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yong; Jin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiufeng; Ren, Hongxiang; Li, Zhihua; Zhang, Baian

    2003-04-01

    This paper introduces the main functions and technologies used in distributed full-mission marine simulator developed by Dalian Maritime University recently. As a facility for research analysis, captain training, engineering design, the simulation system has advantages of high accuracy mathematical model, low price and can display three dimension scene with 270 degree viewing field, ship dynamic image on ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display Information System) and radar image of certain sea area for training. The paper describes the main technologies used in the simulator include DIS (Distributed Interactive Simulation) technology, ship manoeuvring mathematical model, ship dynamic display based on ECDIS, Radar image, 3D scene generation using OpenGL and OpenGVS and network technology etc. The paper also introduces the application of this system in wharf design, pilot plan etc.

  17. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Yoo, Jong H.; Liu Chunyi; Plumer, John R.; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers rapid, localized chemical analysis of solid or liquid materials with high spatial resolution in lateral and depth profiling, without the need for sample preparation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares algorithms were applied to identify a variety of complex organic and inorganic samples. This work illustrates how LIBS analyzers can answer a multitude of real-world needs for rapid analysis, such as determination of lead in paint and children's toys, analysis of electronic and solder materials, quality control of fiberglass panels, discrimination of coffee beans from different vendors, and identification of generic versus brand-name drugs. Lateral and depth profiling was performed on children's toys and paint layers. Traditional one-element calibration or multivariate chemometric procedures were applied for elemental quantification, from single laser shot determination of metal traces at {approx}10 {mu}g/g to determination of halogens at 90 {mu}g/g using 50-shot spectral accumulation. The effectiveness of LIBS for security applications was demonstrated in the field by testing the 50-m standoff LIBS rasterizing detector.

  18. Application of wireless sensor system on security network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Yoon, Hargsoon; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    In this research we developed wireless sensor system for security application. We have used geophone to detect seismic signals which are generated by footsteps. Geophones are resonant devices. Therefore, vibration on the land can generate seismic waveforms which could be very similar to the signature by footstep. The signals from human footstep have weak signals to noise ratio and the signal strength is subject to the distance between the sensor and human. In order to detect weak signals from footstep, we designed and fabricated 2-stage amplification circuit which consists of active and RC filters and amplifiers. The bandwidth of filter is 0.7Hz-150Hz and the gain of amplifier is set to 1000. The wireless sensor system also developed to monitor the sensing signals at the remote place. The wireless sensor system consists of 3 units; a wireless sensor unit, a wireless receiver unit, and a monitoring unit. The wireless sensor unit transmits amplified signals from geophone with Zigbee, and the wireless receiver unit which has both Zigbee and Wi-Fi module receives signals from the sensor unit and transmits signals to the monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve the low power consumption and wide range coverage.

  19. A low-cost chemical sensor for fixed security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen K.; Lewin, Gregory C.; Zehr, Robert T.; Baker, Jason D.; Laufer, Gabriel; Krauss, Roland H.

    2006-05-01

    A low-cost infrared sensor that uses room temperature pyroelectric detectors integrated with bandpass filters to provide low-resolution spectral scans of the absorption characteristics of hazardous chemicals was developed for fixed security applications. The sensor provides fast (1 s) and continuous monitoring, detection, and identification capabilities. A unique detection and identification algorithm that uses non-linear computation techniques to account for the exponential nature of optical absorption was developed. Chemical detection and identification is achieved by matching the recorded sensor response vector to an updatable signature library that currently includes the signatures of 14 chemicals. The sensor and algorithm were tested by introducing methanol vapor at optical depths between 225 - 270 ppm-m. Using 1 s signal samples obtained during approximately 20 min. test, resulted in no false positive alarms and 3.4% of false negatives. All false negatives were shown to be due to misidentification of methanol as isopropanol, which is spectrally similar to methanol. By grouping isopropanol with methanol the rate of false negatives was reduced to 0%. Results of the same test using a 30 s signal integration time resulted in no false positive and no false negative alarms.

  20. Recent Advances in Infrasound Science for National Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Blom, P. S.; Marcillo, O. E.; Whitaker, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Infrasound is sound below the frequency-threshold of human hearing, covering the frequency range from 0.01 - 20 Hz. Infrasound science studies the generation, propagation, measurement, and analysis of infrasound. Sources of infrasound include a wide variety of energetic natural and manmade phenomena that include chemical and nuclear explosions, rockets and missiles, and aircraft. The dominant factors influencing the propagation of infrasound are the spatial and temporal variations in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In recent years, Infrasound Science has experienced a renaissance due to the installation of an international monitoring system of 60 infrasound arrays for monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and to the demonstrated value of regional infrasound networks for both scientific and applied purposes. Furthermore, in the past decade, significant advances have been made on using measurements of infrasound to invert for these properties of the atmosphere at altitudes where alternative measurement techniques are extremely costly. This presentation provides a review of recent advances in infrasound science as relevant to National Security applications.

  1. Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Marske, Katharine A.; Nógues-Bravo, David; Normand, Signe

    2011-10-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for estimating and studying past organism distributions. SDM complements fossil and genetic evidence by providing (i) quantitative and potentially high-resolution predictions of the past organism distributions, (ii) statistically formulated, testable ecological hypotheses regarding past distributions and communities, and (iii) statistical assessment of range determinants. In this article, we provide an overview of applications of SDM to paleobiology, outlining the methodology, reviewing SDM-based studies to paleobiology or at the interface of paleo- and neobiology, discussing assumptions and uncertainties as well as how to handle them, and providing a synthesis and outlook. Key methodological issues for SDM applications to paleobiology include predictor variables (types and properties; special emphasis is given to paleoclimate), model validation (particularly important given the emphasis on cross-temporal predictions in paleobiological applications), and the integration of SDM and genetics approaches. Over the last few years the number of studies using SDM to address paleobiology-related questions has increased considerably. While some of these studies only use SDM (23%), most combine them with genetically inferred patterns (49%), paleoecological records (22%), or both (6%). A large number of SDM-based studies have addressed the role of Pleistocene glacial refugia in biogeography and evolution, especially in Europe, but also in many other regions. SDM-based approaches are also beginning to contribute to a suite of other research questions, such as historical constraints on current distributions and diversity patterns, the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions, past community assembly, human paleobiogeography, Holocene paleoecology, and even deep-time biogeography (notably, providing insights into biogeographic dynamics >400 million years ago). We discuss important assumptions and uncertainties that affect the SDM approach to paleobiology - the equilibrium postulate, niche stability, changing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations - as well as ways to address these (ensemble, functional SDM, and non-SDM ecoinformatics approaches). We conclude that the SDM approach offers important opportunities for advances in paleobiology by providing a quantitative ecological perspective, and hereby also offers the potential for an enhanced contribution of paleobiology to ecology and conservation biology, e.g., for estimating climate change impacts and for informing ecological restoration.

  2. Applications of the biuariate normal distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    In industry there are many situations involving two variables, e.g., measurement from vendor product testing and customer testing of the same product; high temperature test measurements and ambient temperature measurements on a product. Bivariate methods of analysis should be used to summarize, represent, and interpret data sampled from populations where variable elements yield measures of two characteristics. The application of the bivariate normal distribution in solving certain types of industrial problems involving two variable measurements is examined. Three examples given illustrating its use in developing a product screening procedure, establishing a prediction model, an handling testing and measuring errors.

  3. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural productivity. Subsequent studies on land and energy resources combined with legal aspects in the UAE, will be used to obtain a food security atlas. These results will lead to a more efficient management of the resources not only on a national scale but also on a regional scale that can aid in sustainable development and a better resource use in the UAE and ultimately, in the gulf region.

  4. Application of the JDL data fusion process model for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2010-04-01

    A number of cyber security technologies have proposed the use of data fusion to enhance the defensive capabilities of the network and aid in the development of situational awareness for the security analyst. While there have been advances in fusion technologies and the application of fusion in intrusion detection systems (IDSs), in particular, additional progress can be made by gaining a better understanding of a variety of data fusion processes and applying them to the cyber security application domain. This research explores the underlying processes identified in the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model and further describes them in a cyber security context.

  5. How secure is the Internet for healthcare applications?

    PubMed

    Campbell, L A

    1996-01-01

    The Internet has grown faster than any other communications medium or consumer electronics technology--including the fax machine and personal computer. It offers new possibilities for providing economical and good quality patient care, but how secure is it? Is it prudent to communicate patient information over the Internet? For confidential patient information to be transmitted appropriately on the Internet, the originator must be clearly identified without any chance of impersonation; the information must be transmitted without any possibility of corruption or alteration; and the process must be secure. Many experts recognize the need to secure privacy of information, and there are some standards for electronic signatures and data encryption. However, no one has yet come up with a plan that offers a comprehensive solution. Appropriate confidentiality and security legislation has not yet been passed by the U.S. Congress. The following security technologies are currently available and are described in this article: cryptography, authentication devices, electronic signature systems, firewalls, secure hypertext transfer protocol and secure sockets layer protocol. Until proper standards are developed and accepted, providers should use available technologies to protect both patient records and themselves. The legal consequences of mishandling confidential patient information can be disastrous. PMID:10154332

  6. DOE integrated safeguards and security (DISS) system a nation-wide distributed information system for personnel security

    SciTech Connect

    Block, B.

    1997-06-05

    DISS uses secure client-server and relational database technology across open networks to address the problems of security clearance request processing and tracking of security clearances for the Department of energy. The system supports the entire process from data entry by the prospective clearance holders through tracking of all DOE clearances, and use of standard DOE badges in automated access control systems throughout the DOE complex.

  7. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  8. Copy-proof machine-readable holograms for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausmann, Guenther J.; Menz, Irina; Gnaedig, Klaus; Yang, Zishao

    1996-03-01

    The most frequently used optical security features to protect documents and goods against counterfeiting are various types of rainbow holograms and diffractive optical variable devices (OVDs). Although these features offer a fair degree of security and most known falsifications are rather crude imitations it is still possible to copy them with all hidden and visible information. In our opinion it would be helpful to have copy proof holograms containing a machine readable feature to achieve a doubtfree verification at point of sale and other sites. We present our work towards the development of a copy proof and machine readable hologram with an optically encoded security feature.

  9. 12 CFR 303.203 - Applications for capital distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for capital distributions. 303.203... FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action 303.203 Applications for capital distributions. (a) Scope... for capital distribution if, after having made a capital distribution, the institution would...

  10. 12 CFR 303.203 - Applications for capital distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for capital distributions. 303.203... FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action 303.203 Applications for capital distributions. (a) Scope... for capital distribution if, after having made a capital distribution, the institution would...

  11. Control and Communication for a Secure and Reconfigurable Power Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomoni, Anthony Michael

    A major transformation is taking place throughout the electric power industry to overlay existing electric infrastructure with advanced sensing, communications, and control system technologies. This transformation to a smart grid promises to enhance system efficiency, increase system reliability, support the electrification of transportation, and provide customers with greater control over their electricity consumption. Upgrading control and communication systems for the end-to-end electric power grid, however, will present many new security challenges that must be dealt with before extensive deployment and implementation of these technologies can begin. In this dissertation, a comprehensive systems approach is taken to minimize and prevent cyber-physical disturbances to electric power distribution systems using sensing, communications, and control system technologies. To accomplish this task, an intelligent distributed secure control (IDSC) architecture is presented and validated in silico for distribution systems to provide greater adaptive protection, with the ability to proactively reconfigure, and rapidly respond to disturbances. Detailed descriptions of functionalities at each layer of the architecture as well as the whole system are provided. To compare the performance of the IDSC architecture with that of other control architectures, an original simulation methodology is developed. The simulation model integrates aspects of cyber-physical security, dynamic price and demand response, sensing, communications, intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs), and dynamic optimization and reconfiguration. Applying this comprehensive systems approach, performance results for the IEEE 123 node test feeder are simulated and analyzed. The results show the trade-offs between system reliability, operational constraints, and costs for several control architectures and optimization algorithms. Additional simulation results are also provided. In particular, the advantages of an IDSC architecture are highlighted when an intermittent DER is present on the system.

  12. 26 CFR 1.355-7 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with an acquisition. 1.355-7 Section 1.355-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders §...

  13. Microholographic computer generated holograms for security applications: Microtags

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Kravitz, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a method for encoding phase and amplitude in microscopic computer-generated holograms (microtags) for security applications. Eight-by-eight-cell and 12 x 12-cell phase-only and phase-and-amplitude microtag designs has been exposed in photoresist using the extreme-ultraviolet (13.4 nm) lithography (EUVL) tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Using EUVL, we have also fabricated microtags consisting of 150-nm lines arranged to form 300-nm-period gratings. The microtags described in this report were designed for readout at 632.8 nm and 442 nm. The smallest microtag measures 56 {mu}m x 80 {mu}m when viewed at normal incidence. The largest microtag measures 80 by 160 microns and contains features 0.2 {mu}m wide. The microtag design process uses a modified iterative Fourier-transform algorithm to create either phase-only or phase-and-amplitude microtags. We also report on a simple and compact readout system for recording the diffraction pattern formed by a microtag. The measured diffraction patterns agree very well with predictions. We present the results of a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) of microtags. Microtags are CD modeled as consisting of sub-wavelength gratings of a trapezoidal profile. Transverse-electric (TE) and TM readout polarizations are modeled. The objective of our analysis is the determination of optimal microtag-grating design parameter values and tolerances on those parameters. The parameters are grating wall-slope angle, grating duty cycle, grating depth, and metal-coating thickness. Optimal microtag-grating parameter values result in maximum diffraction efficiency. Maximum diffraction efficiency is calculated at 16% for microtag gratings in air and 12% for microtag gratings underneath a protective dielectric coating, within fabrication constraints. TM-microtag gratings. Finally, we suggest several additional microtag concepts, such as two-dimensional microtags and pixel-code microtags.

  14. A Secure Scheme for Distributed Consensus Estimation against Data Falsification in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Shichao; Han, Hui; Chen, Cailian; Yan, Jian; Guan, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs) have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs) with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS) to mitigate the effect of the malicious node. Finally, the convergence property is proven to be guaranteed, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of PACS. PMID:26907275

  15. A Secure Scheme for Distributed Consensus Estimation against Data Falsification in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Mi, Shichao; Han, Hui; Chen, Cailian; Yan, Jian; Guan, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs) have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs) with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS) to mitigate the effect of the malicious node. Finally, the convergence property is proven to be guaranteed, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of PACS. PMID:26907275

  16. Security bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Alber, Gernot

    2005-09-15

    We investigate the security bounds of quantum-cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution scheme to higher dimensions. Under the assumption of general coherent attacks, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of such quantum-cryptography schemes. This bound is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions such an equivalence is generally no longer valid.

  17. Practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with finite sampling bandwidth effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-02-01

    Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.

  18. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  19. Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

  20. Reviews of computing technology: Securing network applications, Kerberos and RSA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper will focus on the first step in establishing network security, authentication, and describe the basic function of both RSA and Kerberos as used to provide authentication and confidential data transfer services. It will also discuss the Digital Signature Standard and the market acceptance of each. Proper identification of the principals involved in a network dialog is a necessary first step in providing network-wide security comparable to that of stand-alone systems.

  1. NASA guidelines for assuring the adequacy and appropriateness of security safeguards in sensitive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-71, transmittal Memorandum No. 1, requires that each agency establish a management control process to assure that appropriate administrative, physical and technical safeguards are incorporated into all new computer applications. In addition to security specifications, the management control process should assure that the safeguards are adequate for the application. The security activities that should be integral to the system development process are examined. The software quality assurance process to assure that adequate and appropriate controls are incorporated into sensitive applications is also examined. Security for software packages is also discussed.

  2. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 63.22 Section 63.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for...

  3. Active Millimeter-Wave and Sub-Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2011-09-02

    Active imaging at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths has been developed for security applications including concealed weapon detection. The physical properties that affect imaging performance are discussed along with a review of the current state-of-the-art and future potential for security imaging systems.

  4. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT...

  5. Securing Location Services Infrastructures: Practical Criteria for Application Developers and Solutions Architects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamanian, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory, normative study examined the security and privacy of location based services in mobile applications. This study explored risk, and controls to implement privacy and security. This study was addressed using components of the FIPS Risk Management Framework. This study found that risk to location information was

  6. Securing Location Services Infrastructures: Practical Criteria for Application Developers and Solutions Architects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamanian, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory, normative study examined the security and privacy of location based services in mobile applications. This study explored risk, and controls to implement privacy and security. This study was addressed using components of the FIPS Risk Management Framework. This study found that risk to location information was…

  7. Contributions to Human Errors and Breaches in National Security Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D. J.; Houghton, F. K.; Gilmore, W. E.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has recognized that security infractions are often the consequence of various types of human errors (e.g., mistakes, lapses, slips) and/or breaches (i.e., deliberate deviations from policies or required procedures with no intention to bring about an adverse security consequence) and therefore has established an error reduction program based in part on the techniques used to mitigate hazard and accident potentials. One cornerstone of this program, definition of the situational and personal factors that increase the likelihood of employee errors and breaches, is detailed here. This information can be used retrospectively (as in accident investigations) to support and guide inquiries into security incidents or prospectively (as in hazard assessments) to guide efforts to reduce the likelihood of error/incident occurrence. Both approaches provide the foundation for targeted interventions to reduce the influence of these factors and for the formation of subsequent 'lessons learned.' Overall security is enhanced not only by reducing the inadvertent releases of classified information but also by reducing the security and safeguards resources devoted to them, thereby allowing these resources to be concentrated on acts of malevolence.

  8. CONTRIBUTORS TO HUMAN ERRORS AND BREACHES IN NATIONAL SECURITY APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    POND, DANIEL J; HOUGHTON, F KAY; GILMORE, WALTER E

    2002-08-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has recognized that security infractions are often the consequence of various types of human errors (e.g., mistakes, lapses, slips) and/or breaches (i.e., deliberate deviations from policies or required procedures with no intention to bring about an adverse security consequence) and therefore has established an error reduction program based in part on the techniques used to mitigate hazard and accident potentials. One cornerstone of this program, definition of the situational and personal factors that increase the likelihood of employee errors and breaches, is detailed here. This information can be used retrospectively (as in accident investigations) to support and guide inquiries into security incidents or prospectively (as in hazard assessments) to guide efforts to reduce the likelihood of error/incident occurrence. Both approaches provide the foundation for targeted interventions to reduce the influence of these factors and for the formation of subsequent ''lessons learned.'' Overall security is enhanced not only by reducing the inadvertent releases of classified information but also by reducing the security and safeguards resources devoted to them, thereby allowing these resources to be concentrated on acts of malevolence.

  9. Integer programming applications: Bond trading, mortgage backed security financing, and FASB 115 accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss, R.

    1994-12-31

    In this review we describe three integer programming applications involving fixed income securities. A bond trading model is presented that features a number of possible different objectives and collections of constraints including future interest rate scenarios. A mortgage backed security (MBS) financing model that accounts for potential defaults in the MBS is also presented. Finally we describe an approach to allocate collections of bank securities into three categories: hold to maturity, available for sale, or trading. Placement of securities in these categories affects the capital, net income, and liquidity of a bank according to new accounting rules promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  10. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  11. Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Akihiro; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily flawed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called ‘rejected data analysis’, and showed that its security—in the limit of infinitely long keys—is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably secure communication with imperfect light sources.

  12. Application of Lightweight Formal Methods to Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Powell, John D.; Bishop, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Formal specification and verification of security has proven a challenging task. There is no single method that has proven feasible. Instead, an integrated approach which combines several formal techniques can increase the confidence in the verification of software security properties. Such an approach which species security properties in a library that can be reused by 2 instruments and their methodologies developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are described herein The Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) is a model based verijkation instrument that uses Promela and the SPIN model checker. The Property Based Tester (PBT) uses TASPEC and a Text Execution Monitor (TEM). They are used to reduce vulnerabilities and unwanted exposures in software during the development and maintenance life cycles.

  13. 76 FR 8755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-032 Official Passport Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--032 Official... titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/ ALL--032 Official Passport Application and Maintenance Records..., Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528. Instructions: All...

  14. IDCDACS: IDC's Distributed Application Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertl, Martin; Boresch, Alexander; Kianička, Ján; Sudakov, Alexander; Tomuta, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO is an international organization based in Vienna, Austria. Its mission is to establish a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans all nuclear explosions. For this purpose time series data from a global network of seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasound (SHI) sensors are transmitted to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna in near-real-time, where it is processed to locate events that may be nuclear explosions. We newly designed the distributed application control system that glues together the various components of the automatic waveform data processing system at the IDC (IDCDACS). Our highly-scalable solution preserves the existing architecture of the IDC processing system that proved successful over many years of operational use, but replaces proprietary components with open-source solutions and custom developed software. Existing code was refactored and extended to obtain a reusable software framework that is flexibly adaptable to different types of processing workflows. Automatic data processing is organized in series of self-contained processing steps, each series being referred to as a processing pipeline. Pipelines process data by time intervals, i.e. the time-series data received from monitoring stations is organized in segments based on the time when the data was recorded. So-called data monitor applications queue the data for processing in each pipeline based on specific conditions, e.g. data availability, elapsed time or completion states of preceding processing pipelines. IDCDACS consists of a configurable number of distributed monitoring and controlling processes, a message broker and a relational database. All processes communicate through message queues hosted on the message broker. Persistent state information is stored in the database. A configurable processing controller instantiates and monitors all data processing applications. Due to decoupling by message queues the system is highly versatile and failure tolerant. The implementation utilizes the RabbitMQ open-source messaging platform that is based upon the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP), an on-the-wire protocol (like HTML) and open industry standard. IDCDACS uses high availability capabilities provided by RabbitMQ and is equipped with failure recovery features to survive network and server outages. It is implemented in C and Python and is operated in a Linux environment at the IDC. Although IDCDACS was specifically designed for the existing IDC processing system its architecture is generic and reusable for different automatic processing workflows, e.g. similar to those described in (Olivieri et al. 2012, Kværna et al. 2012). Major advantages are its independence of the specific data processing applications used and the possibility to reconfigure IDCDACS for different types of processing, data and trigger logic. A possible future development would be to use the IDCDACS framework for different scientific domains, e.g. for processing of Earth observation satellite data extending the one-dimensional time-series intervals to spatio-temporal data cubes. REFERENCES Olivieri M., J. Clinton (2012) An almost fair comparison between Earthworm and SeisComp3, Seismological Research Letters, 83(4), 720-727. Kværna, T., S. J. Gibbons, D. B. Harris, D. A. Dodge (2012) Adapting pipeline architectures to track developing aftershock sequences and recurrent explosions, Proceedings of the 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, 776-785.

  15. Applications of omics for food safety and security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety and food security are important global issues. Research employing 'omics' technologies, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, is helping to elucidate pathogen behavior at the molecular level and to develop better detection and typing systems. Omics-based tools enable resear...

  16. Image analysis of photochromic ink for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Stephens, Nelson M.

    1993-08-01

    Photochromic materials exist in two different color states, with switching between states being achieved by irradiation, with ultra-violet and visible light. By printing patterns and data using both photochromic ink and ordinary ink, it is possible to create a document that is difficult to forge and easy to authenticate. Security is achieved only by public ignorance about and the relative rarity of photochromic materials. Very high levels of security are possible, using modern data encipherment techniques. These are so secure that no known algorithmic method exists for breaking them in a practical amount of time. It should be understood that encipherment algorithms provide a way of protecting a message. Guaranteeing the authenticity of a complete document is better achieved using photochromic materials. This article describes a scheme which employs both techniques to achieve higher overall security than either can provide individually. Central to this idea is the ability to sense the presence of photochromic materials using machines, prior to recognizing specified patterns and reading text.

  17. Latest electro-optic and photonic devices for security and military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, A. R.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reveals performance capabilities of state-of-the-art electro-optic and photonic devices, which are best suited for security and defense system applications. These devices can be used in battlefield, space surveillance, medical diagnosis, and detection of terrorist activities. Performance capabilities of fiber optic components for possible applications in WDM and DWDM systems are summarized. Photonic devices for covert military and security communication applications are identified with particular emphasis on performance and reliability. Performance parameters of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), Erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs), and optical hybrid amplifiers (OHAs) comprising of EDFAs and Raman amplifiers are discussed with emphasis on bandwidth, gain-flatness, data handling capability, channel capacity and cost-effectiveness. Performance parameters of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) detectors are summarized, which have potential applications in remote sensing and ballistic missile defense applications. Electro-optic and photonic devices best suited for security and defense applications are identified.

  18. A distributed wireless sensor network system for transportation safety and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Mashrur; Wang, Kuang-Ching; Fries, Ryan; Ma, Yongchang; Bagaria, Devang

    2007-04-01

    Given the anticipated increases in highway traffic, the scale and complexity of the traffic infrastructure will continue to grow progressively in time and in distributed geographical areas. To assure transportation efficiency, safety, and security in the presence of such growth, it is critical to identify an infrastructure development methodology that can adapt to expansions while assuring reliable operation for both centralized monitoring and distributed management. In this paper, a wireless sensor network design methodology is presented, aimed at providing effective distributed surveillance, anomaly detection, and coordinated response. The proposed methodology integrates state-of-the-art traffic sensors, with flexibly programmable controller devices that can integrate with the available traffic control equipments. The system methodology provides a paradigm in which sensors and controllers can be progressively incorporated and programmed to autonomously coordinate with peer sensors and a hierarchy of controllers to detect, notify, and react to anomalous events. Since the system can tolerate failure of parts of the system, as the network connectivity continues to increase, the proposed sensor network will have positive implications on evacuation plans during natural disasters or terrorist attacks. To illustrate the design methodology and usage, a simulated system along a freeway corridor in South Carolina was constructed in an integrated microscopic traffic and wireless sensor network simulation platform, in which distributed incident detection and response functions were implemented. The test results, including detection and false alarm rates and wireless communication latencies, are analyzed to identify insights of the system's operation and potential enhancement strategies.

  19. 78 FR 14847 - Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities Exchange Under Section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 March 1, 2013. On July 3, 2012, Topaz Exchange, LLC (``Topaz Exchange'' or ``Applicant'') submitted to the Securities and Exchange...

  20. 76 FR 39447 - J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... COMMISSION J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order June 29, 2011... Act, with respect to an injunction entered against J.P. Morgan Securities LLC (``J.P. Morgan... also have applied for a permanent order. Applicants: J.P. Morgan Securities; Bear Stearns...

  1. 76 FR 28482 - Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 May 12, 2011. The Securities and Exchange Commission gives notice that BF Enterprises, Inc. has filed an application under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. BF...

  2. Application of portable CDA for secure clinical-document exchange.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Hsuan; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Lai, Feipei; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Lee, Hsiu-Hui

    2010-08-01

    Health Level Seven (HL7) organization published the Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) for exchanging documents among heterogeneous systems and improving medical quality based on the design method in CDA. In practice, although the HL7 organization tried to make medical messages exchangeable, it is still hard to exchange medical messages. There are many issues when two hospitals want to exchange clinical documents, such as patient privacy, network security, budget, and the strategies of the hospital. In this article, we propose a method for the exchange and sharing of clinical documents in an offline model based on the CDA-the Portable CDA. This allows the physician to retrieve the patient's medical record stored in a portal device, but not through the Internet in real time. The security and privacy of CDA data will also be considered. PMID:20703907

  3. Applying a UML Extension to Build Use Cases Diagrams in a Secure Mobile Grid Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, David G.; Fernndez-Medina, Eduardo; Lpez, Javier

    Systems based on Grid computing have not traditionally been developed through suitable methodologies and have not taken into account security requirements throughout their development, offering technical security solutions only during the implementation stages. We are creating a development methodology for the construction of information systems based on Grid Computing, which is highly dependent on mobile devices, in which security plays a highly important role. One of the activities in this methodology is the requirements analysis which is use-case driven. In this paper, we build use case diagrams for a real mobile Grid application by using a UML-extension, called GridUCSec-Profile, through which it is possible to represent specific mobile Grid features and security aspects for use case diagrams, thus obtaining diagrams for secure mobile Grid environments.

  4. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  5. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  6. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  7. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  8. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  9. Necessary detection efficiencies for secure quantum key distribution and bound randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, Antonio; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Passaro, Elsa; Pironio, Stefano; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. Our attack gives bounds on the critical detection efficiencies necessary for secure quantum key distribution, which show that the implementation of most partly device-independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely nonlocal correlations in which a nonsignalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.

  10. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-15

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  11. Security analysis on some experimental quantum key distribution systems with imperfect optical and electrical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-10-01

    In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].

  12. Forensic and homeland security applications of modern portable Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L

    2010-10-10

    Modern detection and identification of chemical and biological hazards within the forensic and homeland security contexts may well require conducting the analysis in field while adapting a non-contact approach to the hazard. Technological achievements on both surface and resonance enhancement Raman scattering re-developed Raman spectroscopy to become the most adaptable spectroscopy technique for stand-off and non-contact analysis of hazards. On the other hand, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy proved to be very valuable for non-invasive chemical analysis of hazards concealed within non-transparent containers and packaging. PMID:20395087

  13. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with 1 Mbps secure key rate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Wang, Chao; Liu, Weiqi; Fang, Shuanghong; Peng, Jinye; Huang, Peng; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-06-29

    We report the first continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) experiment to enable the creation of 1 Mbps secure key rate over 25 km standard telecom fiber in a coarse wavelength division multiplexers (CWDM) environment. The result is achieved with two major technological advances: the use of a 1 GHz shot-noise-limited homodyne detector and the implementation of a 50 MHz clock system. The excess noise due to noise photons from local oscillator and classical data channels in CWDM is controlled effectively. We note that the experimental verification of high-bit-rate CVQKD in the multiplexing environment is a significant step closer toward large-scale deployment in fiber networks. PMID:26191758

  14. Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.

  15. 18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION...

  16. 18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION...

  17. 18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION...

  18. 18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION...

  19. 18 CFR 34.3 - Contents of application for issuance of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of application for issuance of securities. 34.3 Section 34.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION...

  20. Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication vulnerability for security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, H. Timothy

    2010-07-01

    RF toxicity and Information Warfare (IW) are becoming omnipresent posing threats to the protection of nuclear assets, and within theatres of hostility or combat where tactical operation of wireless communication without detection and interception is important and sometimes critical for survival. As a result, a requirement for deployment of many security systems is a highly secure wireless technology manifesting stealth or covert operation suitable for either permanent or tactical deployment where operation without detection or interruption is important The possible use of ultra wideband (UWB) spectrum technology as an alternative physical medium for wireless network communication offers many advantages over conventional narrowband and spread spectrum wireless communication. UWB also known as fast-frequency chirp is nonsinusoidal and sends information directly by transmitting sub-nanosecond pulses without the use of mixing baseband information upon a sinusoidal carrier. Thus UWB sends information using radar-like impulses by spreading its energy thinly over a vast spectrum and can operate at extremely low-power transmission within the noise floor where other forms of RF find it difficult or impossible to operate. As a result UWB offers low probability of detection (LPD), low probability of interception (LPI) as well as anti-jamming (AJ) properties in signal space. This paper analyzes and compares the vulnerability of UWB to narrowband and spread spectrum wireless network communication.

  1. A distributed application server for automatic differentiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B.; Hovland, P. D.

    2000-11-30

    The ADIC Application Server brings the accuracy and efficiency of automatic differentiation to the World Wide Web. Users of the ADIC Application Server can upload source code written in ANSI-C, manage remote files, differentiate selected functions, and download code augmented with derivative computations. Using a simple driver and linking to the appropriate libraries, the user can compile and run the differentiated code locally. We discuss the unique requirements for an automatic differentiation application server and describe the implementation of the ADIC Application Server.

  2. Passive 350 GHz Video Imaging Systems for Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, E.; May, T.; Born, D.; Zieger, G.; Anders, S.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, H.-G.; Schäffel, C.

    2015-10-01

    Passive submillimeter-wave imaging is a concept that has been in the focus of interest as a promising technology for personal security screening for a number of years. In contradiction to established portal-based millimeter-wave scanning techniques, it allows for scanning people from a distance in real time with high throughput and without a distinct inspection procedure. This opens up new possibilities for scanning, which directly address an urgent security need of modern societies: protecting crowds and critical infrastructure from the growing threat of individual terror attacks. Considering the low radiometric contrast of indoor scenes in the submillimeter range, this objective calls for an extremely high detector sensitivity that can only be achieved using cooled detectors. Our approach to this task is a series of passive standoff video cameras for the 350 GHz band that represent an evolving concept and a continuous development since 2007. Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), operated at temperatures below 1 K, are used as radiation detectors. By this means, background limited performance (BLIP) mode is achieved, providing the maximum possible signal to noise ratio. At video rates, this leads to a temperature resolution well below 1 K. The imaging system is completed by reflector optics based on free-form mirrors. For object distances of 5-25 m, a field of view up to 2 m height and a diffraction-limited spatial resolution in the order of 1-2 cm is provided. Opto-mechanical scanning systems are part of the optical setup and capable of frame rates of up to 25 frames per second.

  3. Distribution automation applications of fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold; Johnston, A.; Friend, H.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for interest and research in distribution automation are discussed. The communication requirements of distribution automation are examined and shown to exceed the capabilities of power line carrier, radio, and telephone systems. A fiber optic based communication system is described that is co-located with the distribution system and that could satisfy the data rate and reliability requirements. A cost comparison shows that it could be constructed at a cost that is similar to that of a power line carrier system. The requirements for fiber optic sensors for distribution automation are discussed. The design of a data link suitable for optically-powered electronic sensing is presented. Empirical results are given. A modeling technique that was used to understand the reflections of guided light from a variety of surfaces is described. An optical position-indicator design is discussed. Systems aspects of distribution automation are discussed, in particular, the lack of interface, communications, and data standards. The economics of distribution automation are examined.

  4. A topology visualization early warning distribution algorithm for large-scale network security incidents.

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

  5. A Topology Visualization Early Warning Distribution Algorithm for Large-Scale Network Security Incidents

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

  6. 78 FR 79298 - Securities Exempted; Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-End Management Investment Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is correcting outdated cross-references in rule 602 under the Securities Act of 1933 (``Securities Act'') and rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Investment Company Act'') and correcting an inadvertent error in rule 17d-1 under the Investment Company Act as published in the Federal Register on January 22,...

  7. The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future

  8. A Framework for Federated Two-Factor Authentication Enabling Cost-Effective Secure Access to Distributed Cyberinfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Rogers, Gary L; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    As cyber attacks become increasingly sophisticated, the security measures used to mitigate the risks must also increase in sophistication. One time password (OTP) systems provide strong authentication because security credentials are not reusable, thus thwarting credential replay attacks. The credential changes regularly, making brute-force attacks significantly more difficult. In high performance computing, end users may require access to resources housed at several different service provider locations. The ability to share a strong token between multiple computing resources reduces cost and complexity. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) provides access to digital resources, including supercomputers, data resources, and software tools. XSEDE will offer centralized strong authentication for services amongst service providers that leverage their own user databases and security profiles. This work implements a scalable framework built on standards to provide federated secure access to distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  9. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... registration as a securities information processor or to amend such an application or registration. 249.1001..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Form for Registration of, and Reporting by Securities Information...

  10. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... registration as a securities information processor or to amend such an application or registration. 249.1001..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Form for Registration of, and Reporting by Securities Information...

  11. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... registration as a securities information processor or to amend such an application or registration. 249.1001..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Form for Registration of, and Reporting by Securities Information...

  12. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... registration as a securities information processor or to amend such an application or registration. 249.1001..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Form for Registration of, and Reporting by Securities Information...

  13. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... registration as a securities information processor or to amend such an application or registration. 249.1001..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Form for Registration of, and Reporting by Securities Information...

  14. 17 CFR 240.6a-1 - Application for registration as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. 240.6a-1... national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. (a) An application for registration as a national securities exchange, or for exemption from such registration based on limited...

  15. 17 CFR 240.6a-1 - Application for registration as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. 240.6a-1... national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. (a) An application for registration as a national securities exchange, or for exemption from such registration based on limited...

  16. A review of video security training and assessment-systems and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cellucci, J.; Hall, R.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during the last 10 years computer-aided video data collection and playback systems have been used as nuclear facility security training and assessment tools with varying degrees of success. These mobile systems have been used by trained security personnel for response force training, vulnerability assessment, force-on-force exercises and crisis management. Typically, synchronous recordings from multiple video cameras, communications audio, and digital sensor inputs; are played back to the exercise participants and then edited for training and briefing. Factors that have influence user acceptance include: frequency of use, the demands placed on security personnel, fear of punishment, user training requirements and equipment cost. The introduction of S-VHS video and new software for scenario planning, video editing and data reduction; should bring about a wider range of security applications and supply the opportunity for significant cost sharing with other user groups.

  17. Secure N-dimensional simultaneous dense coding and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, H.; Qiu, D.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous dense coding (SDC) guarantees that Bob and Charlie simultaneously receive their respective information from Alice in their respective processes of dense coding. The idea is to use the so-called locking operation to “lock” the entanglement channels, thus requiring a joint unlocking operation by Bob and Charlie in order to simultaneously obtain the information sent by Alice. We present some new results on SDC: (1) We propose three SDC protocols, which use different N-dimensional entanglement (Bell state, W state and GHZ state). (2) Besides the quantum Fourier transform, two new locking operators are introduced (the double controlled-NOT operator and the SWAP operator). (3) In the case that spatially distant Bob and Charlie have to finalize the protocol by implementing the unlocking operation through communication, we improve our protocol’s fairness, with respect to Bob and Charlie, by implementing the unlocking operation in series of steps. (4) We improve the security of SDC against the intercept-resend attack. (5) We show that SDC can be used to implement a fair contract signing protocol. (6) We also show that the N-dimensional quantum Fourier transform can act as the locking operator in simultaneous teleportation of N-level quantum systems.

  18. Reusable tamper-indicating security seal. [Patent Application

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.J.

    1981-06-23

    The invention teaches means for detecting unauthorized tampering or substitutions of a device, and has particular utility when applied on a seal device used to secure a location or thing. The seal has a transparent body wall, and a first indicia, viz., a label identification is formed on the inside surface of this wall. Second and third indicia are formed on the outside surface of the transparent wall, and each of these indicia is transparent to allow the parallax angled viewing of the first indicia through these indicia. The second indicia is in the form of a broadly uniform pattern, viz., many small spaced dots; while the third indicia is in the form of easily memorized objects, such as human faces, made on a substrate by means of halftone printing. The substrate is lapped over the outside surface of the transparent wall. A thin cocoon of a transparent material, generally of the same material as the substrate such as plastic, is formed over the seal body and specifically over the transparent wall and the second and third indicia formed thereon. This cocoon is seamless and has walls of nonuniform thickness. Both the genuineness of the seal and whether anyone has attempted to compromise the seal can thus be visually determined upon inspection.

  19. "Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.

  20. Applications of Photonuclear Physics for International Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; Hall, J M; McNabb, D P; McFarland, J; Norman, E; Bertozzi, W; Korbly, S; Ledoux, R; Park, W

    2010-04-16

    Studies of nuclear resonance fluorescence based applications are presented. Important for these applications are data for isotopes such as {sup 239}Pu. Nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements of {sup 239}Pu were performed at the free electron laser facility at UC Santa Barbara using photons from a bremsstrahlung beam with an endpoint energies between 4.0 MeV and 5.5 MeV. Though no discrete states with significant confidence level were measured, we have excluded the region above 27(3) eV-barns, or 4-sigma, where we would expect only a small chance of false positives. Details of the measurements and the results are presented here.

  1. Studies in Income Distribution. Estimation of Social Security Taxes on the March Current Population Survey. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Benjamin, Jr.; Johnston, Mary P.

    The impact of the tax-transfer system on the distribution of income among economic units is the subject of a number of studies by the Office of Research and Statistics of the Social Security Administration. One of the most important data sources for the work is the Census Bureau's March Current Population Survey (CPS). To conduct such studies, the

  2. Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovi, Vlado

    2006-05-01

    The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources (137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is ''non-specific'' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are ''blind'' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as protecting armed forces and infrastructure.

  3. Application of distributed computing for resource scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Thiyagarajah, A.; Aganagic, M.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1996-11-01

    The short term resource scheduling is one of the most important tools for optimal operation of power systems. The objective of the resource scheduling is to minimize the total system operation cost including production, maintenance, start up and shut down costs subject to system and individual unit constraints. Due to its economic implications, the resource scheduling problem has been an active research subject for several decades. Although a number of solution methodologies have been proposed to this complex problem, consistent generation of optimal schedules for power systems of practical sizes has been extremely difficult. Other approaches for short term resource scheduling based on the augmented Lagrangian relaxation (ALR) technique were proposed. The ALR is obtained by adding quadratic terms to the objective function of the standard Lagrangian relaxation (LR). The ALR algorithm has proven to be effective in improving both convexity and convergence properties of the resource scheduling solution. In this paper, the authors introduce a distributed processing approach coupled with an efficient ALR method to further improve the solution quality and speed up the resource scheduling algorithm. In the commitment stage, subproblems corresponding to individual units are solved using distributed processing on several processors. DP is used to solve the individual unit subproblems. The distributed processing implementation is based on the Parallel Virtual Machines (PVM) software that is capable of integrating different computer configurations. PVM is a software that enables machines with widely different architecture and floating point representations to work together on a single computational task. Under PVM control, a user defined group of computers appears as one large distributed memory machine eliminating the need for expensive hardware and software required for supercomputers.

  4. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  5. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  6. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  7. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1496A Rochon*, G., Szlag*, D., Daniel*, F.B., and Chifos**, C. Remote Sensing Applications for Sustainable Watershed Management and Food Security. Proceedings of the 21st European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Symposium, Marne-La-Valle, France, 5/14-16/200...

  8. 20 CFR 703.203 - Application for security deposit determination; information to be submitted; other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required. The application must be addressed to the Branch of Financial Management and Insurance (Branch... security deposit requirements based on its financial standing (see § 703.204(c)(1)) must submit... each insurance rating service designated by the Branch and posted on the Internet at...

  9. 20 CFR 703.203 - Application for security deposit determination; information to be submitted; other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for security deposit determination; information to be submitted; other requirements. 703.203 Section 703.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES...

  10. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:

  11. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... markings (e.g., Confidential, Secret or Top Secret) are accepted by the Office. National security... PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL SECRECY OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS AND LICENSES TO... the relevant department or agency in order to prevent abandonment of the application. (e)...

  12. Securing While Sampling in Wireless Body Area Networks With Application to Electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Dautov, Ruslan; Tsouri, Gill R

    2016-01-01

    Stringent resource constraints and broadcast transmission in wireless body area network raise serious security concerns when employed in biomedical applications. Protecting data transmission where any minor alteration is potentially harmful is of significant importance in healthcare. Traditional security methods based on public or private key infrastructure require considerable memory and computational resources, and present an implementation obstacle in compact sensor nodes. This paper proposes a lightweight encryption framework augmenting compressed sensing with wireless physical layer security. Augmenting compressed sensing to secure information is based on the use of the measurement matrix as an encryption key, and allows for incorporating security in addition to compression at the time of sampling an analog signal. The proposed approach eliminates the need for a separate encryption algorithm, as well as the predeployment of a key thereby conserving sensor node's limited resources. The proposed framework is evaluated using analysis, simulation, and experimentation applied to a wireless electrocardiogram setup consisting of a sensor node, an access point, and an eavesdropper performing a proximity attack. Results show that legitimate communication is reliable and secure given that the eavesdropper is located at a reasonable distance from the sensor node and the access point. PMID:25373134

  13. Wireless video monitoring and robot control in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurkkala, Eero A.; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roning, Juha

    1998-10-01

    This research focuses on applications based on wireless monitoring and robot control, utilizing motion image and augmented reality. These applications include remote services and surveillance-related functions such as remote monitoring. A remote service can be, for example, a way to deliver products at a hospital or old people's home. Due to the mobile nature of the system, monitoring at places with privacy concerns is possible. On the other hand, mobility demands wireless communications. Suitable and present technologies for wireless video transfer are weighted. Identification of objects with the help of Radio Frequency Identifying (RFID) technology and facial recognition results in intelligent actions, for example, where the control of a robot does not require extensive workload from the user. In other words, tasks can be partially autonomous, RFID can be also used in augmentation of the video view with virtual objects. As a real-life experiment, a prototype environment is being constructed that consists of a robot equipped with a video camera and wireless links to the network and multimedia computer.

  14. 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.

    2013-08-01

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications – expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations – including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

  15. Geospatial Applications on Different Parallel and Distributed Systems in enviroGRIDS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodila, D.; Bacu, V.; Gorgan, D.

    2012-04-01

    The execution of Earth Science applications and services on parallel and distributed systems has become a necessity especially due to the large amounts of Geospatial data these applications require and the large geographical areas they cover. The parallelization of these applications comes to solve important performance issues and can spread from task parallelism to data parallelism as well. Parallel and distributed architectures such as Grid, Cloud, Multicore, etc. seem to offer the necessary functionalities to solve important problems in the Earth Science domain: storing, distribution, management, processing and security of Geospatial data, execution of complex processing through task and data parallelism, etc. A main goal of the FP7-funded project enviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is the development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure targeting this catchment region but also the development of standardized and specialized tools for storing, analyzing, processing and visualizing the Geospatial data concerning this area. For achieving these objectives, the enviroGRIDS deals with the execution of different Earth Science applications, such as hydrological models, Geospatial Web services standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and others, on parallel and distributed architecture to maximize the obtained performance. This presentation analysis the integration and execution of Geospatial applications on different parallel and distributed architectures and the possibility of choosing among these architectures based on application characteristics and user requirements through a specialized component. Versions of the proposed platform have been used in enviroGRIDS project on different use cases such as: the execution of Geospatial Web services both on Web and Grid infrastructures [2] and the execution of SWAT hydrological models both on Grid and Multicore architectures [3]. The current focus is to integrate in the proposed platform the Cloud infrastructure, which is still a paradigm with critical problems to be solved despite the great efforts and investments. Cloud computing comes as a new way of delivering resources while using a large set of old as well as new technologies and tools for providing the necessary functionalities. The main challenges in the Cloud computing, most of them identified also in the Open Cloud Manifesto 2009, address resource management and monitoring, data and application interoperability and portability, security, scalability, software licensing, etc. We propose a platform able to execute different Geospatial applications on different parallel and distributed architectures such as Grid, Cloud, Multicore, etc. with the possibility of choosing among these architectures based on application characteristics and complexity, user requirements, necessary performances, cost support, etc. The execution redirection on a selected architecture is realized through a specialized component and has the purpose of offering a flexible way in achieving the best performances considering the existing restrictions.

  16. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  17. Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Chaiwongkhot, Poompong; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    In free-space quantum key distribution (QKD), the sensitivity of the receiver's detector channels may depend differently on the spatial mode of incoming photons. Consequently, an attacker can control the spatial mode to break security. We experimentally investigate a standard polarization QKD receiver and identify sources of efficiency mismatch in its optical scheme. We model a practical intercept-and-resend attack and show that it would break security in most situations. We show experimentally that adding an appropriately chosen spatial filter at the receiver's entrance may be an effective countermeasure.

  18. Surface penetrating radar for industrial and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.

    1994-12-01

    Surface penetrating radar is playing an ever increasing role in enabling the nondestructive investigation of the ground, and within buildings, bridges and other vertical structures. Further technical developments are improving the clarity of the radar image and providing the operator with a clear, uncluttered radar image of wanted targets. While surface penetrating radar techniques have not received the much larger development investments that conventional military radars have achieved, the technology is playing a vital role in broadening the commercial market for radar methods. A number of applications are explored, including those concerned with buried bodies, antitank and antipersonnel mines, and detection of voids around sewers. Various system components and techniques are discussed, including frequency filtering, clutter reduction, waveform processing, signal processing, transmitters, receivers, and antenna arrays.

  19. Minimalist identification system based on venous map for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto G., Edwar; Martínez S., Fredy; Martínez S., Fernando

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a technique and an algorithm used to build a device for people identification through the processing of a low resolution camera image. The infrared channel is the only information needed, sensing the blood reaction with the proper wave length, and getting a preliminary snapshot of the vascular map of the back side of the hand. The software uses this information to extract the characteristics of the user in a limited area (region of interest, ROI), unique for each user, which applicable to biometric access control devices. This kind of recognition prototypes functions are expensive, but in this case (minimalist design), the biometric equipment only used a low cost camera and the matrix of IR emitters adaptation to construct an economic and versatile prototype, without neglecting the high level of effectiveness that characterizes this kind of identification method.

  20. Automatic Data Distribution for CFD Applications on Structured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Development of HPF versions of NPB and ARC3D showed that HPF has potential to be a high level language for parallelization of CFD applications. The use of HPF requires an intimate knowledge of the applications and a detailed analysis of data affinity, data movement and data granularity. Since HPF hides data movement from the user even with this knowledge it is easy to overlook pieces of the code causing low performance of the application. In order to simplify and accelerate the task of developing HPF versions of existing CFD applications we have designed and partially implemented ADAPT (Automatic Data Distribution and Placement Tool). The ADAPT analyzes a CFD application working on a single structured grid and generates HPF TEMPLATE, (RE)DISTRIBUTION, ALIGNMENT and INDEPENDENT directives. The directives can be generated on the nest level, subroutine level, application level or inter application level. ADAPT is designed to annotate existing CFD FORTRAN application performing computations on single or multiple grids. On each grid the application can considered as a sequence of operators each applied to a set of variables defined in a particular grid domain. The operators can be classified as implicit, having data dependences, and explicit, without data dependences. In order to parallelize an explicit operator it is sufficient to create a template for the domain of the operator, align arrays used in the operator with the template, distribute the template, and declare the loops over the distributed dimensions as INDEPENDENT. In order to parallelize an implicit operator, the distribution of the operator's domain should be consistent with the operator's dependences. Any dependence between sections distributed on different processors would preclude parallelization if compiler does not have an ability to pipeline computations. If a data distribution is "orthogonal" to the dependences of an implicit operator then the loop which implements the operator can be declared as INDEPENDENT.

  1. Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

    2011-02-24

    Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

  2. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  3. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  4. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR Sections... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

  5. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR Sections... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

  6. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR Sections... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

  7. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR Sections... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

  8. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR Sections... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

  9. 77 FR 15148 - Order Granting an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Granting an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 March 8, 2012. I BF Enterprises, Inc. (``BF Enterprises'' or the ``company'') has filed an application under Section 12(h) of the...

  10. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to determine future benefit payments. Our estimates of the earnings function permit us to make highly differentiated predictions of future earnings for each member of our sample. By combining the historical information on individual earnings with our prediction of future earnings up through the normal retirement age, our first approach produces tens of thousands of predicted career earnings paths that can be used in microsimulation policy analysis. Our second approach to creating lifetime earnings profiles is similar in some ways to the traditional method. For example, it is based on the creation of only a handful of "stylized" career earnings patterns. An important difference with the traditional method, however, is that we define the career earnings patterns so that they are truly representative of patterns observed in the workforce. We use simple mathematical formulas to characterize each stylized earnings pattern, and we then produce estimates of the average path of annual earnings for workers whose career earning path falls within each of the stylized patterns we have defined. Finally, we calculate the percentage of workers in successive birth-year cohorts who have earnings profiles that match each of the stylized earnings patterns. Although this method may seem simple, it allows the analyst to create stylized earnings patterns that are widely varied but still representative of earnings patterns observed among sizable groups of U.S. workers. The effects of policy reforms can then be calculated for workers with each of the stylized earnings patterns. Our analysis of U.S. lifetime earnings patterns and of the impact of selected policy reforms produces a number of findings about past trends in earnings, typical earnings patterns in the population, and the potential impact of reform. The analysis focuses on men and women born between 1931 and 1960. Along with earlier analysts, we find that men earn substantially higher lifetime wages than women and typically attain their peak career earnings at a somewhat earlier age. However, the difference in career earnings patterns between men and women has narrowed dramatically over time. Workers with greater educational attainment earn substantially higher wages than those with less education, and they attain their peak career earnings later in life. For example, among men with the least education, peak earnings are often attained around or even before age 40, whereas many men with substantial postsecondary schooling do not reach their peak career earnings until after 50. Our tabulations of the lifetime earnings profiles of the oldest cohorts (born around 1930) and projections of the earnings of the youngest profiles (born around 1960) imply that the inequality of lifetime earnings has increased noticeably over time. Women in the top one-fifth of female earners and men in the top one-fifth of male earners are predicted to receive a growing multiple of the economy-wide average wage during their career. Women born between 1931 and 1935 who were in the top fifth of female earners had lifetime average earnings that were approximately equal to the average economy-wide wage. In contrast, women born after 1951 who were in the top fifth of earners are predicted to earn almost 50 percent more, that is, roughly 150 percent of the economy-wide average wage. Women with a lower rank in the female earnings distribution will also see gains in their lifetime average earnings, but their gains are predicted to be proportionately much smaller than those of women with a high rank in the distribution. Men with high earnings are also predicted to enjoy substantial gains in their relative lifetime earnings, while men with a lower rank in the earnings distribution will probably see a significant erosion in their typical wages relative to the economy-wide average wage. That is mainly the result of a sharp decline in the relative earnings of low-wage men born after 1950. In creating stylized earnings profiles that are representative of those of significant minorities of U.S. workers, we emphasized three critical elements of the earnings path: the average level of earnings over a worker's career, the upward or downward trend in earnings from the worker's 30s through his or her early 60s, and the "sagging" or "hump-shaped" profile of earnings over the worker's career. That classification scheme yields 27 characteristic patterns of lifetime earnings. Surprisingly, the differnce between men and women within each of those categories is quite modest. The main difference between men and women is in the proportions of workers who fall in each category. Only 14 percent of men born between 1931 and 1940 fall in earnings categories with the lowest one-third of lifetime earnings, whereas 53 percent of women born in those years have low-average-earnings profiles. On the other hand, women born in those years are more likely to have a rising trend in lifetime earnings, while men are more likely to have a declining trend. We find that the distribution of lifetime earnings contains relatively more workers with below-average earnings and relatively fewer with very high earnings than assumed in the Social Security Administration's traditional policy analysis. For example, the "low earner" traditionally assumed by the Office of the Chief Actuary is assigned a level of average lifetime earnings that we find to be higher than the average earnings of persons in the bottom one-third of the lifetime earnings distribution. The stylized earnings profiles developed here can be used for policy evaluation, and the results can be compared with those from the more traditional analysis. That comparison produces several notable findings. Because earnings profiles that are actually representative of the population tend to have lower average earnings than assumed in the traditional analysis, workers typically accumulate somewhat less Social Security wealth than implied in the traditional analysis. On the other hand, because the basic benefit formula is tilted in favor of lower-income workers, the internal rate of return on Social Security contributions is somewhat higher than detected in the traditional analysis. Moreover, the primary insurance amount measured as a percentage of the worker's average indexed earnings tends to be higher than implied by the traditional analysis. Finally, the stylized earnings patterns can be used to compare benefit levels enjoyed by workers under the traditional Social Security formula and under an alternative plan based on individual investment accounts. That comparison shows, as expected, that the traditional formula favors low-wage workers and one-earner couples, while an investment account favors single, high-wage workers. Comparing two workers with the same lifetime average earnings, the traditional formula favors workers with rising earnings profiles (that is, with lifetime earnings heavily concentrated at the end of their career), while investment account pensions favor workers with declining earnings profiles (that is, with earnings concentrated early in their career). PMID:11641991

  11. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF... registered investment company issuing any redeemable security, no person designated in such...

  12. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF... registered investment company issuing any redeemable security, no person designated in such...

  13. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF... registered investment company issuing any redeemable security, no person designated in such...

  14. 78 FR 35043 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and Request for Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and... (TSA) announces the renewal of the charter for the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC). The... the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal section below. Comments, identified by...

  15. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  16. Iodine-129 AMS for Earth Science, Biomedical, and National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G; Brown, T; Tumey, S; Marchetti, A; Vu, A

    2007-02-20

    This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project created the capability to analyze the radionuclide iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the CAMS facility at LLNL, and enhanced our scientific foundation for its application through development of sample preparation technology required for environmental, biomedical, and national security applications. The project greatly improved our environmental iodine extraction and concentration methodology, and developed new techniques for the analysis of small quantities of {sup 129}I. The project can be viewed as having two phases, one in which the basic instrumental and chemical extraction methods necessary for general {sup 129}I analysis were developed, and a second in which these techniques were improved and new techniques were developed to enable broader and more sophisticated applications. The latter occurred through the mechanism of four subprojects that also serve as proof-of-principle demonstrations of our newly developed {sup 129}I capabilities. The first subproject determined the vertical distribution of bomb-pulse {sup 129}I ({sup 129}Iv distributed globally as fallout from 1950's atmospheric nuclear testing) through 5 meters in the upper vadose zone in the arid southwestern United States. This characterizes migration mechanisms of contaminant {sup 129}I, or {sup 129}I released by nuclear fuel reprocessing, as well as the migration of labile iodine in soils relative to moisture flux, permitting a determination of nutrient cycling. The second subproject minimized the amount of iodine required in an AMS sample target. Because natural iodine abundances are very low in almost all environments, many areas of research had been precluded or made extremely difficult by the demands of sample size. Also, certain sample types of potential interest to national security are intrinsically small - for example iodine on air filters. The result of this work is the ability to measure the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio at the 2E-07 level or higher in a sample as small as a single raindrop. The third subproject tested the feasibility of using bomb-pulse {sup 129}I in shallow groundwaters in the Sierra Nevada to determine the source of waters entering into the Merced River. The sources of water and their time (age) within the hydrologic system is crucial to understanding the effects of climate change on California waters. The project is in collaboration with faculty and students at the University of California - Merced, and is now the subject of a follow-on Ph.D. dissertation project funded by the LLNL-URP University Education Participation Program. The fourth subproject examined the requirements for using the decay of {sup 129}I to date pore waters associated with continental shelf methane hydrate deposits. Understanding the age of formation and the historical stability of these hydrates is important in determining their response to climate change. Thawing of the world's methane hydrates would quickly and dramatically increase greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The calculations and testing performed on this project have led to a follow on project that selectively implants {sup 127}I to the exclusion of {sup 129}I, creating an analytical iodine carrier with a substantially lower {sup 129}I background than is available from natural sources. This will permit measurement of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios at sub-10-14 levels, thereby providing a method for dating hydrate pore waters that are tens of millions of years old.

  17. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  18. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  19. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  20. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  1. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are required....20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a...

  2. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  3. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  4. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  5. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  6. ECHO - An Infrastructure for Distributed Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, R.; Weinstein, B.; Wichmann, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO) has been operational for two years and enables a "marketplace" of science data and service providers, and consumers. To accomplish this goal, ECHO provides two registries. The first is a registry of metadata that is updated on a regular basis by the data providers. These metadata describe science content and data acquisition details about the data holdings. The second is a registry of services. Together these registries support discovery, access and delivery capabilities. ECHO makes these available to clients so that clients appear to have all the metadata in their system without the burden of managing it all. ECHO also offers its clients a single interface for placing orders, and then brokers them on behalf of the users. ECHO provides some user account management capabilities. In the future, ECHO will broker service and data transactions. This all serves to simplify client development and streamline data and service access by end users. It also alleviates the burden on the scientist of having to find and apply data services to the data. Scientists can focus their time on their jobs of analysis and research. ECHO also provides tools to help in use of the APIs. This presentation discusses the capability and resources available to help providers of data and services, client developers and applications developers in using ECHO as their data and service access infrastructure.

  7. Distributed geant4 simulation in medical and space science applications using DIANE framework and the GRID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo?cicki, Jakub T.; Guatelli, Susanna; Mantero, Alfonso; Pia, M. G.

    2003-09-01

    Distributed computing is one of the most important trends in IT which has recently gained significance for large-scale scientific applications. Distributed Analysis Environment (DIANE) [1] is a R&D study, focusing on semi-interactive parallel and remote data analysis and simulation, which has been conducted at CERN. DIANE provides necessary software infrastructure for parallel scientific applications in the master-worker model. Advanced error recovery policies, automatic book-keeping of distributed jobs and on-line monitoring and control tools are provided. DIANE makes a transparent use of a number of different middleware implementations such as load balancing service (LSF, PBS, GRID Resource Broker, Condor) and security service (GSI, Kerberos, openssh). A number of distributed Geant 4 simulations have been deployed and tested, ranging from interactive radiotherapy treatment planning using dedicated clusters in hospitals, to globally-distributed simulations of astrophysics experiments using the European Data Grid middleware. This paper describes the general concepts behind the DIANE framework and results of the first tests with distributed Geant 4 simulations.

  8. Virtualization and Programming Support for Video Sensor Networks with Application to Wireless and Physical Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestavros, Azer; Ocean, Michael J.

    Network Security Systems are heavily anchored in the digital plane of "cyber space" and hence cannot be used effectively to derive the physical identity of an intruder in order to prevent further malicious wireless broadcasts (i.e., escorting an intruder off the premises based on physical evidence). Embedded Sensor Networks (SNs) can be used to bridge the gap between digital and physical security planes, and thus can provide reciprocal benefit to security tasks on both planes. Toward that end, we present our experience integrating wireless networking security services into snBench (the Sensor Network workBench). snBench provides an extensible framework that enables the rapid development and automated deployment of SN applications on a shared, embedded sensing and actuation infrastructure. snBench's extensible architecture allows an engineer to quickly integrate new sensing and response capabilities into the snBench framework, while high-level languages, compilers and execution environments allow novice SN programmers to compose SN service logic, unaware of the lower-level components on which their services rely. Concrete examples are provided to illustrate the power and potential of Wireless Security Services that span both the physical and digital plane.

  9. Concepts and applications of wireless security systems for tactical, portable, and fixed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    Intrusion detection systems sometimes use radio signals to convey sensor status in areas that wire conduits do not service or as a redundant path to wired systems. Some applications benefit from radio technology by minimizing setup time and reducing installation and operation costs. In recent years with the explosion in wireless communications, these radio-based security systems have become more capable while lowering costs, size, and power consumption. However, the very nature of radio communication raises issues regarding setup, operation, and security of these systems. Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with government and industry, has addressed many of these issues through the analysis and development of security systems, communications protocols, and operational procedures. Message encryption and frequent channel supervision are used to enhance security. Installation and maintenance of these systems are simplified by incorporating built-in radio link analysis, menu-driven configuration equipment, and other techniques. Commercial communications satellites and spread-spectrum radios are also being integrated to provide unique capabilities to the security community. The status of this work is presented here along with details of its development.

  10. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  11. Implementing MDA-based distributed, interoperable, flexible, scalable, portable, and secure EHR systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems provide the kernel application of health information systems and health networks which should be independent of complexity, localisation constraints, platforms, protocols, etc. Based on shared care information systems' requirements for high level interoperability, a generic component architecture has been introduced. For implementing, running and maintaining acceptable and useable health information systems components, all views of the ISO Reference Model-Open Distributed Processing have to be considered. Following the Model Driven Architecture paradigm, a reference model as well as concept-representing domain models both independent of platforms must be specified, which are combined and harmonised as well as automatically transferred into platform-specific models using appropriate tools. PMID:15747946

  12. A secure distribution method for digitized image scan using a two-step wavelet-based technique: A Telemedicine Case.

    PubMed

    Yee Lau, Phooi; Ozawa, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a secure distribution method to distribute healthcare records (e.g. video streams and digitized image scans). The availability of prompt and expert medical care can meaningfully improve health care services in understaffed rural and remote areas, sharing of available facilities, and medical records referral. Here, a secure method is developed for distributing healthcare records, using a two-step wavelet based technique; first, a 2-level db8 wavelets transform for textual elimination, and later a 4-level db8 wavelets transform for digital watermarking. The first db8 wavelets are used to detect and eliminate textual information found on images for protecting data privacy and confidentiality. The second db8 wavelets are to secure and impose imperceptible marks to identify the owner; track authorized users, or detects malicious tampering of documents. Experiments were performed on different digitized image scans. The experimental results have illustrated that both wavelet-based methods are conceptually simple and able to effectively detect textual information while our watermark technique is robust to noise and compression. PMID:17282675

  13. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-3 or Form F-3 (referenced in 17 CFR 239.13 and 17 CFR 239.33 of this chapter); or (iii) At the date... meets the provisions of General Instruction I.B.2. of Form F-3 (referenced in 17 CFR 239.33 of this...) An issuer for an offering of penny stock as defined in Rule 3a51-1 of the Securities Exchange Act...

  14. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-3 or Form F-3 (referenced in 17 CFR 239.13 and 17 CFR 239.33 of this chapter); or (iii) At the date... meets the provisions of General Instruction I.B.2. of Form F-3 (referenced in 17 CFR 239.33 of this...) An issuer for an offering of penny stock as defined in Rule 3a51-1 of the Securities Exchange Act...

  15. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  16. Application-dependent Probability Distributions for Offshore Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E. C.; Lackner, M.; Vogel, R. M.; Baise, L. G.

    2010-12-01

    The higher wind speeds of the offshore environment make it an attractive setting for future wind farms. With sparser field measurements, the theoretical probability distribution of short-term wind speeds becomes more important in estimating values such as average power output and fatigue load. While previous studies typically compare the accuracy of probability distributions using R2, we show that validation based on this metric is not consistent with validation based on engineering parameters of interest, namely turbine power output and extreme wind speed. Thus, in order to make the most accurate estimates possible, the probability distribution that an engineer picks to characterize wind speeds should depend on the design parameter of interest. We introduce the Kappa and Wakeby probability distribution functions to wind speed modeling, and show that these two distributions, along with the Biweibull distribution, fit wind speed samples better than the more widely accepted Weibull and Rayleigh distributions based on R2. Additionally, out of the 14 probability distributions we examine, the Kappa and Wakeby give the most accurate and least biased estimates of turbine power output. The fact that the 2-parameter Lognormal distribution estimates extreme wind speeds (i.e. fits the upper tail of wind speed distributions) with least error indicates that not one single distribution performs satisfactorily for all applications. Our use of a large dataset composed of 178 buoys (totaling ~72 million 10-minute wind speed observations) makes these findings highly significant, both in terms of large sample size and broad geographical distribution across various wind regimes. Boxplots of R2 from the fit of each of the 14 distributions to the 178 boy wind speed samples. Distributions are ranked from left to right by ascending median R2, with the Biweibull having the closest median to 1.

  17. Applications Analysis: Principles and Examples from Various Distributed Computer Applications at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Dennis; Evans, David; Jensen, Dal; Nelson, Spencer

    1999-08-01

    As information systems have become distributed over many computers within the enterprise, managing those applications has become increasingly important. This is an emerging area of work, recognized as such by many large organizations as well as many start-up companies. In this report, we present a summary of the move to distributed applications, some of the problems that came along for the ride, and some specific examples of the tools and techniques we have used to analyze distributed applications and gain some insight into the mechanics and politics of distributed computing.

  18. An architecture for distributed video applications based on declarative networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiping; Gonzales, Cesar; Lobo, Jorge; Calo, Seraphin; Verma, Dinesh

    2012-06-01

    Video surveillance applications are examples of complex distributed coalition tasks. Real-time capture and analysis of image sensor data is one of the most important tasks in a number of military critical decision making scenarios. In complex battlefield situations, there is a need to coordinate the operation of distributed image sensors and the analysis of their data as transmitted over a heterogeneous wireless network where bandwidth, power, and computational capabilities are constrained. There is also a need to automate decision making based on the results of the analysis of video data. Declarative Networking is a promising technology for controlling complex video surveillance applications in this sort of environment. This paper presents a flexible and extensible architecture for deploying distributed video surveillance applications using the declarative networking paradigm, which allows us to dynamically connect and manage distributed image sensors and deploy various modules for the analysis of video data to satisfy a variety of video surveillance requirements. With declarative computing, it becomes possible for us not only to express the program control structure in a declarative fashion, but also to simplify the management of distributed video surveillance applications.

  19. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business combination related shell company, each as defined in Rule 405 ( 230.405); or (C) An issuer for... the regular course of its business and such publication or distribution does not represent the... reports in the regular course of its business and, at the time of the publication or distribution of...

  20. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... business combination related shell company, each as defined in Rule 405 ( 230.405); or (C) An issuer for... the regular course of its business and such publication or distribution does not represent the... reports in the regular course of its business and, at the time of the publication or distribution of...

  1. The application of artificial intelligence techniques to large distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubyah, R.; Smith, T. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Data accessibility and transfer of information, including the land resources information system pilot, are structured as large computer information networks. These pilot efforts include the reduction of the difficulty to find and use data, reducing processing costs, and minimize incompatibility between data sources. Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques were suggested to achieve these goals. The applicability of certain AI techniques are explored in the context of distributed problem solving systems and the pilot land data system (PLDS). The topics discussed include: PLDS and its data processing requirements, expert systems and PLDS, distributed problem solving systems, AI problem solving paradigms, query processing, and distributed data bases.

  2. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lucja; Bo?kowski, Mike; Leszczy?ski, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-05-01

    The latest developments in AlGaInN laser diode technology are reviewed for defence and security applications such as underwater communications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries.

  3. A Component-based Programming Model for Composite, Distributed Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eidson, Thomas M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The nature of scientific programming is evolving to larger, composite applications that are composed of smaller element applications. These composite applications are more frequently being targeted for distributed, heterogeneous networks of computers. They are most likely programmed by a group of developers. Software component technology and computational frameworks are being proposed and developed to meet the programming requirements of these new applications. Historically, programming systems have had a hard time being accepted by the scientific programming community. In this paper, a programming model is outlined that attempts to organize the software component concepts and fundamental programming entities into programming abstractions that will be better understood by the application developers. The programming model is designed to support computational frameworks that manage many of the tedious programming details, but also that allow sufficient programmer control to design an accurate, high-performance application.

  4. 78 FR 3042 - J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... COMMISSION J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order January 9, 2013... Act, with respect to an injunction entered against J.P. Morgan Securities LLC (``JPMS''), EMC Mortgage... Investments II, Inc. (``SAMI''), SACO I Inc. (``SACO'') and J.P. Morgan Acceptance Corporation I...

  5. 75 FR 4595 - BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities... Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Y Exchange'') submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission... publishing this notice to solicit comments on BATS Y Exchange's Form 1. The Commission will take...

  6. 76 FR 42767 - Application for Issuance of Subordinated Debt Securities/Notice of Issuance of Subordinated Debt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Application for Issuance of Subordinated Debt Securities/Notice of Issuance of Subordinated Debt or Mandatorily Redeemable Preferred Stock AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... Debt Securities/Notice of Issuance of Subordinated Debt or Mandatory Redeemable Preferred Stock....

  7. Development of a self-navigating mobile interior robot application as a security guard/sentry

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.R.; Harrington, J.J.

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes a mobile robot system designed to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or signposts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and the ability to communicate information either directly to the electronic portion of the security system or to a manned central control center. Other desirable features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can be operated either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where direct human control can be limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for alarm assessment or roving patrol, as a point sensor (sentry) in routine security applications, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to ''walk-test'' intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system will be briefly described herein.

  8. Analysis on the threats and spatiotemporal distribution pattern of security in World Natural Heritage Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoguo; Yang, Zhaoping; Du, Xishihui

    2015-01-01

    World Natural Heritage Sites (WNHS) are treasures that need human protection and invite appreciation, which makes conservation of WNHS an urgent task. This paper assesses where in the world threats are most pressing and which WNHS require emergency assistance. Using an analysis of "hot spots" and inverse distance weighting, it finds that Africa is the region where WNHS are least secure. Reports of the state of the conservation of WNHS describe the many threats that exist. Of these, management activities and institutional factors are the primary threats. The paper suggests relevant measures to improve the WNHS security. PMID:25427826

  9. Neutron Generators Developed at LBNL for Homeland Security andImaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, Jani

    2006-08-13

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

  10. High-Resolution Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used in Homeland Security and Forensic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Wullschleger, Stan D; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Martin, Rodger Carl; Grissino-Mayer, Henri

    2006-01-01

    The technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect elements for a variety of homeland security applications such as nuclear materials identification and inventory,and forensic applications has been demonstrated. For nuclear materials applications, we detected and profiled metals in coatings that were used to encapsulate nuclear fuel. Multivariate analysis has been successfully employed in the quantification of elements present in treated wood and engineered wood composites. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications related to homeland security. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) are sufficient; (2) samples can be analyzed by LIBS very rapidly, and (3) biological materials such as human and animal bones and wood can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation. For forensic applications they have used LIBS to determine differences in animal and human bones. They have also applied this technique in the determination of counterfeit and non-counterfeit currency. They recently applied LIBS in helping to solve a murder case.

  11. Secure polarization-independent subcarrier quantum key distribution in optical fiber channel using BB84 protocol with a strong reference.

    PubMed

    Gleim, A V; Egorov, V I; Nazarov, Yu V; Smirnov, S V; Chistyakov, V V; Bannik, O I; Anisimov, A A; Kynev, S M; Ivanova, A E; Collins, R J; Kozlov, S A; Buller, G S

    2016-02-01

    A quantum key distribution system based on the subcarrier wave modulation method has been demonstrated which employs the BB84 protocol with a strong reference to generate secure bits at a rate of 16.5 kbit/s with an error of 0.5% over an optical channel of 10 dB loss, and 18 bits/s with an error of 0.75% over 25 dB of channel loss. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the highest channel loss reported for secure quantum key distribution using the subcarrier wave approach. A passive unidirectional scheme has been used to compensate for the polarization dependence of the phase modulators in the receiver module, which resulted in a high visibility of 98.8%. The system is thus fully insensitive to polarization fluctuations and robust to environmental changes, making the approach promising for use in optical telecommunication networks. Further improvements in secure key rate and transmission distance can be achieved by implementing the decoy states protocol or by optimizing the mean photon number used in line with experimental parameters. PMID:26906834

  12. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN..., shall be signed by the Secretary of Energy or the Secretary's authorized representative and must...

  13. SOIL PHOSPHOROUS SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN PASTURES RECEIVING POULTRY LITTER APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally-based P management strategies could be improved by delineating management zones incorporating the effects of landscape position on soil morphology, hydrology, and soil P distribution. Three farm pasture sites in SW Missouri receiving long-term poultry litter applications were sampled...

  14. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meeting the criteria of General Instruction I.B.5 of Form S-3 (§ 239.13 of this chapter) (“S-3 ABS”) shall not be deemed to constitute an offer for sale or offer to sell S-3 ABS registered or proposed to be... ABS backed directly (or, with respect to securitizations of other securities, indirectly)...

  15. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meeting the criteria of General Instruction I.B.5 of Form S-3 (§ 239.13 of this chapter) (“S-3 ABS”) shall not be deemed to constitute an offer for sale or offer to sell S-3 ABS registered or proposed to be... ABS backed directly (or, with respect to securitizations of other securities, indirectly)...

  16. An automated approach for tone mapping operator parameter adjustment in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasula, LukáÅ.¡; Narwaria, Manish; Le Callet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity in recent years. Different from the traditional low dynamic range (LDR), HDR content tends to be visually more appealing and realistic as it can represent the dynamic range of the visual stimuli present in the real world. As a result, more scene details can be faithfully reproduced. As a direct consequence, the visual quality tends to improve. HDR can be also directly exploited for new applications such as video surveillance and other security tasks. Since more scene details are available in HDR, it can help in identifying/tracking visual information which otherwise might be difficult with typical LDR content due to factors such as lack/excess of illumination, extreme contrast in the scene, etc. On the other hand, with HDR, there might be issues related to increased privacy intrusion. To display the HDR content on the regular screen, tone-mapping operators (TMO) are used. In this paper, we present the universal method for TMO parameters tuning, in order to maintain as many details as possible, which is desirable in security applications. The method's performance is verified on several TMOs by comparing the outcomes from tone-mapping with default and optimized parameters. The results suggest that the proposed approach preserves more information which could be of advantage for security surveillance but, on the other hand, makes us consider possible increase in privacy intrusion.

  17. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  18. Mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions for homeland security, defense, and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim; Carapezza, Edward M.

    2015-05-01

    It is desirable for executive officers of law enforcement agencies and other executive officers in homeland security and defense, as well as first responders, to have some basic information about the latest trend on mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions available on the market. This paper reviews and discusses a number of studies on the use and effectiveness of wireless video recording solutions. It provides insights into the features of wearable video recording devices that offer excellent applications for the category of security agencies listed in this paper. It also provides answers to key questions such as: how to determine the type of video recording solutions most suitable for the needs of your agency, the essential features to look for when selecting a device for your video needs, and the privacy issues involved with wearable video recording devices.

  19. Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Erik; May, Torsten; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; Brmel, Anika; Anders, Solveig; Zakosarenko, Vyacheslav; Krause, Torsten; Krger, Andr; Schulz, Marco; Bauer, Frank; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-10-01

    Passive submillimeter-wave imaging is a concept that has been in the focus of interest as a promising technology for security applications for a number of years. It utilizes the unique optical properties of submillimeter waves and promises an alternative to millimeter-wave and X-ray backscattering portals for personal security screening in particular. Possible application scenarios demand sensitive, fast, and flexible high-quality imaging techniques. Considering the low radiometric contrast of indoor scenes in the submillimeter range, this objective calls for an extremely high detector sensitivity that can only be achieved using cooled detectors. Our approach to this task is a series of passive standoff video cameras for the 350 GHz band that represent an evolving concept and a continuous development since 2007. The cameras utilize arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), i. e. cryogenic microbolometers, as radiation detectors. The TES are operated at temperatures below 1 K, cooled by a closed-cycle cooling system, and coupled to superconducting readout electronics. By this means, background limited photometry (BLIP) mode is achieved providing the maximum possible signal to noise ratio. At video rates, this leads to a pixel NETD well below 1K. The imaging system is completed by reflector optics based on free-form mirrors. For object distances of 3-10 m, a field of view up to 2m height and a diffraction-limited spatial resolution in the order of 1-2 cm is provided. Opto-mechanical scanning systems are part of the optical setup and capable frame rates up to 25 frames per second. Both spiraliform and linear scanning schemes have been developed. Several electronic and software components are used for system control, signal amplification, and data processing. Our objective is the design of an application-ready and user-friendly imaging system. For application in real world security screening scenarios, it can be extended using image processing and automated threat detection software.

  20. Occupational impairment and disability among applicants for Social Security disability benefits in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Bresnitz, E A; Frumkin, H; Goldstein, L; Neumark, D; Hodgson, M; Needleman, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The study goal was to assess the extent of workplace-related disease and injury among Social Security Disability Insurance applicants. METHODS. A convenience sample of 240 consecutive applicants to the Pennsylvania Bureau of Disability Determination was studied to assess the prevalence of work-related disorders. An applicant had a work-related condition if there was a clear statement of a workplace illness or injury associated with the impairment, or if the applicant had worked at an occupation with a high likelihood of exposures known or suspected to contribute to the condition of interest. RESULTS. Of the 240 applicants, 166 (69%) were awarded disability insurance benefits; a total of 27 (11%) had work-related conditions, including 14 of the 166 (8%) who were found to be disabled. Forty percent of the 27 had a disorder that was musculoskeletal in origin. Of 59 applicants with cancer, 10.2% had some work-related etiological component. Of an estimated 71,680 adult disability insurance applicants in Pennsylvania in 1990, 5134 new insurance beneficiaries had a projected occupationally related disability. CONCLUSIONS. A substantial number of applicants for disability insurance benefits suffer from an impairment caused or exacerbated by prior workplace exposures. These individuals may serve as sentinel events for initiating follow-up surveillance and prevention activities. PMID:7977918

  1. Some applications of the fractional Poisson probability distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Nick

    2009-11-15

    Physical and mathematical applications of the recently invented fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers of the second kind. The appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been introduced and applied to evaluate the skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A representation of the Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of the quantum optics and the theory of combinatorial numbers.

  2. CORBA-based platform for distributed multimedia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Christian; Molva, Refik

    1997-01-01

    As distributed multimedia applications are starting to be offered as services in enterprise and residential cable networks, there is a growing interest in platforms that provide a standard framework for the development and deployment of these applications. Key issues in platform design are service diversity, service portability and interoperability of user terminal equipment. We propose a platform architecture for the provision of multimedia communication services which logically separates application processing from media processing. Applications are installed in application pools from where they control a set of communicating multimedia terminals. Application-specific intelligence is downloaded into the terminals in the from of Tcl/Tk or Java scripts that generate graphical user interfaces, control media processing components, and communicate with the application in the pool. The platform architecture is based on CORBA and is defined as an extensible set of IDL interfaces for control and stream interfaces for multimedia communication. The platform architecture is based on CORBA and is defined as an extensible set of IDL interfaces for control and stream interfaces for multimedia communication. The platform supports applications development with high-level programming interfaces.

  3. A distributed trust evaluation model and its application scenarios for medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2012-11-01

    The development of medical sensor networks (MSNs) is imperative for e-healthcare, but security remains a formidable challenge yet to be resolved. Traditional cryptographic mechanisms do not suffice given the unique characteristics of MSNs, and the fact that MSNs are susceptible to a variety of node misbehaviors. In such situations, the security and performance of MSNs depend on the cooperative and trust nature of the distributed nodes, and it is important for each node to evaluate the trustworthiness of other nodes. In this paper, we identify the unique features of MSNs and introduce relevant node behaviors, such as transmission rate and leaving time, into trust evaluation to detect malicious nodes. We then propose an applicationindependent and distributed trust evaluation model for MSNs. The trust management is carried out through the use of simple cryptographic techniques. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can be used to effectively identify malicious behaviors and thereby exclude malicious nodes. This paper also reports the experimental results of the Collection Tree Protocol with the addition of our proposed model in a network of TelosB motes, which show that the network performance can be significantly improved in practice. Further, some suggestions are given on how to employ such a trust evaluation model in some application scenarios. PMID:22623434

  4. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  5. 78 FR 26407 - Notice of an Application of W2007 Grace Acquisition I, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... COMMISSION Notice of an Application of W2007 Grace Acquisition I, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 April 30, 2013. The Securities and Exchange Commission gives notice that W2007 Grace Acquisition I, Inc. (``W2007 Grace'') has filed an application under Section 12(h) of the Securities...

  6. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  7. THz imaging and sensing for security applicationsexplosives, weapons and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, John F.; Schulkin, Brian; Huang, Feng; Gary, Dale; Barat, Robert; Oliveira, Filipe; Zimdars, David

    2005-07-01

    Over the past 5 years, there has been a significant interest in employing terahertz (THz) technology, spectroscopy and imaging for security applications. There are three prime motivations for this interest: (a) THz radiation can detect concealed weapons since many non-metallic, non-polar materials are transparent to THz radiation; (b) target compounds such as explosives and illicit drugs have characteristic THz spectra that can be used to identify these compounds and (c) THz radiation poses no health risk for scanning of people. In this paper, stand-off interferometric imaging and sensing for the detection of explosives, weapons and drugs is emphasized. Future prospects of THz technology are discussed.

  8. Distortion invariant correlation filters application for quality inspection of master-matrix for security holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, Evgeny; Shaulskiy, Dmitriy; Starikov, Rostislav; Odinokov, Sergey; Zherdev, Alexander; Koluchkin, Vasiliy; Shvetsov, Ivan; Smirnov, Andrey

    2013-03-01

    Security holograms (SH) are perspective for document and product authenticity protection due to difficulties of such a protection mark falsification. Mass production of SH uses widespread technology of hot foil or lavsan paper stamping. The quality of holograms significantly depends on perfection of nickel master-matrix that is used in stamping equipment. We represent the method of automatic quality inspection of nickel master-matrix based on digital processing of its surface relief microphotographs. Proposed processing algorithm is based on combination of image spatial frequency analysis and image matching using distortion invariant correlation filters. The results of our method application for real SH master-matrices inspection are shown in this paper.

  9. Design of 95 GHz, 2 MW Gyrotron for Communication and Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Singh, T. P.; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    The design and the numerical simulation of the 95 GHz, 2 MW gyrotron for various kinds of communication, sensing and security applications is presented. The gyrotron is designed for the TE24,8 operating mode. Various in-house developed and commercially available computer codes are used for the design purpose. A 4.25 MW electron gun is designed for the 2 MW of output power. The mode selection, cold cavity and the beam-wave interaction analysis are discussed for the design of weakly tapered open resonator type of interaction cavity. The parametric analysis of the interaction cavity and the electron gun is also presented.

  10. Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Imhof, Martin; Hampp, Norbert; Rhinow, Daniel

    2014-02-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

  11. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T. Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  12. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the. target site that is running the . VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  13. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  14. Using 3D Models And Discrete Simulations In Infrastructure Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assogna, Pierluigi; Bertocchi, Glauco; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Vicentino, Michele; Scorzelli, Giorgio; Zollo, Roberto

    Next generation systems for critical infrastructure protection must support capabilities such as behavior analysis, situation modeling and data mining integrated within sophisticated virtual or augmented reality interfaces. This paper describes the design goals and implementation of a platform for critical infrastructure security applications. The platform is designed to support semi-automated 3D modeling of infrastructures, 3D integration of sensor networks, situation modeling and visual simulation via 3D animation, and advanced situation analysis. Such a system would enable operators to recognize preliminary indications of crisis situations and promptly activate the appropriate countermeasures. It would also assist them in optimizing normal operations and conducting simulations for emergency planning and crisis management.

  15. Application of parallel distributed processing to space based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, J. R.; Heffelfinger, H. L.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) to enhance automated experiment monitoring and control is explored. Recent very large scale integration (VLSI) advances have made such applications an achievable goal. The PDP machine has demonstrated the ability to automatically organize stored information, handle unfamiliar and contradictory input data and perform the actions necessary. The PDP machine has demonstrated that it can perform inference and knowledge operations with greater speed and flexibility and at lower cost than traditional architectures. In applications where the rule set governing an expert system's decisions is difficult to formulate, PDP can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken.

  16. Kalman filter application for distributed parameter estimation in reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.P.; Edwards, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    An application of the Kalman filter has been developed for the real-time identification of a distributed parameter in a nuclear power plant. This technique can be used to improve numerical method-based best-estimate simulation of complex systems such as nuclear power plants. The application to a reactor system involves a unique modal model that approximates physical components, such as the reactor, as a coupled oscillator, i.e., a modal model with coupled modes. In this model both states and parameters are described by an orthogonal expansion. The Kalman filter with the sequential least-squares parameter estimation algorithm was used to estimate the modal coefficients of all states and one parameter. Results show that this state feedback algorithm is an effective way to parametrically identify a distributed parameter system in the presence of uncertainties.

  17. Applicability of the FASTBUS standard to distributed control

    SciTech Connect

    Deiss, S.R.; Downing, R.W.; Gustavson, D.B.; Larsen, R.S.; Logg, C.A.; Paffrath, L.

    1981-03-01

    The new FASTBUS standard has been designed to provide a framework for distributed processing in both experimental data acquisition and accelerator control. The features of FASTBUS which support distributed control are a priority arbitration scheme which allows intercrate as well as intracrate message flow between processors and slave devices; and a high bandwidth to permit efficient sharing of the data paths by high-speed devices. Sophisticated diagnostic aids permit system-wide error checking and/or correction. Software has been developed for large distributed systems. This consists of a system data base description, and initialization algorithms to allocate address space and establish preferred message routes. A diagnostics package is also being developed, based on an independent Ethernet-like serial link. The paper describes available hardware and software, on-going developments, and current applications.

  18. Determining Global Population Distribution: Methods, Applications and Data

    PubMed Central

    Balk, D.L.; Deichmann, U.; Yetman, G.; Pozzi, F.; Hay, S.I.; Nelson, A.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the total numbers of people at risk from infectious disease in the world requires not just tabular population data, but data that are spatially explicit and global in extent at a moderate resolution. This review describes the basic methods for constructing estimates of global population distribution with attention to recent advances in improving both spatial and temporal resolution. To evaluate the optimal resolution for the study of disease, the native resolution of the data inputs as well as that of the resulting outputs are discussed. Assumptions used to produce different population data sets are also described, with their implications for the study of infectious disease. Lastly, the application of these population data sets in studies to assess disease distribution and health impacts is reviewed. The data described in this review are distributed in the accompanying DVD. PMID:16647969

  19. Sensor-enabled chem/bio contamination detection system dedicated to situational awareness of water distribution security status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Mark D.; Smith, Eddy D.; VanBlaricum, Vicki; Hock, Vincent F.; Kroll, Dan; Russell, Kevin J.

    2010-04-01

    Both real events and models have proven that drinking water systems are vulnerable to deliberate and/or accidental contamination. Additionally, homeland security initiatives and modeling efforts have determined that it is relatively easy to orchestrate the contamination of potable water supplies. Such contamination can be accomplished with classic and non-traditional chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and/or toxic industrial materials (TIMs). Subsequent research and testing has developed a proven network for detection and response to these threats. The method uses offthe- shelf, broad-spectrum analytical instruments coupled with advanced interpretive algorithms. The system detects and characterizes any backflow events involving toxic contaminants by employing unique chemical signature (fingerprint) response data. This instrumentation has been certified by the Office of Homeland Security for detecting deliberate and/or accidental contamination of critical water infrastructure. The system involves integration of several mature technologies (sensors, SCADA, dynamic models, and the HACH HST Guardian Blue instrumentation) into a complete, real-time, management system that also can be used to address other water distribution concerns, such as corrosion. This paper summarizes the reasons and results for installing such a distribution-based detection and protection system.

  20. Overcoming the challenges of secure mobile applications for network-centric, data-sensitive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroha, Bassam; Farroha, Deborah

    2012-05-01

    Gaining the competitive advantage in today's aggressive environment requires our corporate leaders and Warfighters alike to be armed with up-to-date knowledge related to friendly and opposing forces. This knowledge has to be delivered in real-time between the core enterprise and tactical/mobile units at the edge. The type and sensitivity of data delivered will vary depending on users, threat level and current rules of dissemination. This paper will describe the mobile security management that basis access rights on positive identification of user, authenticating the user and the edge device. Next, Access Management is granted on a fine grain basis where each data element is tagged with meta-data that is crypto-bound to the data itself to ensure authenticity of contents and observance of data sensitivity.

  1. Computer-generated holograms and diffraction gratings in optical security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, Pawel J.

    2000-04-01

    The term 'computer generated hologram' (CGH) describes a diffractive structure strictly calculated and recorded to diffract light in a desired way. The CGH surface profile is a result of the wavefront calculation rather than of interference. CGHs are able to form 2D and 3D images. Optically, variable devices (OVDs) composed of diffractive gratings are often used in security applications. There are various types of optically and digitally recorded gratings in security applications. Grating based OVDs are used to record bright 2D images with limited range of cinematic effects. These effects result form various orientations or densities of recorded gratings. It is difficult to record high quality OVDs of 3D objects using gratings. Stereo grams and analogue rainbow holograms offer 3D imaging, but they are darker and have lower resolution than grating OVDs. CGH based OVDs contains unlimited range of cinematic effects and high quality 3D images. Images recorded using CGHs are usually more noisy than grating based OVDs, because of numerical inaccuracies in CGH calculation and mastering. CGH based OVDs enable smooth integration of hidden and machine- readable features within an OVD design.

  2. Field Measurements and Guidelines for the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to the Environment and Security

    PubMed Central

    Gil Jiménez, Víctor P.; Armada, Ana García

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow©. Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems. PMID:22303175

  3. Development of an UltraNet Based Distributed Visualization Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krystynak, John

    1991-01-01

    The example application is a distributed visualization involving a supercomputer and a graphics workstation. The visualization computation is performed on a Connection Machine, end the results are rendered using a Silicon Graphics Workstations The UltraNet network installed at NAB allows high-bandwidth communication between the computers. Ideally, taking advantage of the UltraNet is no more complex than developing TCP/IP and Unix BSD socket-type applications on a single machine. In practice, there are several problems in developing an Application using the UltraNet. This paper identifies potential problems and discusses techniques for overcoming them. Performance of UltraNet communication is measured and found to be 10 MB/sec for SGI VGX workstations.

  4. DAMT - DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION MONITOR TOOL (HP9000 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, B.

    1994-01-01

    Typical network monitors measure status of host computers and data traffic among hosts. A monitor to collect statistics about individual processes must be unobtrusive and possess the ability to locate and monitor processes, locate and monitor circuits between processes, and report traffic back to the user through a single application program interface (API). DAMT, Distributed Application Monitor Tool, is a distributed application program that will collect network statistics and make them available to the user. This distributed application has one component (i.e., process) on each host the user wishes to monitor as well as a set of components at a centralized location. DAMT provides the first known implementation of a network monitor at the application layer of abstraction. Potential users only need to know the process names of the distributed application they wish to monitor. The tool locates the processes and the circuit between them, and reports any traffic between them at a user-defined rate. The tool operates without the cooperation of the processes it monitors. Application processes require no changes to be monitored by this tool. Neither does DAMT require the UNIX kernel to be recompiled. The tool obtains process and circuit information by accessing the operating system's existing process database. This database contains all information available about currently executing processes. Expanding the information monitored by the tool can be done by utilizing more information from the process database. Traffic on a circuit between processes is monitored by a low-level LAN analyzer that has access to the raw network data. The tool also provides features such as dynamic event reporting and virtual path routing. A reusable object approach was used in the design of DAMT. The tool has four main components; the Virtual Path Switcher, the Central Monitor Complex, the Remote Monitor, and the LAN Analyzer. All of DAMT's components are independent, asynchronously executing processes. The independent processes communicate with each other via UNIX sockets through a Virtual Path router, or Switcher. The Switcher maintains a routing table showing the host of each component process of the tool, eliminating the need for each process to do so. The Central Monitor Complex provides the single application program interface (API) to the user and coordinates the activities of DAMT. The Central Monitor Complex is itself divided into independent objects that perform its functions. The component objects are the Central Monitor, the Process Locator, the Circuit Locator, and the Traffic Reporter. Each of these objects is an independent, asynchronously executing process. User requests to the tool are interpreted by the Central Monitor. The Process Locator identifies whether a named process is running on a monitored host and which host that is. The circuit between any two processes in the distributed application is identified using the Circuit Locator. The Traffic Reporter handles communication with the LAN Analyzer and accumulates traffic updates until it must send a traffic report to the user. The Remote Monitor process is replicated on each monitored host. It serves the Central Monitor Complex processes with application process information. The Remote Monitor process provides access to operating systems information about currently executing processes. It allows the Process Locator to find processes and the Circuit Locator to identify circuits between processes. It also provides lifetime information about currently monitored processes. The LAN Analyzer consists of two processes. Low-level monitoring is handled by the Sniffer. The Sniffer analyzes the raw data on a single, physical LAN. It responds to commands from the Analyzer process, which maintains the interface to the Traffic Reporter and keeps track of which circuits to monitor. DAMT is written in C-language for HP-9000 series computers running HP-UX and Sun 3 and 4 series computers running SunOS. DAMT requires 1Mb of disk space and 4Mb of RAM for execution. This package requires MIT's X Win

  5. Distribution System Reliability Analysis for Smart Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljohani, Tawfiq Masad

    Reliability of power systems is a key aspect in modern power system planning, design, and operation. The ascendance of the smart grid concept has provided high hopes of developing an intelligent network that is capable of being a self-healing grid, offering the ability to overcome the interruption problems that face the utility and cost it tens of millions in repair and loss. To address its reliability concerns, the power utilities and interested parties have spent extensive amount of time and effort to analyze and study the reliability of the generation and transmission sectors of the power grid. Only recently has attention shifted to be focused on improving the reliability of the distribution network, the connection joint between the power providers and the consumers where most of the electricity problems occur. In this work, we will examine the effect of the smart grid applications in improving the reliability of the power distribution networks. The test system used in conducting this thesis is the IEEE 34 node test feeder, released in 2003 by the Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. The objective is to analyze the feeder for the optimal placement of the automatic switching devices and quantify their proper installation based on the performance of the distribution system. The measures will be the changes in the reliability system indices including SAIDI, SAIFI, and EUE. The goal is to design and simulate the effect of the installation of the Distributed Generators (DGs) on the utility's distribution system and measure the potential improvement of its reliability. The software used in this work is DISREL, which is intelligent power distribution software that is developed by General Reliability Co.

  6. Efficient Use of Distributed Systems for Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Valerie; Chen, Jian; Canfield, Thomas; Richard, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Distributed computing has been regarded as the future of high performance computing. Nationwide high speed networks such as vBNS are becoming widely available to interconnect high-speed computers, virtual environments, scientific instruments and large data sets. One of the major issues to be addressed with distributed systems is the development of computational tools that facilitate the efficient execution of parallel applications on such systems. These tools must exploit the heterogeneous resources (networks and compute nodes) in distributed systems. This paper presents a tool, called PART, which addresses this issue for mesh partitioning. PART takes advantage of the following heterogeneous system features: (1) processor speed; (2) number of processors; (3) local network performance; and (4) wide area network performance. Further, different finite element applications under consideration may have different computational complexities, different communication patterns, and different element types, which also must be taken into consideration when partitioning. PART uses parallel simulated annealing to partition the domain, taking into consideration network and processor heterogeneity. The results of using PART for an explicit finite element application executing on two IBM SPs (located at Argonne National Laboratory and the San Diego Supercomputer Center) indicate an increase in efficiency by up to 36% as compared to METIS, a widely used mesh partitioning tool. The input to METIS was modified to take into consideration heterogeneous processor performance; METIS does not take into consideration heterogeneous networks. The execution times for these applications were reduced by up to 30% as compared to METIS. These results are given in Figure 1 for four irregular meshes with number of elements ranging from 30,269 elements for the Barth5 mesh to 11,451 elements for the Barth4 mesh. Future work with PART entails using the tool with an integrated application requiring distributed systems. In particular this application, illustrated in the document entails an integration of finite element and fluid dynamic simulations to address the cooling of turbine blades of a gas turbine engine design. It is not uncommon to encounter high-temperature, film-cooled turbine airfoils with 1,000,000s of degrees of freedom. This results because of the complexity of the various components of the airfoils, requiring fine-grain meshing for accuracy. Additional information is contained in the original.

  7. Dosimetry of Heterogeneously Distributed Radionuclides with Applications to Radioimmunotherapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkin, Douglas John

    The dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides has been investigated for applications to radioimmunotherapy. The assumptions inherent in the MIRD method of dose calculation are shown to be inappropriate to the task of dosimetry for nonuniformly distributed radionuclides emitting lowly penetrating radiations. A method using the concept of dose point kernels has been developed, expanding the MIRD method to regions of charged particle disequilibrium and heterogeneous media. Using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code, dose point kernels in H_2O were calculated for electron and photon emissions. Discrepancies were found with kernels in the literature, due either to errors in the techniques of the published kernels or inappropriate assumptions made in their calculation. In a homogeneous medium, the dose point kernels were convolved with known radionuclide concentrations using fast Fourier transform techniques. For spherically symmetric distributions, this is achieved very rapidly using the discrete one-dimensional fast Fourier transform. For concentrations which are independent of one dimension, the convolution reduces to a problem utilizing two-dimensional Fourier transforms. In heterogenous media, the dose point kernels may be convolved with radionuclide concentrations given the assumptions of density scaling and dose reciprocity. This may be achieved rapidly using a numerical N-body solution. The effects of distant sources are thus considered collectively rather than discretely. Two N-body schemes are presented. The "virtual source" N-body code is applicable for source distributions that are very discontinuous, while the "integral absorbed fraction" code accurately determines the dose rate due to uniformly distributed radioactivity. These schemes are confirmed by Monte Carlo calculations for mixed phantoms of H_2O, bone, and steel. As an aid to determining the location of beta emitting nuclides in vivo, the spatial and energy distributions of bremsstrahlung emission and positron annihilation about point sources was determined in H_2O using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code.

  8. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  9. 77 FR 42017 - AmericaFirst Quantitative Trust and AmericaFirst Securities, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... COMMISSION AmericaFirst Quantitative Trust and AmericaFirst Securities, Inc.; Notice of Application July 10... privileges. Applicants: AmericaFirst Quantitative Trust (the ``AmericaFirst Trust'') and AmericaFirst... (collectively, with the AmericaFirst Trust, the ``Trusts'') and series of the Trusts (``Series'') for which...

  10. Microstructure encryption and decryption techniques in optical variable and invariable devices in printed documents for security and forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambadiyil, Sajan; K. G, Jayan; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2015-05-01

    Today, document counterfeiting is a global menace because of the advanced technologies available at ever decreasing prices. Instead of eschew the paper documents; applying efficient cost effective security methodologies are the feasible solutions. This paper reports a novel cost effective and simple optical technique using micro text encrypted optical variable device (OVD) threads, ultra-violet (UV) based optical invariable device (OID) patterns and artistic fonts for secure preparation of the documents and its forensic application. Applying any one of the above technique or together can effectively enhance the level of security of the most valuable document. The genuineness of the documents can be verified using simple decryption techniques.

  11. The AIRS Applications Pipeline, from Identification to Visualization to Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Teixeira, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. AIRS provides observations of temperature and water vapor along the atmospheric column and is sensitive to many atmospheric constituents in the mid-troposphere, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and ozone. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, we are finding that AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under most of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. Currently in development are temperature inversion maps that can potentially correlate to respiratory health problems, dengue fever and West Nile virus outbreak prediction maps, maps that can be used to make assessments of air quality, and maps of volcanic ash burden. This poster will communicate the Project's approach and efforts to date of its applications pipeline, which includes identifying applications, utilizing science expertise, hiring outside experts to assist with development and dissemination, visualization along application themes, and leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving and distribution. In addition, a new web-based browse tool being developed by the AIRS Project for easy access to application product imagery will also be described.

  12. Security Technologies for Open Networking Environments (STONE)

    SciTech Connect

    Muftic, Sead

    2005-03-31

    Under this project SETECS performed research, created the design, and the initial prototype of three groups of security technologies: (a) middleware security platform, (b) Web services security, and (c) group security system. The results of the project indicate that the three types of security technologies can be used either individually or in combination, which enables effective and rapid deployment of a number of secure applications in open networking environments. The middleware security platform represents a set of object-oriented security components providing various functions to handle basic cryptography, X.509 certificates, S/MIME and PKCS No.7 encapsulation formats, secure communication protocols, and smart cards. The platform has been designed in the form of security engines, including a Registration Engine, Certification Engine, an Authorization Engine, and a Secure Group Applications Engine. By creating a middleware security platform consisting of multiple independent components the following advantages have been achieved - Object-oriented, Modularity, Simplified Development, and testing, Portability, and Simplified extensions. The middleware security platform has been fully designed and a preliminary Java-based prototype has been created for the Microsoft Windows operating system. The Web services security system, designed in the project, consists of technologies and applications that provide authentication (i.e., single sign), authorization, and federation of identities in an open networking environment. The system is based on OASIS SAML and XACML standards for secure Web services. Its topology comprises three major components: Domain Security Server (DSS) is the main building block of the system Secure Application Server (SAS) Secure Client In addition to the SAML and XACML engines, the authorization system consists of two sets of components An Authorization Administration System An Authorization Enforcement System Federation of identities in multi-domain scenarios is supported by a set of security engines that represent the core of the Federated Identities Management Server, which is also an extension of the Domain Security Server. The Federated Identity Management server allows users to federate their identities or terminate the federation between the service provider and the identity provider. At the service provider web site, the users are offered a list of identity providers to which they can choose to federate their identities. After users federate their identity, they can perform Single Sign-On protocol in an environment of federated domains. The group security system consists of a number of security technologies under a unified architecture, which supports creation of secure groups and execution of secure group transactions and applications in an open networking environment. The system is based on extensions of the GSAKMP standard for group key distribution and management. The Top layer is the Security Infrastructure with the Security Management and Administration System components and protocols that provide security functions common to all secure network applications The Middle layer is the Secure Group Protocols and Applications layer, consisting of the Policy and Group Key Distribution Server and Web-based (thin) Client. The Bottom layer is the supporting Middleware Security Platform, the cryptographic platform already described above. The group security system is designed to perform the functions necessary to create secure groups and enable secure group applications. Specifically, the system can manage group roles, create and disseminate a group security policy, perform authentication and authorization of users using PKI certificates and Web services security, generate group keys, and recover from compromises. In accordance with the GSAKMP standard, the group security system must perform all the required group life-cycle functions: group definition, group establishment, group maintenance, and group removal. The group security system has been designed to support four roles: The Security Domain Administrator is responsible for providing security functions defined in the top layer The Server Administrator. The central component of the group security system is the Policy and Group Key Distribution Server The Group Officer (GO) authorizes the creation of groups at a specific Policy and Group Key Distribution Server The Group Member (user) is any entity that participates in group transactions. Secure Group Applications The group security system has been designed to support four secure group applications: A Secure Instant Messaging: with the Secure Instant Messaging application A Secure Whiteboard A Secure Document Sharing A Secure Document Archiving: During the project, the group security system architecture was fully designed and preliminary prototyping was carried out for some of its components.

  13. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... value as of the date of the distribution. (b) Reduction of amount treated as money—(1) Aggregation of... of gain. (i) A and B form partnership AB as equal partners. A contributes property with a fair market value of $1,000 and an adjusted tax basis of $250. B contributes $1,000 cash. AB subsequently...

  14. The application of PLC distributed input/output technology offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Glendening, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller is becoming a familiar part of the Process Controls on Offshore Facilities. The current evolution of this expanding technology is Distributed I/O Blocks, and this paper is concerned with the benefits and applications this new technology brings to the Offshore Industry. The advent of the Programmable Logic Controller to the Gulf of Mexico brought greater process control flexibility to Offshore facilities. The offshore control philosophy went from independent pneumatic control of each skid unit to PLC distributed control with field panels that contained the local controls for several skid units and interfaced with control room based PLC visual display stations. The Distributed I/O Block concept allows offshore control systems to eliminate the large field interface panel, along with the associated wiring and hardware cost. This is accomplished by installing Distributed 1/0 Blocks inside the individual skid control panels and then communicating back to the control room based PLC via redundant communication cables. The control wiring between each skid control panel and the control room is now reduced to one power cable and redundant communication cables.

  15. Research into a distributed fault diagnosis system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Suxiang; Jiao, Weidong; Lou, Yongjian; Shen, Xiaomei

    2005-12-01

    CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) is a solution to distributed computing methods over heterogeneity systems, which establishes a communication protocol between distributed objects. It takes great emphasis on realizing the interoperation between distributed objects. However, only after developing some application approaches and some practical technology in monitoring and diagnosis, can the customers share the monitoring and diagnosis information, so that the purpose of realizing remote multi-expert cooperation diagnosis online can be achieved. This paper aims at building an open fault monitoring and diagnosis platform combining CORBA, Web and agent. Heterogeneity diagnosis object interoperate in independent thread through the CORBA (soft-bus), realizing sharing resource and multi-expert cooperation diagnosis online, solving the disadvantage such as lack of diagnosis knowledge, oneness of diagnosis technique and imperfectness of analysis function, so that more complicated and further diagnosis can be carried on. Take high-speed centrifugal air compressor set for example, we demonstrate a distributed diagnosis based on CORBA. It proves that we can find out more efficient approaches to settle the problems such as real-time monitoring and diagnosis on the net and the break-up of complicated tasks, inosculating CORBA, Web technique and agent frame model to carry on complemental research. In this system, Multi-diagnosis Intelligent Agent helps improve diagnosis efficiency. Besides, this system offers an open circumstances, which is easy for the diagnosis objects to upgrade and for new diagnosis server objects to join in.

  16. Quantum cloning bound and application to quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Erik

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a quantum cloning bound which we apply to a straightforward and relatively direct security proof of the prepare-and-measure Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol against collective attacks. The approach we propose is able to handle the practical problem of source and detector alignment imprecisions in a simple way. Specifically, we derive a key-rate bound for a BB84 implementation in which Alice's source emits four given but arbitrary pure states, where the usual equivalence between prepare-and-measure and entanglement-based QKD no longer applies. Our result is similar to a key rate derived by Mary [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.032337 82, 032337 (2010)] and generally an improvement over the key rate derivable from the entropic uncertainty relation in situations where it applies. We also provide a stronger result for a source emitting arbitrary qubit states, and a further improved result if the detector is additionally assumed two dimensional.

  17. Homeland security application of the Army Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion (STEF) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2010-04-01

    A fusion system that accommodates both text-based extracted information along with more conventional sensor-derived input has been developed and demonstrated in a terrorist attack scenario as part of the Empire Challenge (EC) 09 Exercise. Although the fusion system was developed to support Army military analysts, the system, based on a set of foundational fusion principles, has direct applicability to department of homeland security (DHS) & defense, law enforcement, and other applications. Several novel fusion technologies and applications were demonstrated in EC09. One such technology is location normalization that accommodates both fuzzy semantic expressions such as behind Library A, across the street from the market place, as well as traditional spatial representations. Additionally, the fusion system provides a range of fusion products not supported by traditional fusion algorithms. Many of these additional capabilities have direct applicability to DHS. A formal test of the fusion system was performed during the EC09 exercise. The system demonstrated that it was able to (1) automatically form tracks, (2) help analysts visualize behavior of individuals over time, (3) link key individuals based on both explicit message-based information as well as discovered (fusion-derived) implicit relationships, and (4) suggest possible individuals of interest based on their association with High Value Individuals (HVI) and user-defined key locations.

  18. Practical secure quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Eleni

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.

  19. Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

  20. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  1. Security of quantum key distribution with a laser reference coherent state, resistant to loss in the communication channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    The problem of quantum key distribution security in channels with large losses is still open. Quasi-single-photon sources of quantum states with losses in the quantum communication channel open up the possibility of attacking with unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurements, resulting in a loss of privacy. In this letter, the problem is solved by counting the classic reference pulses. Conservation of the number of counts of intense coherent pulses makes it impossible to conduct USD measurements. Moreover, the losses in the communication channel are considered to be unknown in advance and are subject to change throughout the series parcels. Unlike other protocols, differential phase shift (Inoue et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 037902, Inoue et al 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 022317, Takesue et al 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 343, Wen et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 170503) and coherent one way (Stucki et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013031, Stucki et al 2008 Opt. Express 17 13326), the simplicity of the protocol makes it possible to carry out a complete analysis of its security.

  2. Security of the Bennett 1992 quantum-key distribution protocol against individual attack over a realistic channel

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2003-03-01

    The security of two-state quantum-key distribution against individual attack is estimated when the channel has losses and noises. We assume that Alice and Bob use two nonorthogonal single-photon polarization states. To make our analysis simple, we propose a modified B92 protocol in which Alice and Bob make use of inconclusive results, and Bob performs a kind of symmetrization of received states. Using this protocol, Alice and Bob can estimate Eve's information gain as a function of a few parameters that reflect the imperfections of devices, or Eve's disturbance. In some parameter regions, Eve's maximum information gain shows counterintuitive behavior, namely, it decreases as the amount of disturbances increases. For a small noise rate, Eve can extract perfect information in the case where the angle between Alice's two states is small or large, while she cannot extract perfect information for intermediate angles. We also estimate the secret key gain, which is the net growth of the secret key per pulse. We show the region where the modified B92 protocol over a realistic channel is secure against individual attack.

  3. Security and gain improvement of a practical quantum key distribution using a gated single-photon source and probabilistic photon-number resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-07-01

    We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies.

  4. Analyzing Comprehensive QoS with Security Constraints for Services Composition Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Zhao; Huang, Yannong; Xu, Degang

    2014-01-01

    Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The quality of service (QoS) of services composition applications (SCAs) are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various QoS indices into different fields and studied them individually due to the computational complexity. This approach ignores the mutual influence between these QoS indices, and leads to a non-comprehensive and inaccurate analysis result. The universal generating function (UGF) shows the speediness and precision in QoS analysis. However, only one QoS index at a time can be analyzed by the classic UGF. In order to efficiently analyze the comprehensive QoS of SCAs, this paper proposes an improved UGF technique—vector universal generating function (VUGF)—which considers the relationship between multiple QoS indices, including security, and can simultaneously analyze multiple QoS indices. The numerical examples demonstrate that it can be used for the evaluation of the comprehensive QoS of SCAs subjected to the security constraint in WSNs. Therefore, it can be effectively applied to the optimal design of multi-service WSNs. PMID:25470488

  5. Application of JMP and design of experiments to security system technology testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Larry D.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Mitchiner, Kim W.; Heath, Arthur P.; Varoz, Carmella

    2010-03-01

    JMP and design of experiments (DOE) have been successfully applied to security system technologies from sensors to communication and display systems. In all cases, the technologies have been complex enough to warrant the need for a statistical determination of significant factors and/or the generation of predictive models. For the sensors, it was the task of calibrating a fiber optic intrusion detection sensor (FOIDS) with 32 adjustable settings. In addition to the numerous settings, the FOIDS also had two software processors for detecting different types of alarms. The problem was made more complex when the different types of alarms occurred on the wrong processors, causing nuisance alarms. JMP's ability to optimize several predictive models simultaneously with JMP's Prediction Profiler flash files was an important factor in producing field solutions. For the Communications and Display testbed system, numerous hardware and software network components had been integrated to build a functional system. Although the components of the system had been tested individually, the system's performance could not be piecewise evaluated. Through the application of JMP's design of experiments and data mining capabilities, it was possible to test some of the factors affecting the system's performance and to differentiate between some of the software and hardware contributors. This paper will discuss design of experiments and the JMP tools applied to the solutions for both security systems.

  6. Analyzing comprehensive QoS with security constraints for services composition applications in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Zhao; Huang, Yannong; Xu, Degang

    2014-01-01

    Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The quality of service (QoS) of services composition applications (SCAs) are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various QoS indices into different fields and studied them individually due to the computational complexity. This approach ignores the mutual influence between these QoS indices, and leads to a non-comprehensive and inaccurate analysis result. The universal generating function (UGF) shows the speediness and precision in QoS analysis. However, only one QoS index at a time can be analyzed by the classic UGF. In order to efficiently analyze the comprehensive QoS of SCAs, this paper proposes an improved UGF technique-vector universal generating function (VUGF)-which considers the relationship between multiple QoS indices, including security, and can simultaneously analyze multiple QoS indices. The numerical examples demonstrate that it can be used for the evaluation of the comprehensive QoS of SCAs subjected to the security constraint in WSNs. Therefore, it can be effectively applied to the optimal design of multi-service WSNs. PMID:25470488

  7. An optimized encoding method for secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement and its extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gan

    2015-08-01

    Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Songs encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Songs schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205115), the Program for Academic Leader Reserve Candidates in Tongling University (Grant No. 2014tlxyxs30), and the 2014-year Program for Excellent Youth Talents in University of Anhui Province, China.

  8. Kochen-Specker theorem as a precondition for secure quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Koji

    2005-07-15

    We show that (1) the violation of the Ekert 1991 inequality is a sufficient condition for certification of the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, and (2) the violation of the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992 (BBM92) inequality is, also, a sufficient condition for certification of the KS theorem. Therefore the success in each quantum key distribution protocol reveals the nonclassical feature of quantum theory, in the sense that the KS realism is violated. Further, it turned out that the Ekert inequality and the BBM inequality are depictured by distillable entanglement witness inequalities. Here, we connect the success in these two key distribution processes into the no-hidden-variables theorem and into witness on distillable entanglement. We also discuss the explicit difference between the KS realism and Bell's local realism in the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory.

  9. Quantum circuit for the proof of the security of quantum key distribution without encryption of error syndrome and noisy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go

    2010-02-15

    One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.

  10. Security model for VM in cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaparti, Venkataramana; Naveen K., R.; Rajani, S.; Padmvathamma, M.; Anitha, C.

    2013-03-01

    Cloud computing is a new approach emerged to meet ever-increasing demand for computing resources and to reduce operational costs and Capital Expenditure for IT services. As this new way of computation allows data and applications to be stored away from own corporate server, it brings more issues in security such as virtualization security, distributed computing, application security, identity management, access control and authentication. Even though Virtualization forms the basis for cloud computing it poses many threats in securing cloud. As most of Security threats lies at Virtualization layer in cloud we proposed this new Security Model for Virtual Machine in Cloud (SMVC) in which every process is authenticated by Trusted-Agent (TA) in Hypervisor as well as in VM. Our proposed model is designed to with-stand attacks by unauthorized process that pose threat to applications related to Data Mining, OLAP systems, Image processing which requires huge resources in cloud deployed on one or more VM's.

  11. Fundamental and practical problems of QKD security: the actual and perceived situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2011-11-01

    It is widely believed that quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for realistic models applicable to various current experimental schemes. Here we summarize briefly why this is not the case, from both the viewpoints of fundamental quantitative security and applicable models of security analysis, with some morals drawn.

  12. DAMT - DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION MONITOR TOOL (HP9000 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, B.

    1994-01-01

    Typical network monitors measure status of host computers and data traffic among hosts. A monitor to collect statistics about individual processes must be unobtrusive and possess the ability to locate and monitor processes, locate and monitor circuits between processes, and report traffic back to the user through a single application program interface (API). DAMT, Distributed Application Monitor Tool, is a distributed application program that will collect network statistics and make them available to the user. This distributed application has one component (i.e., process) on each host the user wishes to monitor as well as a set of components at a centralized location. DAMT provides the first known implementation of a network monitor at the application layer of abstraction. Potential users only need to know the process names of the distributed application they wish to monitor. The tool locates the processes and the circuit between them, and reports any traffic between them at a user-defined rate. The tool operates without the cooperation of the processes it monitors. Application processes require no changes to be monitored by this tool. Neither does DAMT require the UNIX kernel to be recompiled. The tool obtains process and circuit information by accessing the operating system's existing process database. This database contains all information available about currently executing processes. Expanding the information monitored by the tool can be done by utilizing more information from the process database. Traffic on a circuit between processes is monitored by a low-level LAN analyzer that has access to the raw network data. The tool also provides features such as dynamic event reporting and virtual path routing. A reusable object approach was used in the design of DAMT. The tool has four main components; the Virtual Path Switcher, the Central Monitor Complex, the Remote Monitor, and the LAN Analyzer. All of DAMT's components are independent, asynchronously executing processes. The independent processes communicate with each other via UNIX sockets through a Virtual Path router, or Switcher. The Switcher maintains a routing table showing the host of each component process of the tool, eliminating the need for each process to do so. The Central Monitor Complex provides the single application program interface (API) to the user and coordinates the activities of DAMT. The Central Monitor Complex is itself divided into independent objects that perform its functions. The component objects are the Central Monitor, the Process Locator, the Circuit Locator, and the Traffic Reporter. Each of these objects is an independent, asynchronously executing process. User requests to the tool are interpreted by the Central Monitor. The Process Locator identifies whether a named process is running on a monitored host and which host that is. The circuit between any two processes in the distributed application is identified using the Circuit Locator. The Traffic Reporter handles communication with the LAN Analyzer and accumulates traffic updates until it must send a traffic report to the user. The Remote Monitor process is replicated on each monitored host. It serves the Central Monitor Complex processes with application process information. The Remote Monitor process provides access to operating systems information about currently executing processes. It allows the Process Locator to find processes and the Circuit Locator to identify circuits between processes. It also provides lifetime information about currently monitored processes. The LAN Analyzer consists of two processes. Low-level monitoring is handled by the Sniffer. The Sniffer analyzes the raw data on a single, physical LAN. It responds to commands from the Analyzer process, which maintains the interface to the Traffic Reporter and keeps track of which circuits to monitor. DAMT is written in C-language for HP-9000 series computers running HP-UX and Sun 3 and 4 series computers running SunOS. DAMT requires 1Mb of disk space and 4Mb of RAM for execution. This package requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4, with OSF/Motif 1.1. The HP-9000 version (GSC-13589) includes sample HP-9000/375 and HP-9000/730 executables which were compiled under HP-UX, and the Sun version (GSC-13559) includes sample Sun3 and Sun4 executables compiled under SunOS. The standard distribution medium for the HP version of DAMT is a .25 inch HP pre-formatted streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 4mm magnetic tape in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the Sun version of DAMT is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. DAMT was developed in 1992.

  13. Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Guillermo; Muoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

  14. A new feature detection mechanism and its application in secured ECG transmission with noise masking.

    PubMed

    Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2009-04-01

    With cardiovascular disease as the number one killer of modern era, Electrocardiogram (ECG) is collected, stored and transmitted in greater frequency than ever before. However, in reality, ECG is rarely transmitted and stored in a secured manner. Recent research shows that eavesdropper can reveal the identity and cardiovascular condition from an intercepted ECG. Therefore, ECG data must be anonymized before transmission over the network and also stored as such in medical repositories. To achieve this, first of all, this paper presents a new ECG feature detection mechanism, which was compared against existing cross correlation (CC) based template matching algorithms. Two types of CC methods were used for comparison. Compared to the CC based approaches, which had 40% and 53% misclassification rates, the proposed detection algorithm did not perform any single misclassification. Secondly, a new ECG obfuscation method was designed and implemented on 15 subjects using added noises corresponding to each of the ECG features. This obfuscated ECG can be freely distributed over the internet without the necessity of encryption, since the original features needed to identify personal information of the patient remain concealed. Only authorized personnel possessing a secret key will be able to reconstruct the original ECG from the obfuscated ECG. Distribution of the would appear as regular ECG without encryption. Therefore, traditional decryption techniques including powerful brute force attack are useless against this obfuscation. PMID:19397097

  15. Compact, rugged, and intuitive thermal imaging cameras for homeland security and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Charles M.

    2005-05-01

    Low cost, small size, low power uncooled thermal imaging sensors have completely changed the way the world views commercial law enforcement and military applications. Key applications include security, medical, automotive, power generation monitoring, manufacturing and process control, aerospace application, defense, environmental and resource monitoring, maintenance monitoring and night vision. Commercial applications also include law enforcement and military special operations. Each application drives a unique set of requirements that include similar fundamental infrared technologies. Recently, in the uncooled infrared camera and microbolometer detector areas, major strides have been made in the design and manufacture of personal military and law enforcement sensors. L-3 Communications Infrared Products (L-3 IP) is producing a family of new products based on the amorphous silicon microbolometer with low cost, low power, high volume, wafer-level vacuum packaged silicon focal plane array technologies. These bolometer systems contain no choppers or thermoelectric coolers, require no manual calibration, and use readily available commercial off-the-shelf components. One such successful product is the Thermal-Eye X100xp. Extensive market needs analysis for these small hand held sensors has been validated by the quick acceptability into the Law Enforcement and Military Segments. As well as this product has already been received, L-3 IP has developed a strategic roadmap to improve and enhance the features and function of this product to include upgrades such as the new 30-Hz, 30-μm pitch detector. This paper describes advances in bolometric focal plane arrays, optical and circuit card technologies while providing a glimpse into the future of micro hand held sensor growth. Also, technical barriers are addressed in light of constraints, lessons learned and boundary conditions. One conclusion is that the Thermal Eye Silicon Bolometer technology simultaneously drives weight, cost, size, power, performance, producibility and design flexibility, each individually and all together - a must for the portable commercial law enforcement and military markets.

  16. DAVE: A plug and play model for distributed multimedia application development

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.F.; Friesen, J.A.; Yang, C.L.

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents a model being used for the development of distributed multimedia applications. The Distributed Audio Video Environment (DAVE) was designed to support the development of a wide range of distributed applications. The implementation of this model is described. DAVE is unique in that it combines a simple ``plug and play`` programming interface, supports both centralized and fully distributed applications, provides device and media extensibility, promotes object reuseability, and supports interoperability and network independence. This model enables application developers to easily develop distributed multimedia applications and create reusable multimedia toolkits. DAVE was designed for developing applications such as video conferencing, media archival, remote process control, and distance learning.

  17. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including petitions... national security classified (see 1.9(i) of this chapter) and contain authorized national...

  18. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including petitions... national security classified (see 1.9(i) of this chapter) and contain authorized national...

  19. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including petitions... national security classified (see 1.9(i) of this chapter) and contain authorized national...

  20. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including petitions... national security classified (see 1.9(i) of this chapter) and contain authorized national...

  1. Secure coherent-state quantum key distribution protocols with efficient reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Assche, G. van; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-05-15

    We study the equivalence of a realistic quantum key distribution protocol using coherent states and homodyne detection with a formal entanglement purification protocol. Maximally entangled qubit pairs that one can extract in the formal protocol correspond to secret key bits in the realistic protocol. More specifically, we define a qubit encoding scheme that allows the formal protocol to produce more than one entangled qubit pair per entangled oscillator pair or, equivalently for the realistic protocol, more than one secret key bit per coherent state. The entanglement parameters are estimated using quantum tomography. We analyze the properties of the encoding scheme and investigate the resulting secret key rate in the important case of the attenuation channel.

  2. Monitoring and controlling distributed applications using Lomita (position paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Szafranska, Ida M.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Meta toolkit was developed for controlling distributed applications. This toolkit has been publicly available as part of the academic ISIS release, and has been used for building various system monitoring and control applications. One major stumbling block with using Meta has been the language (called NPL) it supports. NPL is very low-level and using it is difficult, in the same way it is difficult to write machine language programs or raw Postscript programs. Hence, a higher level language was built along with a runtime environment. The hope is that with this higher-level approach, more complicated Meta applications will be written and thereby concentrate more on the use (and limitations) of Meta as an architecture. The Meta toolkit is reviewed with its intended use. Next, the goals with Lomita and an overview is given of its architecture and language syntax. A detailed example is given of Lomita's use by presenting a complete program for a load-adaptable service.

  3. Evaluation of Distribution Analysis Software for DER Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, RH

    2003-01-23

    The term ''Distributed energy resources'' or DER refers to a variety of compact, mostly self-contained power-generating technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems and used to improve the operation of the electricity distribution system, whether or not those technologies are connected to an electricity grid. Implementing DER can be as simple as installing a small electric generator to provide backup power at an electricity consumer's site. Or it can be a more complex system, highly integrated with the electricity grid and consisting of electricity generation, energy storage, and power management systems. DER devices provide opportunities for greater local control of electricity delivery and consumption. They also enable more efficient utilization of waste heat in combined cooling, heating and power (CHP) applications--boosting efficiency and lowering emissions. CHP systems can provide electricity, heat and hot water for industrial processes, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control to improve indoor air quality. DER technologies are playing an increasingly important role in the nation's energy portfolio. They can be used to meet base load power, peaking power, backup power, remote power, power quality, as well as cooling and heating needs. DER systems, ranging in size and capacity from a few kilowatts up to 50 MW, can include a number of technologies (e.g., supply-side and demand-side) that can be located at or near the location where the energy is used. Information pertaining to DER technologies, application solutions, successful installations, etc., can be found at the U.S. Department of Energy's DER Internet site [1]. Market forces in the restructured electricity markets are making DER, both more common and more active in the distribution systems throughout the US [2]. If DER devices can be made even more competitive with central generation sources this trend will become unstoppable. In response, energy providers will be forced to both fully acknowledge the trend and plan for accommodating DER [3]. With bureaucratic barriers [4], lack of time/resources, tariffs, etc. still seen in certain regions of the country, changes still need to be made. Given continued technical advances in DER, the time is fast approaching when the industry, nation-wide, must not only accept DER freely but also provide or review in-depth technical assessments of how DER should be integrated into and managed throughout the distribution system. Characterization studies are needed to fully understand how both the utility system and DER devices themselves will respond to all reasonable events (e.g., grid disturbances, faults, rapid growth, diverse and multiple DER systems, large reactive loads). Some of this work has already begun as it relates to operation and control of DER [5] and microturbine performance characterization [6,7]. One of the most urgently needed tools that can provide these types of analyses is a distribution network analysis program in combination with models for various DER. Together, they can be used for (1) analyzing DER placement in distribution networks and (2) helping to ensure that adequate transmission reliability is maintained. Surveys of the market show products that represent a partial match to these needs; specifically, software that has been developed to plan electrical distribution systems and analyze reliability (in a near total absence of DER). The first part of this study (Sections 2 and 3 of the report) looks at a number of these software programs and provides both summary descriptions and comparisons. The second part of this study (Section 4 of the report) considers the suitability of these analysis tools for DER studies. It considers steady state modeling and assessment work performed by ORNL using one commercially available tool on feeder data provided by a southern utility. Appendix A provides a technical report on the results of this modeling effort.

  4. Fast layout processing methodologies for scalable distributed computing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chang-woo; Shin, Jae-pil; Durvasula, Bhardwaj; Seo, Sang-won; Jung, Dae-hyun; Lee, Jong-bae; Park, Young-kwan

    2012-06-01

    As the feature size shrinks to sub-20nm, more advanced OPC technologies such as ILT and the new lithographic resolution by EUV become the key solutions for device fabrication. These technologies leads to the file size explosion of up to hundreds of gigabytes of GDSII and OASIS files mainly due to the addition of complicated scattering bars and flattening of the design to compensate for long range effects. Splitting and merging layout files have been done sequentially in typical distributed computing layout applications. This portion becomes the bottle neck, causing the scalability to become poor. According to the Amdahl's law, minimizing the portion of sequential part is the key to get the maximum speed up. In this paper, we present scalable layout dividing and merging methodologies: Skeleton file based querying and direct OASIS file merging. These methods not only use a very minimum memory footprint but also achieve remarkable speed improvement. The skeleton file concept is very novel for a distributed application requiring geometrical processing, as it allows almost pseudo-random access into the input GDSII or OASIS file. Client machines can make use of the random access and perform fast query operations. The skeleton concept also works very well for flat input layouts, which is often the case of post-OPC data. Also, our OASIS file merging scheme is a smart approach which is equivalent of a binary file concatenation scheme. The merging method for OASIS files concatenates shape information in binary format with basic interpretation of bits with very low memory usage. We have observed that the skeleton file concept achieved 13.5 times speed improvement and used only 3.78% of memory on the master, over the conventional concept of converting into an internal format. Also, the merging speed is very fast, 28MB/sec and it is 44.5 times faster than conventional method. On top of the fast merging speed, it is very scalable since the merging time grows in linear fashion with respect to the file size. Our experiment setup includes hundreds of gigabytes of GDSII and OASIS files. We demonstrate in the paper, that the skeleton file based querying and direct OASIS file-merging schemes are very scalable for distributed computing applications for large volume layout. Additionally, we used embedded skeleton file scheme to improve file loading speed in layout viewer system and achieved 61 time speedup. We used Nirmaan, SoftJin's post-layout EDA toolkit for skeleton file based querying, OASIS file-merging and embedded skeleton file schemes.

  5. High-speed free-space quantum key distribution system for urban daylight applications.

    PubMed

    Garca-Martnez, M J; Denisenko, N; Soto, D; Arroyo, D; Orue, A B; Fernandez, V

    2013-05-10

    We report a free-space quantum key distribution system designed for high-speed key transmission in urban areas. Clocking the system at gigahertz frequencies and efficiently filtering background enables higher secure key rates than those previously achieved by similar systems. The transmitter and receiver are located in two separate buildings 300 m apart in downtown Madrid and they exchange secure keys at rates up to 1 Mbps. The system operates in full bright daylight conditions with an average secure key rate of 0.5 Mbps and 24 h stability without human intervention. PMID:23669845

  6. Water security: continuous monitoring of water distribution systems for chemical agents by SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Farquharson, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Ensuring safe water supplies requires continuous monitoring for potential poisons and portable analyzers to map distribution in the event of an attack. In the case of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) analyzers are needed that have sufficient sensitivity (part-per-billion), selectivity (differentiate the CWA from its hydrolysis products), and speed (less than 10 minutes) to be of value. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to meet these requirements by detecting CWAs and their hydrolysis products in water. The expected success of SERS is based on reported detection of single molecules, the one-to-one relationship between a chemical and its Raman spectrum, and the minimal sample preparation requirements. Recently, we have developed a simple sampling device designed to optimize the interaction of the target molecules with the SERS-active material with the goal of increasing sensitivity and decreasing sampling times. This sampling device employs a syringe to draw the water sample containing the analyte into a capillary filled with the SERS-active material. Recently we used such SERS-active capillaries to measure 1 ppb cyanide in water. Here we extend these measurements to nerve agent hydrolysis products using a portable Raman analyzer.

  7. 17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investment grade securities meeting the provisions of General Instruction I.B.2. of Form F-3; and (C) Either: (1) Has its equity securities trading on a designated offshore securities market as defined in Rule 902(b) ( 230.902(b)) and has had them so traded for at least 12 months; or (2) Has a worldwide...

  8. 17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Form F-3 (referenced in 17 CFR 239.33 of this chapter); and (C) Either: (1) Has its equity securities... an offering of penny stock as defined in Rule 3a51-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ( 240... the issuer's securities: (1)(i) The research report relates solely to the issuer's common stock,...

  9. 17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Form F-3 (referenced in 17 CFR 239.33 of this chapter); and (C) Either: (1) Has its equity securities... an offering of penny stock as defined in Rule 3a51-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ( 240... the issuer's securities: (1)(i) The research report relates solely to the issuer's common stock,...

  10. Spectroelectrochemistry as a Strategy for Improving Selectivity of Sensors for Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Morris, Laura K.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2012-12-19

    Spectroelectrochemistry provides improved selectivity for sensors by electrochemically modulating the optical signal associated with the analyte. The sensor consists of an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a film that preconcentrates the target analyte. The OTE functions as an optical waveguide for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, which detects the analyte by absorption. Alternatively, the OTE can serve as the excitation light for fluorescence detection, which is generally more sensitive than absorption. The analyte partitions into the film, undergoes an electrochemical redox reaction at the OTE surface, and absorbs or emits light in its oxidized or reduced state. The change in the optical response associated with electrochemical oxidation or reduction at the OTE is used to quantify the analyte. Absorption sensors for metal ion complexes such as [Fe(CN)6]4- and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and fluorescence sensors for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-hydroxypyrene have been developed. The sensor concept has been extended to binding assays for a protein using avidinbiotin and 17?-estradiolanti-estradiol antibodies. The sensor has been demonstrated to measure metal complexes in complex samples such as nuclear waste and natural water. This sensor has qualities needed for security and defense applications that require a high level of selectivity and good detection limits for target analytes in complex samples. Quickly monitoring and designating intent of a nuclear program by measuring the Ru/Tc fission product ratio is such an application.

  11. Spectroelectrochemistry as a strategy for improving selectivity of sensors for security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Morris, Laura K.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2012-09-01

    Spectroelectrochemistry provides improved selectivity for sensors by electrochemically modulating the optical signal associated with the analyte. The sensor consists of an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a film that preconcentrates the target analyte. The OTE functions as an optical waveguide for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, which detects the analyte by absorption. Alternatively, the OTE can serve as the excitation light for fluorescence detection, which is generally more sensitive than absorption. The analyte partitions into the film, undergoes an electrochemical redox reaction at the OTE surface, and absorbs or emits light in its oxidized or reduced state. The change in the optical response associated with electrochemical oxidation or reduction at the OTE is used to quantify the analyte. Absorption sensors for metal ion complexes such as [Fe(CN)6]4- and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and fluorescence sensors for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-hydroxypyrene have been developed. The sensor concept has been extended to binding assays for a protein using avidin-biotin and 17?-estradiol-anti-estradiol antibodies. The sensor has been demonstrated to measure metal complexes in complex samples such as nuclear waste and natural water. This sensor has qualities needed for security and defense applications that require a high level of selectivity and good detection limits for target analytes in complex samples. Quickly monitoring and designating intent of a nuclear program by measuring the Ru/Tc fission product ratio is such an application.

  12. Lanthanum Halide Scintillators and Optical Fiber Readout for X-Ray Astronomy and National Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Welch, Christopher E.

    2006-04-01

    The Black Hole Finder Probe (BHFP) mission is intended to survey the local Universe for black holes. One approach to such a survey is a hard X-ray coded aperture imaging telescope operating in the 20 - 600 keV energy band. A sensitive hard X-ray/gamma ray imaging telescope is also well suited to surveillance applications searching for shielded sources of illicit nuclear materials, for example "dirty bomb" materials being smuggled into a harbor or city. The development of new inorganic scintillator materials (e.g., LaBr3 and LaCl3) provides improved energy resolution and timing performance that is well suited to the requirements for these national security and astrophysics applications. LaBr3 or LaCl3 detector arrays coupled with waveshifting fiber optic readout represent a significant advance in the performance capabilities of scintillator-based gamma cameras and provide the potential for a feasible approach to affordable, large area, extremely sensitive detectors. We describe the Coded Aperture Survey Telescope for Energetic Radiation (CASTER), a mission concept for a BHFP, and the High Sensitivity Gamma Ray Imager (HiSGRI), a device intended for surveillance for nuclear materials, and present laboratory test results demonstrating the expected scintillator performance.

  13. System-on-chip-centric unattended embedded sensors in homeland security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Esterkin, Vladimir

    2009-05-01

    System-on-chip (SoC) single-die electronic integrated circuit (IC) integration has recently been attracting a great deal of attention, due to its high modularity, universality, and relatively low fabrication cost. The SoC also has low power consumption and it is naturally suited to being a base for integration of embedded sensors. Such sensors can run unattended, and can be either commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic, COTS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or optical-COTS or produced in house (i.e., at Physical Optics Corporation, POC). In the version with the simplest electronic packaging, they can be integrated with low-power wireless RF that can communicate with a central processing unit (CPU) integrated in-house and installed on the specific platform of interest. Such a platform can be a human body (for e-clothing), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), or many others. In this paper we discuss SoC-centric embedded unattended sensors in Homeland Security and military applications, including specific application scenarios (or CONOPS). In one specific example, we analyze an embedded polarization optical sensor produced in house, including generalized Lambertian light-emitting diode (LED) sources and secondary nonimaging optics (NIO).

  14. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lujca; Boćkowski, Mike; Leszczyński, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaInN laser diodes is an emerging technology for defence and security applications such as underwater communications and sensing, atomic clocks and quantum information. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries. Ridge waveguide laser diodes are fabricated to achieve single mode operation with optical powers up to 100mW with the 400-440nm wavelength range with high reliability. Visible free-space and underwater communication at frequencies up to 2.5GHz is reported using a directly modulated 422nm GaN laser diode. Low defectivity and highly uniform GaN substrates allow arrays and bars to be fabricated. High power operation operation of AlGaInN laser bars with up to 20 emitters have been demonstrated at optical powers up to 4W in a CS package with common contact configuration. An alternative package configuration for AlGaInN laser arrays allows for each individual laser to be individually addressable allowing complex free-space or optical fibre system integration with a very small form-factor.

  15. A novel low cost alternative to THz for security and defence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, G. G.; Hutchins, D. A.; Pallav, P.; Green, R. J.

    2008-04-01

    A novel technique of NIR imaging is presented that gives access to most of the applications currently published as being solely suitable for Terahertz (THz) waves. The technique uses NIR beams wavelengths found in ordinary domestic remote controls (circa 850 nm) and various signal recovery techniques commonly found in astronomy. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use and no special sources are required. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from several industrial examples and various security applications and are compared and contrasted directly with their THz-derived counterparts. It would appear possible to very cheaply and simply emulate the performance of commercial terahertz systems at a fraction of the cost and with greatly reduced processing times Another advantage is that apart from imaging, this technique affords the means to provide simultaneous in-situ chemical-bond analysis for stand-off detection of certain chemical signatures - for example, those found in drugs and explosives (both molecular and oxidiser based). Also, unlike THz, this technique can penetrate bulk water and high humidity atmospheres and be used in transmission mode on biological and medical samples. Several results are presented of non-ionising X-ray type images that even differentiate between separate types of soft tissue

  16. Novel low-cost alternative to THz for security and defence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, G. G.; Hutchins, D. A.; Pallav, P.; Green, R. J.

    2008-10-01

    A novel technique of NIR imaging is presented that gives access to most of the applications currently published as being solely suitable for Terahertz (THz) waves. The technique uses NIR beams wavelengths found in ordinary domestic remote controls (circa 850 nm) and various signal recovery techniques commonly found in astronomy. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use and no special sources are required. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from several industrial examples and various security applications and are compared and contrasted directly with their THz-derived counterparts. It would appear possible to very cheaply and simply emulate the performance of commercial terahertz systems at a fraction of the cost and with greatly reduced processing times Another advantage is that apart from imaging, this technique affords the means to provide simultaneous in-situ chemical-bond analysis for stand-off detection of certain chemical signatures - for example, those found in drugs and explosives (both molecular and oxidiser based). Also, unlike THz, this technique can penetrate bulk water and high humidity atmospheres and be used in transmission mode on biological and medical samples. Several results are presented of non-ionising X-ray type images that even differentiate between separate types of soft tissue

  17. Network Security Validation Using Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, Vicky; Gregoriades, Andreas

    Non-functional requirements (NFR) such as network security recently gained widespread attention in distributed information systems. Despite their importance however, there is no systematic approach to validate these requirements given the complexity and uncertainty characterizing modern networks. Traditionally, network security requirements specification has been the results of a reactive process. This however, limited the immunity property of the distributed systems that depended on these networks. Security requirements specification need a proactive approach. Networks' infrastructure is constantly under attack by hackers and malicious software that aim to break into computers. To combat these threats, network designers need sophisticated security validation techniques that will guarantee the minimum level of security for their future networks. This paper presents a game-theoretic approach to security requirements validation. An introduction to game theory is presented along with an example that demonstrates the application of the approach.

  18. Secure Data Network System (SDNS) network, transport, and message security protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkel, C.

    1990-03-01

    The Secure Data Network System (SDNS) project, implements computer to computer communications security for distributed applications. The internationally accepted Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) computer networking architecture provides the framework for SDNS. SDNS uses the layering principles of OSI to implement secure data transfers between computer nodes of local area and wide area networks. Four security protocol documents developed by the National Security Agency (NSA) as output from the SDNS project are included. SDN.301 provides the framework for security at layer 3 of the OSI Model. Cryptographic techniques to provide data protection for transport connections or for connectionless-mode transmission are described in SDN.401. Specifications for message security service and protocol are contained in SDN.701. Directory System Specifications for Message Security Protocol are covered in SDN.702.

  19. Proposed New Accelerator Design for Homeland Security X-Ray Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, James; Shedlock, Daniel; Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Nosochkov, Yuri

    Two goals for security scanning of cargo and freight are the ability to determine the type of material that is being imaged, and to do so at low radiation dose. One commonly used technique to determine the effective Z of the cargo is dual-energy imaging, i.e. imaging with different x-ray energy spectra. Another technique uses the fact that the transmitted x-ray spectrum itself also depends on the effective Z. Spectroscopy is difficult because the energy of individual x rays needs to be measured in a very high count-rate environment. Typical accelerators for security applications offer large but short bursts of x-rays, suitable for current-mode integrated imaging. In order to perform x-ray spectroscopy, a new accelerator design is desired that has the following features: 1)increased duty factor in order to spread out the arrival of x-rays at the detector array over time; 2)x-ray intensitymodulation from one delivered pulse to the next by adjusting the accelerator electron beam instantaneous current so as to deliveradequate signal without saturating the spectroscopic detector; and 3)the capability to direct the (forward peaked) x-ray intensity towards high-attenuation areas in the cargo ("fan-beam-steering"). Current sources are capable of 0.1% duty factor, although usually they are operated at significantly lower duty factors (∼0.04%), but duty factors in the range 0.4-1.0% are desired. The higher duty factor can be accomplished, e.g., by moving from 300 pulses per second (pps) to 1000 pps and/or increasing the pulse duration from a typical 4 μs to 10 μs. This paper describes initial R&D to examine cost effective modifications that could be performed on a typical accelerator for these purposes, as well as R&D for fan-beam steering.

  20. Proposed new accelerator design for homeland security x-ray applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, James; Shedlock, Daniel; Langeveld, Willem G.J.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Nosochkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Two goals for security scanning of cargo and freight are the ability to determine the type of material that is being imaged, and to do so at low radiation dose. One commonly used technique to determine the effective Z of the cargo is dual-energy imaging, i.e. imaging with different x-ray energy spectra. Another technique uses the fact that the transmitted x-ray spectrum itself also depends on the effective Z. Spectroscopy is difficult because the energy of individual x rays needs to be measured in a very high count-rate environment. Typical accelerators for security applications offer large but short bursts of x-rays, suitable for current-mode integrated imaging. In order to perform x-ray spectroscopy, a new accelerator design is desired that has the following features: 1) increased duty factor in order to spread out the arrival of x-rays at the detector array over time; 2) x-ray intensity modulation from one delivered pulse to the next by adjusting the accelerator electron beam instantaneous current so as to deliver adequate signal without saturating the spectroscopic detector; and 3) the capability to direct the (forward peaked) x-ray intensity towards high-attenuation areas in the cargo (“fan-beam-steering”). Current sources are capable of 0.1% duty factor, although usually they are operated at significantly lower duty factors (~0.04%), but duty factors in the range 0.4-1.0% are desired. The higher duty factor can be accomplished, e.g., by moving from 300 pulses per second (pps) to 1000 pps and/or increasing the pulse duration from a typical 4 μs to 10 μs. This paper describes initial R&D to examine cost effective modifications that could be performed on a typical accelerator for these purposes, as well as R&D for fan-beam steering.

  1. Implementing Network Video for Traditional Security and Innovative Applications: Best Practices and Uses for Network Video in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Administrators are constantly seeking ways to cost-effectively and adequately increase security and improve efficiency in K-12 schools. While video is not a new tool to schools, the shift from analog to network technology has increased the accessibility and usability in a variety of applications. Properly installed and used, video is a powerful

  2. Distributed feedback interband cascade lasers for applications in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeth, J.; von Edlinger, M.; Scheuermann, J.; Nhle, L.; Hildebrandt, L.; Fischer, M.; Weih, R.; Kamp, M.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the use of laser sources in gas sensing applications has been increasing continuously. Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TLAS) has proven to be a versatile tool in a variety of sectors including industry, health and security and modern environmental analysis. Especially the mid-infrared wavelength range is of great interest for high accuracy gas sensing applications, since many technologically and industrially relevant gas species have their strongest absorption features in the spectral region between 3 and 6 ?m. These include, e. g., important hydrocarbons like methane or propane, as well as nitric oxide and formaldehyde. Interband cascade lasers (ICL) provide mono mode continuous wave (CW) operation above room temperature in this wavelength range. Application-grade complex coupled distributed feedback (DFB) laser devices based on the ICL concept are presented, using lateral metal gratings as wavelength selective elements. The fabricated devices operate at specific, technologically relevant, emission wavelengths in the spectral region from 3 to 6 ?m. CW operation up to 80 C and mono mode wavelength tuning ranges above 20 nm were achieved with low energy consumption. Application examples in industry and research are presented that demonstrate the high potential of DFB ICLs for the use in TLAS. E. g., formaldehyde gas sensor systems based on DFB ICL devices operating around 3.6 ?m can provide realtime in-situ measurements with resolution limits in the low ppb range, even in dense background atmospheres. The low power consumption of ICL based devices makes them especially favorable for battery-powered or portable sensor applications.

  3. A secure open system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, James A.

    1993-08-01

    The notion of a large distributed computing system in support of a program like EOSDIS, carries with it the requirement that the system provide the user with guarantees about the integrity of the data and certain assurances about the security of the network of computing systems. This paper examines the challenges of providing a `secure' open system and how these challenges may be addressed from both an architectural as well as functional viewpoint. The role of discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and detection and control of computer viruses is discussed. It has often been observed that the role of the security engineer is one of restricting access to data, whereas the role of the system architect, of an open system that is encouraging research, should make data easy to obtain and utilize. This paradox is manifest in a system such a EOSDIS where to be useful, the systems data must be easy to obtain, but to ensure the integrity of the data it must exercise some level of security. This paper address the use and role of the Security Services of the OSF Distributed Computing Environment in support of networked applications, such as those that may be used in the implementation of the EOS Science Network. It further examines the role of mandatory access control mechanisms to provide data integrity guarantees. The paper further discusses how a system like EOSDIS may prevent computer viruses using a system of automated detection mechanisms and configuration control.

  4. Fuzzy sets, possibility distributions, and their applications to image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to arrive at a unified framework to represent and manipulate colored as well as grey valued digital images in the higher levels of image processing. It was considered important that this framework lend itself to the eventual integration of the various artificial intelligence techniques. Fuzzy Set Theory provided an elegant way to extend the notions developed for black and white images to those for colored/grey-valued images. A priori generalizations of fuzzy sets are proposed, enabling effective application of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The various operations on fuzzy sets and possibility distributions studied are maximum, minimum, complement, sum, product, difference, quotient, and scalar multiplication. It is shown that the semantics of the underlying operations are preserved by the operations induced by them. The fuzzy sets are used to represent colors of the pixels in the colored digital image model; whereas the possibility distributions are used to represent the possible grey values of a pixel in the grey-valued digital image model. Two morphological covariance functions are proposed for effective characterization of images. A space-time efficient algorithm to compute these functions is also presented.

  5. Design and develop a video conferencing framework for real-time telemedicine applications using secure group-based communication architecture.

    PubMed

    Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2014-10-01

    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time. PMID:25199651

  6. Communicating Uncertainty about Climate Change for Application to Security Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulledge, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The science of climate change has convincingly demonstrated that human activities, including the release of greenhouse gases, land-surface changes, particle emissions, and redistribution of water, are changing global and regional climates. Consequently, key institutions are now concerned about the potential social impacts of climate change. For example, the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report from the U.S. Department of Defense states that "climate change, energy security, and economic stability are inextricably linked." Meanwhile, insured losses from climate and weather-related natural disasters have risen dramatically over the past thirty years. Although these losses stem largely from socioeconomic trends, insurers are concerned that climate change could exacerbate this trend and render certain types of climate risk non-diversifiable. Meanwhile, the climate science community-broadly defined as physical, biological, and social scientists focused on some aspect of climate change-remains largely focused scholarly activities that are valued in the academy but not especially useful to decision makers. On the other hand, climate scientists who engage in policy discussions have generally permitted vested interests who support or oppose climate policies to frame the discussion of climate science within the policy arena. Such discussions focus on whether scientific uncertainties are sufficiently resolved to justify policy and the vested interests overstate or understate key uncertainties to support their own agendas. Consequently, the scientific community has become absorbed defending scientific findings to the near exclusion of developing novel tools to aid in risk-based decision-making. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established expressly for the purpose of informing governments, has largely been engaged in attempts to reduce unavoidable uncertainties rather than helping the world's governments define a science-based risk-management framework for climate security. The IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report concluded that "Responding to climate change involves an iterative risk management process that includes both adaptation and mitigation and takes into account climate change damages, co-benefits, sustainability, equity and attitudes to risk." In risk management, key uncertainties guide action aimed at reducing risk and cannot be ignored or used to justify inaction. Security policies such as arms control and counter-terrorism demonstrate that high-impact outcomes matter to decision makers even if they are likely to be rare events. In spite of this fact, the long tail on the probability distribution of climate sensitivity was largely ignored by the climate science community until recently and its implications for decision making are still not receiving adequate attention. Informing risk management requires scientists to shift from a singular aversion to type I statistical error (i.e. false positive) to a balanced presentation of both type I error and type II error (i.e. false negative) when the latter may have serious consequences. Examples from national security, extreme weather, and economics illustrate these concepts.

  7. Performance characteristics of a silicon photomultiplier based compact radiation detector for Homeland Security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2015-05-01

    A next-generation compact radiation detector was studied for more accurate measurement of radiation and for improvement of detector reliability for the purpose of developing radiation protection technology and military applications. The previously used radiation detector had some limitations due to its bulky size, limited range and its environment for radiation measurement. On the other hand, the compact radiation detector examined in this study utilizes a silicon photomultiplier which appears to be more suitable for this application because of its physical superiority characterized by its small size, high sensitivity, and durability. Accordingly, a SiPM based scintillation detector has been developed as part of this basic study of military radiation detectors. The detector has been tested for its ability to obtain the operating characteristics of a sensor and analyzed with variations of parameter values and for efficiency of detection in accordance with its ability to measure radiation in the environment. Two SiPM based Scintillation detectors with LYSO, BGO and CsI:Tl scintillators were developed and the detectors were analyzed by a number of operating characteristics such as reverse bias, operating temperature and high magnetic field, that depend on environmental changes in radiation measurement. The Photon count rate and spectra were compared for these three scintillators. We found that there were variations in the radiation detection which were characterized by reverse bias, temperature and high magnetic field. It was also found that there was an 11.9% energy resolution for the LYSO, 15.5% for BGO and 13.5% for CsI:Tl using Array SiPM, and 18% for CsI:Tl energy resolution using single SiPM when we measured energy resolution of 511 keV for 22Na. These results demonstrate the potential widespread use of SiPM based compact radiation detectors for Homeland Security applications.

  8. Distributed optical microsensors for hydrogen leak detection and related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott Robert; Patton, James; Sepaniak, Michael; Datskos, Panos G; Smith, Barton

    2010-01-01

    Significant advances have recently been made to develop optically interrogated microsensor based chemical sensors with specific application to hydrogen vapor sensing and leak detection in the hydrogen economy. We have developed functionalized polymer-film and palladium/silver alloy coated microcantilever arrays with nanomechanical sensing for this application. The uniqueness of this approach is in the use of independent component analysis (ICA) and the classi cation techniques of neural networks to analyze the signals produced by an array of microcantilever sensors. This analysis identifies and quantifies the amount of hydrogen and other trace gases physisorbed on the arrays. Selectivity is achieved by using arrays of functionalized sensors with a moderate distribution of specificity among the sensing elements. The device consists of an array of beam-shaped transducers with molecular recognition phases (MRPs) applied to one surface of the transducers. Bending moments on the individual transducers can be detected by illuminating them with a laser or an LED and then reading the reflected light with an optical position sensitive detector (PSD) such as a CCD. Judicious selection of MRPs for the array provides multiple isolated interaction surfaces for sensing the environment. When a particular chemical agent binds to a transducer, the effective surface stresses of its modified and uncoated sides change unequally and the transducer begins to bend. The extent of bending depends upon the specific interactions between the microcantilever s MRP and the analyte. Thus, the readout of a multi-MRP array is a complex multi-dimensional signal that can be analyzed to deconvolve a multicomponent gas mixture. The use of this sensing and analysis technique in unattended networked arrays of sensors for various monitoring and surveillance applications is discussed.

  9. Modeling and simulation for cyber-physical system security research, development and applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Chavez, Adrian R.; Urrea, Jorge Mario; Pattengale, Nicholas; McDonald, Michael James; Cassidy, Regis H.; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Mulder, John C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid modeling and simulation architecture developed at Sandia for understanding and developing protections against and mitigations for cyber threats upon control systems. It first outlines the challenges to PCS security that can be addressed using these technologies. The paper then describes Virtual Control System Environments (VCSE) that use this approach and briefly discusses security research that Sandia has performed using VCSE. It closes with recommendations to the control systems security community for applying this valuable technology.

  10. TRAJECTORY SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR DYNAMIC SECURITY ASSESSMENT AND OTHER APPLICATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Pai, M. A.

    2014-07-10

    Real time stability evaluation and preventive scheduling in power systems offer many challenges in a stressed power system. Trajectory sensitivity analysis (TSA) is a useful tool for this and other applications in the emerging smart grid area. In this chapter we outline the basic approach of TSA, to extract suitable information from the data and develop reliable metrics or indices to evaluate proximity of the system to an unstable condition. Trajectory sensitivities can be used to compute critical parameters such as clearing time of circuit breakers, tie line flow, etc. in a power system by developing suitable norms for ease of interpretation. The TSA technique has the advantage that model complexity is not a limitation, and the sensitivities can be computed numerically. Suitable metrics are developed from these sensitivities. The TSA technique can be extended to do preventive rescheduling. A brief discussion of other applications of TSA in placement of distributed generation is indicated.

  11. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  12. Evaluating the Effects of the Optimization on the Quality of Distributed Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumitrascu, Eugen; Popa, Marius

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characteristic features of distributed applications. We also enumerate the modalities of optimizing them and the factors that influence the quality of distributed applications, as well as the way they are affected by the optimization processes. Moreover, we enumerate the quality characteristics of distributed

  13. Application of security concepts to the personnel database for the Indonesian Navy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, M.

    1983-09-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the study work done by Moedjiono (M.S. thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 1982) concerning personnel database in the Indonesian Navy. It discusses the current database security and the concept of Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing System) to propose a personnel database security model in the Indonesian Navy.

  14. 78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    .... See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69011, 78 FR 14844 (March 7, 2013). Because Topaz Exchange's... updated information regarding the board of directors of ISE and the Corporate Governance Committee of ISE... Exchange. \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69012 (March 1, 2013), 78 FR 14847 (``Notice'')....

  15. The Concepts of Risk, Safety, and Security: Applications in Everyday Language.

    PubMed

    Boholm, Max; Möller, Niklas; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2016-02-01

    The concepts of risk, safety, and security have received substantial academic interest. Several assumptions exist about their nature and relation. Besides academic use, the words risk, safety, and security are frequent in ordinary language, for example, in media reporting. In this article, we analyze the concepts of risk, safety, and security, and their relation, based on empirical observation of their actual everyday use. The "behavioral profiles" of the nouns risk, safety, and security and the adjectives risky, safe, and secure are coded and compared regarding lexical and grammatical contexts. The main findings are: (1) the three nouns risk, safety, and security, and the two adjectives safe and secure, have widespread use in different senses, which will make any attempt to define them in a single unified manner extremely difficult; (2) the relationship between the central risk terms is complex and only partially confirms the distinctions commonly made between the terms in specialized terminology; (3) whereas most attempts to define risk in specialized terminology have taken the term to have a quantitative meaning, nonquantitative meanings dominate in everyday language, and numerical meanings are rare; and (4) the three adjectives safe, secure, and risky are frequently used in comparative form. This speaks against interpretations that would take them as absolute, all-or-nothing concepts. PMID:26283018

  16. 49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in accordance with 49 CFR 1572.201 and not to access secure areas of a facility or vessel, must... credentialed mariner, proof of citizenship as required in 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter B. (12) Social security... guilty by reason of insanity, of a disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), in a civilian...

  17. 49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in accordance with 49 CFR 1572.201 and not to access secure areas of a facility or vessel, must... credentialed mariner, proof of citizenship as required in 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter B. (12) Social security... guilty by reason of insanity, of a disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), in a civilian...

  18. 49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with 49 CFR 1572.201 and not to access secure areas of a facility or vessel, must... credentialed mariner, proof of citizenship as required in 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter B. (12) Social security... guilty by reason of insanity, of a disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), in a civilian...

  19. 49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in accordance with 49 CFR 1572.201 and not to access secure areas of a facility or vessel, must... credentialed mariner, proof of citizenship as required in 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter B. (12) Social security... guilty by reason of insanity, of a disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), in a civilian...

  20. Proposed new accelerator design for homeland security x-ray applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Clayton, James; Shedlock, Daniel; Langeveld, Willem G.J.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Nosochkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Two goals for security scanning of cargo and freight are the ability to determine the type of material that is being imaged, and to do so at low radiation dose. One commonly used technique to determine the effective Z of the cargo is dual-energy imaging, i.e. imaging with different x-ray energy spectra. Another technique uses the fact that the transmitted x-ray spectrum itself also depends on the effective Z. Spectroscopy is difficult because the energy of individual x rays needs to be measured in a very high count-rate environment. Typical accelerators for security applications offer large but short bursts ofmore » x-rays, suitable for current-mode integrated imaging. In order to perform x-ray spectroscopy, a new accelerator design is desired that has the following features: 1) increased duty factor in order to spread out the arrival of x-rays at the detector array over time; 2) x-ray intensity modulation from one delivered pulse to the next by adjusting the accelerator electron beam instantaneous current so as to deliver adequate signal without saturating the spectroscopic detector; and 3) the capability to direct the (forward peaked) x-ray intensity towards high-attenuation areas in the cargo (“fan-beam-steering”). Current sources are capable of 0.1% duty factor, although usually they are operated at significantly lower duty factors (~0.04%), but duty factors in the range 0.4-1.0% are desired. The higher duty factor can be accomplished, e.g., by moving from 300 pulses per second (pps) to 1000 pps and/or increasing the pulse duration from a typical 4 μs to 10 μs. This paper describes initial R&D to examine cost effective modifications that could be performed on a typical accelerator for these purposes, as well as R&D for fan-beam steering.« less