Science.gov

Sample records for security environmental monitoring

  1. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  2. Sustainable unattended sensors for security and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Molter, Trent M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes two ocean energy harvesting approaches and technologies for providing sustainable power for distributed unattended sensor and unmanned underwater vehicle networks in open ocean and in coastal and riverine areas. Technologies and systems described include energy harvesting using bottom mounted microbial fuel cells and energy harvesting from naturally occurring methane and methane hydrate deposits. The potential continuous power that could be extracted using these methods ranges from milliwatts for very small microbial fuel cells to tens of kilowatts for methane hydrate processing systems. Exploiting the appropriate naturally occurring ocean or coastal energy source will enable the placement and use of large networks of unattended sensors, both fixed in position and on rechargeable unmanned undersea vehicles. The continuous operation of such systems will have a profound impact on our knowledge of marine biological, physical and chemical processes and systems and will also facilitate improved homeland security and port surveillance.

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry of strontium-90 for homeland security, environmental monitoring and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumey, Scott J.; Brown, Thomas A.; Hamilton, Terry E.; Hillegonds, Darren J.

    2008-05-01

    Strontium-90 is one of the most hazardous materials managed by agencies charged with protecting the public from radiation. Traditional radiometric methods have been limited by low sample throughput and slow turnaround times. Mass spectrometry offers the advantage of shorter analysis times and the ability to measure samples immediately after processing, however conventional mass spectrometric techniques are susceptible to molecular isobaric interferences that limit their overall sensitivity. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry is insensitive to molecular interferences and we have therefore begun developing a method for determination of 90Sr by accelerator mass spectrometry. Despite a pervasive interference from 90Zr, our initial development has yielded an instrumental background of ∼108 atoms (75 mBq) per sample. Further refinement of our system (e.g. redesign of our detector, use of alternative target materials) is expected to push the background below 106 atoms, close to the theoretical limit for AMS. Once we have refined our system and developed suitable sample preparation protocols, we will utilize our capability in applications to homeland security, environmental monitoring and human health.

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry of Strontium-90 for homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Tumey, S J; Brown, T A; Hamilton, T F; Hillegonds, D J

    2008-03-03

    Strontium-90 is one of the most hazardous materials managed by agencies charged with protecting the public from radiation. Traditional radiometric methods have been limited by low sample throughput and slow turnaround times. Mass spectrometry offers the advantage of shorter analysis times and the ability to measure samples immediately after processing, however conventional mass spectrometric techniques are susceptible to molecular isobaric interferences that limit their overall sensitivity. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry is insensitive to molecular interferences and we have therefore begun developing a method for determination of {sup 90}Sr by accelerator mass spectrometry. Despite a pervasive interference from {sup 90}Zr, our initial development has yielded an instrumental background of {approx} 10{sup 8} atoms (75 mBq) per sample. Further refinement of our system (e.g., redesign of our detector, use of alternative target materials) is expected to push the background below 10{sup 6} atoms, close to the theoretical limit for AMS. Once we have refined our system and developed suitable sample preparation protocols, we will utilize our capability in applications to homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health.

  5. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. A network security monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  8. A model of security monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-01-01

    A model of security monitoring is presented that distinguishes between two types of logging and auditing. Implications for the design and use of security monitoring mechanisms are drawn from this model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated by analyzing several different monitoring mechanisms.

  9. A model of security monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1989-01-01

    A model of security monitoring is presented that distinguishes between two types of logging and auditing. Implications for the design and use of security monitoring mechanisms are drawn from this model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated by analyzing several different monitoring mechanisms.

  10. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Biermann, A; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Gouveia, F J; Grayson, A; Harrach, R J; Hoppes, W G; Jones, H; Mathews, S; Merrigan, J R; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, B; Williams, R

    2006-01-10

    Environmental monitoring personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) prepared this ''Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (EMP) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' (DOE 1991) and applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 (see WSS B93 and B94 in Appendix B). ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' is followed as a best management practice; under Work Smart Standards, LLNL complies with portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 as shown in Appendix B. This document is a revision of the May 1999 EMP (Tate et al. 1999) and is current as of March 1, 2002. LLNL is one of the nation's premier applied-science national security laboratories. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable, and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. LLNL's programs in advanced technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and basic science apply LLNL's unique capabilities and enhance the competencies needed for this national security mission. LLNL's mission also involves working with industrial and academic partners to increase national competitiveness and improve science education. LLNL's mission is dynamic and has changed over the years to meet new national needs. In keeping with the Laboratory's mission, the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) have top priority. LLNL's policy is to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage. The environment, safety, and health are to be priority considerations in the planning and execution of all work activities at the Laboratory (LLNL 2001). Furthermore, it is the policy of LLNL to comply with applicable ES&H laws, regulations, and requirements

  11. Miniature optical turbulence sensor for coastal environmental, homeland security, and military monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Lombardi, Gabrial; Butman, Jerry; Babb, Ivar

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes an innovative miniature optical sensor for measuring the turbulence in water columns. The turbulence sensor consists of a single-frequency laser transmitter and a photodetector on which the scattered light from the turbulent water is coherently mixed with a sample of the transmitted beam. This miniature sensor could be used on mobile platforms, such as unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV's), to wake follow platforms, schools of fish or marine mammals or on stationary unattended underwater sensors to monitor natural turbulence in littoral waters. Arrays of fixed unattended sensors could be used to detect the wake of transiting submerged vehicles, scuba divers, marine mammals or large schools of fish. A mobile platform equipped with a miniature turbulence sensor could to be cued to the general location and depth of an underwater target and then the platform could use this small aperture sensor to acquire and follow the wake. This turbulence sensor system could be miniaturized and packaged into a very small volume; approximately the size of a wristwatch.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  13. Environmental monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods of probability sampling provide a rigorous protocol which scientifically reliable information on environmental issues may e obtained. he authors review fundamentals of probability sampling from the perspective of monitoring environmental resources. hey first describe basi...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2913 Security monitoring. Each protective enclosure and the area.... Monitoring must be by visual observation in accordance with the schedule in the security procedures...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2913 Security monitoring. Each protective enclosure and the area.... Monitoring must be by visual observation in accordance with the schedule in the security procedures...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2913 Security monitoring. Each protective enclosure and the area.... Monitoring must be by visual observation in accordance with the schedule in the security procedures...

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  19. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.' Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2011 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  20. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring securities. 703.12 Section 703.12... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit union must prepare a written report setting forth, for each security held, the fair value and dollar...

  1. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Monitoring securities. 703.12 Section 703.12... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit union must prepare a written report setting forth, for each security held, the fair value and dollar...

  2. Environmental Monitoring without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kaseke, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of environmental variables is essential in most environmental projects. However, due to economic constraints, many students from underrepresented groups and developing countries often have limited access to "standardized" data logging and monitoring techniques. We assessed the student's learning in rural settings and worked with student without strong science background to utilize various environmental sensors to conduct innovative projects. We worked with students in Namibia and a minority high school student in Indianapolis to conduct relative humidity monitoring in creative ways. This high school student is from Indianapolis Project Seed program (sponsored by American Chemical Society, http://www.indyprojectseed.org) and worked in Wang's lab for two months in summer 2014. The experience showed us the potential of working with people with minimum exposure to modern scientific instrumentation to carry out innovative projects.

  3. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  4. 1984 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program has been designed to ensure that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. A listing, as required by DOE Order 5484.1 of BNL facilities, of environmental agencies and permits is provided in the Environmental Program Information Section 3.0, Table B. Since the aquifer underlying Long Island has been designated a ''sole source'' aquifer, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water Standards have been used in the assessment of ground water data. However, the limits prescribed in the regulations are not directly applicable to the monitoring well data since (1) the standards apply to a community water supply system, i.e., one serving more than 25 individuals, and (2) the standards represent an annual average concentration. Since the monitoring wells are not components of the Laboratory's water supply system, the EPA drinking water standards are employed as reference criteria to which the surveillance well data is compared. The standards also serve as guidance levels for any appropriate remedial action. 36 refs., 9 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. Environmental monitoring plan - environmental monitoring section. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, G.C.; Tate, P.J.; Brigdon, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the environmental monitoring plan for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A site characterization is provided along with monitoring and measurement techniques and quality assurance measures.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Cathy

    2013-09-11

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2012 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2012 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NFO is

  7. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  8. Environmental Monitoring Data System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-21

    A set of database management tools, data processing tools, and auxiliary support functionality for processing and handling semi-structured environmental monitoring data. The system provides a flexible description language for describing the data, allowing the database to store disparate data from many different sources without changes to the configuration. The system employs XML to support unlimited named allribute/value pairs for each object defined in the system.

  9. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Monitoring securities. 703.12 Section 703.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit...

  10. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Monitoring securities. 703.12 Section 703.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit...

  11. Environmental urban runoff monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Byunggu; Behera, Pradeep K.; Kim, Seon Ho; Ramirez Rochac, Juan F.; Branham, Travis

    2010-04-01

    Urban stormwater runoff has been a critical and chronic problem in the quantity and quality of receiving waters, resulting in a major environmental concern. To address this problem engineers and professionals have developed a number of solutions which include various monitoring and modeling techniques. The most fundamental issue in these solutions is accurate monitoring of the quantity and quality of the runoff from both combined and separated sewer systems. This study proposes a new water quantity monitoring system, based on recent developments in sensor technology. Rather than using a single independent sensor, we harness an intelligent sensor platform that integrates various sensors, a wireless communication module, data storage, a battery, and processing power such that more comprehensive, efficient, and scalable data acquisition becomes possible. Our experimental results show the feasibility and applicability of such a sensor platform in the laboratory test setting.

  12. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2010 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  13. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  14. Information security implementations for remote monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.A.

    1997-10-01

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the United States would ensure that its fissile material meet the {open_quotes}highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability.{close_quotes} Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. A successful implementation of a comprehensive remote monitoring system, however, requires significant attention to a variety of information security issues. In pursuing Project Straight-Line and the follow-on Storage Monitoring System, Sandia National Laboratories developed remote monitoring implementations that can satisfy a variety of information security requirements. Special emphasis was given to developing methods for using the Internet to disseminate the data securely. This paper describes the various information security implementations applied to the Project Straight-Line and the Storage Monitoring System. Also included is a discussion of the security provided by the Windows NT operating system.

  15. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  17. The FAO/NASA/NLR Artemis system - An integrated concept for environmental monitoring by satellite in support of food/feed security and desert locust surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hielkema, J. U.; Howard, J. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Van Ingen Schenau, H. A.

    1987-01-01

    The African real time environmental monitoring using imaging satellites (Artemis) system, which should monitor precipitation and vegetation conditions on a continental scale, is presented. The hardware and software characteristics of the system are illustrated and the Artemis databases are outlined. Plans for the system include the use of hourly digital Meteosat data and daily NOAA/AVHRR data to study environmental conditions. Planned mapping activities include monthly rainfall anomaly maps, normalized difference vegetation index maps for ten day and monthly periods with a spatial resolution of 7.6 km, ten day crop/rangeland moisture availability maps, and desert locust potential breeding activity factor maps for a plague prevention program.

  18. Environmental monitoring using genetic bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Lewtas, J.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring has evolved over the last ten years toward providing data more useful for exposure and risk assessment. The objective of many monitoring studies in the 1960s and 1970s was to monitor concentrations of pollutants including environmental mutagens at ambient locations, such as roof tops and in large bodies of water, where the pollutants would be well mixed and represent a homogeneous sample. In the 1980s, a number of studies focused on assessing the emission of mutagens from various sources. Now the emphasis has shifted to monitoring human exposure to environmental mutagens and to understanding which sources and factors lead to increased exposure and potential cancer risk. The chapter briefly reviews advances in genetic bioassay methods for environmental monitoring and focuses on approaches to integrating genetic bioassay methods with environmental-monitoring studies.

  19. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  20. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  1. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  2. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  3. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  4. Cooperative monitoring and its role in regional security

    SciTech Connect

    Biringer, K.; Olsen, J.; Lincoln, R.; Wehling, F.

    1997-03-01

    Cooperative monitoring systems can play an important part in promoting the implementation of regional cooperative security agreements. These agreements advance the national security interests of the United States in a post Cold War environment. Regional issues as widely varying as nuclear nonproliferation, trade and environmental pollution can be the source of tensions which may escalate to armed conflict which could have global implications. The Office of National Security Policy Analysis at the US Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in seeking ways to promote regional cooperation that can reduce the threats posed by regional conflict. DOE technologies and technical expertise can contribute to developing solutions to a wide variety of these international problems. Much of this DOE expertise has been developed in support of the US nuclear weapons and arms control missions. It is now being made available to other agencies and foreign governments in their search for regional security and cooperation. This report presents two examples of interest to DOE in which monitoring technologies could be employed to promote cooperation through experimentation. The two scenarios include nuclear transparency in Northeast Asia and environmental restoration in the Black Sea. Both offer the potential for the use of technology to promote regional cooperation. The issues associated with both of these monitoring applications are presented along with examples of appropriate monitoring technologies, potential experiments and potential DOE contributions to the scenarios.

  5. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  6. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  7. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  8. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  9. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  10. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  12. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  13. 1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2000-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  14. Choosing an Environmental Monitoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mappin, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    This survey reviews types of environmental monitoring as well as the general aims of the organizations who sponsor volunteer monitoring programs for school and community groups. These programs address educators' interest in involving students in authentic science experiences and provide interdisciplinary activities that link schools and…

  15. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2013 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  16. Improved Security Via ''Town Crier'' Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, A. N.

    2003-02-26

    Waste managers are increasingly expected to provide good security for the hazardous materials they marshal. Good security requires, among other things, effective tamper and intrusion detection. We have developed and demonstrated a new method for tamper and intrusion detection which we call the ''town crier method''. It avoids many of the problems and vulnerabilities associated with traditional approaches, and has significant advantages for hazardous waste transport. We constructed two rudimentary town crier prototype systems, and tested them for monitoring cargo inside a truck. Preliminary results are encouraging.

  17. Polar Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Schulteis, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    The present and projected benefits of the polar regions were reviewed and then translated into information needs in order to support the array of polar activities anticipated. These needs included measurement sensitivities for polar environmental data (ice/snow, atmosphere, and ocean data for integrated support) and the processing and delivery requirements which determine the effectiveness of environmental services. An assessment was made of how well electromagnetic signals can be converted into polar environmental information. The array of sensor developments in process or proposed were also evaluated as to the spectral diversity, aperture sizes, and swathing capabilities available to provide these measurements from spacecraft, aircraft, or in situ platforms. Global coverage and local coverage densification options were studied in terms of alternative spacecraft trajectories and aircraft flight paths.

  18. Smarter radiation monitors for safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Markin, J.T.; Scurry, T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation monitors for nuclear safeguards and security depend on internal control circuits to determine when diversion of special nuclear materials is taking place. Early monitors depended on analog circuits for this purpose, subsequently, digital logic controllers made better monitoring methods possible. Now, versatile microprocessor systems permit new, more efficient, and more useful monitoring methods. One such method is simple stepwise monitoring, which has variable alarm levels to expedite monitoring where extended monitoring periods are required. Another method, sequential probability ratio logic, tests data as it accumulates against two hypothesis - background, or background plus a transient diversion signal - and terminates monitoring as soon as a decision can be made that meets false-alarm and detection confidence requirements. A third method, quantitative monitoring for personnel, calculates count ratios of high- to low-energy gamma-ray regions to predict whether the material detected is a small quantity of bare material or a larger quantity of shielded material. In addition, microprocessor system subprograms can assist in detector calibration and trouble-shooting. Examples of subprograms are a variance analysis technique to set bias levels in plastic scintillators and a state-of-health routine for detecting malfunctions in digital circuit components.

  19. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  20. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-07-01

    The Pinellas Plant Environmental Monitoring Program is comprised of two major activities as follows: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. The collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants, assessing radiation exposures to members of the public, providing a means to control effluents at or near the point of discharge, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. The collection and analysis of samples or direct measurements of air, water, soil, food stuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs for the purpose of determining compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, assessing radiation exposure to members of the public, and assessing the effects, if any, on the local environment. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at the Pinellas Plant include monitoring liquid and airborne effluents, groundwater, surface water, soil, and local weather conditions.

  1. Near-facility environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the routine near-facility environmental monitoring programs which are presently being conducted at the Hanford Site. Several types of environmental media are sampled near nuclear facilities to monitor the effectiveness of waste management and restoration activities, and effluent treatment and control practices. These media include air, surface water and springs, surface contamination, soil and vegetation, investigative sampling (which can include wildlife), and external radiation. Sampling and analysis information and analytical results for 1994 for each of these media are summarized in this section. Additional data and more detailed information may be found in Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Annual Report, Calendar Year 1994.

  2. Pastoral and environmental security in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ornas, A H

    1990-06-01

    The most vulnerable people in Third World countries are often accused of destroying forests and fragile ecosystems and of practising destructive forms of agriculture and animal husbandry. The key to environmental sustainability, however, lies in more reliable production and food security at the local level. This article focuses on individual and household security amongst dryland herders in East Africa. The most crucial aspect of pastoral viability is the maintenance of a balance between family herd and size of household. Risk-spreading, through dependence on relatives, the borrowing of animals, redistribution through marriage etc. is a general principle of social behaviour amongst these peoples. Consideration of local-level security, furthermore, reveals the connection between ecological stress and political conflict. Only by establishing secure access to food for individuals and families can sustainable development and political security, not only at the local but also at the national and international levels, be achieved. PMID:20958697

  3. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report (NNSSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NNSS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NNSSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NNSS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NNSSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NNSS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The NNSS is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national security-related missions and high-risk operations. The NNSS is located about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The approximately 1,360-square-mile site is one of the largest restricted access areas in the United States. It is surrounded by federal installations with strictly controlled access, as well as by lands that are open to public entry.

  4. 1982 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Naidu, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1982 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. 30 references, 9 figures, 18 tables.

  5. 1981 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Olmer, L.L.

    1982-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1981 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. 28 references, 9 figures, 20 tables.

  6. 1979 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1979 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory.

  7. Monitoring environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, C.N.; Calder, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, billions of public and private dollars have been spent on pollution control and other costs of compliance with environmental regulations in coastal and estuarine areas of the US. Much of this investment has been made without comprehensive, high quality, and continuing information about the status and trends of environmental quality in these areas. Are general conditions getting better or worse. How do existing conditions among different estuaries and coastal areas compare. Are these conditions approaching or exceeding levels that are known to be harmful to living resources. Since 1984 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted a national program that will answer these questions. Progress has been made on the cleanup of conventional pollutants (oxygen-demanding materials, particulate matter and nutrients) in the water column, and now increasing attention is being directed toward toxic substances in animals and sediments. Emphasis of the National Status and Trends Program is on the measurement of these chemicals and observations of the effects they may cause. The program is measuring existing levels of toxic chemical contaminants in bivalves (mussels and oysters), bottom-fish (flounders), and associated sediments.

  8. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  9. Optical biosensors for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Tamiya, Eiichi

    1996-12-31

    Environmental assessment is important to evaluate the overall health and ecological impact of domestic and industrial wastes. Biosensors are kinds of analytical devices which consist of biomaterials and transducers. Photoluminescence of recombinant E. coli containing lux related genes were used as indicators of environmental pollutions. This paper deals with sensitive and rapid optical sensing systems for monitoring BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), toxic compounds and mutagens.

  10. Enlisting qualitative methods to improve environmental monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental monitoring tracks ecological changes in order to support environmental management decisions. Monitoring design is driven by natural scientists, usually lacking a formal social science basis. However, human perspectives drive environmental resource decisions, with ...

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sharon D.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) environmental surveillance is to characterize radiological and nonradiological conditions of the off-site environs and estimate public doses related to these conditions, confirm estimations of public dose based on effluent monitoring data, and, where appropriate, provide supplemental data to support compliance monitoring for applicable environmental regulations. This environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is intended to document the rationale, frequency, parameters, and analytical methods for the ORR environmental surveillance program and provides information on ORR site characteristics, environmental pathways, dose assessment methods, and quality management. ORR-wide environmental monitoring activities include a variety of media including air, surface water, vegetation, biota, and wildlife. In addition to these activities, site-specific effluent, groundwater, and best management monitoring programs are conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). This is revision 5.

  12. Environmental Monitoring in a Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrenetxea, G.; Couach, O.; Ingelrest, F.; Krichane, M.; Parlange, M.; Vetterli, M.

    2007-12-01

    Current data collection techniques are rather limited and make use of very expensive sensing stations, leading to a lack of appropriate environmental observations. We present SensorScope, a collaborative project between environmental and network researchers, that aims at providing an efficient and cheap out-of-the-box monitoring system. Sensorscope is based on a self-organized multi-hop wireless network, composed of a large number of solar powered sensing stations deployed over an area of interest. These sensing stations gather various information about their environment, such as air temperature and humidity, skin temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direcction, precipitation, soil moisture, and soir watter content. SensorScope falls into the category of time-driven networks, as the stations intermittently transmit environmental data to a sink. The latter, in turn, is able to relay this information to a database server which makes all data publicly available in real-time by means of a Goggle Maps-based web interface. The main objective of the SensorScope project is to provide a low-cost and reliable WSN-based system for environmental monitoring to a wide community. It improves present data collection techniques with the latest technology, while exceeding the requirements of most environmental research. The Sensorscope system has already been sucessfully used in three different measurement campaigns: a glacier deployment at Plain Morte (Valais, Switzerland), a wetland monitoring program (Neuchatel, Switzerland), and an alpine deployment to study rock avalanches (Valais, Switzerland)

  13. Environmental Monitoring Plan: Environmental Monitoring Section. Appendix A, Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document presents information about the environmental monitoring program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: air sampling; air tritium calibrations; storm water discharge; non-storm water discharge; sampling locations; ground water sampling; noise and blast forecasting; analytical laboratory auditing; document retention; procedure writing; quality assurance programs for sampling; soil and sediment sampling; sewage sampling; diversion facility tank sampling; vegetation and foodstuff sampling; and radiological dose assessments.

  14. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  15. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  16. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  17. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  18. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM AGROECOSYSTEM MONITORING AND RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monitoring program described in this document is one component of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a national program administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development. or EMAP, agroecosystems are defined ...

  20. Electrochemical immunosensors for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sadik, O.A.; Van Emon, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The time involved in field sampling and laboratory analysis of environmental samples has stimulated the development of alternative rapid and cost-effective field screening and monitoring methods for a wide range of toxic chemicals. Current research in our laboratories is directed toward developing portable, continuous and in-situ electrochemical immunosensors for detection of compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals and pesticides. Previous work has shown that the use of these sensors possesses significant advantages over conventional methods in the detection and quantitation of a range of analytes. The advantages of conducting electroactive polymers (CEPs) in combining the function of an antibody-entrapment matrix and the transducer required for the measurement of immunological reactions translate into substantial equipment miniaturization as well as reduction in response time. This promises to open up new horizons in environmental monitoring, medical and clinical applications. This paper will discuss the detection and quantitation of environmental samples using CEP-based sensors. Recent advances in biosensing technologies using electrochemical immunoassays will also be discussed. CEP-based immunosensing systems will be compared with conventional environmental immunoassay procedures. The advantages of utilizing these types of sensors in providing rapid, sensitive and cost-effective options for environmental analysis of pesticides and other potential contaminants will be analyzed and discussed.

  1. Secure VM for Monitoring Industrial Process Controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Dipankar; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T; Carvalho, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the biological immune system as an autonomic system for self-protection, which has evolved over millions of years probably through extensive redesigning, testing, tuning and optimization process. The powerful information processing capabilities of the immune system, such as feature extraction, pattern recognition, learning, memory, and its distributive nature provide rich metaphors for its artificial counterpart. Our study focuses on building an autonomic defense system, using some immunological metaphors for information gathering, analyzing, decision making and launching threat and attack responses. In order to detection Stuxnet like malware, we propose to include a secure VM (or dedicated host) to the SCADA Network to monitor behavior and all software updates. This on-going research effort is not to mimic the nature but to explore and learn valuable lessons useful for self-adaptive cyber defense systems.

  2. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  3. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2008-04-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  7. Conductometric Microbiosensors for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2008-01-01

    This review presents the principles of conductometric measurements in ionic media and the equivalent electrical circuits of different designs for conductometric measurements. These types of measurements were first applied for monitoring biocatalytic reactions. The use of conductometric microtransducers is then presented and detailed in the case of pollutant detection for environmental monitoring. Conductometric biosensors have advantages over other types of transducers: they can be produced through inexpensive thin- film standard technology, no reference electrode is needed and differential mode measurements allow cancellation of a lot of interferences. The specifications obtained for the detection of different pesticides, herbicides and heavy metal ions, based on enzyme inhibition, are presented as well as those obtained for the detection of formaldehyde, 4- chlorophenol, nitrate and proteins as markers of dissolved organic carbon based on enzymatic microbiosensors.

  8. Remote Environmental Monitoring System CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, R.D.

    2000-03-30

    The goal of the project was to develop a wireless communications system, including communications, command, and control software, to remotely monitor the environmental state of a process or facility. Proof of performance would be tested and evaluated with a prototype demonstration in a functioning facility. AR Designs' participation provided access to software resources and products that enable network communications for real-time embedded systems to access remote workstation services such as Graphical User Interface (GUI), file I/O, Events, Video, Audio, etc. in a standardized manner. This industrial partner further provided knowledge and links with applications and current industry practices. FM and T's responsibility was primarily in hardware development in areas such as advanced sensors, wireless radios, communication interfaces, and monitoring and analysis of sensor data. This role included a capability to design, fabricate, and test prototypes and to provide a demonstration environment to test a proposed remote sensing system. A summary of technical accomplishments is given.

  9. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  10. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  11. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  12. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  13. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  14. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  16. Environmental Monitoring Using Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.; Fu, S.; Acevedo, M. F.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental observatories, consisting of a variety of sensor systems, computational resources and informatics, are important for us to observe, model, predict, and ultimately help preserve the health of the nature. The commoditization and proliferation of coin-to-palm sized wireless sensors will allow environmental monitoring with unprecedented fine spatial and temporal resolution. Once scattered around, these sensors can identify themselves, locate their positions, describe their functions, and self-organize into a network. They communicate through wireless channel with nearby sensors and transmit data through multi-hop protocols to a gateway, which can forward information to a remote data server. In this project, we describe an environmental observatory called Texas Environmental Observatory (TEO) that incorporates a sensor network system with intertwined wired and wireless sensors. We are enhancing and expanding the existing wired weather stations to include wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and telemetry using solar-powered cellular modems. The new WSNs will monitor soil moisture and support long-term hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic models are helpful in predicting how changes in land cover translate into changes in the stream flow regime. These models require inputs that are difficult to measure over large areas, especially variables related to storm events, such as soil moisture antecedent conditions and rainfall amount and intensity. This will also contribute to improve rainfall estimations from meteorological radar data and enhance hydrological forecasts. Sensor data are transmitted from monitoring site to a Central Data Collection (CDC) Server. We incorporate a GPRS modem for wireless telemetry, a single-board computer (SBC) as Remote Field Gateway (RFG) Server, and a WSN for distributed soil moisture monitoring. The RFG provides effective control, management, and coordination of two independent sensor systems, i.e., a traditional datalogger-based wired

  17. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy... Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a license application is submitted, the applicant shall have conducted a preoperational monitoring...

  18. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy... Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a... to provide basic environmental data on the disposal site characteristics. The applicant shall...

  19. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy... Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a... to provide basic environmental data on the disposal site characteristics. The applicant shall...

  20. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy... Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a... to provide basic environmental data on the disposal site characteristics. The applicant shall...

  1. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy... Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a... to provide basic environmental data on the disposal site characteristics. The applicant shall...

  2. Environmental Monitoring Using Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Thundat, Thomas; Brown, Gilbert M.; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2003-03-27

    There is presently an urgent need for rugged, low cost sensing systems for real-time, in situ chemical sensors for characterization and monitoring of ground water, contaminated soil and process streams. Recent advances in designing and fabricating microcantilever beams capable of detecting extremely small forces, mechanical stress and mass additions offer the promising prospect of environmental sensing with unprecedented sensitivity and dynamic range. The resonance frequency of a cantilever beam varies sensitively as a function of molecular adsorption. In addition, when the adsorption is confined to one side of the cantilever, the cantilever undergoes deflection due to adsorption-induced variation in surface free energy. Chemical selectivity can be achieved by coating the cantilevers with selective molecules. We have detected a number of ions such as Cs, Cr, Cu, Hg and methyl Hg in ground water with very high sensitivity. Recent results from nanocantilever sensor arrays will be presented.

  3. Applications for cyber security - System and application monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    Standard network security measures are adequate for defense against external attacks. However, many experts agree that the greater threat is from internal sources. Insiders with malicious intentions can change controller instructions, change alarm thresholds, and issue commands to equipment which can damage equipment and compromise control system integrity. In addition to strict physical security the state of the system must be continually monitored. System and application monitoring goes beyond the capabilities of network security appliances. It will include active processes, operating system services, files, network adapters and IP addresses. The generation of alarms is a crucial feature of system and application monitoring. The alarms should be integrated to avoid the burden on operators of checking multiple locations for security violations. Tools for system and application monitoring include commercial software, free software, and ad-hoc tools that can be easily created. System and application monitoring is part of a 'defense-in-depth' approach to a control network security plan. Layered security measures prevent an individual security measure failure from being exploited into a successful security breach. Alarming of individual failures is essential for rapid isolation and correction of single failures. System and application monitoring is the innermost layer of this defense strategy. (authors)

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  5. Multi-Modal Integrated Safety, Security & Environmental Program Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Ganguly, Auroop R; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to assessing and protecting the surface transportation infrastructure from a network science viewpoint. We address transportation security from a human behavior-dynamics perspective under both normal and emergency conditions for the purpose of measuring, managing and mitigating risks. The key factor for the planning and design of a robust transportation network solution is to ensure accountability for safety, security and environmental risks. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Multi-Modal Integrated Safety, Security and Environmental Program (M2IS2EP) evolved from a joint US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Assets Utilization Program and ORNL SensorNet Program initiative named the Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMRicS). In November of 2002 the first of six pilot demonstrations was constructed at the Tennessee I-40/75 Knox County Weigh Station outside of Knoxville. Over the life of the project four more installations were deployed with various levels of ORNL oversight. In October of 2004 the ORNL SensorNet Program commissioned a research team to develop a project plan and to identify/develop a strategic vision in support of the SensorNet Program, keeping in mind the needs of the various governmental constituencies (i.e., DOT/DHS/EPA) for improving the safety/security/environment of the highway transportation system. Ultimately a more comprehensive ORNL SensorNet Program entitled Trusted Corridors was established and presented to ORNL, DOE, DOT, DHS, EPA and State leaders. Several of these entities adopted their own versions of these programs and are at various stages of deployment. All of these initiatives and pilots make up the foundation of the concepts and ideas of M2IS2EP and will be discussed further on in this paper.

  6. Security warning system monitors up to fifteen remote areas simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Security warning system consisting of 15 television cameras is capable of monitoring several remote or unoccupied areas simultaneously. The system uses a commutator and decommutator, allowing time-multiplexed video transmission. This security system could be used in industrial and retail establishments.

  7. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  8. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  10. Monitoring image quality for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker; Nicholson, Didier

    2011-01-01

    This work is focusing on the definition of a procedure for the qualification of coding schemes for video surveillance applications. It consists in developing and benchmarking tools that learn from the expertise of police and security department. This expertise is intended to be modeled thanks to a campaign of subjective measurement allowing to analyze the way they are using in performing the security tasks like face or license plate recognition, event detection and so on. The results of the previous test are used will be used to tune and to construct a hybrid metric based on basic artifacts detection due to compression and transmission.

  11. Continuous environmental monitoring for aqueous effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Jones, G. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    An aquatic environmental monitor has been developed that will continuously monitor aqueous waste streams from coal processing plants. The monitor contains three different instruments: a continuous chemical oxygen demand monitor and two continuous-flow fluorometers with different excitation-emission characteristics. A prototype instrument was fabricated and evaluated for several different applications. The details of the instrument design and results of its evaluation are presented in this report.

  12. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY84 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and PPPL's largest tokamak, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) had a complete year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak was in operation and the RF Test Facility came on-line. The phased approach of TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the addition of neutron monitors. During CY84 there were no adverse effects to the environment resulting from any operational program at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations.

  13. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY85 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. All of the tokamak machines, the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), has a full year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the RF Test Facility were in operation. The phased approach to TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the establishment of locations for off-site monitoring. An environmental committee established in December 1984 reviewed items of environmental importance. During CY85 no adverse effects to the environmental resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

    1999-09-29

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures, which implement

  15. Federal Environmental Monitoring: Will the Bubble Burst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stan

    1978-01-01

    A quality assurance program for environmental monitoring is identified as necesary for the collection of reliable, interchangeable, and legally defensible data. The article defines quality assurance and describes the EPA quality assurance program. (MA)

  16. BIOSEPARATION AND BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing use of antibody-based separation methods has paralleled the expansion of immunochemical detection methods in moving beyond the clinical diagnostic field to applications in environmental monitoring. In recent years high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography, which ...

  17. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENTS OF OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES USING NATIONAL SECURITY AND CIVILIAN DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The national security systems (NSS) of Russia and the United States have been used for more than three decades to monitor each other's military and economic infrastructure. These high-resolution imaging systems can provide unique data for assessing a wide range of environmental i...

  19. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidance for selecting a plan to tomposite environmental or biological samples is provided in the form of models, equations, tables, and criteria. Composite sampling procedures can increase sensitivity, reduce sampling variance, and dramatically reduce analytical costs, depending...

  20. The community environmental monitoring program: a model for stakeholder involvement in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, William T.; Shafer, David S.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1981, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has involved stakeholders directly in its daily operation and data collection, as well as in dissemination of information on radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the primary location where the United States (US) conducted nuclear testing until 1992. The CEMP is funded by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, and is administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The CEMP provides training workshops for stakeholders involved in the program, and educational outreach to address public concerns about health risk and environmental impacts from past and ongoing NTS activities. The network includes 29 monitoring stations located across an approximately 160,000 km{sup 2} area of Nevada, Utah and California in the southwestern US. The principal radiological instruments are pressurized ion chambers for measuring gamma radiation, and particulate air samplers, primarily for alpha/beta detection. Stations also employ a full suite of meteorological instruments, allowing for improved interpretation of the effects of meteorological events on background radiation levels. Station sensors are wired to state-of-the-art data-loggers that are capable of several weeks of on-site data storage, and that work in tandem with a communications system that integrates DSL and wireless internet, land line and cellular phone, and satellite technologies for data transfer. Data are managed through a platform maintained by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) that DRI operates for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The WRCC platform allows for near real-time upload and display of current monitoring information in tabular and graphical formats on a public web site. Archival data for each station are also available on-line, providing the ability to perform trending analyses or calculate

  1. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  4. Verification testing of advanced environmental monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Riggs, K.B.; Fuerst, R.G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) pilot project, one of 12 pilots comprising the US EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The aim of ETV is to promote the acceptance of environmental technologies in the marketplace, through objective third-party verification of technology performance.

  5. ICPP environmental monitoring report CY-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Protection Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) as presented in DOE Order 5400.5. The State of Idaho regulates nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The Environmental Department updated the Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1992. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP`s implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no EPA methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, LITCO methods were used.

  6. Nanotechnology-based Sensors for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, Willi

    2010-03-01

    COINS mission is to inspire and realize applications directed towards sensing of environmental conditions using nano-mechanical technology, integrated with suitable societal implications studies and educational, outreach, and knowledge transfer programs. Specifically, the technical focus of COINS is to develop the means for realizing its two major technology applications -- personal and community-based environmental monitoring (PACMON) and tagging tracking and locating (TTL). These platforms combine technologies of molecular recognition and signal transduction, energy harvesting and conversion, efficient signal processing and wireless communications, and mobility. In this talk, I will give an overview of some of the recent advances in our environmental monitoring sensor development.

  7. Eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) in marine environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Jenny E; Rüdel, Heinz; Gercken, Jens; Bergek, Sara; Strand, Jakob; Quack, Markus; Appelberg, Magnus; Förlin, Lars; Tuvikene, Arvo; Bignert, Anders

    2011-10-01

    The implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive necessitates the development of common criteria and methodological standards for marine environmental monitoring and assessment across Europe. Eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) is proposed as a key indicator organism in the Baltic and North Sea regions. This benthic fish species is widely used in ecotoxicological studies and as a bioindicator of local pollution due to its stationary behavior. Eelpout is included in the environmental monitoring program of several Baltic States, covering both chemical and biological effects measurements, and samples have been archived in environmental specimen banks for >15 years. A method for evaluating the frequency of larval aberrations has been suggested as a standardized assessment tool. The large scientific knowledge-base and considerable experience of long-term chemical and biological effects monitoring and specimen banking, make eelpout a suitable species for the assessment of Good Environmental Status in the Baltic and North Seas. PMID:21802099

  8. Women's Environmental Literacy As Social Capital In Environmental Management For Environmental Security of Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asteria, Donna; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.

    2016-02-01

    This study is about experience of women's role in environmental management to raise environmental security and form of women's emancipation movement. Environmental concerns conducted by residents of urban women who become environmental activists based on environmental literacy. Because of that, women's experience in interacting with both physic and social environment have differences in managing the environment including managing household waste by applying the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) and their persuasive efforts on their communities. This is the key to achieving sustainable development by anticipating environmental problem and preserving the environment. This study is conducted qualitative research method and its type is descriptive-explanative. The result of this study is environmental literacy of women activist on pro-environment action in their community that has achieved spiritual environmental literacy. Environmental literacy may differ due to internal and external condition of each individual. Pro-environment activities conducted as a form of responsibility of environmental concern such as eco-management, educational, and economic action, by persuading residents to proactively and consistently continue to do environmental management and develop a sense of community in shaping the networks of environmental concern in local context for global effect.

  9. Monitoring Items in Real Time to Enhance CAT Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An IRT-based sequential procedure is developed to monitor items for enhancing test security. The procedure uses a series of statistical hypothesis tests to examine whether the statistical characteristics of each item under inspection have changed significantly during CAT administration. This procedure is compared with a previously developed…

  10. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  11. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side. PMID:26729130

  12. Monitoring Nanoaerosols and Environmental Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandin, Corinne; Le Bihan, Olivier; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    Environmental exposure refers to exposure of the population outside the occupational context (see Chap. 6.4) and excluding also medical exposure. The kind of exposure discussed in this chapter is due to the presence of nanoparticles in the various environmental compartments, such as the air (indoors or outdoors), water (water for drinking, bathing, etc.), soils, foodstuffs, and so on. These nanoparticles may come from the nanomaterials that contain them and upon which they bestow specific novel properties, or they may be formed unintentionally by human activities such as industry, traffic, domestic fuel combustion, etc., or natural phenomena such as forest fires, for example, or again by physicochemical reactions, e.g., the reaction between gases and particles in the air, spray formation, vapour condensation, and so on. This book is concerned with the former, namely manufactured nanoparticles, but the related questions and acquired knowledge must often be viewed from the perspective of what is already known about the latter, commonly referred to as ultrafine particles.

  13. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    The results of the 1988 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three tokamak machines, the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), were in operation during the year. The Environmental Committee, which is a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB), continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY88 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Over the last two years the Department of Energy conducted major environmental audits at all of its facilities, including PPPL. No significant environmental concerns were noted as a result of the inspection and sampling at PPPL. 43 refs., 25 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. ICCP Environmental Monitoring Report CY-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.K.

    1993-07-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Department. This report is published in response to DOE Order 5400.1. This report covers the period from December 21, 1991 through December 20, 1992 and details airborne and liquid effluents from the Chemical Processing Plant.

  15. Environmental monitoring for Space Station WP01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    External contamination monitoring instrumentation for the Space Station work package one (WP01) elements, were imposed on the contractor as deliverable hardware. The monitoring instrumentation proposed by the WP01 contractor in response to the contract requirement includes both real time measurements and passive samples. Real time measurement instrumentation consists of quartz crystal microbalances for molecular deposition, ion gaseous species identification. Internal environmental contamination monitoring for particulates is included in both Lab and HAB modules. Passive samples consists of four sample mounting plates mounted external to the Space Station modules, two on the U.S. LAB, and two on the HAB module.

  16. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  17. Secure Remote Health Monitoring with Unreliable Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minho

    2012-01-01

    As the nation's healthcare information infrastructure continues to evolve, new technologies promise to provide readily accessible health information that can help people address personal and community health concerns. In particular, wearable and implantable medical sensors and portable computing devices present many opportunities for providing timely health information to health providers, public health professionals, and consumers. Concerns about privacy and information quality, however, may impede the development and deployment of these technologies for remote health monitoring. Patients may fail to apply sensors correctly, device can be stolen or compromised (exposing the medical data therein to a malicious party), low-cost sensors controlled by a capable attacker might generate falsified data, and sensor data sent to the server can be captured in the air by an eavesdropper; there are many opportunities for sensitive health data to be lost, forged, or exposed. In this paper, we design a framework for secure remote health-monitoring systems; we build a realistic risk model for sensor-data quality and propose a new health-monitoring architecture that is secure despite the weaknesses of common personal devices. For evaluation, we plan to implement a proof of concept for secure health monitoring. PMID:22910449

  18. Secure remote health monitoring with unreliable mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Minho

    2012-01-01

    As the nation's healthcare information infrastructure continues to evolve, new technologies promise to provide readily accessible health information that can help people address personal and community health concerns. In particular, wearable and implantable medical sensors and portable computing devices present many opportunities for providing timely health information to health providers, public health professionals, and consumers. Concerns about privacy and information quality, however, may impede the development and deployment of these technologies for remote health monitoring. Patients may fail to apply sensors correctly, device can be stolen or compromised (exposing the medical data therein to a malicious party), low-cost sensors controlled by a capable attacker might generate falsified data, and sensor data sent to the server can be captured in the air by an eavesdropper; there are many opportunities for sensitive health data to be lost, forged, or exposed. In this paper, we design a framework for secure remote health-monitoring systems; we build a realistic risk model for sensor-data quality and propose a new health-monitoring architecture that is secure despite the weaknesses of common personal devices. For evaluation, we plan to implement a proof of concept for secure health monitoring. PMID:22910449

  19. Two essays on environmental and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner

    The first essay of this dissertation, "estimating non-market economic benefits of using biodiesel fuel: a stochastic double bounded approach", is an attempt to incorporate uncertainty into double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation. The double bounded approach, which entails asking respondents a follow-up question after they have answered a first question, has emerged as a means to increase efficiency in willingness to pay (WTP) estimates. However, several studies have found inconsistency between WTP estimates generated by the first and second questions. In this study, it is posited that this inconsistency is due to uncertainty facing the respondents when the second question is introduced. The author seeks to understand whether using a follow-up question in a stochastic format, which allows respondents to express uncertainty, would alleviate the inconsistency problem. In a contingent valuation survey to estimate non-market economic benefits of using more biodiesel vs. petroleum diesel fuel in an airshed encompassing South Eastern and Central Ohio, it is found that the gap between WTP estimates produced by the first and the second questions reduces when respondents are allowed to express uncertainty. The proposed stochastic follow-up approach yields more efficient WTP estimates than the conventional follow-up approach while maintaining efficiency gain over the single bounded model. From a methodological standpoint, this study distinguishes from previous research by being the first to implement a double bounded contingent valuation survey with a stochastic follow-up question. In the second essay, "analyzing the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in developing countries: an instrumental variable panel data approach", instrumental variable panel data techniques are applied to estimate the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in a sample of 73 developing countries from 1970 to 2002. The number of hungry in

  20. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  1. APPLICATION OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS TO ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is one of the most economical and wide-ranging tools for monitoring the environment for radiological impact. This report examines the problems involved in applying germanium detectors to the analysis of environmental samples. All aspects of germanium spectr...

  2. FIBER OPTIC SENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to decades of neglect as well as ever-increasing industrial activity, environmental monitoring has become an important issue. Given the expense and time constraints associated with classical laboratory analysis, there exists a growing interest in cost-effective and real-time ...

  3. Environmental monitoring: the key to effective sanitation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alan; Wilfred, Antonia G; Hidell, Timothy B

    2003-05-01

    Judicious and effective use of chemical decontaminants has a critical function in meeting the bioexclusion and biocontainment objectives established in every well-managed animal research facility. The authors provide an overview of the components to consider when developing and implementing an environmental monitoring program. PMID:19757613

  4. Annual environmental monitoring report: calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, B.M.; Carfagno, D.G.

    1982-04-21

    The environment locally surrounding Mound was monitored primarily for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for CY-1981. The environmental medium analyzed included air, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium were within the applicable standards (adopted by the US DOE) for radioactive species.

  5. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  6. ISFET Based Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Orozco, Jahir; Baldi, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The use of microsensors for in-field monitoring of environmental parameters is gaining interest due to their advantages over conventional sensors. Among them microsensors based on semiconductor technology offer additional advantages such as small size, robustness, low output impedance and rapid response. Besides, the technology used allows integration of circuitry and multiple sensors in the same substrate and accordingly they can be implemented in compact probes for particular applications e.g., in situ monitoring and/or on-line measurements. In the field of microsensors for environmental applications, Ion Selective Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) have a special interest. They are particularly helpful for measuring pH and other ions in small volumes and they can be integrated in compact flow cells for continuous measurements. In this paper the technologies used to fabricate ISFETs and a review of the role of ISFETs in the environmental field are presented. PMID:22315527

  7. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  8. Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1994-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and operational environmental monitoring performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company as it implements the Operational Environmental Monitoring program. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company in implementing the Operational Environmental Monitoring program at the Hanford Site.

  9. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  10. SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

  11. ICPP environmental monitoring report for CY-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Affairs Department. This report is published in response to DOE Order 5400.1. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) as presented in DOE Order 5400.5. The State of Idaho regulates nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including airborne, liquid, and solid waste. Quality Assurance activities have resulted in the ICPP`s implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no EPA methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) methods were used.

  12. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    The results of the 1987 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three large tokamak machines, the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) were in operation during the year. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the Radio-Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) were operated on a limited basis in 1987. The Environmental Committee which is a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB) continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY87 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations. 41 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs.

  13. Environmental monitoring report for Calendar Year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The results of the 1986 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three large tokamak machines, the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) were in operation during the year. The Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) was shut down in December 1985 to undergo major modifications, and will recommence operations in 1987. PLT was shut down in December 1986. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the Radio-Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) were operated on a limited basis in 1986. The Environmental Committee became a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB) and continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY86 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental regulations.

  14. Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental monitoring plan for Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.; Lee, R.

    1996-10-01

    As required by DOE Order 5400.1, each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials shall provide a written Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) covering effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, provides specific guidance regarding environmental monitoring activities.

  15. Environmental degradation: Implications for national security. Study report

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, J.D.

    1990-03-30

    As the United States prepares to move into the 21st century, the threat of armed conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union appears to have receded into the realm of the improbable. At the same time, however, a new and perhaps more ominous threat is emerging to challenge the security of nations: environmental degradation. Burgeoning world populations and the quest for industrial/economic development have begun seriously to erode the capability of the earth's environment to sustain itself. The phenomena of global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification and many forms of pollution are destroying the delicate life support systems upon which humanity depends for its very survival. National security, therefore, must be redefined and in this instance must be viewed in a context outside the traditional concept of military capability. This paper examines economic, social, political and military implications of environmental degradation as threats to the security of the United States and to world security. The paper concludes that a new level of international cooperation and technological innovation are required to reduce the negative impact of environmental degradation. An appendix provides additional data on specific forms of environmental degradation.

  16. Initial CTBT international monitoring system security findings and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

    1996-08-01

    An initial security evaluation of the proposed International Monitoring System (IMS) suggests safeguards at various points in the IMS to provide reliable information to the user community. Modeling the IMS as a network of information processing nodes provides a suitable architecture for assessing data surety needs of the system. The recommendations in this paper include the use of public-key authentication for data from monitoring stations and for commands issued to monitoring stations. Other monitoring station safeguards include tamper protection of sensor subsystems, preservation of data (i.e. short-term archival), and limiting the station`s network services. The recommendations for NDCs focus on the need to provide a backup to the IDC for data archival and data routing. Safeguards suggested for the IDC center on issues of reliability. The production of event bulletins should employ {open_quotes}two-man{close_quotes} procedures. As long as the data maintains its integrity, event bulletins can be produced by NDCs as well. The effective use of data authentication requires a sound key management system. Key management systems must be developed for the authentication of data, commands, and event bulletins if necessary. It is recommended that the trust placed in key management be distributed among multiple parties. The recommendations found in this paper offer safeguards for identified vulnerabilities in the IMS with regard to data surety. However, several outstanding security issues still exist. These issues include the need to formalize and obtain a consensus on a threat model and a trust model for the IMS. The final outstanding security issue that requires in-depth analysis concerns the IDC as a potential single point of failure in the current IMS design.

  17. Evaluating the efficiency of environmental monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, Carrie R.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Lampman, Gregory G.; Burns, Douglas A.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lynch, Jason; Schoch, Nian

    2014-01-01

    Statistical uncertainty analyses can be used to improve the efficiency of environmental monitoring, allowing sampling designs to maximize information gained relative to resources required for data collection and analysis. In this paper, we illustrate four methods of data analysis appropriate to four types of environmental monitoring designs. To analyze a long-term record from a single site, we applied a general linear model to weekly stream chemistry data at Biscuit Brook, NY, to simulate the effects of reducing sampling effort and to evaluate statistical confidence in the detection of change over time. To illustrate a detectable difference analysis, we analyzed a one-time survey of mercury concentrations in loon tissues in lakes in the Adirondack Park, NY, demonstrating the effects of sampling intensity on statistical power and the selection of a resampling interval. To illustrate a bootstrapping method, we analyzed the plot-level sampling intensity of forest inventory at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, to quantify the sampling regime needed to achieve a desired confidence interval. Finally, to analyze time-series data from multiple sites, we assessed the number of lakes and the number of samples per year needed to monitor change over time in Adirondack lake chemistry using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Evaluations of time series and synoptic long-term monitoring data can help determine whether sampling should be re-allocated in space or time to optimize the use of financial and human resources.

  18. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  19. Electronic noses for environmental monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  20. Environmental Monitoring of Microbe Metabolic Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad (Inventor); Fleming, Erich (Inventor); Piccini, Matthew (Inventor); Beasley, Christopher (Inventor); Bebout, Leslie (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Mobile system and method for monitoring environmental parameters involved in growth or metabolic transformation of algae in a liquid. Each of one or more mobile apparati, suspended or partly or wholly submerged in the liquid, includes at least first and second environmental sensors that sense and transmit distinct first and second environmental, growth or transformation parameter values, such as liquid temperature, temperature of gas adjacent to and above the exposed surface, liquid pH, liquid salinity, liquid turbidity, O.sub.2 dissolved in the liquid, CO.sub.2 contained in the liquid, oxidization and reduction potential of the liquid, nutrient concentrations in the liquid, nitrate concentration in the liquid, ammonium concentration in the liquid, bicarbonate concentration in the liquid, phosphate concentration in the liquid, light intensity at the liquid surface, electrical conductivity of the liquid, and a parameter.alpha.(alga) associated with growth stage of the alga, using PAM fluorometry or other suitable parameter measurements.

  1. Environmental remediation monitoring using chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong X. Li

    1996-12-31

    Monitoring is one of the most critical steps in environmental site remediation. However, the conventional technique of monitoring {open_quotes}inlet{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outlet{close_quotes} of a process stream is no longer applicable in many in-situ remedial processes such as bioventing, biosparging, and intrinsic bioremediation. Traditional soil sampling and analysis is also unsuitable for monitoring biodegradation process because of chemical and biological inhomogeneity in soil. Soil gas measurement, on the other hand, is one of the few techniques available which is ideally suited for monitoring in-situ processes, since bioremediation processes involve gaseous components such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. In addition to oxygen and carbon dioxide, contaminant vapors and other trace gaseous components found in the pores of unsaturated soils also provide information on the spatial distribution and the extent of biodegradation. These gaseous components are very mobile, which are ideal analytes for chemical sensors. In this study, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon subsurface chemical sensors were employed for monitoring in-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

  2. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  3. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  5. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Cathy A

    2013-09-11

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  7. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring report, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the results of the 1982 annual effluent and environmental monitoring program for the Pinellas Plant. Average maximum ground level concentrations of tritium, carbon 14 and krypton 85 were all less than 0.2% of the standard for continuous monoccupational exposure. Offsite releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity and zinc. No plutonium was released to the environment and monitoring data showed background levels. Calculations were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, krypton 85 and carbon 14. (ASR)

  8. Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Selid, Paul D.; Xu, Hanying; Collins, E. Michael; Face-Collins, Marla Striped; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    Mercury is a very toxic element that is widely spread in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and surface water. Concentrated mercury poses serious problems to human health, as bioaccumulation of mercury within the brain and kidneys ultimately leads to neurological diseases. To control mercury pollution and reduce mercury damage to human health, sensitive determination of mercury is important. This article summarizes some current sensors for the determination of both abiotic and biotic mercury. A wide array of sensors for monitoring mercury is described, including biosensors and chemical sensors, while piezoelectric and microcantilever sensors are also described. Additionally, newly developed nanomaterials offer great potential for fabricating novel mercury sensors. Some of the functional fluorescent nanosensors for the determination of mercury are covered. Afterwards, the in vivo determination of mercury and the characterization of different forms of mercury are discussed. Finally, the future direction for mercury detection is outlined, suggesting that nanomaterials may provide revolutionary tools in biomedical and environmental monitoring of mercury. PMID:22346707

  9. Method for monitoring environmental and corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1995-08-01

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figs.

  10. Method for monitoring environmental and corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1995-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Cultivating Strategic Foresight for Energy and Environmental Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, David A.; Costigan, Sean; Daum, Keith; Lavoix, Helene; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Pallaris, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Disastrous social, economic, and political instability can result from limited energy resources or deteriorating environmental conditions. Historically, understanding and preparing for potential turbulent events posed significant challenges for governments, due in part to complex connections and dependencies associated with multiple, inter-related issues. Moving forward, we propose world governments can better mitigate and even avert energy and environmental disasters by cultivating a shared, diverse community of physical and social scientists, engineers, security analysts, and other professionals from related fields to share concerns, discuss ideas, and coalesce key concepts from the vast amount of data available about energy and environmental issues. Bringing relevant parties from multiple disciplines into a dynamic, diverse, and more transparent forum will produce a greater range of discussion, deliberation, and feasible solutions to help address uncertain, global energy and environmental concerns of both the present-day and our future.

  12. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael M; Olivieri, Isabelle; Waller, Donald M; Nielsen, Einar E

    2012-03-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how to use genetic monitoring to study adaptive responses via repeated analysis of the same populations over time, distinguishing between phenotypic and molecular genetics approaches. After describing monitoring designs, we develop explicit criteria for demonstrating adaptive responses, which include testing for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We further review a broader set of 44 studies to assess how well they meet the proposed criteria, and conclude that only 23% fulfill all criteria. Approximately half (43%) of these studies failed to rule out the alternative hypothesis of replacement by a different, better-adapted population. Likewise, 34% of the studies based on phenotypic variation did not test for selection as opposed to drift. These shortcomings can be addressed via improved experimental designs and statistical testing. We foresee monitoring of adaptive responses as a future valuable tool in conservation biology, for identifying populations unable to evolve at sufficiently high rates and for identifying possible donor populations for genetic rescue. Technological advances will further augment the realization of this potential, especially next-generation sequencing technologies that allow for monitoring at the level of whole genomes. PMID:22269082

  13. Optodes for environmental chemical monitoring of lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchi, Markus; Simon, Wilhelm

    1993-03-01

    Sensors with optical transduction (optodes) based on plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bulk membranes incorporating a metal ion-selective ionophore, a hydrogen ion-selective chromoionophore and lipophilic anionic sites for the measurement of lead are presented. Different ionophores were used to design new optodes for environmental sensing properties. Since sufficient detection limits and excellent selectivities over alkali and alkaline earth metals are reached, these sensors can be used as monitoring devices for environmental relevant purposes. These reversibly working optodes show different dynamic ranges depending on the basicity of the involved chromoionophore and on the pH of the sample solution. Therefore, these sensors can be tailored to a specific application by varying these two parameters. Dynamic range, detection limit, response behavior, short-time repeatability, stability and selectivity of the optode systems are discussed.

  14. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  15. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    SciTech Connect

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  16. Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  17. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  18. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  19. Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Mencaglia, Andrea Azelio; Mignani, Anna Grazia

    2008-01-01

    Different physical and chemical factors, such as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and so on, can affect works of art on display. Each factor does not act individually, but its effect can be enhanced or accelerated by the presence of other factors. Accordingly, an evaluation of the impact of the whole environment on art objects is recognized as an essential requirement for conservation purposes. To meet the most up-to-date guidelines on preventive conservation, in recent years several scientific projects supported by the EC were aimed at developing innovative tools that could complement the standard methods for environmental monitoring in museums. These research projects produced a new generation of passive sensors that are capable of taking into account the overall environmental effects by mimicking in some way the behaviour of real works of art. The main goal of the present paper is to provide a survey of these sensors, which represent a new frontier in the environmental control in museums. Furthermore, the use of optical fibres, as both intrinsic sensors and devices for interrogating sensors, will also be illustrated, and examples of their use in the cultural heritage field will be reported.

  20. Environmental monitoring: civilian applications of remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.; Lapp, M.; Vitko, J. Jr.; Phipps, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to explore how best to utilize Sandia`s defense-related sensing expertise to meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ever-growing needs for environmental monitoring. In particular, we focused on two pressing DOE environmental needs: (1) reducing the uncertainties in global warming predictions, and (2) characterizing atmospheric effluents from a variety of sources. During the course of the study we formulated a concept for using unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) for making key 0798 climate measurements; designed a highly accurate, compact, cloud radiometer to be flown on those UAVs; and established the feasibility of differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) to measure atmospheric effluents from waste sites, manufacturing processes, and potential treaty violations. These concepts have had major impact since first being formulated in this ,study. The DOE has adopted, and DoD`s Strategic Environmental Research Program has funded, much of the UAV work. And the ultraviolet DIAL techniques have already fed into a major DOE non- proliferation program.

  1. Continuous Security and Configuration Monitoring of HPC Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lomeli, H. D.; Bertsch, A. D.; Fox, D. M.

    2015-05-08

    Continuous security and configuration monitoring of information systems has been a time consuming and laborious task for system administrators at the High Performance Computing (HPC) center. Prior to this project, system administrators had to manually check the settings of thousands of nodes, which required a significant number of hours rendering the old process ineffective and inefficient. This paper explains the application of Splunk Enterprise, a software agent, and a reporting tool in the development of a user application interface to track and report on critical system updates and security compliance status of HPC Clusters. In conjunction with other configuration management systems, the reporting tool is to provide continuous situational awareness to system administrators of the compliance state of information systems. Our approach consisted of the development, testing, and deployment of an agent to collect any arbitrary information across a massively distributed computing center, and organize that information into a human-readable format. Using Splunk Enterprise, this raw data was then gathered into a central repository and indexed for search, analysis, and correlation. Following acquisition and accumulation, the reporting tool generated and presented actionable information by filtering the data according to command line parameters passed at run time. Preliminary data showed results for over six thousand nodes. Further research and expansion of this tool could lead to the development of a series of agents to gather and report critical system parameters. However, in order to make use of the flexibility and resourcefulness of the reporting tool the agent must conform to specifications set forth in this paper. This project has simplified the way system administrators gather, analyze, and report on the configuration and security state of HPC clusters, maintaining ongoing situational awareness. Rather than querying each cluster independently, compliance checking

  2. Environmental security of the port and harbors' sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Valkovic, Vladivoj; Davorin, Sudac; Matika, Dario; Pavić, Ivica

    2009-05-01

    While polluted sediments present a threat to the health of the marine ecosystem and indirectly to the public health, ammunition dump sites being mostly unprotected and neglected, present a serious threat to human security, environmental security and could be possible objects of misuse. Of special interest are sediments in ports and marinas. Those are the places where any suspicious object needs to be analyzed for the presence of explosives and CW. After analyzing several hundreds of sediment samples collected along the Adriatic coast, it has been found that they could be grouped in 7 categories: bays, beaches, villages, ports, marinas - pier area, marina - service areas and others. We have shown that the sediments in ports and harbors contain increased values of elements present in antifouling paints (Cu, As, Zn and Pb). Their presence modifies the response of survey probes while screening the sea floor for the presence of explosives and CW.

  3. Environmental monitoring of North Merritt Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poonai, P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact of the space shuttle operation on North Merritt Island was studied mainly by means of color infrared photos and field visits. An attempt was also made to generate character maps of the Island using LANDSAT data with a view to decreasing the cost of monitoring and making the process more flexible in terms of rapid estimation of the extent of selected ground features. It seems possible that the IMAGE-100 output can be improved by using it in conjunction with software systems which are used for generating character maps. All the methods for generating maps show six main plant associations on North Merritt Island. It was shown that the six associations are related by ecological succession, merge into their neighbors in terms of component species and can be observed for changes in terms of component species.

  4. A Microinstrumentation System for Remote Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Andrew; Baer, Wayne G.; Wise, Kensall D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on a hybrid micro-instrumentation system that includes a embedded micro-controller, transducers for monitoring environmental parameters, interface/readout electronics for linking the controller and the transducers, and custom circuitry for system power management. Sensors for measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration are included in the initial system, which operates for more than 180 days and dissipates less than 700 microW from a 6V battery supply. The sensor scan rate is adaptive and can be event triggered. The system communicates internally over a 1 MHz, nine-line intramodule sensor bus and outputs data over a hard-wired serial interface or a 315MHz wireless link. The use of folding platform packaging allows an internal system volume as small as 5 cc.

  5. Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Sensors for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    As a one dimensional material, a Single-walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) is made of a rolled up graphene sheet. With a diameter of 1˜2 nm, the SWNTs exhibit many unique properties, such as high aspect ratios, ballistic carrier transport, high mechanical strength and thermal stability. These properties enable SWNTs to have superior performances in various applications including electronics and sensors. SWNT based sensors are extremely sensitive to slight electrostatic changes in their environment and have a fast response where conductance of an SWNT is observed to change in less than 2 sec upon exposure. In addition, SWNT sensors have size advantage over traditional sensors. Hence, SWNTs have been widely explored as active sensing elements for chemical and biomolecule detection. Despite high sensitivities observed from nanotube sensors, one drawback is their lack of selectivity. The conductance of SWNTs is susceptible to many gas molecules in air, including oxygen and moisture which are abundantly present in the ambient environment. Due to this nonspecificity, the presence of any type of gas vapors can possibly interfere with the induced signals from the target gas vapors and hence reduce S/N ratio during detection. To minimize the effects of undesirable interference signals from the environment, several functionalization methods have been developed to customize the affinities of SWNTs to specific targets, including metal nano particles, conducting polymers and biomolecules. The objective of this thesis is to utilize SWNTs in environmental applications. The proposed research topics include: investigating the sensing characteristics of RNA oligomers on carbon nanotubes; analyzing the sensing characteristics of DNA with different sequence lengths on carbon nanotubes; integration of DNA decorated SWNTs onto CMOS chip for toxic and explosive gas monitoring; building nanosensor array based on multi-functionalized SWNTs for air quality monitoring and exploring the sensing

  6. Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Weibring, Petter; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

    2003-06-20

    A mobile lidar (light detection and ranging) system for environmental monitoring is described. The optical and electronic systems are housed in a truck with a retractable rooftop transmission and receiving mirror, connected to a 40-cm-diameter vertically looking telescope. Two injection-seeded Nd:YAG lasers are employed in connection with an optical parametric oscillator-optical parametric amplification transmitter, allowing deep-UV to mid-IR wavelengths to be generated. Fast switching that employs piezoelectric drivers allows multiwavelength differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of several spectrally overlapping atmospheric species. The system can also be used in an imaging multispectral laser-induced fluorescence mode on solid targets. Advanced LabVIEW computer control and multivariate data processing render the system versatile for a multitude of measuring tasks. We illustrate the monitoring of industrial atmospheric mercury and hydrocarbon emissions, volcanic sulfur dioxide plume mapping, fluorescence lidar probing of seawater, and multispectral fluorescence imaging of the facades of a historical monument. PMID:12833965

  7. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2012-09-12

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  8. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1986 are presented and general trends are discussed. Topics include radiation monitoring, wastewater discharge monitoring, dose distribution estimates, and ground water monitoring. 9 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data on air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring for 1980 are presented, and general trends are discussed.

  10. Environmental monitoring and assessment program forest health monitoring quality assurance project plan for detection monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.P.; Alexander, S.A.; Barnard, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAP) is written specifically for the Detection Minitoring project of the interagency Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program. Sections 1 through 3 briefly explain key features of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), the FHM program, and their interrelationship, respectively. Section 4 describes the general quality assurance (QA) requirements for the FHM Detection Monitoring project. Section 5 contains the separate QAPs for each forest condition indicator: site condition and tree growth and regeneration, tree crown condition, tree damage assessment, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vegetation structure, ozone bioindicator plants, and lichen communities.

  11. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: METHODS FORMAT GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to provide quantitative assessment of the condition of our nation's ecological resources. he Methods Coordination Group is responsible for coordinating methods ...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2007-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2006 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental management and...: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and... responsible for the post-approval inspection; and (d) Specify the time periods for conducting the...

  15. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental management and...: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and... responsible for the post-approval inspection; and (d) Specify the time periods for conducting the...

  16. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental management and...: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and... responsible for the post-approval inspection; and (d) Specify the time periods for conducting the...

  17. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental management and...: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and... responsible for the post-approval inspection; and (d) Specify the time periods for conducting the...

  18. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

  19. Bangladesh Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Obler, H.; Gilbert, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project (ACEMP) is based on a Participating Agency Service Agreement (PASA) between the Agency for International Development (AID) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In FY80, the Asia Bureau and Office of Federal Disaster Assistance (OFDA), worked closely to develop a funding mechanism which would meet Bangladesh's needs both for flood and cyclone warning capability and for application of remote sensing data to development problems. In FY90, OFDA provided for a High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving capability to improve their forecasting accuracy for cyclones, flooding and storm surges. That equipment is primarily intended as a disaster prediction and preparedness measure. The ACEM Project was designed to focus on the development applications of remote sensing technology. Through this Project, AID provided to the Bangladesh Government (BDG) the equipment, technical assistance, and training necessary to collect and employ remote sensing data made available by satellites as well as hydrological data obtained from data collection platforms placed in major rivers. The data collected will enable the BDG to improve the management of its natural resources.

  20. Enzyme and microbial sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenberger, U.; Neumann, B.; Scheller, Frieder W.

    1993-03-01

    Biosensors employing the biocatalyst on a different level of integration have been developed for monitoring environmental pollution. These probes range from laboratory specimen to commercial detectors applied to analyzers. This paper presents a selection of recent developments on amperometric enzyme and microbial biosensors. A monoenzymatic bulk type carbon electrode is described for biosensing organic hydroperoxides in aqueous solutions. Here, peroxidase is immobilized within the electrode body and the direct electron transfer between electrode and enzyme is measured. Both, reversible and irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase have been quantified by using a kinetically controlled acetylcholine enzyme sequence electrode. The inhibitory effect of pesticides such as butoxycarboxime, dimethoate, and trichlorfon could be quantified within 6 min in micrometers olar concentrations. Different multi-enzyme electrodes have been developed for the determination of inorganic phosphate. These sensors represent examples of sequentially acting enzymes in combination with enzymatic analyte recycling. Using this type of amplification nanomolar concentrations could be measured. A very fast responding microbial sensor for biological oxygen demand has been developed by immobilizing Trichosporon cutaneum onto an oxygen electrode. With this whole cell sensor waste water can be assayed with a sample frequency of 20 per hour and a working stability of more than 30 days.

  1. Status of OTEC environmental monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, P.

    1980-06-01

    Oceanographic studies in support of assessment and technical operations for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) have been conducted in the South Atlantic Plant-ship region and at benchmark sites off Puerto Rico, the Gulf of Mexico and off Hawaii. Data have been obtained from current meter arrays, hydrocasts, and net tows using essentially the same type of equipment, sample depths, sample frequencies, techniques and analyses to provide a uniform basis of comparison among the sites. In addition, particulate, trace metal, and radiologic studies off St. Croix, Virgin Islands and primary production bioassay experiments off Hawaii were performed to validate methods and a bottom assessment program is being developed in cooperation with the US Geological Survey for potential incorporation into the uniform sampling program. Environmental monitoring operations at the OTEC-1 site off Hawaii have been transferred to EG and G and the Hawaiian pre-site occupation program has been shifted to the Kahe Point area off the west coast of Oahu. Validated data from the OTEC cruises are on file with National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). These data are being used with the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed physical models to jointly test potential ecologic models for use in pilot plant assessments. Marine geologic/oceanographic base maps and data compilation sheets were prepared for the Hawaiian and Puerto Rico-Virgin Island regions. Such sheets form a planning base for evaluation of regional characteristics and to identify areas for detailed surveys.

  2. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liang, Y.; Navarro, M.; Zhong, X.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Davis, T.; Erratt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained an increasing interest in a broad range of new scientific research and applications. WSN technologies can provide high resolution for spatial and temporal data which has not been possible before, opening up new opportunities. On the other hand, WSNs, particularly outdoor WSNs in harsh environments, present great challenges for scientists and engineers in terms of the network design, deployment, operation, management, and maintenance. Since 2010, we have been working on the deployment of an outdoor multi-hop WSN testbed for hydrological/environmental monitoring in a forested hill-sloped region at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), Pennsylvania, USA. The ASWP WSN testbed has continuously evolved and had more than 80 nodes by now. To our knowledge, the ASWP WSN testbed represents one of the first known long-term multi-hop WSN deployments in an outdoor environment. As simulation and laboratory methods are unable to capture the complexity of outdoor environments (e.g., forests, oceans, mountains, or glaciers), which significantly affect WSN operations and maintenance, experimental deployments are essential to investigate and understand WSN behaviors and performances as well as its maintenance characteristics under these harsh conditions. In this talk, based on our empirical studies with the ASWP WSN testbed, we will present our discoveries and investigations on several important aspects including WSN energy profile, node reprogramming, network management system, and testbed maintenance. We will then provide our insight into these critical aspects of outdoor WSN deployments and operations.

  3. Environmental Monitoring at the Savannah River Plant, Annual Report - 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, C.

    2001-07-26

    An environmental monitoring program has been in existence at SRP since 1951. The original preoperational surveys have evolved into an extensive environmental monitoring program in which sample types from approximately 500 locations are analyzed for radiological and/or nonradiological parameters. The results of these analyses for 1981 are presented in this report.

  4. 15 CFR 970.702 - Monitoring and mitigation of environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 970.702 Monitoring and mitigation of environmental effects. (a) Monitoring. If an... monitoring environmental parameters relating to verficiation of NOAA's findings concerning potential impacts.... Monitoring and continued research may develop information on future needs for mitigating...

  5. 15 CFR 970.702 - Monitoring and mitigation of environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 970.702 Monitoring and mitigation of environmental effects. (a) Monitoring. If an... monitoring environmental parameters relating to verficiation of NOAA's findings concerning potential impacts.... Monitoring and continued research may develop information on future needs for mitigating...

  6. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  7. Near Facility Environmental Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    2000-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near-facility environmental monitoring directed by Waste Management Technical Services and supersedes HNF-EP-0538-4. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Waste Management Technical Services in implementing near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1 (DOE 1990) as a part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE-RL 1997) and is used to define: Environmental measurement and sampling locations used to monitor environmental contaminants near active and inactive facilities and waste storage and disposal sites; Procedures and equipment needed to perform the measurement and sampling; Frequency and analyses required for each measurement and sampling location; Minimum detection level and accuracy; Quality assurance components; and Investigation levels. Near-facility environmental monitoring for the Hanford Site is conducted in accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1990), 5400.5 (DOE 1993), 5484.1 (DOE 1990), and 435.1 (DOE 1999), and DOE/EH-O173T (DOE 1991). It is Waste Management Technical Services' objective to manage and conduct near-facility environmental monitoring activities at the Hanford Site in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner that is in compliance with the letter and spirit of these regulations and other environmental regulations, statutes, and standards.

  8. The Cooperative Monitoring Center: Achieving cooperative security objectives through technical collaborations

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.

    1996-08-01

    The post cold war security environment poses both difficult challenges and encouraging opportunities. Some of the most difficult challenges are related to regional conflict and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. New and innovative approaches to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are essential. More effort must be focused on underlying factors that motivate countries to seek weapons of mass destruction. Historically the emphasis has been on denial: denying information, denying technology, and denying materials necessary to build such weapons. Though still important, those efforts are increasingly perceived to be insufficient, and initiatives that address underlying motivational factors are needed. On the opportunity side, efforts to establish regional dialogue and confidence-building measures are increasing in many areas. Such efforts can result in cooperative agreements on security issues such as border control, demilitarized zones, weapons delivery systems, weapons of mass destruction free zones, environmental agreements, and resource sharing. In some cases, implementing such cooperative agreements will mean acquiring, analyzing, and sharing large quantities of data and sensitive information. These arrangements for ``cooperative monitoring`` are becoming increasingly important to the security of individual countries, regions, and international institutions. However, many countries lack sufficient technical and institutional infrastructure to take full advantage of these opportunities. Constructing a peaceful twenty-first century will require that technology is brought to bear in the most productive and innovative ways to meet the challenges of proliferation and to maximize the opportunities for cooperation.

  9. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan, Annual report, October 1, 1987-September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. The compliance monitoring data and implementation of supplemental sampling for source monitoring and industrial hygiene monitoring are described.

  10. The Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Program CY-93

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    The Operational Environmental Monitoring Program (OEMP) provides facility-specific environmental monitoring to protect the environment adjacent to facilities under the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and assure compliance with WHC requirements and local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The objectives of the OEMP are to evaluate: compliance with federal (DOE, EPA), state, and internal WHC environmental radiation protection requirements and guides; performance of radioactive waste confinement systems; and trends of radioactive materials in the environment at and adjacent to nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites. This paper identifies the monitoring responsibilities and current program status for each area of responsibility.

  11. Overview of sensors and needs for environmental monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex; Miller, David Russell; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo

    2005-03-01

    This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  12. Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Clifford K.; Robinson, Alex; Miller, David R.; Davis, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  13. ERT monitoring of environmental remediation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Brecque, D. J.; Ramirez, A. L.; Daily, W. D.; Binley, A. M.; Schima, S. A.

    1996-03-01

    The use of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to monitor new environmental remediation processes is addressed. An overview of the ERT method, including design of surveys and interpretation, is given. Proper design and lay-out of boreholes and electrodes are important for successful results. Data are collected using an automated collection system and interpreted using a nonlinear least squares inversion algorithm. Case histories are given for three remediation technologies: Joule (ohmic) heating, in which clay layers are heated electrically; air sparging, the injection of air below the water table; and electrokinetic treatment, which moves ions by applying an electric current. For Joule heating, a case history is given for an experiment near Savannah River, Georgia, USA. The target for Joule heating was a clay layer of variable thickness. During the early stages of heating, ERT images show increases in conductivity due to the increased temperatures. Later, the conductivities decreased as the system became dehydrated. For air sparging, a case history from Florence, Oregon, USA is described. Air was injected into a sandy aquifer at the site of a former service station. Successive images clearly show the changes in shape of the region of air saturation with time. The monitoring of an electrokinetic laboratory test on core samples is shown. The electrokinetic treatment creates a large change in the core resistivity, decreasing near the anode and increasing near the cathode. Although remediation efforts were successful both at Savannah River and at Florence, in neither case did experiments progress entirely as predicted. At Savannah River, the effects of heating and venting were not uniform and at Florence the radius of air flow was smaller than expected. Most sites are not as well characterized as these two sites. Improving remediation methods requires an understanding of the movements of heat, air, fluids and ions in the sub-surface which ERT can provide. The

  14. Near-facility environmental monitoring quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near facility environmental monitoring performed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations and supersedes WHC-EP-0538-2. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by waste management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations in implementing facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site.

  15. Geospatial climate monitoring products: Tools for food security assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, James Patrick

    Many of the 250 million people living in the drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa are food insecure---they lack access at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Their vulnerability is due in large measure to highly variable climatic conditions and a dependence on rainfed agriculture. Famine, the most extreme food security emergency, is caused by crop failure due to bad weather, conflict, or both. Famine is a slow onset disaster, culminating after two or more bad growing seasons. After the disastrous African famines of the 1970s and 1980s, the U.S. established the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS) to make the observations of climatic and socioeconomic variables needed for early detection of food security emergencies. Two geospatial climate monitoring products, rainfall estimate and vegetation index images derived from satellite data, are operationally used by FEWS analysts. This dissertation describes research to derive new products from them to reduce ambiguity and improve the link between early warning and early response. First, rainfall estimate images were used in a geospatial crop water accounting scheme. The resulting water requirement satisfaction index was used to estimate crop yield, and a correlation of 0.80 with conventional yield reports was obtained for the 1997 maize harvest in Zimbabwe. Thus, the agricultural significance of remotely sensed patterns of precipitation in time and space was made more clear. The second product tested was the expression of a seasonal climate forecast as a series of vegetation index anomaly images. Correlations between sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific and vegetation index anomalies in Southern Africa were established and predictive relationships cross-validated. Using model forecast values of Pacific sea surface temperature from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for January, February, and March, forecast images of vegetation index anomalies were prepared prior to the

  16. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  17. Environmental monitoring at Mound: 1986 report

    SciTech Connect

    Carfagno, D.G.; Farmer, B.M.

    1987-05-11

    The local environment around Mound was monitored for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for 1986. Environmental media analyzed included air, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium were within the DOE interim air and water Derived Concentration Guides (DCG) for these radionuclides. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium oxide in air measured at all offsite locations during 1986 were 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, of the DOE DCGs for uncontrolled areas. The average incremental concentration of plutonium-238 measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1986 was 0.0005% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1986 was 0.005% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 found during 1986 in surface and area drinking water were less than 0.00006% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium in surface water was less than 0.005% of the DOE DCG. All tritium in drinking water data is compared to the US EPA Drinking Water Standard. The average concentrations in local private and municipal drinking water systems were less than 25% and 1.5%, respectively. Although no DOE DCG is available for foodstuffs, the average concentrations are a small fraction of the water DCG (0.04%). The concentrations of sediment samples obtained at offsite surface water sampling locations were extremely low and therefore represent no adverse impact to the environment. The dose equivalent estimates for the average air, water, and foodstuff concentrations indicate that the levels are within 1% of the DOE standard of 100 mrem. None of these exceptions, however, had an adverse impact on the water quality of the Great Miami River or caused the river to exceed Ohio Stream Standards. 20 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to determine the efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms, to provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess the concentrations of these discharges in the environment. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, carbon-14 labeled solvent and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 1/10 of 1% of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Off-site releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for this site. Analyses were performed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity and zinc. Excursions above permit limits were experienced in the results for suspended solids, fecal coliforms, iron and mercury. In addition to the non-radioactive parameters listed, a small quantity of radioactive tritium oxide was released in the effluent. Analyses showed the average concentration was 0.43% of the nonoccupational standard. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distance of 9.6 kilometers from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 1/10 of 1% of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Calculation were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, krypton-85 and carbon-14 to: an individual at the site boundary; individuals in the closest residential area; and the population within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the plant site.

  19. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental management and monitoring. 50.22 Section 50.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND MONITORING OF RANGELANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental drivers are factors that cause measurable changes in properties of biological communities. Examples of drivers can include environmental factors such as rainfall variability and available soil nitrogen, management factors such as livestock grazing practices and prescribed burning, gov...

  1. ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported increases in the incidence of endocrine-related conditions have led to speculation about environmental causes. Environmental scientists are focusing increased research effort into understanding the mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors affect human and ecological h...

  2. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  3. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  4. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  5. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010, Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  6. Monitoring environmental pollution by atmospheric corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kharafi, F.M.; Ismail, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is monitored by outdoor exposure of several commercial alloys including steel, Al, Cu, and brass (Cu-30Zu) alloys. Three districts of Kuwait were selected for this study including of residential, industrial, and marine areas. The atmospheric pollution level could be monitored directly by observation of the corrosion of the test alloys.

  7. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Robert Boehlecke

    2011-03-03

    The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

  8. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  9. 3 CFR - Improving Energy Security, American Competitiveness and Job Creation, and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Improving Energy Security, American Competitiveness... Energy Security, American Competitiveness and Job Creation, and Environmental Protection Through a... Secretary of Energy the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency the Administrator of...

  10. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  11. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...

  13. OFFSITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT. RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with s...

  14. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  15. Environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Matugina, E. G.; Bagamaev, B. M.; Tokhov, Yu M.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Gorchakov, E. V.; Sotnikova, T. V.; Shilova, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar (Uspensky and Novokubansky districts) and Stavropol (Kochubeyevsky District) Territories was conducted. In the course of study, various elements and compounds harmful to animals and humans, which exceed maximum permissible concentrations, were identified.

  16. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  17. Science implementation of Forecast Mekong for food and environmental security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2012-01-01

    Forecast Mekong is a significant international thrust under the Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and was launched in 2009 by the U.S. Department of State and the Foreign Ministers of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam under U.S. Department of State Secretary Hillary R. Clinton's Lower Mekong Initiative to enhance U.S. engagement with countries of the Lower Mekong River Basin in the areas of environment, health, education, and infrastructure. Since 2009, the USGS has worked closely with the U.S. Department of State; personnel from Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam; nongovernmental organizations; and academia to collect and use research and data from the Lower Mekong River Basin to provide hands-on results that will help decisionmakers in future planning and design for restoration, conservation, and management efforts in the Lower Mekong River Basin. In 2012 Forecast Mekong is highlighting the increasing cooperation between the United States and Lower Mekong River Basin countries in the areas of food and environmental security. Under the DRAGON, Forecast Mekong continues work in interactive data integration, modeling, and visualization system by initiating three-dimensional bathymetry and river flow data along with a pilot study of fish distribution, population, and migratory patterns in the Lower Mekong River Basin. When fully developed by the USGS, in partnership with local governments and universities throughout the Mekong River region, Forecast Mekong will provide valuable planning tools to visualize the consequences of climate change and river management.

  18. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Results for 1981 of the LBL Environmental Monitoring Program are given. Data include monitoring results for accelerator-produced radiation, airborne and waterborne radionuclides, and nonradioactive pollutants. Population doses resulting from LBL operations are given in terms of accelerator-produced and airborne radioactivities. Trends in the environmental impacts of LBL operations are discussed in terms of accelerator-produced, airborne, and waterborne radionuclides. (ERB)

  19. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTIC ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Databases designed for statistical analyses have characteristics that distinguish them from databases intended for general use. EMAP uses a probabilistic sampling design to collect data to produce statistical assessments of environmental conditions. In addition to supporting the ...

  20. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, W.J.; Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Buddemeir, R.W.

    1980-04-25

    Information on monitoring activities is reported in two sections for EDB/ERA/INIS. The first section covers all information reported except Appendix D, which gives details of sampling and analytical procedures for environmental monitoring used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A separate abstract was prepared for Appendix D. (JGB)

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: AGROECOSYSTEM 1992 PILOT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agroecosystem Resource Group (ARG) of the Environmental Protection Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) has developed a five year program strategy for implementation of a suite of indicators for monitoring agroecosystem status and trends. he five-year period (1991-1995) i...

  2. Environmental monitoring, restoration and assessment: What have we learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Twenty-Eighth Hanford Symposium on Health and the Environment was held in Richland, Washington, October 16--19, 1989. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The symposium was organized to review and evaluate some of the monitoring and assessment programs that have been conducted or are currently in place. Potential health and environmental effects of energy-related and other industrial activities have been monitored and assessed at various government and private facilities for over three decades. Most monitoring is required under government regulations; some monitoring is implemented because facility operators consider it prudent practice. As a result of these activities, there is now a substantial radiological, physical, and chemical data base for various environmental components, both in the United States and abroad. Symposium participants, both platform and poster presenters, were asked to consider, among other topics, the following: Has the expenditure of millions of dollars for radiological monitoring and assessment activities been worth the effort How do we decide when enough monitoring is enough Can we adequately assess the impacts of nonradiological components -- both inorganic and organic -- of wastes Are current regulatory requirements too restrictive or too lenient Can monitoring and assessment be made more cost effective Papers were solicited in the areas of environmental monitoring; environmental regulations; remediation, restoration, and decommissioning; modeling and dose assessment; uncertainty, design, and data analysis; and data management and quality assurance. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  3. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites active on or after September 1988 and all transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites be monitored periodically to assure that radioactive contamination does not escape from the waste sites and pose a threat to the public or to the environment. This plan describes such a monitoring program for the active LLW disposal sites in SWSA 6 and the TRU waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Quarterly report. Second quarter 1989. Report for 1 April-30 June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described and the rationale for Tier I and Tier II monitoring are explained in the Environmental Monitoring Plan.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME II (PART 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued requirements for complying with DOLE and other Federal agency environmental regulations. DOE Order 5400.1 requires environmental monitoring plans for each DOE operation that uses, generates, releases, or manages pollutants of radioactive and hazardous materials.

  7. IDENTIFYING AND MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY USING CERIODAPHNIA MICROARRAYS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SBIR solicitation states that “technology is needed to better identify and monitor sources of pollution and protect water quality.” Microarrays may be particularly well suited to identifying environmental toxic...

  8. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.

  9. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  10. BNL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN TRIENNIAL UPDATE, JANUARY 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2003-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Brookhaven Science Associates for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is located on a 5,265-acre site in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. BNL has a comprehensive Environmental Management System (EMS) in place, which meets the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization 14001 EMS Standard, as described in the BNL EMS Manual. BNL's extensive environmental monitoring program is one component of the EMS, and the BNL Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes this program in detail. The data derived from systematically monitoring the various environmental media on site enable BNL to make informed decisions concerning the protection of human health and the environment and to be responsive to community concerns.

  11. An integrated water-energy-food-livelihoods approach for assessing environmental livelihood security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Boruff, B.; Bruce, E.; Neef, A.; McNeill, K.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Haworth, B.; Duce, S.; Horsley, J.; Pauli, N.; Curnow, J.; Imanari, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental livelihood security refers to the challenges of maintaining global food security and universal access to freshwater and energy to sustain livelihoods and promote inclusive economic growth, whilst sustaining key environmental systems' functionality, particularly under variable climatic regimes. Environmental security is a concept complementary to sustainable development, and considers the increased vulnerability people have to certain environmental stresses, such as climatic change. Bridging links between the core component concepts of environmental security is integral to future human security, and in an attempt to create this bridge, the nexus approach to human protection has been created, where water resource availability underpins food, water and energy security. The water-energy-food nexus has an influential role in attaining human security, yet little research has made the link between the nexus and livelihoods. In this research we provide a critical appraisal of the synergies between water-energy-food nexus framings and sustainable livelihoods approaches, both of which aim to promote sustainable development. In regions where livelihoods are dependent on environmental conditions, the concept of sustainable development is critical for ensuring future environmental and human security. Given our appraisal we go on to develop an integrated framework for assessing environmental livelihood security of multiscale and multi-level systems. This framework provides a tangible approach for assessing changes in the water-energy-food-livelihood indicators of a system. Examples of where system applications may occur are discussed for the Southeast Asia and Oceania region. Our approach will be particularly useful for policy-makers to inform evidence-based decision-making, especially in localities where climate change increases the vulnerability of impoverished communities and extenuates environmental livelihood insecurity.

  12. Wireless Sensor Networks Applied on Environmental Monitoring in Fowl Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fangwu; Zhang, Naiqing

    Aiming at the real time monitoring requirement of poultry farms on the environment, a online monitoring system is proposed for poultry farms on the environment based on ZigBee, its application of ZigBee wireless networks and sensor technology. supply a network structure of monitoring system, monitoring system node controller of data acquisition, data transmission and control node, which is TI's CC2430 based on ZigBee technology. CO2 sensors use TGS4161, temperature and humidity sensors use SHT75 to detect environmental parameters. designed circuit diagram of parameter testing node and system master control node, CC2430 as a data processing chip. through the analysis of data transmission of system, simplifying the ZigBee protocol stack, designed data transmission protocols and communication formats of the system. given program flow chart of sensors nodes and main node. practical application shows that the performance ratio cable monitoring system is better, Especially in real-time systems and anti-jamming, it so superior on the current forms of environmental monitoring SCM cable system which cost lower than the SCM cable control system about 30%.Successfully achieved the Monitoring of fowlery's CO2 concentration, temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for large-scale poultry farming, and to provide a new monitoring environment technologie.

  13. Active sites environmental monitoring Program - Program Plan: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Hicks, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of active low-level-waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Several changes have recently occurred in regard to the sites that are currently used for waste storage and disposal. These changes require a second set of revisions to the ASEMP program plan. This document incorporates those revisions. This program plan presents the organization and procedures for monitoring the active sites. The program plan also provides internal reporting levels to guide the evaluation of monitoring results.

  14. Rapid assays for environmental and biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Szurdoki, F; Jaeger, L; Harris, A; Kido, H; Wengatz, I; Goodrow, M H; Székács, A; Wortberg, M; Zheng, J; Stoutamire, D W; Sanborn, J R; Gilman, S D; Jones, A D; Gee, S J; Choudary, P V; Hammock, B D

    1996-05-01

    Rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) now are utilized in environmental science. In this laboratory, many ELISAs have been developed for pesticides and other toxic substances and also for their metabolites. Compounds for which ELISAs have recently been devised include insecticides (organophosphates, carbaryl, pyrethroids, and fenoxycarb), herbicides (s-triazines, arylureas, triclopyr, and bromacil), fungicides (myclobutanil), TCDD, and metabolites of naphthalene and toluene. New rapid assays have been developed for mercury. PMID:8642182

  15. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR PUBLIC ACCESS AND COMMUNITY TRACKING (EMPACT) PROGRAM MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECREATIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended microbiological monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated ...

  17. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  18. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  19. Versatile electrochemical microsensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, R. S.; Hong, K. C.; Ashley, K.; Granstaff, V. E.

    1991-10-01

    The fabrication of novel multielement microelectrode array sensors is reported. With regard to individual array elements, two main concepts are pursued. One involves the use of relatively non-selective microelectrode elements, coupled with pattern recognition methods, for data analysis. This strategy is most applicable when prior knowledge about the chemical environment is limited, or when mainly qualitative information is sought. The second concept involves the development of arrays containing intrinsically more selective microelectrode elements. Our main concern here is the determination of specific contaminants. Most of our current emphasis is in the selection and development of appropriate elements for microelectrode arrays of this type, with a goal of quantitative analysis for a variety of compounds and elements. Other efforts are concerned with defining the behavior of microelectrodes and devising mass fabrication methods for these sensors. Two designs for the arrays are discussed, one employing photolithographic fabrication methods and another in which individual microelectrodes are encased in glass. Potential applications for these sensors include monitoring for toxic contaminants in natural waters, monitoring waste streams, and process control.

  20. Versatile electrochemical microsensors for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Hong, K.C. . Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.); Ashley, K. . Dept. of Chemistry); Granstaff, V.E. )

    1991-10-01

    The fabrication of novel multielement microelectrode array sensors is reported. With regard to individual array elements, two main concepts are pursued. One involves the use of relatively non-selective microelectrode elements, coupled with pattern recognition methods, for data analysis. This strategy is most applicable when prior knowledge about the chemical environment is limited, or when mainly qualitative information is sought. The second concept involves the development of arrays containing intrinsically more selective microelectrode elements. Our main concern here is the determination of specific contaminants. Most of our current emphasis is in the selection and development of appropriate elements for microelectrode arrays of this type, with a goal of quantitative analysis for a variety of compounds and elements. Other efforts are concerned with defining the behavior of microelectrodes and devising mass fabrication methods for these sensors. Two designs for the arrays are discussed, one employing photolithographic fabrication methods and another in which individual microelectrodes are encased in glass. Potential applications for these sensors include monitoring for toxic contaminants in natural waters, monitoring waste streams, and process control. 35 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Sensorcope: A Urban Environmental Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrenetxea, G.; Mezzo, J.; Dubois-Ferriere, H.; Couach, O.; Krichane, M.; Tromp, M.; Huwald, H.; Vetterli, M.; Parlanges, M.; Selker, J.

    2006-12-01

    The SensorScope project is a collaboration between environmental scientists and hardware/software engineers at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) that aims to study the energy exchanges and balances at the earth/atmosphere boundary. It consists in a large scale Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployed in the EPFL campus that measures key environmental quantities at high spatial resolution for the purpose of modeling and understanding this energy exchange. A broad environmental sensing platform has been developed for this project. The design considers the entire chain of requirements for a scientific atmospheric measurement campaign, including packaging, energy autonomy, sensor placement, and a diverse set of sensors. This sensing unit is centered around a TinyNode module, consisting of a TI MSP430 microcontroller running TinyOS, and a Xemics XE1205 radio. Around this core module we have designed an autonomous solar energy power system. The system has bi-directional multi-hop communication allowing for automatic re-configuration of the network and over-the-air reprogramming. A data base and web interface were developed to organize and present the data. The station includes also a sensor interface board accommodating seven external sensors, which makes the station capable of measuring nine different data inputs: ambient temperature and humidity, IR surface temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation, soil moisture, and soil pressure. The system has been tested with external multiplexers which allow for multi-sensor configurations for each parameter. The system is mounted on an aluminum frame with a weatherproof housing containing the core module, solar energy board, and interface board. This weather station has been deployed at over one hundred locations distributed over the EPFL campus as part of a high-resolution measurement and modeling campaign with a goal of better understanding urban environmental processes. This system

  2. Soil and soil environmental quality monitoring in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Jiao, Xudong; Song, Liuting

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous concerns have been raised in China over the issue of environmental sustainability. Various soil survey and monitoring programs have been carried out in China to study soil quality, and to provide a scientific basis for environment policy making. This paper provides an overview of past and current soil quality surveys and monitoring activities in China. This paper includes a summary of concerns over background concentrations of elements in soil, and soil environmental standards and guidelines in China. Levels of pollution in urban soil, agricultural soil, and soil in mining and smelting areas were compared using the concentrations and pollution indexes. In addition to soil surveys, soil monitoring is essential to study the data and to examine the effects of contaminants in soils. However, the current soil quality monitoring system was insufficient to accurately determine the soil quality status of soils across China. For accurate soil monitoring in China, it will be necessary to set up routine monitoring systems at various scales (national, provincial, and local scales), taking into consideration monitoring indicators and quality assurance. This is currently an important priority for the environmental protection administration of China. PMID:24875802

  3. Lidar techniques for environmental and ecological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2015-04-01

    An overview of optical probing of the atmosphere will be given, where mostly active remote- sensing techniques of the laser-radar type will be covered, but also some passive techniques employing ambient radiation. Atmospheric objects of quite varying sizes can be studied. Mercury is the only pollutant in atomic form in the atmosphere, while other pollutants are either molecular or in particle form. Light detection and ranging (Lidar) techniques allow three-dimensional mapping of such constituents, and examples from atmospheric lidar work in Lund and in Guangzhou will be given. Recently, much larger lidar targets have been studied. Monitoring of flying insects and birds is of considerable ecological interest, and several projects have been pursued in collaboration with biologists. Mostly, elastic backscattering and fluorescence techniques are employed. Some references to recent activities by the author and his colleagues are given below. [1] Z.G. Guan, L. Mei, P. Lundin, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, Vertical Lidar Sounding of Air Pollutants in a Major Chinese City, Appl. Phys. B 101, 465 (2010) [2] L. Mei, G.Y. Zhou and S. Svanberg, Differential Absorption Lidar System Employed for Background Atomic Mercury Vertical Profiling in South China, Lasers Opt. Eng. 55, 128 (2013) [3] Z.G. Guan, M. Brydegaard, P. Lundin, M. Wellenreuther, E. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, Insect Monitoring with Fluorescence LIDAR techniques - Field experiments, Appl. Optics 48, 5668 (2010) [4] A. Runemark, M. Wellereuther, H. Jayaweera, S. Svanberg and M. Brydegaard, Rare Events in Remote Dark Field Spectroscopy: An Ecological Case study of Insects, IEEE JSTQE 18, 1573 (2011) [5] L. Mei, Z.G. Guan, H.J. Zhou, J. Lv, Z.R. Zhu, J.A. Cheng, F.J. Chen, C. Löfstedt, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, Agricultural Pest Monitoring using Fluorescence Lidar Techniques, Applied Physics B 106, 733 (2011) [6] P. Lundin, P. Samuelsson, S. Svanberg, A. Runemark, S. Åkesson, and M. Brydegaard, Remote

  4. Environmental monitoring in four European museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camuffo, Dario; Van Grieken, Rene; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Sturaro, Giovanni; Valentino, Antonio; Bernardi, Adriana; Blades, Nigel; Shooter, David; Gysels, Kristin; Deutsch, Felix; Wieser, Monika; Kim, Oliver; Ulrych, Ursula

    In a European multidisciplinary research project concerning environmental diagnostics, museums have been selected, having different climate and pollution conditions, i.e.: Correr Museum, Venice (Italy); Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (Austria); Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp (Belgium); Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, Norwich (UK). Some field tests investigated the microclimate, the gaseous and particulate air pollution and the biological contamination to suggest mitigative techniques that may reduce the potential for damage in the long run. Potential risk factors are generated by imbalance in temperature and humidity, generated by heating, air conditioning or ventilating system (HVAC), or the building structures, exchange of outside air, or large visitor numbers. HVAC may also enhance indoor gaseous pollution. Plants and carpets represent potential niches for bacterial colonisation. Pollutants and particles have been recognised having partly external and partly internal origin. Tourism has a direct negative impact, i.e. transport of external particles, release of heat, vapour and CO 2, as well as generation of turbulence, which increases the deposition rate of particulate matter. However, the main problem is that the microclimate has been planned for the well being of visitors during only the visiting time, disregarding the needs of conservation that requires a constant climate by day and by night. In some of these cases, better environmental niches have been obtained with the help of showcases. In other cases, showcases worsened the situation, especially when incandescent lamps were put inside.

  5. Comfort monitoring? Environmental assessment follow-up under community-industry negotiated environmental agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram; Birk, Jasmine

    2011-01-15

    Negotiated environmental agreements are becoming common practice in the mining industry. In principle, negotiated environmental agreements are said to respond to many of the shortcomings of environmental impact assessment by providing for improved follow-up of project impacts through, among other things, data provision, engaging stakeholders in the monitoring and management of project impacts, and building capacity at the local level to deal with project-induced environmental change. In practice, however, little is known about the efficacy of follow-up under negotiated environmental agreements between proponents and communities and the demonstrated value added to project impact management. This paper examines follow-up practice under negotiated environmental agreements with a view to understanding whether and how community-based monitoring under privatized agreements actually contributes to improved follow-up and impact management. Based on lessons emerging from recent experiences with environmental agreements in Canada's uranium industry, we show that follow-up under negotiated agreements may be described as 'comfort monitoring'. While such monitoring does improve community-industry relations and enhance corporate image, it does little to support effects-based management. If follow-up under negotiated agreements is to be credible over the long term, there is a need to ensure that monitoring results are useful for, and integrated with, regulatory-based monitoring and project impact management practices.

  6. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

    2007-07-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

  7. A secure and reliable monitor and control system for remote observing with the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Gary; Souccar, Kamal; Malin, Daniella

    2004-09-01

    Remote access to telescope monitor and control capabilities necessitates strict security mechanisms to protect the telescope and instruments from malicious or unauthorized use, and to prevent data from being stolen, altered, or corrupted. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) monitor and control system (LMTMC) utilizes the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) middleware technology to connect remote software components. The LMTMC provides reliable and secure remote observing by automatically generating SSLIOP enabled CORBA objects. TAO, the ACE open source Object Request Broker (ORB), now supports secure communications by implementing the Secure Socket Layer Inter-ORB Protocol (SSLIOP) as a pluggable protocol. This capability supplies the LMTMC with client and server authentication, data integrity, and encryption. Our system takes advantage of the hooks provided by TAO SSLIOP to implement X.509 certificate based authorization. This access control scheme includes multiple authorization levels to enable granular access control.

  8. The community environmental monitoring program: a historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, L.H.; Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Giles, K.

    2007-07-01

    With the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) entering its 26. year of monitoring the offsite areas around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a look back on the history and the hows and whys of its formation is in order. In March of 1979, the accident at Three-Mile Island Nuclear Power Generating Plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania occurred, and Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV), along with other governmental agencies such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), was requested to provide monitoring personnel. Public concerns over the accident were high, especially for those living around the power plant. It was found that involving the local community in the sample collection process helped to ease some of the concerns, and the Citizens Monitoring Program (CMP) was instituted. This idea was brought back to Las Vegas and in 1981, the NTS Community Monitoring Program was started to involve the communities surrounding and downwind of the NTS, who were experiencing many of the same concerns, in the monitoring of the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program. By reviewing the history of the CEMP, one can see what the concerns of the local communities were, how they were addressed, and the effect this has had on them. From the standpoint of stakeholders, getting information on radiation safety issues from an informed local citizen rather than from a government agency official living elsewhere can only have a positive effect on how the public views the reliability of the monitoring data. (authors)

  9. Environmental monitoring plan, July 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, DOE Oversight Division (TDEC/DOE-O) under the terms of the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) are providing annual reports: reporting of State`s monitoring and analysis, and findings of DOE`s quality and effectiveness of DOE`s monitoring and surveillance. This report blends some of both of the required annual reports as described in the TOA section A.7.2.2. The Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) integrates the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report presents the results of environmental monitoring in Tennessee in the following areas: surface waters; ground water; air; and fish and wildlife. In addition, radiation monitoring has been conducted in all of these areas.

  10. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  11. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  12. The environmental dimension of national security: A test of systems analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1992-11-01

    The systems approach permits us to analyze national security as a cluster of interconnected elements, in which the environmental dimension appears to be the most important one. The environmental problem is divided into two main aspects: environmental security per se and the impact of environment on the overall status of a nation's security. It is argued here that the quality of life and health serve as both the main objective and the principal criterion of environmental security in a social system. Indices of these two factors are used in this article as indicators of the state of this type of security. They confirm that vast areas of Russia, the Ukraine, and Central Asia (especially the Aral Sea region) should be considered as presenting a substantial risk to local people and even producing global impacts on both natural and man-made systems. Environmental factors that destabilize national security are also divided into two groups: those that impact social systems directly and negatively (mainly natural disasters) and technological and sociopolitical agents that cause indirect impacts, in both war and peace time, as well as in the civil and military sectors of the economy. Developments in the former Soviet Union (the Commonwealth of Independent States) are used as an illustration of the consequences that such impacts may have on the status of national security.

  13. Testing the Potential of Next Generation VIIRS Satellite Data to Monitor Food Security: A Case of Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boken, V. K.; Hossain, A. A.; Easson, G. L.

    2006-12-01

    In the past more than two decades, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) has been successfully used to monitor crop conditions over large areas of the globe. In recent years the use of the Moderate Resolution and Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data, with improved resolution, has increased. As the end of the MODIS mission nears, these data will soon not be available. NASA has scheduled to launch a next generation satellite National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP). The NPP will carry the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor. This project was designed to evaluate the use of VIIRS data as a replacement for MODIS for monitoring food security. Food security includes monitoring food production and predicting drought or famine that may lead planners to take corrective actions. The MODIS-derived NDVI data are currently used for monitoring food security in Mesoamerica and are available at NASA's Regional and Visualization Monitoring System for the Mesoamerica (http://servir.nsstc.nasa.gov). We present a case study of Guatemala, a country in Mesoamerica with approximately 50 percent of the population engaged in some form of agriculture accounting for approximately 25 percent of the GDP and 75 percent of country's total exports. The majority of Guatemala is mountainous and about one half is covered with forests, which presents a challenge to applying NDVI. We collected 16-day composites of MODIS data for the study area from the Mesoamerica Famine Early Warning System (MFEWS) for the crop-growing season for 2003 and 2005. Simulated VIIRS data was obtained for the same period. The MFEWS methodology was used with both MODIS and VIIRS data to make predictions based on the MODIS NDVI algorithm. The results of this study will be a comparative analysis of current system using MODIS and VIIRS data.

  14. OFFSITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT: RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas continued its Offsite Radiological Safety Program for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other sites of past underground nuclear tests. For each test, the Laboratory provided airborne ...

  15. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  16. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program FY 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Marshall, D.S.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1995 through September 1996. The Radioactive Solid Waste Operations Group (RSWOG) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) and the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established ASEMP in 1989. The purpose of the program is to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North as required by Chapters 2 and 3 of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A.

  17. The microelectronic wireless nitrate sensor network for environmental water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Braunschweig, Björn; Chang, Te-Wei; Moinzadeh, Parya; Minsker, Barbara S; Agha, Gul; Wieckowski, Andrzej; Keefer, Laura L; Liu, Gang Logan

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative monitoring of water conditions in a field is a critical ability for environmental science studies. We report the design, fabrication and testing of a low cost, miniaturized and sensitive electrochemical based nitrate sensor for quantitative determination of nitrate concentrations in water samples. We have presented detailed analysis for the nitrate detection results using the miniaturized sensor. We have also demonstrated the integration of the sensor to a wireless network and carried out field water testing using the sensor. We envision that the field implementation of the wireless water sensor network will enable "smart farming" and "smart environmental monitoring". PMID:23138753

  18. Plant sentinels and molecular probes that monitor environmental munitions contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; DeWitt, J.G.; Hill, K.K.; Kuske, C.R.; Kim, D.Y.

    1994-08-01

    Plants accumulate TNT and similar compounds from soil. Their sessile nature requires that plants adapt to environmental changes by biochemical and molecular means. In principle, it is possible to develop a monitoring capability based on expression of any gene that is activated by specific environmental conditions. The authors have identified plant genes activated upon exposure to TNT. Partial gene sequences allow design of DNA probes that measure TNT-induced gene activity. These will be used to develop sensitive assays that monitor gene expression in plants growing in environments possibly contaminated with explosives.

  19. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1989-06-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is described. Data for 1988 are presented and general trends are discussed. In order to establish whether LBL research activities produced any impact on the population surrounding the laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1988, as in the previous several years, dose equivalents attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of both the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG) and of the natural radiation background. 16 refs., 7 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1999 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2000 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. 1997 environmental monitoring report for the Naval Reactors Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1997 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  3. Recent Advances in Nanoplasmonic Sensors for Environmental Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inhee

    2016-05-01

    The great attention in environmental pollution urges the development of innovative monitoring system enabling rapid, sensitive, specific detection and easy operation. Recent progress in nanoplasmonic sensors allowing real-time, highly-sensitive, label-free and multiplex detection provides a promising alternative to conventional environmental analyzing techniques. This review summarizes novel nanoplasmonic approaches categorized by optical detection technologies, which include surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, dark-field nanospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and even naked eyes. The focus of this review will be on how plasmonic nanostructures can be utilized to detect environmental pollutants, and remarkable accomplishments to enhance the detection performances. In addition, we discuss current challenge and future direction for ubiquitous environmental sensing and monitoring. PMID:27483747

  4. Naval Reactors Facility Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2003 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. 1993 environmental monitoring report for the naval reactors facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2001 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  7. Pulsed laser fluorometry for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, G. C.; Martin, J. C.; Jett, J. H.; Wilder, M. E.; Martinez, A.; Bentley, B. F.; Lopez, J.; Hutson, L.

    A compact pulsed laser fluorometer has been incorporated into a continuous flow system developed to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and/or primary amine compounds in air and water. A pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser excites fluorescent reactants which flow continuously through a quartz flow cell. Data are collected, analyzed, and displayed using a Macintosh II personal computer. For detection of cholinesterase inhibitors the fluorogenic substrate N methylindoxyl acetate is used to monitor the activity of immobilized enzyme. Presence of inhibitors results in a decrease of steady state fluorescence. Detection of compounds containing primary amines is based on their reaction with fluorescamine to rapidly produce intensely fluorescent products. Compounds of interest to our research were amino acids, peptides, and proteins. An increase in steady state fluorescence could be cause to evaluate the reasons for the change. The detection limit of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water, is 10 ppT. Nebulized BSA concentrated by the LANL air sampler can be detected at sub ppT original air concentration.

  8. Pulsed laser fluorometry for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G. C.; Martin, J. C.; Jett, J. H.; Wilder, M. E.; Martinez, A.; Bentley, B. F.; Lopez, J.; Hutson, L.

    1990-01-01

    A compact pulsed laser fluorometer has been incorporated into a continuous flow system developed to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and/or primary amine compounds in air and water. A pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser excites fluorescent reactants which flow continuously through a quartz flow cell. Data are collected, analyzed, and displayed using a Macintosh II personal computer. For detection of cholinesterase inhibitors the fluorogenic substrate N methylindoxyl acetate is used to monitor the activity of immobilized enzyme. Presence of inhibitors results in a decrease of steady state fluorescence. Detection of compounds containing primary amines is based on their reaction with fluorescamine to rapidly produce intensely fluorescent products. Compounds of interest to our research were amino acids, peptides, and proteins. An increase in steady state fluorescence could be cause to evaluate the reasons for the change. The detection limit of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water is 10 ppT. Nebulized BSA concentrated by the LANL air sampler can be detected at sub ppT original air concentration. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Novel laser breakdown spectrometer for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirov, Sergey B.; Pitt, Robert E.; Dergachev, Alex Y.; Lee, Wonwoo; Martyshkin, Dmitri V.; Mirov, Olga D.; Randolph, Jeremy J.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Brouillette, Christie G.; Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Orlovskii, Yurii V.; Alimov, Olimkhon K.; Vorob'ev, Ivan N.

    1999-11-01

    A novel experimental set-up using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for environmental analyses of heavy metals is described in this paper. It is based on state-of-the-art spectroscopic equipment, advanced detectors, and laser atomizers: a 0.75 m spectrometer ARC-750, intensified TE- cooled 256 X 1024 CCD camera, probe with fiber optic guide for signal transportation, and Nd:YAG laser plasma atomizers with two different methods for sample delivery. In the first method the liquid solution containing the atoms to be investigated is drawn into the chamber of the nebulizer. The mixture passes through the nozzle, accompanied by argon gas along with formed aerosol, and enters the plasma plume, which is generated by the laser spark in argon. The second method is based on direct generating of the plasma in the water jet of a continuously circulating sample. LIBS testing of samples containing Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, and Cr ions was compared with results using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Initial indications showed good agreement between these two methods. Detection levels of less than 100 ppb were observed for copper and chromium. The described spectroscopic system exhibits high sensitivity, accumulation of luminescence spectrum in real time; and high dynamic range for concentrations detection from 100 ppb to 1000 ppm.

  10. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Quarterly report, third quarter, July 1-September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-30

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The document contains nine compliance reports and results of comprehensive and supplemental environmental monitoring conducted during the third quarter of 1991.

  11. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1990-December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains summaries of compliance and supplemental environmental and industrial hygiene and health surveillance monitoring conducted during the period; compliance permits, permit changes, and Notices of Violations discussions; statistical significance of Employee General Health information, medical histories, physical exams, pulmonary functions, clinical tests and demographics; independent audit reports; and a description of retorted shale disposal activities.

  12. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  13. Environmental monitoring report, 1980: Pinellas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Results of the monitoring program at the Pinellas Plant are described. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, carbon-14 labeled solvent and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 0.1% of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Off-site releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Analyses were performed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity, and zinc. In addition to the non-radioactive parameters listed above, a small quantity of radioactive tritium oxide was released in the effluent. Analyses showed the average concentration was 0.20% of the nonoccupational exposure guide. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distance of 9.6 kilometers (6 miles) from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 0.1% of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Small sealed plutonium sources containing approximately 80% plutonium-238 oxide and 20% plutonium-239 oxide and other isotopes, are utilized at this site. No plutonium was released to the environment.Calculations were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 14/C to: an individual at the site boundary; individuals in the closest residential area; and the population within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the plant site. The total dose commitment to the population residing within 80 kilometers was determined to be 0.55 man-rem as compared to the annual dose from natural radiation of 223,165 man-rem.

  14. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2006-04-12

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one of several powerful analytical techniques, well suited for characterizing atmospheric composition. A few applications of infrared spectroscopy include air quality monitoring of building environs, automotive exhaust emissions, “fence-line” or open-path monitoring near industrial facilities and smokestack emissions. Regardless of the application or the specific instrumental configuration (Fourier transform, dispersive, laser based, …) a comprehensive reference library is critical to interpreting spectral data. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), through the support of the Department of Energy is developing a comprehensive infrared spectral library tailored for atmospheric environmental monitoring.

  15. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Laseter, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the environmental monitoring program at Pantex Plant for 1983 and presents monitoring data for both radioactive and non-radioactive species in the local environment. Plant activities involve the handling of significant quantities of uranium, plutonium, and tritium. However, only small release of uranium (depleted in the isotope U-238) and tritium occurred which could have affected the local environment. Monitoring data indicate that concentrations of these nuclides in the environment are below established criteria for air and water and therefore should not present a health hazard either to employees or to the public. 23 references, 7 figures, 23 tables.

  16. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  17. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A new approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  18. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  19. Environmental monitoring report, May 10, 1993--June 1, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) DOE Oversight Division (DOE-O) monitoring effort will serve as oversight with ongoing compliance and ambient sampling by Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor staff programs. These sources provide a comprehensive database which must be reviewed and analyzed in order to streamline DOE-O sampling efforts. DOE-O monitoring is necessary to provide quality control, to ensure compliance, to ensure completeness, and to assure protection of public health and the environment. The Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA), includes a section on Environmental Monitoring as Attachment A. To accomplish these objectives, DOE-O will implement the following monitoring programs: surface waters; ground water; air; fish and wildlife. In addition, radiation monitoring has been conducted in all of these areas.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP) IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agancy's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is improving the tools to assess status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems across the U.S. Within the Office of Research and Development, EMAP has developed an approac...

  1. Early Action on the Global Environmental Monitoring System. A Report of the International Environmental Programs Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Studies Board.

    The Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) is one of four components of Earthwatch, a part of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The purpose of GEMS is to provide early warning of impending natural or man-induced environmental changes or trends that threaten direct or indirect harm to human health or well-being. In 1975, the…

  2. 1987 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.K.

    1988-04-01

    Sandia National Labortories conduct various research activities related to Department of Energy interests which have the potential for release of hazardous materials or radionuclides to the environment. A strict environmental control program places maximum emphasis on limiting releases. The environmental monitoring program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and augmented by Sandia is designed to measure the performance of the environmental controls. The program includes analysis of air, water, soil, vegetation, sewer effluent, ground water, and foodstuffs for various toxic, hazardous, or radioactive materials. Based on these studies, the releases of materials of concern at Sandia during 1987 were well below applicable Department of Energy standards. 8 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  4. Characterization of peptide-nanostructure-modified electrodes and their application for ultrasensitive environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Badihi-Mossberg, Michal; Gazit, Ehud; Rishpon, Judith

    2010-04-01

    Dense arrays of self-assembled nanostructures are highly important for the fabrication of high-performance sensors of large surface area. The organized incorporation of novel biocompatible organic nanostructures into extremely sensitive amperometric biosensors is demonstrated. Peptide nanoforest biosensors for phenol detection were 17-fold more sensitive than uncoated electrode and more sensitive than those modified with carbon nanotubes or combined coating. The high sensitivity reported, together with the biocompatibility and the ability to chemically and biologically modify these elements, may provide a novel platform for biosensors design and fabrication for environmental monitoring, homeland security, and other applications. PMID:20205204

  5. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  6. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan - supplemental environmental. Volume 1. Trip 2 report. Rept. for 1988-90

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains results of three years of supplemental environmental sampling (Trial Trip, 1988; Trip 1, 1989; and Trip 2, 1990); Trip 2 sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance and quality control procedures; sampling and analytical methods; and corrected data from 1988 and 1989 gas and particulate concentrations.

  7. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  8. 72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) LOCATED AT WEST END OF LONG CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195 Section 1271.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN...

  10. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  11. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195 Section 1271.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN...

  12. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  13. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D. ); Goodrich, M. )

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs.

  15. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  16. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan supplemental environmental data report. Volume 1. Trial Trip 1 sampling results. Quarterly report, September 1989-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-16

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. The report contains results for supplemental monitoring at sixteen sites; five particulates, 15 gas, 1 liquid and three solid samples are included. Concentrations are compared to environmental levels of significance.

  17. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  18. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  19. Monitoring and Predicting the African Climate for Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiaw, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the greatest challenges in Africa due to its impact on access to sanitary water and food. In response to this challenge, the international community has mobilized to develop famine early warning systems (FEWS) to bring safe food and water to populations in need. Over the past several decades, much attention has focused on advance risk planning in agriculture and water. This requires frequent updates of weather and climate outlooks. This paper describes the active role of NOAA's African Desk in FEWS. Emphasis is on the operational products from short and medium range weather forecasts to subseasonal and seasonal outlooks in support of humanitarian relief programs. Tools to provide access to real time weather and climate information to the public are described. These include the downscaling of the U.S. National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) to improve seasonal forecasts in support of Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs). The subseasonal time scale has emerged as extremely important to many socio-economic sectors. Drawing from advances in numerical models that can now provide a better representation of the MJO, operational subseasonal forecasts are included in the African Desk product suite. These along with forecasts skill assessment and verifications are discussed. The presentation will also highlight regional hazards outlooks basis for FEWSNET food security outlooks.

  20. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  1. New techniques of low level environmental radiation monitoring at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    P. Degtiarenko, V. Popov

    2010-07-01

    We present the first long-term environmental radiation monitoring results obtained using the technique of pulse mode readout for the industry-standard Reuter-Stokes RSS-1013 argon-filled high pressure ionization chambers (HPIC). With novel designs for the front-end electronics readout and customized signal processing algorithms, we are capable of detecting individual events of gas ionization in the HPIC, caused by interactions of gammas and charged particles in the gas. The technique provides enough spectroscopic information to distinguish between several different types of environmental and man-made radiation. The technique also achieves a high degree of sensitivity and stability of the data, allowing long-term environmental radiation monitoring with unprecedented precision.

  2. Environmental Scarcity and Global Security. Headline Series No. 300.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer-Dixon, Thomas F.

    This book examines the two global trends of rising population and output on environmental change in the 21st century. These environmental changes can be thought of as "scarcities" of vital resources such as soil, water, and a stable climate and may cause widespread social disorder and violence. Contemporary examples of conflict are featured to…

  3. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, David J.; Bartram, Jamie K.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

  4. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, David J; Bartram, Jamie K

    2013-11-13

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

  5. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. W.; Liang, X.; Kuo, C.; Liang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    The application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for environmental monitoring enhances measurements over multiple locations and reduces the manpower for data collection. This study examines the applicability of WSNs for sap flow monitoring, which can benefit land-surface modeling with a better understanding and representation of plant water use phenomena. Two sap flow sensor designs are presented and their performance is tested against their expensive commercial sensor counterparts. These sensors are then integrated into a WSN. The data quality of the sap flow measurements is dependent upon the data sampling frequency. When sap flow monitoring is integrated into a WSN, a tradeoff is created between the measured data quality and the battery life of the wireless network. This study examines the tradeoff to determine an optimal sampling frequency for wireless sap flow monitoring.

  6. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program. FY 1993: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.; Marsh, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report continues a series of annual and semiannual reports that present the results of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) monitoring activities. The report details monitoring data for fiscal year (FY) 1993 and is divided into three major areas: SWSA 6 [including tumulus pads, Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), and other sites], the low-level Liquid-Waste Solidification Project (LWSP), and TRU-waste storage facilities in SWSA 5 N. The detailed monitoring methodology is described in the second revision of the ASEMP program plan. This report also presents a summary of the methodology used to gather data for each major area along with the results obtained during FY 1993.

  7. 30 CFR 250.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... monitoring information must accompany the EP? The following environmental monitoring information, as... monitoring systems that are measuring, or will measure, environmental conditions or will provide...

  8. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan quarterly report, third quarter, 1988. Report for 1 July-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-30

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and twenty-two supplemental monitoring points for water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. This report contains results of industrial hygiene monitoring, operational compliance monitoring, monitoring audits, and a description of the first supplemental sampling campaign.

  9. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Stuhec, M; Zorko, B; Mitić, D; Miljanić, S; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Müller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminiscence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation. PMID:16410289

  10. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  11. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks. PMID:24234344

  12. An overview of the Environmental Monitoring Computer Automation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.; Lorenz, R.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) was bulk to produce plutonium and tritium for national defense. As a result of site operations, routine and accidental releases of radionuclides have occurred. The effects these releases have on the k>cal population and environment are of concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) and SRS personnel. Each year, approximately 40,000 environmental samples are collected. The quality of the samples, analytical methods and results obtained are important to site personnel. The Environmental Monitoring Computer Automation Project (EMCAP) was developed to better manage scheduling, log-in, tracking, analytical results, and report generation. EMCAP can be viewed as a custom Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the ability to schedule samples, generate reports, and query data. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the SRS environmental monitoring program, describe the development of EMCAP software and hardware, discuss the different software modules, show how EMCAP improved the Environmental Monitoring Section program, and examine the future of EMCAP at SRS.

  13. An overview of the Environmental Monitoring Computer Automation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.; Lorenz, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) was bulk to produce plutonium and tritium for national defense. As a result of site operations, routine and accidental releases of radionuclides have occurred. The effects these releases have on the k>cal population and environment are of concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) and SRS personnel. Each year, approximately 40,000 environmental samples are collected. The quality of the samples, analytical methods and results obtained are important to site personnel. The Environmental Monitoring Computer Automation Project (EMCAP) was developed to better manage scheduling, log-in, tracking, analytical results, and report generation. EMCAP can be viewed as a custom Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the ability to schedule samples, generate reports, and query data. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the SRS environmental monitoring program, describe the development of EMCAP software and hardware, discuss the different software modules, show how EMCAP improved the Environmental Monitoring Section program, and examine the future of EMCAP at SRS.

  14. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance.

  15. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Czajkowski, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains {approximately}650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not easily distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1983, the maximum approximated neutron dose near the site boundary was 5 mrem. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since operation began in 1966. We have never found any evidence of radioactivity in ground water in excess of natural background radioactivity from uranium and thorium decay chains and potassium-40. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site-boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard. 8 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  17. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  18. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  19. Systematic management of environmental monitoring data for radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, C. G.; Park, S. M.; Lim, Y. S.; Lee, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.

    2003-04-01

    For the safe management of radwaste repository, data of the site and environment have to be collected and managed systematically. Particularly, for the radwaste repository, which has to be institutionally controlled for a long period after closure, data will be collected and maintained through the monitoring programme. To meet this requirement, a new programme called ``Site Information and Total Environmental data management System (SITES)" is being developed. The scope and function of the SITES programme are issued from the first stage of the SITES development. The hardware composed of a server and clients is constructed within those extents. The software system is developed with database and the three-tier server/client system consisted of a server, the middle-ware and PC client. The server is for the DB/GIS managements, and the PC client offers variable GUI in respect of end-user. A middle-ware is for the system management such as transaction. For this system, ArcSDE(ESRI) is used for unifying the spatial/attribute data to the Relative Database Management System. In the server/client system, the function of spatial illustration and analysis is embodied through ArcGIS. The SITES programme is designed with two modules of the Database Management System and the Monitoring and Assessment. The DBMS module is composed of two sub-modules. One is the Site Information Management System, which manages data on site characterization such as topography, geology, hydrogeology, engineering geology, etc. The other is the ENVironmental Information management System, which manages environmental data required for environmental assessment study. To enhance the effectiveness of SIMS and ENVIS, the objects are itemized through analyzing the end-user's demands reflected from domestic regulatory guidelines. The database is constructed based on Entity Relationship Diagram produced from each item. Also using ArcGIS with the spatial characteristics of the data, it enables groundwater and

  20. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  1. Establishing security of quantum key distribution without monitoring disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koashi, Masato

    2015-10-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, the information leak to an eavesdropper is estimated through the basic principle of quantum mechanics dictated in the original version of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The amount of leaked information on a shared sifted key is bounded from above essentially by using information-disturbance trade-off relations, based on the amount of signal disturbance measured via randomly sampled or inserted probe signals. Here we discuss an entirely different avenue toward the private communication, which does not rely on the information disturbance trade-off relations and hence does not require a monitoring of signal disturbance. The independence of the amount of privacy amplification from that of disturbance tends to give it a high tolerance on the channel noises. The lifting of the burden of precise statistical estimation of disturbance leads to a favorable finite-key-size effect. A protocol based on the novel principle can be implemented by only using photon detectors and classical optics tools: a laser, a phase modulator, and an interferometer. The protocol resembles the differential-phase-shift QKD protocol in that both share a simple binary phase shift keying on a coherent train of weak pulses from a laser. The difference lies in the use of a variable-delay interferometer in the new protocol, which randomly changes the combination of pulse pairs to be superposed. This extra randomness has turned out to be enough to upper-bound the information extracted by the eavesdropper, regardless of how they have disturbed the quantum signal.

  2. The environmental program at Kennedy Space Center - Baseline to monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    KSC has developed an environmental program to ensure that its activities do not adversely affect the surrounding environment. Two essential elements of the total program are the baseline and monitoring programs. The goal of the baseline program is to collect sufficient information about the environment prior to Shuttle launches so that adverse changes in the environment - if and when they occur after the Shuttle program becomes active - can be detected and cause-effect relationships established when possible. The goal of the monitoring program is to use information from the baseline program along with survey and sampling operations during the period of initial Shuttle launches to document adverse changes in the environment.

  3. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Quarterly report, fourth quarter, October 1-December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-28

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The document contains environmental compliance data collected in the fourth quarter of 1991, contents of reports on compliance data submitted to regulatory agencies, and supplemental analytical results from retorted shale pile runoff water collected following a storm event during the third quarter of 1991.

  4. Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for

  5. Development of a personal integrated environmental monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  6. Development of a Personal Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  7. 1996 environmental monitoring report for the Naval Reactors Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1996 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The NRF is located on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and contains three naval reactor prototypes and the Expended Core Facility, which examines developmental nuclear fuel material samples, spent naval fuel, and irradiated reactor plant components/materials. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  8. UNOCAL 76: Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan annual report, January 1-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental-monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. The Program site includes three entities: the Mine/Retort, atop Long Ridge; the Upgrade Facility down valley; and the Retorted Shale Disposal area at the base of Long Ridge. Results of the first year of EMP monitoring are summarized in the document with emphasis on worker health surveillance.

  9. An electrostatic integrating 222Rn monitor with cellulose nitrate film for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Ikebe, Y; Hattori, T; Yamanishi, H; Abe, S; Ochifuji, K; Yokoyama, S

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes a new type of electrostatic integrating 222Rn monitor designed for the environmental 222Rn monitoring. The window area of the monitor was selected to make the exchange rate optimal. The collecting electrode was positioned on the basis of calculating the internal electric field. A drying agent, P2O5, was placed in the bottom of the monitor, since the collection efficiency of 218Po+ atoms depends on the humidity of the air. The monitors have been calibrated against known 222Rn exposures. The detection limit is 1.2 Bq m-3 for an exposure time of 2 mo. In a small survey, annual mean 222Rn concentrations between 3.7 and 9.5 Bq m-3 in outdoor air and between 6.4 and 11.9 Bq m-3 in indoor air were measured. PMID:3338911

  10. Security monitoring system based on a line structure Sagnac interferometer with 3×3 coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Li; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Damage action, such as human disruption, is one of the major threats to pipeline operation. It is essential to monitor perturbation behavior and locate the position in real time. A pipeline security monitoring system is proposed using a line structure Sagnac distributed optic fiber interferometer with a 3×3 coupler that can modulate the optic signal phase without special modulation and demodulation. The optic structure of the system is simplified, signal processing accuracy improved, and the effect of polarization reduced. The working principle of the monitoring in ideal conditions and phase demodulation are analyzed and the location of the possible damage point is formulated. Simulation and validation tests confirm the feasibility of the proposed monitoring system and indicate that the low frequency signals <1 kHz can be detected effectively. A disturbance can be accurately located over long monitoring distances.

  11. U.S.-U.S.S.R. Environmental Security Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresh from a 9-day bilateral meeting in the Soviet Union on global environmental conservation, a delegation of U.S. ocean policy experts has announced a wide-ranging, joint initiative with two research institutes of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.Led by James M. Broadus, director of the Marine Policy Center at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., the U.S. delegation met in Moscow with Soviet scholars from the Institute for World Economy and International Relations and the Institute of Peace to discuss worldwide strategies for assurances against environmental threats to the world's oceans.

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  13. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2016-01-01

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes. PMID:27023540

  14. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2016-01-01

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes. PMID:27023540

  15. Gill cell culture systems as models for aquatic environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bury, Nic R; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer

    2014-03-01

    A vast number of chemicals require environmental safety assessments for market authorisation. To ensure acceptable water quality, effluents and natural waters are monitored for their potential harmful effects. Tests for market authorisation and environmental monitoring usually involve the use of large numbers of organisms and, for ethical, cost and logistic reasons, there is a drive to develop alternative methods that can predict toxicity to fish without the need to expose any animals. There is therefore a great interest in the potential to use cultured fish cells in chemical toxicity testing. This review summarises the advances made in the area and focuses in particular on a system of cultured fish gill cells grown into an epithelium that permits direct treatment with water samples. PMID:24574380

  16. A Pilot System for Environmental Monitoring Through Domestic Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabe, Calvin W.; Sawyer, John; Martin, Wayne

    1971-01-01

    A pilot system for environmental monitoring is in its early phases of development in Northern California. It is based upon the existing nation wide Federal-State Market Cattle Testing (14CT) program for brucellosis in cattle. This latter program depends upon the collection of blood program at the time of identified cattle. As the cattle Population of California is broadly distributed throughout the state, we intend to utilize these blood samples to biologically monitor the distribution and intensity of selected environmental pollutants. In a 2-year preliminary trial, the feasibility of retrieving, utilizing for a purpose similar to this, and tracing back to their geographic areas of origin of MCT samples have been demonstrated.

  17. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.; Pauer, R.O.

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a multiprogram national laboratory managed by the University of California (UC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). LBL's major role is to conduct basic and applied science research that is appropriate for an energy research laboratory. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1989 are presented, and general trends are discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. 1982 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; Simmons, T.N.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1983-04-01

    Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitter, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1982. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.170 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 50,400 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides.

  19. The importance of metrological metadata in the environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Márcio A. A.; Guimarães, Patrícia L. O.; Almêida, Eugênio S.; Eklin, Tero

    2016-07-01

    The metrological metadata propagation contributes significantly to improve the data analysis of the meteorological observation systems. An overview of the scenarios data and metadata treatment in environmental monitoring is presented in this article. We also discussed the ways of use of the calibration results on the meteorological measurement systems as well as the convergence of the methods used in the corrections treatment and estimation of the measuring uncertainty in metrological and meteorological areas.

  20. Tunable Infrared Lasers: Preparing for Expanded use in Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Killinger, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on the use of tunable infrared lasers, for atmospheric trace gas detection and monitoring is about 25 years of age. However, this field, whith its myriad of potential application areas, has always been driven by the available laser technology. As new or improved laser devices become available, with characteristics which lend themselves to operation in compact, nearly autonomous instruments, their application to atmospheric science and environmental measurements expands.

  1. OFFSITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT. RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify tre...

  2. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  4. Calendar Year 2011 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC,

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2011 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. This report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and known extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for environmental cleanup on the ORR. In August 2011, URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) replaced Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) as the DOE EM contractor. For this report, BJC/UCOR will be referenced as the managing contractor for CY 2011. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures

  5. Integrated environmental quality monitoring around an underground methane storage station.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Linda; Vignudelli, Marco; Bartolucci, Fabrizio; Salvatorelli, Fiorenzo; Di Michele, Cesare; Tavano, Nicola; Rossi, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The study reports an integrated environmental quality monitoring of a 100 km2 area in central Italy mostly occupied by an underground station of methane storage, working since 1982. The nitrogen oxides, ozone and isoprene concentration detached with a network monitoring of passive filters were compared with the results of lichens biomonitoring. Data from the two monitorings were in accordance: there was an inversely correlation between lichen biodiversity index (IBL) and NOx (-0.96) and ozone (-0.80), and a positive correlation between IBL and isoprene (0.67). IBL indicated that the area ranged between medium naturalness and medium alteration status, values fully compatible with the medium-high level of eutrophication, caused by intensive agriculture. Only two areas were in high alteration status, due to their proximity to glass factories and to a quarries area. Despite almost thirty years of activity, the environment quality of the area around the station did not show signs of declining. PMID:25828802

  6. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  7. Environmental assessment and planning at Mound - environmental monitoring capabilities and personnel profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Through its long experience with radioactive materials, Mound has developed a comprehensive, routine, offsite, environmental surveillance program to safeguard its employees, the physical plant, and the integrity of the surrounding environment from any potential adverse effects of its widely diverse operations. Effluent samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological parameters. The environment surrounding Mound Facility is continuously monitored - air, water, foodstuffs, vegetation, soil, and silt samples are analyzed to ensure that radioisotopic concentrations and other possible pollutants are well within the stringent standards adopted by the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agencies (both federal and state), and various regional and local agencies. Moreover, this environmental surveillance program has been designed to ensure that the facility is designed, constructed, managed, operated, and maintained in a manner that continues to meet all federal, state, and local standards for environmental protection. Work in environmental science has been broadened to assess environmental factors associated with various aspects of the National Energy Plan. Both the management and staff at Mound have undertaken a firm commitment to make Mound`s environmental monitoring capabilities available to agencies that have the responsibility for the resolution of important environmental issues.

  8. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1984-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1983 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 19 references, 8 figures, 49 tables.

  9. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1985-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1984 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, ground water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 20 refs., 8 figs., 46 tabs.

  10. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1981 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  11. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.

    1981-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1980 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and foodstuffs; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  12. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1983-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  13. Dust storm monitoring: effects on the environment, human health, and potential security conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davara, Fernando; de la Cruz, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    Monitoring dust storms with recently available medium and moderate resolution satellites (Meris, Modis and SeaWiFS) is providing new global information regarding the sources, transportation tracks and affected areas. Saharan dust plumes reach the SE region of the United States and the Caribbean region in summer and the Amazon basin in winter. Generally these Saharan plumes branch off in dust tracks along the North Atlantic reaching Western Europe as far north as the Scandinavian countries. Furthermore, dust storms originating in the Eastern Sahara and Northern African deserts form dust plumes propagated by the Sirocco winds that, after crossing the Mediterranean Sea, affect Southern and Central Europe particularly during spring and summer. Dust storms originating in the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts blow in an easterly direction propagating dust plumes affecting Korea, Japan and reach the United States after crossing the Pacific Ocean. The large amount of cyclic deposition generated by dust storms produces an environmental impact that causes the decay of coral reefs in the Caribbean, the origin and distribution of red tides and the disappearance of sea grasses. The relationship of dust plumes with the increasing number of asthma and allergy cases in the Caribbean correlates well with the appearance of similar cases in Europe and elsewhere during the mid 1980s. The recurrence presence of insecticides in regions where these products were banned long ago, or where they were never used, may be partly due to Saharan dust plumes. The loss of agricultural soil, literally blown away by dust storms in the source areas, creates hardship, hunger and forced-migration. Dust storms should be considered as an important security issue.

  14. Statistical analysis of real-time, environmental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Spitz, H B; Tomczak, L

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses of radon measurement results were conducted to determine what impact, if any, radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Fernald Environmental Management Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: 1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; 2) the production/administration area; 3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and 4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed in these 4 areas to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant

  15. A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, M.E.; Bates, D.J.; Mart, E.I.; Hanf, R.W.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a guide to the work accomplished by the Environmental Monitoring Data Task, which is one of the tasks in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task was to recover, evaluate, process, and/or reconstruct the environmental monitoring data for the period 1945--1972. The period of time for which environmental monitoring data were sought was determined by the start-up and shut-down dates of the Hanford facilities that emitted the majority of radionuclides to the two major pathways: air and the Columbia River. Radionuclide emissions to the air were mainly the result of the operation of the chemical separations plants from 1944--1972 (Heeb 1994). Radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River were mainly the result of the operation of the single-pass production reactors from 1944--1971 (Heeb and Bates 1994). Therefore, the historical environmental monitoring data sought were for the period 1945--1972. Within the period of 1945--1972, specific periods of interest to the HEDR Project vary depending on the pathway. For example, 1945--1951 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the air and hence vegetation uptake of radionuclides, while 1956--1965 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River and hence fish uptake of radionuclides. However, adequate historical data were not always available for the periods of interest. In the case of vegetation measurements, conversion and correction factors had to be developed to convert the historical measurements to modern standard measurements. Table S.1 lists the reports that explain these conversion and correction factors. In the case of Columbia River fish and waterfowl, bioconcentration factors were developed for use in any year where the river pathway data are insufficient.

  16. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan, annual report, October 1, 1988-September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. A summary of monitoring 18 supplemental sites, including particulates, gases, liquids and solids is given. Results of Industrial Hygiene Supplemental Monitoring are discussed; no trends or relationships were evident in the data. Permit compliance and quality assurance/quality control activities are discussed.

  17. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  18. Discrete choice modeling of environmental security. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, K.S.

    1998-10-01

    The presence of overpopulation or unsustainable population growth may place pressure on the food and water supplies of countries in sensitive areas of the world. Severe air or water pollution may place additional pressure on these resources. These pressures may generate both internal and international conflict in these areas as nations struggle to provide for their citizens. Such conflicts may result in United States intervention, either unilaterally, or through the United Nations. Therefore, it is in the interests of the United States to identify potential areas of conflict in order to properly train and allocate forces. The purpose of this research is to forecast the probability of conflict in a nation as a function of it s environmental conditions. Probit, logit and ordered probit models are employed to forecast the probability of a given level of conflict. Data from 95 countries are used to estimate the models. Probability forecasts are generated for these 95 nations. Out-of sample forecasts are generated for an additional 22 nations. These probabilities are then used to rank nations from highest probability of conflict to lowest. The results indicate that the dependence of a nation`s economy on agriculture, the rate of deforestation, and the population density are important variables in forecasting the probability and level of conflict. These results indicate that environmental variables do play a role in generating or exacerbating conflict. It is unclear that the United States military has any direct role in mitigating the environmental conditions that may generate conflict. A more important role for the military is to aid in data gathering to generate better forecasts so that the troops are adequntely prepared when conflicts arises.

  19. [Data security and the handling of patient data in home monitoring systems].

    PubMed

    Heydenreich, F; Jürgens, C; Tost, F

    2009-09-01

    Data security must be considered seriously in the context of telemedical home monitoring because of the transmission and communication of patients' personal data. The contract governing medical treatment allows the ophthalmologist to process all data relevant to treatment. In Germany the legal framework for this purpose is provided by the Data Protection Act, various German hospital acts, and codes of medical professional conduct. In principle, these rules apply to telemedical home monitoring as well as to common physician-patient relationships. The patient must be informed extensively in an understandable manner and must give his or her written consent. However, the advanced options of new IT technologies demand the development of technical and organizational concepts that guarantee compliance with legal and regulatory affairs, assure data security, and prevent data abuse. PMID:19680662

  20. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: calendar year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1981-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) and other Laboratory facilities are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. A summary of the radioactivity found in the environment is presented. The ALRR ceased operation on December 1, 1977. Decommissioning activities began January 3, 1978, and are scheduled for completion October 1, 1981. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR on-site station showed no radioactivity that could be attributed to ALRR operations. The radiosotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium (H-3). The yearly individual dose from H-3 at the exclusion fence was estimated to be 0.016 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 26.6 man-Rem. These values are 0.0032% and 0.026%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. On September 1, 1978, the ALRR site was connected to the City of Ames sanitary sewage system. All liquids (except building foundation and roof water) from the ALRR complex are now discharged to the sewage system negating the requirement for monitoring chemical constituents of effluent and environmental waters. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, H-3 was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.68% of the dose derived from the concentration guide. Building foundation and roof water are discharged to a drainage gulch on site.

  1. Security monitoring subsystem design description: 4 x 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR [High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    Security Monitoring acquires and processes sensor data for use by security personnel in the performance of their function. Security Monitoring is designed and implemented as a part of an overall security plan which is classified as Safeguards Information under 10CFR73.21.

  2. Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Continuous Monitors in Controlled Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Patton, Allison P.; Zhang, Andrew; Fanac, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) contains a variety of toxic air pollutants, including diesel particulate matter (DPM) and gaseous contaminants (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO)). DPM is dominated by fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and can be representatively determined by its thermal-optical refractory as elemental carbon (EC) or light-absorbing characteristics as black carbon (BC). The currently accepted reference method for sampling and analysis of occupational exposure to DPM is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5040. However, this method cannot provide in-situ short-term measurements of DPM. Thus, real-time monitors are gaining attention to better examine DE exposures in occupational settings. However, real-time monitors are subject to changing environmental conditions. Field measurements have reported interferences in optical sensors and subsequent real-time readings, under conditions of high humidity and abrupt temperature changes. To begin dealing with these issues, we completed a controlled study to evaluate five real-time monitors: Airtec real-time DPM/EC Monitor, TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor AM510 (PM2.5), TSI Condensation Particle Counter 3007, microAeth AE51 BC Aethalometer, and Langan T15n CO Measurer. Tests were conducted under different temperatures (55, 70, and 80 °F), relative humidity (10, 40, and 80%), and DPM concentrations (50 and 200 µg/m3) in a controlled exposure facility. The 2-hour averaged EC measurements from the Airtec instrument showed relatively good agreement with NIOSH Method 5040 (R2=0.84; slope=1.17±0.06; N=27) and reported ~17% higher EC concentrations than the NIOSH reference method. Temperature, relative humidity, and DPM levels did not significantly affect relative differences in 2-hour averaged EC concentrations obtained by the Airtec instrument versus the NIOSH method (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses, based on 1-min averaged data, suggested combined effects of up to 5

  3. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan supplemental environmental data report. Volume 1. Trial trip sampling results. Report for 1 January 1988-31 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. Results of monitoring 18 supplemental sites, including particulates, gases, liquids and solids, are given. Up to 47 constituents, primarily non-criteria parameters were checked. Analyses used and quality assurance/quality control results are given.

  4. 30 CFR 550.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.221 What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP? The following environmental monitoring information, as applicable, must accompany your...

  5. 30 CFR 550.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.221 What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP? The following environmental monitoring information, as applicable, must accompany your...

  6. 30 CFR 550.252 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.252 What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following environmental monitoring information, as applicable, must accompany your DPP...

  7. 30 CFR 550.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.221 What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP? The following environmental monitoring information, as applicable, must accompany your...

  8. 30 CFR 250.252 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... Development Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.252 What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following environmental monitoring information, as applicable, must...

  9. 30 CFR 550.252 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.252 What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following environmental monitoring information, as applicable, must accompany your DPP...

  10. 30 CFR 550.252 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must... Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.252 What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following environmental monitoring information, as applicable, must accompany your DPP...

  11. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: An ecological status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.F.; Holland, A.F.; Schimmel, S.C.; Summers, J.K.; Scott, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is initiating an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the Nation's near-coastal waters, forests, freshwater wetlands, surface waters, agroecosystems, deserts, and rangelands. The program is also intended to evaluate the effectiveness of EPA policies in protecting the ecological resources of these systems. The monitoring data collected for all ecosystems will be integrated for national status and trends assessments. The near-coastal component of EMAP consists of four ecosystem categories: estuaries, wetlands, coastal waters, and the Great Lakes. The near-coastal ecosystems have been regionalized and classified, an integrated sampling strategy has been designed, and quality-control procedures and data-base management designs will be implemented.

  12. Andra Environmental Specimen Bank: archiving the environmental chemical quality for long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Elisabeth; d'Arbaumont, Maëlle; Verron, Jean-Patrick; Goldstein, Céline; Cesar, Frédérique; Dewonck, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Andra Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) was established in 2010 as a part of the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE), ongoing Long-Term Environmental Research Monitoring and Testing System located next to the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Bure, Meuse/Haute-Marne, France. The URL is used to study the deep geological disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste. Andra ESB is designed to archive during at least 100 years samples collected to define the initial state of environmental quality of the local area before the construction of industrial facilities and to ensure the traceability of long-term series of samples collected by the OPE ( http://www.andra.fr/ope ), using safe long-term conservation practices. Samples archived in the bank include some local food chain products (milk, cheese, honey, cereals, grass, cherry plum…) and specimen usually archived internationally to monitor the environmental quality (soil, sediment, water, fish, tree leaves, wild life, etc.). Regarding the different samples and analytical issues, three conservation modalities and facilities were designed: dry conservation under controlled temperature and humidity, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor phase freezers (-150 °C) and in deep-freezing at -80 °C for temporary storage and raw samples before preparation. Andra ESB is equipped with a sample preparation clean room, certified ISO Class 5, dedicated to cryopreservation. This paper describes this first French experiment of long-term chemical quality monitoring and samples cryopreservation of different ecosystems and environmental compartments. PMID:24809491

  13. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes--and therefore pollutants, or ``chemical threats''--can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These ``self-powered remediation systems'' could be seen as a new generation of ``smart devices'' for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  14. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes—and therefore pollutants, or “chemical threats”—can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These “self-powered remediation systems” could be seen as a new generation of “smart devices” for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future. PMID:24752489

  15. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water. PMID:9380841

  16. An Innovative Unmanned System for Advanced Environmental Monitoring: Design and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Ennio; Giordano, Laura; Evangelista, Lorenza; Iengo, Antonio; di Filippo, Alessandro; Coppola, Aniello

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarizes the design and development of a new technology and tools for real-time coordination and control of unmanned vehicles for advanced environmental monitoring. A new Unmanned System has been developed at Institute for Coastal Marine Environmental - National Research Council (Italy), in the framework of two National Operational Programs (PON): Technological Platform for Geophysical and Environmental Marine Survey-PITAM and Integrated Systems and Technologies for Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring in coastal-marine areas-STIGEAC. In particular, the system includes one Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and two Unmanned Marine Vehicles (UMV). Major innovations concern the implementation of a new architecture to control each drone and/or to allow the cooperation between heterogeneous vehicles, the integration of distributed sensing techniques and real-time image processing capabilities. Part of the research in these projects involves, therefore, an architecture, where the ground operator can communicate with the Unmanned Vehicles at various levels of abstraction using pointing devices and video viewing. In detail, a Ground Control Station (GCS) has been design and developed to allow the government in security of the drones within a distance up to twenty kilometers for air explorations and within ten nautical miles for marine activities. The Ground Control Station has the following features: 1. hardware / software system for the definition of the mission profiles; 3. autonomous and semi-autonomous control system by remote control (joystick or other) for the UAV and UMVs; 4. integrated control system with comprehensive visualization capabilities, monitoring and archiving of real-time data acquired from scientific payload; 5. open structure to future additions of systems, sensors and / or additional vehicles. In detail, the UAV architecture is a dual-rotor, with an endurance ranging from 55 to 200 minutes, depending on payload weight (maximum 26 kg) and

  17. Space-Derived Phenology, Retrieval and Use for Drought and Food Security Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Schucknecht, A.; LEO, O.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation conditions is a critical activity for assessing food security in Africa. Rural populations relying on rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing are highly exposed to large seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in water availability. Monitoring the state, evolution, and productivity of vegetation, crops and pastures in particular, is important to conduct food emergency responses and plan for a long-term, resilient, development strategy in this area. The timing of onset, the duration, and the intensity of vegetation growth can be retrieved from space observations and used for food security monitoring to assess seasonal vegetation development and forecast the likely seasonal outcome when the season is ongoing. In this contribution we present a set of phenology-based remote sensing studies in support to food security analysis. Key phenological indicators are retrieved using a model-fit approach applied to SOPT-VEGETATION FAPAR time series. Remote-sensing phenology is first used to estimate i) the impact of the drought in the Horn of Africa, ii) crop yield in Tunisia and, iii) rangeland biomass production in Niger. Then the impact of the start and length of vegetation growing period on the total biomass production is assessed over the Sahel. Finally, a probabilistic approach using phenological information to forecast the occurrence of an end-of-season biomass production deficit is applied over the Sahel to map hot-spots of drought-related risk.

  18. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule: January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1989 for the Surface and Ground-Water Environmental Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. This schedule includes routine ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Westinghouse Hanford Company, but does not include samples that may be collected in 1989 to support special studies or special contractor projects, or for quality control. The sampling schedule for Site-wide chemical monitoring is not included here, because it varies each quarter as needed, based on past results and operating needs. This schedule does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Hanford Site contractors, nor does it include sampling that may be done by other DOE Hanford contractors.

  19. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  20. Improvement of Environmental Monitoring for the SeaQuest Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, Elizabeth; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    SeaQuest (E906), is a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that uses the Drell-Yan process to measure the anti-down to anti-up quark asymmetry in the nucleon sea. Recording environmental conditions is important for a particle physics detector, since detector performance and response can vary depending on conditions such as temperature and pressure. SeaQuest uses many drift chambers, and monitoring their performance can be aided by having these environmental measurements. Due to the size of the detector hall, there are vertical temperature gradients, so temperature must be measured at varying heights. Another important need is to monitor temperature in electronics racks to know when they are overheating. The requirements of the equipment to be used were that it had to be ethernet based and rely only on non-proprietary software. Also, in order to be used during a data run, it had to be fast enough to be recorded between beam spills. This poster will focus on our solution for measuring environmental conditions, such as decreasing the sensor readout from 17.5 seconds to 6.9 seconds. Supported in part by the U.S. DOE under Grant #DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  1. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: Calendar year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR site showed detectable amounts of /sup 60/Co. This isotope was 1.5 x 10/sup -4/% of the concentration guide (1) and was probably due to ALRR operations. The radioisotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium. The average yearly individual dose from /sup 3/H at the exclusion fence was estimated to 0.0038 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 6.31 man-Rem. These values are 0.00076% and 0.0063%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, /sup 3/H was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.59% of the dose derived from the concentration guide.

  2. Calendar Year 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2011-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2010 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2010 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  3. Calendar Year 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2009 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2009 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and

  4. Calendar Year 2007 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2007 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2007 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). In December 2007, the BWXT corporate name was changed to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12), which is applied to personnel and organizations throughout CY 2007 for this report. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2007 monitoring results fulfill requirements of

  5. Calendar Year 2006 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2007-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2006 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2006 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., preparing SAPs, coordinating sample collection, and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2006 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and

  6. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  7. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  8. Subsurface radiowave tomography imaging in environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarczyk, Larry G.

    1993-08-01

    Toxic waste has been deposited in a wide variety of containment structures. Leakage creates concerns and environmental risk. Risk assessment requires site characterization of the underlying geology and monitoring of fluid pathways to the biosphere. Subsurface imaging will play an increasing important role in site characterization and monitoring. Imaging will play an even greater role in remediation. Radio wave energy propagation has been applied in crosswell data acquisition and tomography inversion algorithms have reconstructed images of electrical conductivity variations in the geologic zone of concern. The variation in conductivity delineated structural geology and mapped the contaminant plume. This paper describes the application of the radio wave tomography imaging in chemical waste landfill and in situ mine site characterization and remediation.

  9. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  10. Westinghouse Hanford Company operational environmental monitoring annual report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    This document presents the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1992 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State in 1992. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and to control the impacts of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the workers and the local environment. Additionally, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although impacts from nuclear facilities are still seen on the Hanford Site and are slightly elevated when compared to offsite, these impacts are less than in previous years.

  11. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1983-04-01

    In order to establish whether LBL research activities produces any impact on the population surrounding the Laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1982, as in the previous several years, doses attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG). The maximum perimeter dose equivalent was less than or equal to 24.0 mrem (the 1982 dose equivalent measured at the Building 88 monitoring station B-13A, about 5% of the RPG). The total population dose equivalent attributable to LBL operations during 1982 was less than or equal to 16 man-rem, about 0.002% of the RPG of 170 mrem/person to a suitable sample of the population.

  12. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  13. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  14. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  15. 1983 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is located south of Albuquerque on Kirtland Air Force Base. Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1983. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.250 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 49,950 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides. 23 references, 6 figures, 15 tables.

  16. Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program at Toolik Field Station, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Data Center at the Toolik Field Station, Alaska established a baseline environmental monitoring program in 2007 to provide a long-term record of key biotic and abiotic variables to the scientific community. We maintain a weather station for a long-term climate record at the field station and monitor the timing of key plant phenological events, bird migration and mammal sightings. With regards to plant phenology, we record event dates such as emergence of first leaves, open flowers and seed dispersal for twelve select species typical of the moist acidic tundra, following the ITEX plant phenology protocol. From 2007 to 2011, we observed earlier emergence of first leaves by approximately one week for species such as the dwarf birch Betula nana, sedge Carex bigelowii and evergreen lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea, while seed dispersal for some of these species was delayed by more than two weeks. We also monitor the arrival and departure dates of thirty bird species common to the Toolik area. Yearlong residents included species such as the common raven, rock and willow ptarmigan, and some migrants such as yellow-billed loons and American tree sparrows could be detected for about four months at Toolik, while long-distance traveling arctic terns stayed only two months during the summer. The timing of bird migration dates did not show any clear trends over the past five years for most species. For the past two decades, we recorded climate data such as air, soil and lake temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and barometric pressure. During this time period, monthly mean air temperatures varied from -31.7 to -12.8 °C in January and from 8.3 to 13.1 °C in July, with no trend over time. Our baseline data on plant phenological changes, timing of bird migration and climate variables are valuable in the light of long-term environmental monitoring efforts as they provide the context for other seasonality projects that are

  17. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems. PMID:27460374

  18. Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bohmann, Kristine; Evans, Alice; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Carvalho, Gary R; Creer, Simon; Knapp, Michael; Yu, Douglas W; de Bruyn, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Extraction and identification of DNA from an environmental sample has proven noteworthy recently in detecting and monitoring not only common species, but also those that are endangered, invasive, or elusive. Particular attributes of so-called environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis render it a potent tool for elucidating mechanistic insights in ecological and evolutionary processes. Foremost among these is an improved ability to explore ecosystem-level processes, the generation of quantitative indices for analyses of species, community diversity, and dynamics, and novel opportunities through the use of time-serial samples and unprecedented sensitivity for detecting rare or difficult-to-sample taxa. Although technical challenges remain, here we examine the current frontiers of eDNA, outline key aspects requiring improvement, and suggest future developments and innovations for research. PMID:24821515

  19. Data Acquisition and Environmental Monitoring of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Samuel; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Low-background non-accelerator experiments have unique requirements for their data acquisition and environmental monitoring. Background signals can easily overwhelm the signals of interest, so events which could contribute to the background must be identified. There is a need to correlate events between detectors and environmental conditions, and data integrity must be maintained. Here, we describe several of the software and hardware techniques achieved by the MAJORANA Collaboration for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, such as using the Object-oriented Realtime Control and Acquisition (ORCA) software package. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  20. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1979 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, Argonne effluent water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and foodstuffs; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environemetal penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measuremenets were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  1. Calendar Year 2003 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-30

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2003 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2003 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2003 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 and DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program), and address requirements of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 2003a) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality: (1) in areas which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring) and (2) in areas where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (DOE Order 5400.1 exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2003 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic context and generalized extent of groundwater

  2. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program in the 21st Century: The Evolution of a Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2007-01-19

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the various operational aspects of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) network following the transfer of program administration from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education in 1999-2000. The CEMP consists of a network of 29 fixed radiation and weather monitoring stations located in Nevada, Utah, and California. Its mission is to involve stakeholders directly in monitoring for airborne radiological releases to the off site environment as a result of past or ongoing activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to make data as transparent and accessible to the general public as feasible. At its inception in 1981, the CEMP was a cooperative project of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DRI, and EPA. In 1999-2000, technical administration of the CEMP transitioned from EPA to DRI. Concurrent with and subsequent to this transition, station and program operations underwent significant enhancements that furthered the mission of the program. These enhancements included the addition of a full suite of meteorological instrumentation, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, on-site displays, and communications hardware. A public website was developed. Finally, the DRI developed a mobile monitoring station that can be operated entirely on solar power in conjunction with a deep-cell battery, and includes all meteorological sensors and a pressurized ion chamber for detecting background gamma radiation. Final station configurations have resulted in the creation of a platform that is well suited for use as an in-field multi-environment test-bed for prototype environmental sensors and in interfacing with other scientific and educational programs. Recent and near-future collaborators have included federal, state, and local agencies in both the government and private sectors. The CEMP also serves as a model for other programs wishing to

  3. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental

  4. Data quality control in eco-environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunyan; Wang, Jing

    2007-11-01

    With the development of science and technology, a number of environmental issues, such as sustainable development, climate change, environmental pollution, and land degradation become serious. Greater attention has been attached to environmental protection. The government gradually launched some eco--environmental construction projects. In 1999, China begin to carry out the project of Grain-for-Green in the west, to improve the eco-environment, and it make some good effect, but there are some questions that still can not be answered. How about the new grass or forest? Where are they? How can we do in the future? To answer these questions, the government began to monitor the eco-environment, based on remote sensing technology. Geography information can be attained timely, but the issue of uncertainty has become increasingly recognized, and this uncertainty affects the reliability of applications using the data. This article analyzed the process of eco-environment monitoring, the uncertainty of geography information, and discussed the methods of data quality control. The Spot5 span data and multi-spectral data in 2003(2002) were used, combined with land use survey data at the scale of 1:10,000, topography data at the scale of 1:10,000, and the local Grain-for-Green project map. Also the social and economic data were collected. Eco-environmental monitoring is a process which consists of several steps, such as image geometric correction, image matching, information extraction, and so on. Based on visual and automated method, land information turned to grass and forest from cultivated land was obtained by comparing the information form remote sensing data with the land survey data, and local Grain-for-Green project data, combined with field survey. According to the process, the uncertainty in the process was analyzed. Positional uncertainty, attribute uncertainty, and thematic uncertainty was obvious. Positional uncertainty mainly derived from image geometric correction

  5. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-07-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  8. Dragon in Support to Harmonizing European and Chinese Marine Monitoring for Environment and Security System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, Johnny A.; He, Mingxia; Alpers, Werner; Chen, Ge; Piolle, Jean-Francois; Liu, Zhishen; Shao, Liqin; Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Chapron, Bertrand; Wan, Liying; Hu, Chuanmin; Guan, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Funded by EC under the Framework Programme (FP6), the 3-year duration DRAGONESS project is nearing its termination in August 2010. An inventory on procedures and systems for operational ocean monitoring and services including data accessibility and management approaches has been produced with particular relevance for the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Space Component program and the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) implemented system of systems (GEOSS). The DRAGONESS project has also been part of the Dragon 2 program. Monitoring of the marine environment is crucial to tracking pollution, forecasting and tracking extreme events, understanding climate change, and aiding operational oceanography. It requires common standards, protocols, and harmonized tools and methods for data integration and information portals and services. Bringing together in situ and satellite data and the sharing of this data, jointly with validated models, is a key to the success of such systems.

  9. Dragon In Support To Harmonizing European and Chinese Marine Monitoring for Environment and Security System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, Johnny A.; He, Ming-Xia; Alpers, Werner; Chen, Ge; Piolle, Jean-Francois; Liu, Zhishen; Shao, Liqin; Dagstad, Knut-Frode; Chapron, Bertrand; Wan, Liying; Hu, Chuanmin; Guan, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Funded by EC under the Framework Programme (FP6), the 3-year duration DRAGONESS project is nearing its termination in August 2010. An inventory on procedures and systems for operational ocean monitoring and services including data accessibility and management approaches has been produced with particular relevance for the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Space Component program and the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) implemented system of systems (GEOSS). The DRAGONESS project has also been part of the Dragon 2 program. Monitoring of the marine environment is crucial to tracking pollution, forecasting and tracking extreme events, understanding climate change, and aiding operational oceanography. It requires common standards, protocols, and harmonized tools and methods for data integration and information portals and services. Bringing together in situ and satellite data and the sharing of this data, jointly with validated models, is a key to the success of such systems.

  10. Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; Guez, Oded; Messer, Hagit; David, Noam; Harel, Oz; Eshel, Adam; Cohen, Ori

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links Pinhas Alpert, H. Messer, N. David, O. Guez, O. Cohen, O. Harel, A. Eshel Tel Aviv University, Israel The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert in Israel with comparison to hydrological measurements in the Dead Sea area. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, fog, dew, atmospheric moisture. References: N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Technical Note: Novel method for water vapor monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2413-2418, 2009. A. Rayitsfeld, R. Samuels, A. Zinevich, U. Hadar and P. Alpert,"Comparison of two methodologies for long term rainfall monitoring using a commercial microwave communication system", Atmospheric Research 104-105, 119-127, 2012. N. David, O. Sendik, H. Messer and P. Alpert, "Cellular network infrastructure-the future of fog monitoring?" BAMS (Oct. issue), 1687-1698, 2015. O. Harel, David, N., Alpert, P. and Messer, H., "The potential of microwave communication networks to detect dew using the GLRT- experimental study", IEEE Journal of Selected

  11. United States and environmental security: Deforestation and conflict in southeast Asia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    In the post Cold War era, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt conflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort. Rainforest, Deforestation, Tropical timber, Logging, Southeast Asia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Laos, Japan Cambodia, Vietnam, Human rights, Plywood, Pulp, Paper, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development.

  12. Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

  13. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan, quarterly report, second quarter, April 1-June 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of this project is to produce 10,000 per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. The report contains compliance monitoring results, copies of regulatory reports and independent audits performed on compliance air quality, water quality, and supplemental analytical programs.

  14. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program environmental monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1989-September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. A summary of compliance and supplemental activities is included in the report. Health monitoring results, safety summaries and a status report of the retorted shale laydown area, with photos, are also given.

  15. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  16. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  17. Plug-and-Play Environmental Monitoring Spacecraft Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Jagdish; Brinza, David E.; Tran, Tuan A.; Blaes, Brent R.

    2011-01-01

    A Space Environment Monitor (SEM) subsystem architecture has been developed and demonstrated that can benefit future spacecraft by providing (1) real-time knowledge of the spacecraft state in terms of exposure to the environment; (2) critical, instantaneous information for anomaly resolution; and (3) invaluable environmental data for designing future missions. The SEM architecture consists of a network of plug-and- play (PnP) Sensor Interface Units (SIUs), each servicing one or more environmental sensors. The SEM architecture is influenced by the IEEE Smart Transducer Interface Bus standard (IEEE Std 1451) for its PnP functionality. A network of PnP Spacecraft SIUs is enabling technology for gathering continuous real-time information critical to validating spacecraft health in harsh space environments. The demonstrated system that provided a proof-of-concept of the SEM architecture consisted of three SIUs for measurement of total ionizing dose (TID) and single event upset (SEU) radiation effects, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and deep dielectric charging through use of a prototype Internal Electro-Static Discharge Monitor (IESDM). Each SIU consists of two stacked 2X2 in. (approximately 5X5 cm) circuit boards: a Bus Interface Unit (BIU) board that provides data conversion, processing and connection to the SEM power-and-data bus, and a Sensor Interface Electronics (SIE) board that provides sensor interface needs and data path connection to the BIU.

  18. Management of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi; Perry, Jay; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project is working to further optimize atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring system architectures. This paper discusses project management strategies that tap into skill sets across multiple engineering disciplines, projects, field centers, and industry to achieve the project success. It is the project's objective to contribute to system advances that will enable sustained exploration missions beyond Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) and improve affordability by focusing on the primary goals of achieving high reliability, improving efficiency, and reducing dependence on ground-based logistics resupply. Technology demonstrations are achieved by infusing new technologies and concepts with existing developmental hardware and operating in a controlled environment simulating various crewed habitat scenarios. The ARREM project's strengths include access to a vast array of existing developmental hardware that perform all the vital atmosphere revitalization functions, exceptional test facilities to fully evaluate system performance, and a well-coordinated partnering effort among the NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed.

  19. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan quarterly report. Fourth quarter, 1989. Rept. for 1 Oct-31 Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-28

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commerical-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains environmental compliance data reports, results of industrial hygiene compliance monitoring, and independent audits. Table 2-1 shows 14 of the 20 supplemental monitoring sites sampled during the quarter.

  20. Long-term environmental monitoring at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-11-01

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for over 45 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations (nuclear and nonnuclear) on air, surface and ground water, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils and vegetation. Data from monitoring efforts are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1988, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is increasing. The Hanford Site also serves as a refuge for Canada good (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various plants and other animals, e.g., (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyote (Canis latrans). 32 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jisha, N. V.; Krishnakumar, D. N.; Surya Prakash, G.; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-03-01

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify 41Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  2. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  3. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jisha, N V; Krishnakumar, D N; Surya Prakash, G; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2012-03-01

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify (41)Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation. PMID:22462965

  4. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor. PMID:26737928

  5. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jisha, N. V.; Krishnakumar, D. N.; Surya Prakash, G.; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-03-15

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify {sup 41}Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  6. Active sites environmental monitoring program. Annual report FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) at ORNL from October 1991 through September 1992. Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division established ASEMP in 1989 to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by Chapter 2 and 3 of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF) began operation in December 1991. Monitoring results from the tumulus and IWMF disposal pads continue to indicate that no LLW is leaching from the storage vaults. Storm water falling on the IWMF active pad was collected and transported to the Process Waste Treatment Plant while operators awaited approval of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Several of the recent samples collected from the active IWMF pad had pH levels above the NPDES limit of 9.0 because of alkali leached from the concrete. The increase in gross beta activity has been slight; only 1 of the 21 samples collected contained activity above the 5.0 Bq/L action level. Automated sample-collection and flow-measurement equipment has been installed at IWMF and is being tested. The flume designed to electronically measure flow from the IWMF pads and underpads is too large to be of practical value for measuring most flows at this site. Modification of this system will be necessary. A CO{sub 2} bubbler system designed to reduce the pH of water from the pads is being tested at IWMF.

  7. OFF-SITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT: RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with s...

  8. OFF-SITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT: RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with s...

  9. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  10. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  11. Calendar Year 2005 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2005 monitoring data is deferred to the ''Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium'' (BWXT 2006). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and

  12. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  13. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns. PMID:26414739

  14. MedMon: securing medical devices through wireless monitoring and anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Raghunathan, Anand; Jha, Niraj K

    2013-12-01

    Rapid advances in personal healthcare systems based on implantable and wearable medical devices promise to greatly improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment for a range of medical conditions. However, the increasing programmability and wireless connectivity of medical devices also open up opportunities for malicious attackers. Unfortunately, implantable/wearable medical devices come with extreme size and power constraints, and unique usage models, making it infeasible to simply borrow conventional security solutions such as cryptography. We propose a general framework for securing medical devices based on wireless channel monitoring and anomaly detection. Our proposal is based on a medical security monitor (MedMon) that snoops on all the radio-frequency wireless communications to/from medical devices and uses multi-layered anomaly detection to identify potentially malicious transactions. Upon detection of a malicious transaction, MedMon takes appropriate response actions, which could range from passive (notifying the user) to active (jamming the packets so that they do not reach the medical device). A key benefit of MedMon is that it is applicable to existing medical devices that are in use by patients, with no hardware or software modifications to them. Consequently, it also leads to zero power overheads on these devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal by developing a prototype implementation for an insulin delivery system using off-the-shelf components (USRP software-defined radio). We evaluate its effectiveness under several attack scenarios. Our results show that MedMon can detect virtually all naive attacks and a large fraction of more sophisticated attacks, suggesting that it is an effective approach to enhancing the security of medical devices. PMID:24473551

  15. Development of a millimeter-wave sensor for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-06-01

    A millimeter-wave (mm-wave) sensor in the frequency range of 225-315 GHz is being developed for continuous emission monitoring of airborne effluents from industrial sites for environmental compliance monitoring and process control. Detection of chemical species is based on measuring the molecular rotational energy transitions at mm-wave frequencies. The mm-wave technique offers better transmission properties compared to optics in harsh industrial environments with smoke, dust, aerosols, and steam, as well as in adverse atmospheric conditions. The laboratory measurements indicate that polar molecules can be measured with a sensitivity of tens of parts-per-million-meter using this technology. Proof of principle of the open-path system was tested by releasing and detecting innocuous chemicals in the open air. It uses a monostatic radar configuration with transmitter and receiver on one side and a comer cube on tire other side of the plume to be measured. A wide-band swept frequency mm-wave signal is transmitted through the plume and return signal from the comer cube is detected by a hot-electron-bolometer. Absorption spectra of plume gases are measured by comparing the return signals with and without the plume in the beam path. Using signal processing based on deconvolution, high specificity of detection has been shown for resolving individual chemicals from a mixture. This technology is applicable for real-time measurement of a suite of airborne gases/vapors emitted from vents and stacks of process industries. A prototype sensor is being developed for wide-area monitoring of industrial sites and in-place monitoring of stack gases.

  16. Development of a millimeter-wave sensor for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1995-10-01

    A millimeter-wave (mm-wave) sensor in the frequency range of 225-315 GHz is being developed for continuous emission monitoring for airborne effluents from industrial sites with applicability to environmental compliance monitoring and process control. Detection of chemical species is based on measuring the molecular rotational energy transitions at mm- wave frequencies. The mm-wave technique offers better transmission properties than do optics in harsh industrial environemnts such as those with smoke, dust, aerosols, and steam, as well as in adverse atmospheric conditions. Laboratory million-meter with this technology. Proof of principle of the open-path system has been tested by releasing and detecting innocuous chemicals in the open air. The system uses a monostatic radar configuration with transmitter and receiver on one side of the plume to be measured an a corner cube on the other side. A wide-band swept-frequency mm-wave signal is transmitted through the plume, and the return signal from the corner cube is detected by a hot-electron-bolometer. Aborption spectra of the plume gases are measured by comparing the return signal processing technique based on deconvolution, we have shown a high specificity of detection for resolving individual chemicals from a mixture. This technology is applicable for real-time measurement of a suite of airborne gases and vapors emitted from vents and stacks of process industries. A prototype sensor is being developed for wide-area monitoring of industrial sites and in-place monitoring of stack gases.

  17. Environmental monitoring and surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1993 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1994-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance are conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its environs throughout the year. Environmental monitoring ensures that (1) the reservation is a safe place to work, (2) activities on the reservation do not adversely affect the neighboring communities, and (3) compliance is made with federal and state regulations. This document is a compilation of the monitoring and surveillance data for calendar year 1993. It is a tool for analysts in the fields of environmental monitoring and environmental restoration. The summary information found in the annual site environmental report was drawn from the contents of summary in this document.

  18. Environmental monitoring and surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 data

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.V.

    1996-10-01

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance are conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its environs throughout the year. Environmental monitoring ensures that (1) the reservation is a safe place to work, (2) activities on the reservation do not adversely affect the neighboring communities, and (3) compliance is made with federal and state regulations. This document is a compilation of the monitoring and surveillance data for calendar year 1995. It is a tool for analysts in the fields of environmental monitoring and environmental restoration. The summary information found in the annual site environmental report was drawn from the contents of this document.

  19. Calendar Year 2004 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2004 monitoring data is deferred to the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium (BWXT 2005). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and

  20. Agriculture and food availability -- remote sensing of agriculture for food security monitoring in the developing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budde, Michael E.; Rowland, James; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    For one-sixth of the world’s population - roughly 1 billion children, women and men - growing, buying or receiving adequate, affordable food to eat is a daily uncertainty. The World Monetary Fund reports that food prices worldwide increased 43 percent in 2007-2008, and unpredictable growing conditions make subsistence farming, on which many depend, a risky business. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are part of a network of both private and government institutions that monitor food security in many of the poorest nations in the world.

  1. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This progress report discusses environmental monitoring activities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for 1989. Topics include climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, demography, unusual events or releases, radioactive and nonradioactive releases, compliance summary, environmental nonradiological program information, environmental radiological program information, groundwater protection monitoring ad quality assurance. 5 figs., 7 tabs. (KJD)

  2. 30 CFR 280.29 - Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.29 Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 280.29 Section 280.29 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 30 CFR 280.29 - Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.29 Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS monitor the environmental effects...

  4. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  5. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  6. NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    During the next few years the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will field new operational capabilities for monitoring the near-earth space environment in addition to maintaining continued measurements in geostationary orbit. The most exciting new capability will be transitioning routine solar wind and magnetic field measurements at L1 (240 Re) from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite to the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) which will be launched in early 2015 with a projected on-orbit readiness in mid-2015. Also under consideration is a solar-sail demonstration mission, called SUNJAMMER, for acquiring plasma and field measurements at twice the L1 location. Both DSCOVR and SUNJAMMER will provide a near-term advanced warning of impending space weather events that can adversely affect communications, satellite operations, GPS positioning and commercial air transportation. NESDIS has also supported the development of a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) which could provide a several day warning of space weather when coupled with an interplanetary disturbance propagation model like ENLIL. Routine monitoring of the ionosphere will be provided by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) II as a system which is a partnership among the Taiwan's National Space Organization, the U.S. Air Force and NOAA. The new operational capabilities provided by DSCOVR, SUNJAMMER, CCOR and COSMIC II are provided against the backdrop of continued space environmental measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which, in the near future, will transition to the GOES-R series of advanced space weather sensors. Continued space environmental measurements in polar low earth orbit (LEO) will continue to be provided by the remaining Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the European MetOp satellites. Instrument specialists at the National Geophysical Data Center

  7. ZigBee wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Shun-qi; Ji, Lei; Wu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    ZigBee is a new close-up, low-complexity, low-power, low data rate, low-cost wireless networking technology, mainly used for short distance wireless transmission. It is based on IEEE802.15.4 standards, thousands of tiny sensors form a network through mutual coordination to communications. This paper introduces the ZigBee wireless sensor networks in environmental monitoring applications. The hardware design, including microprocessor, data acquisition, antenna and peripheral circuits of the chips, and through software design composed ZigBee mesh network that can make data acquisition and communication. This network has low power consumption, low cost, the effective area is big, and information transfers reliable merits. And have confirmed the network's communication applicability by the Serial Com Assistant, also testified the network have very good pragmatism by the NS2 emulation the network's operation.

  8. Compact Raman instrumentation for process and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrabba, Michael M.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Rauh, R. D.

    1991-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful noninvasive tool for elucidating chemical structure. Like infrared spectroscopy, it has many potential practical applications, such as process monitoring, environmental sensing, clinical analysis, forensic identification, and as a detector for use with analytical instruments. Until recently, however, Raman has been considered mainly in the context of basic research. The present generation of high performance Raman instruments tend to be large, complex and expensive, and thus have been of primary interest only to specialists in the field. This paper will discuss the development of a compact Raman spectrometer system consisting of a diode laser, fiber optics of excitation and collection, and a compact spectrograph with charge coupled device (CCD) detection.

  9. Environmental monitoring around the power station in Altbach/Deizisau

    SciTech Connect

    Necker, P.; Lehmann, B.; Barton-Bieg, M.

    1998-07-01

    During the years 1984 to 1997, and in the context of the approval procedure for the two electricity/heat cogeneration power plants HKW1 (1986; 420 MW{sub el} or 375 MW{sub el} + 280 MW{sub th}) and HKW2 (1997; 380 MW{sub el} or 335 MW{sub el} + 280 MW{sub th}), a comprehensive environmental monitoring program was conducted in the area surrounding the Altbach/Deizisau Power Station of Neckarwerke Stuttgart AG (NWS). The program consisted of physical emission measurements of the following air pollutants: SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO, HF, HC, dustfall and floating dust; of a measurement program using biological indicators in order to detect reactions and accumulations; and of soil analyses. The present paper informs about implementation, results and experience gained with these different measurement methods.

  10. Recent trends in nanomaterials applications in environmental monitoring and remediation.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumistha; Sen, Biswarup; Debnath, Nitai

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today, and it is increasing with every passing year and causing grave and irreparable damage to the earth. Nanomaterials, because of their novel physical and chemical characteristics, have great promise to combat environment pollution. Nanotechnology is being used to devise pollution sensor. A variety of materials in their nano form like iron, titanium dioxide, silica, zinc oxide, carbon nanotube, dendrimers, polymers, etc. are increasingly being used to make the air clean, to purify water, and to decontaminate soil. Nanotechnology is also being used to make renewable energy cheaper and more efficient. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture sector will reduce the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals and thus will reduce the load of chemical pollutant. While remediating environment pollution with nanomaterials, it should also be monitored that these materials do not contribute further degradation of the environment. This review will focus broadly on the applications of nanotechnology in the sustainable development with particular emphasis on renewable energy, air-, water-, and soil-remediation. Besides, the review highlights the recent developments in various types of nanomaterials and nanodevices oriented toward pollution monitoring and remediation. PMID:26490920

  11. Environmental monitoring at two Department of Energy sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site was established in southeastern Washington to produce plutonium during World War II. The Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle was originally used for loading conventional ammunition shells and bombs, but was rehabilitated and enhanced in the 1950s to assemble nuclear weapons. Environmental monitoring has been ongoing at both locations for several decades. Monitoring objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of facility operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils, and vegetation. Measured concentrations of airborne radionuclides around the perimeters of both sites are currently below applicable guidelines. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River at Hanford, and radiological and nonradiological water quality in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath the Pantex Plant are in compliance with applicable standards. Foodstuffs irrigated with river water downstream from the Hanford Site show levels of radionuclides that are similar to those found in foodstuffs from controls areas. The low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in some onsite Hanford wildlife samples and concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation from onsite and offsite at both locations are typical of those attributable to naturally occurring radioactivity and to worldwide fallout.

  12. Evaluation of a hydrogen chloride detector for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Moyer, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a hydrogen chloride detector designed to monitor concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas in the ambient environment. The detector was developed for NASA for use in launch vehicle effluent monitoring. The detector operates on chemiluminescence principles with a lower detection limit of less than 5 x 10 to the -3rd ppm (by volume). The hydrogen chloride in the air sample reacts with a bromide-bromate coating in the inlet tube of the instrument producing bromine. Bromine is then quantitated by chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol. The visible light generated in the chemiluminescent reaction is proportional to the hydrogen chloride concentration of the sampled airstream. The detector is most suited to laboratory or field studies where hydrogen chloride is the dominant pollutant, as compared to the interfering species. Interferences include strong acids, acid-forming gases, and halogen gases. Of the interferences investigated the most serious in these groups are hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine, respectively. The detector has been in use since 1974 and has been found to be highly portable, rugged, and stable under extreme environmental conditions.

  13. Bioindicators as metrics for environmental monitoring of desalination plant discharges.

    PubMed

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Loya-Fernández, A; Ferrero-Vicente, L M; Marco-Méndez, C; Martinez-Garcia, E; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2016-02-15

    Development of desalination projects requires simple methodologies and tools for cost-effective and environmentally-sensitive management. Sentinel taxa and biotic indices are easily interpreted in the perspective of environment management. Echinoderms are potential sentinel taxon to gauge the impact produced by brine discharge and the BOPA index is considered an effective tool for monitoring different types of impact. Salinity increase due to desalination brine discharge was evaluated in terms of these two indicators. They reflected the environmental impact and recovery after implementation of a mitigation measure. Echinoderms disappeared at the station closest to the discharge during the years with highest salinity and then recovered their abundance after installation of a diffuser reduced the salinity increase. In the same period, BOPA responded due to the decrease in sensitive amphipods and the increase in tolerant polychaete families when salinities rose. Although salinity changes explained most of the observed variability in both indicators, other abiotic parameters were also significant in explaining this variability. PMID:26781455

  14. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from short-duration shuttle missions lasting no more than several days to the medium-to-long-duration missions planned for the International Space Station, face a number of hazards that must be understood and mitigated for the mission to be carried out safely. Among these hazards are those posed by the internal environment of the spacecraft itself; through outgassing of toxic vapors from plastics and other items, failures or off-nominal operations of spacecraft environmental control systems, accidental exposure to hazardous compounds used in experiments: all present potential hazards that while small, may accumulate and pose a danger to crew health. The first step toward mitigating the dangers of these hazards is understanding the internal environment of the spacecraft and the compounds contained within it. Future spacecraft will have integrated networks of redundant sensors which will not only inform the crew of hazards, but will pinpoint the problem location and, through analysis by intelligent systems, recommend and even implement a course of action to stop the problem. This strategic plan details strategies to determine NASA's requirements for environmental monitoring and control systems for future spacecraft, and goals and objectives for a program to answer these needs.

  15. THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM FOR THE GREAT RIVER ECOSYSTEM (EMAP-GRE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring and assessment tools, including sample designs, analytical procedures, field protocols, metrics and reference conditions are not well developed for Great River Ecosystems such as the Missouri, Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Pr...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: CURRENT STATUS OF VIRGINIAN PROVINCE (U.S.) ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of indicators of the ecological condition of bays, tidal rivers, and estuaries within the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Cape Henry, Virginia) was conducted annually by the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) ...

  17. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, A.J.; Lindeken, C.L.; Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-04-15

    The results of environmental monitoring for 1980 at the Livermore National Laboratory are presented. Radioactivity in air, soil, sewage, water, vegetation and food, and milk was measured. Noise pollution, beryllium, heavy metals, and pesticides were monitored. (ACR)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  19. COMBINING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FROM MULTIPLE MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR RISK EXPOSURE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We consider the problem of integrating environmental data from several monitoring systems over time and space. Many different monitoring instruments and analytical techniques have been used to measure ambient air quality due to advances in measurement technology. Quite often, t...

  20. Monitoring environmental state of Alaskan forests with AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Way, Jobea; Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cindy; Viereck, Les; Adams, Phylis

    1992-01-01

    During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collected at P-, L-, and C-bands each over a period of a few days. The AIRSAR campaigns were complemented with extensive ground measurements that included observations of both static canopy characteristics such as forest architecture as well as properties that vary on short term time scales such as canopy dielectric conditions. Observations exist for several stands of deciduous and coniferous species including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Although the duration of each campaign was fairly short, significant changes in environmental conditions caused notable variations in the physiological state of the canopies. During the 1988 campaign, environmental conditions ranged from unseasonably warm to more normal subfreezing temperatures. This permitted AIRSAR observations of frozen and thawed canopy states. During May 1991, ice jams that occurred along the river caused many stands to flood while the subsequent clearing of the river then allowed the waters to recede, leaving a snow covered ground surface. This allowed observations of several stands during both flooded and nonflooded conditions. Furthermore, the local weather varied from clear sunny days to heavy overcast days with some occurrence of rain. Measurements of leaf water potential indicated that this caused significant variations in canopy water status, allowing SAR observations of water stressed and unstressed trees. Mean backscatter from several stands is examined for the various canopy physiological states. The changes in canopy backscatter that occur as a function of environmental and physiological state are analyzed. Preliminary results of a backscatter signature modeling analysis are presented

  1. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  2. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Gonzalez, M.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1983-03-14

    Environmental monitoring efforts spanned air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs, and radiation doses. Monitoring data collection, analysis, and evaluation are presented for air, soils, sewage, water, vegetation and foodstuffs, milk, and general environmental radioactivity. Non-radioactive monitoring addresses beryllium, chemical effluents in sewage, noise pollution, and storm runoff and liquid discharge site pollutants. Quality assurance efforts are addressed. Five appendices present tabulated data; environmental activity concentration; dose calculation method; discharge limits to sanitary sewer systems of Livermore; and sampling and analytical procedures for environmental monitoring. (PSB)

  3. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  4. Central Asia Environmental Security Technical Workshop: Responding to the CENTCOM Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R

    2002-08-01

    Environmental security is not formally classified as a ''vital mission'' in the USCENTCOM ranking of priorities in its area of responsibility. Rather, it is ranked as an ''other/important'' mission in Central Asia, thereby supporting the war making efforts in the region by improving stability of the regimes in the region. Environmental security is, however, the USCENTCOM primary mechanism for engagement in the region. USCENTCOM sees environmental issues as among the most destabilizing issues in the region; anything that can be done to ameliorate them, works to enhance stability. By environmental issues, USCENTCOM includes: water access, quality, and control, transboundary resource competition, migration of pollutants, land use, public health/HIV/Famine, and industrial pollution. Objectives of USCENTCOM work in Central Asia are: improving resource use, disaster response, international cooperation, and civil-military cooperation, particularly with the local military and between the local civilians and the U.S. military. Activities to date include assistance, education, and military-to-military contacts, bilateral and multilateral conferences on the issues, and interagency coordination in the region. The Comprehensive Threat Reduction program has been the backbone of its Central Asian funding.

  5. New parsimonious simulation methods and tools to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations

    PubMed Central

    Antle, John M.; Stoorvogel, Jetse J.; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical foundations for new parsimonious simulation models that are being used to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations. The conceptual framework integrates key features of the biophysical and economic processes on which the farming systems are based. The approach represents a methodological advance by coupling important behavioural processes, for example, self-selection in adaptive responses to technological and environmental change, with aggregate processes, such as changes in market supply and demand conditions or environmental conditions as climate. Suitable biophysical and economic data are a critical limiting factor in modelling these complex systems, particularly for the characterization of out-of-sample counterfactuals in ex ante analyses. Parsimonious, population-based simulation methods are described that exploit available observational, experimental, modelled and expert data. The analysis makes use of a new scenario design concept called representative agricultural pathways. A case study illustrates how these methods can be used to assess food and environmental security. The concluding section addresses generalizations of parametric forms and linkages of regional models to global models. PMID:24535388

  6. New parsimonious simulation methods and tools to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations.

    PubMed

    Antle, John M; Stoorvogel, Jetse J; Valdivia, Roberto O

    2014-04-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical foundations for new parsimonious simulation models that are being used to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations. The conceptual framework integrates key features of the biophysical and economic processes on which the farming systems are based. The approach represents a methodological advance by coupling important behavioural processes, for example, self-selection in adaptive responses to technological and environmental change, with aggregate processes, such as changes in market supply and demand conditions or environmental conditions as climate. Suitable biophysical and economic data are a critical limiting factor in modelling these complex systems, particularly for the characterization of out-of-sample counterfactuals in ex ante analyses. Parsimonious, population-based simulation methods are described that exploit available observational, experimental, modelled and expert data. The analysis makes use of a new scenario design concept called representative agricultural pathways. A case study illustrates how these methods can be used to assess food and environmental security. The concluding section addresses generalizations of parametric forms and linkages of regional models to global models. PMID:24535388

  7. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers. PMID:27428555

  8. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan quarterly report. First quarter 1988. Report for 1 January-31 March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Twenty-two supplemental monitoring sites have been designated, to date. This report describes ambient and source compliance data collected during the quarter, progress in performance monitoring, certification for air quality, monitoring audits, and initial industrial hygiene supplemental monitoring.

  9. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.'' AGENCY: Council On Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Draft Guidance, ``NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.'' SUMMARY: On February 18, 2010, the Council on Environmental Quality...

  10. A multimedia approach to environmental monitoring in a northern environment: The Slave River environmental quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Peddle, J.; Stephens, G.; Robertson, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Quality Monitoring Program is a multimedia sampling program that was established in 1990 to characterize baseline conditions of the aquatic ecosystem in the Slave River at Fort Smith, NWT, Canada. The comprehensive nature of the sampling program made it the first of its kind in the Northwest Territories. The Slave River watershed drains an area of approximately 600,000 km{sup 2}, including the Peace and Athabasca Rivers, with the territorial portion being the furthest downstream. Increase in developments in the upstream portion of the basin prompted concerns by northern residents. In order to answer the questions of ``Can one drink the water?`` and ``Can one eat the fish?``, the program had to take an ecosystem approach and analyze a variety of media including water, suspended sediment and fish. In addition, benthic surveys, stable isotope work and delta coring were carried out in conjunction with this study. Samples were collected under both winter ({minus}40 C, under ice) and summer conditions. Samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic parameters including mixed function oxygenases (MFOs), dioxins, furans and other organochlorines. There was an emphasis on those contaminants likely to result from anthropogenic developments upstream, namely pulp and paper mills, agricultural activities and hydrocarbon developments. A comprehensive and extensive database was created which can be used to address concerns, aid in transboundary negotiations and monitor future changes in the quality of the aquatic environment.

  11. Use of Earth Observation Data for Environmental Monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the Framework of MESA IGAD THEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atheru, Zachary; Fortunate, Muyambi

    2015-12-01

    The achievements and challenges on the implementation of activities of IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) regarding the use of Earth Observation data for environmental monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the framework of MESA IGAD THEMA. Examples of the outputs from the Land Degradation Assessment, Natural Habitat Conservation and Forest Monitoring are provided and explained. The difficulties faced in communicating and disseminating information particularly to decision makers are highlighted. Also outlined is the scope and expected results from the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) IGAD Thematic action and emphasis placed on lessons learnt on (i) developing services from products (ii) strengthening national networks (III) disseminating and communicating information to decision and policy makers, and (iv) capacity building. The overall objective of the MESA programme in the IGAD region is to enhance land degradation mitigation, natural habitats assessment and Forest Monitoring for sustainable management of environmental resources through the use of Earth Observation data. This is done by strengthening the Earth Observation information management capacity of regional and national institutions in order to support decision and policy making processes. The services produce and distribute regularly land degradation index maps, land cover change indicators on IGAD selected Natural Habitats areas, Forest degradation, deforestation extent, vulnerability index map. It also develops the political and policy frameworks that are strengthened to ensure an active and sustainable participation of IGAD member states in global environmental surveillance initiatives and finally give adequate technical capacity of MESA IGAD stakeholders.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Monitoring Program annual report for 2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/California Environmental Monitoring Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/California Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2010 program report describes the activities undertaken during the previous year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/California.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report for Calendar Year 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 Update program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan quarterly report, first quarter, 1989. Report for 1 January 1989-31 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. The compliance monitoring data, supplemental, environmental, and industrial-hygiene activities are summarized, and the results of the compliance program audit are also included. The main text is 23 pages; the ambient air monitoring reports, including computer data sheets, comprises the bulk of the report.

  15. New perspectives in ecosystem services science as instruments to understand environmental securities.

    PubMed

    Villa, Ferdinando; Voigt, Brian; Erickson, Jon D

    2014-04-01

    As societal demand for food, water and other life-sustaining resources grows, the science of ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a promising tool to improve our understanding, and ultimately the management, of increasingly uncertain supplies of critical goods provided or supported by natural ecosystems. This promise, however, is tempered by a relatively primitive understanding of the complex systems supporting ES, which as a result are often quantified as static resources rather than as the dynamic expression of human-natural systems. This article attempts to pinpoint the minimum level of detail that ES science needs to achieve in order to usefully inform the debate on environmental securities, and discusses both the state of the art and recent methodological developments in ES in this light. We briefly review the field of ES accounting methods and list some desiderata that we deem necessary, reachable and relevant to address environmental securities through an improved science of ES. We then discuss a methodological innovation that, while only addressing these needs partially, can improve our understanding of ES dynamics in data-scarce situations. The methodology is illustrated and discussed through an application related to water security in the semi-arid landscape of the Great Ruaha river of Tanzania. PMID:24535393

  16. New perspectives in ecosystem services science as instruments to understand environmental securities

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Voigt, Brian; Erickson, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    As societal demand for food, water and other life-sustaining resources grows, the science of ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a promising tool to improve our understanding, and ultimately the management, of increasingly uncertain supplies of critical goods provided or supported by natural ecosystems. This promise, however, is tempered by a relatively primitive understanding of the complex systems supporting ES, which as a result are often quantified as static resources rather than as the dynamic expression of human–natural systems. This article attempts to pinpoint the minimum level of detail that ES science needs to achieve in order to usefully inform the debate on environmental securities, and discusses both the state of the art and recent methodological developments in ES in this light. We briefly review the field of ES accounting methods and list some desiderata that we deem necessary, reachable and relevant to address environmental securities through an improved science of ES. We then discuss a methodological innovation that, while only addressing these needs partially, can improve our understanding of ES dynamics in data-scarce situations. The methodology is illustrated and discussed through an application related to water security in the semi-arid landscape of the Great Ruaha river of Tanzania. PMID:24535393

  17. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  18. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM FOR MONITORING AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification Program is a service of the Environmental Protection Agency designed to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of performance. The goal of ETV i...

  20. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127