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Dan Marino Helping Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... Marino Foundation. Photo: Dan Marino Foundation Former NFL star quarterback Dan Marino and his wife Claire experienced ... to succeed in life,'" says the former NFL star. "That's where the focus for The Dan Marino ...


Multiple sclerosis in the Republic of San Marino.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy have grossly underestimated the prevalence of the disease. The prevalence in the Republic of San Marino (near Rimini), in Sicily, and no doubt in the rest of Italy, is of the same order of magnitude as in Europe--that is, 40-60/100 000. The contrast of this with the very low prevalence in Malta (only 60 miles (96 km) away from Sicily) of 4/100 000 should provide a clue to the genetic and environmental factors responsible for multiple sclerosis. PMID:6707559

Morganti, G; Naccarato, S; Elian, M; Ferrari, P; Kelly, R; Karhausen, L; Dean, G



The San Marino Scale: A new analytical tool for assessing transmission risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly everyone is familiar with the Richter Scale for quantifying earthquake severity. Can we similarly quantify the potential hazard of active SETI, that is, transmitting signals into space from Earth? The San Marino Scale is an attempt to do just that. It is an ordinal scale between 1 and 10, used to quantify the potential risk of employing electromagnetic communications

Iván Almár; H. Paul Shuch



Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Hardware Mario Marino, Gabriel Robins, Kevin Skadron, and Liang Wang  

E-print Network

of automatically translating theoretical computation models into an implementation-ready hardware description computational models, such as the Bounded-Error Quantum Polynomial-Time model employed in quantum computing [2Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Hardware Mario Marino, Gabriel Robins, Kevin Skadron, and Liang

Skadron, Kevin


Prostate Visualization with Overlapping Regions of Interest Joseph Marino Arie Kaufman  

E-print Network

Prostate Visualization with Overlapping Regions of Interest Joseph Marino Arie Kaufman Stony Brook of prostate MRI data and CAD results, referred to as score values. In this system, it is also possible--Interaction techniques 1 INTRODUCTION Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide [4]. Recently


A fault-tolerant modular control approach to multi-robot perimeter patrol Alessandro Marino, Lynne E. Parker, Gianluca Antonelli, Fabrizio Caccavale and Stefano Chiaverini  

E-print Network

methodologies are based on the assumption of static environments. When dealing with swarms of autonomous robotsA fault-tolerant modular control approach to multi-robot perimeter patrol Alessandro Marino, Lynne scale multi-robot systems is motivated by a number of desirable features, such as scalability, fault

Parker, Lynne E.


First-principles characterization of Ni diffusion kinetics in -NiAl Kristen A. Marino1 and Emily A. Carter2  

E-print Network

First-principles characterization of Ni diffusion kinetics in -NiAl Kristen A. Marino1 and Emily A calculations are performed to examine five postulated diffusion mechanisms for Ni in NiAl: next that the triple defect mechanism and 110 six-jump cycle both are likely contributors to Ni diffusion in NiAl since

Carter, Emily A.


The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological observations began in Lisbon,in December 1854, in a site not far away from Franzini's station. The long series of Lisbon includes the 1835-54 Franzini's series.

Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima



El Futuro de los Recursos Pesqueros Marinos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we do not act soon, many marine fish species will disappear. To address this potential catastrophe, we need to reduce overfishing, destructive fishing practices, and ecosystem pollution. The English version is found at

J. Emmett Duffy (Virginia Institute of Marine Science;)



Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

Tancredi, G.


MARINO RECREATION CENTER Monday, July 5 Monday, July 12, 2010  

E-print Network

:30pm Closed: Judo Club 9:30pm ­ 11:45pm Open Thursday 5:00am ­ 11:45am Open 11:45am ­ 1:00pm Closed Closed: Judo Club 9:30pm ­ 11:45pm Open Friday 5:00am ­ 11:45pm Open Saturday 8:00am ­ 8:45pm Open #12/12) 5:00am ­ 6:00pm Open 6:00pm ­ 7:30pm Closed: Group Fitness Class 7:30pm ­ 9:30pm Closed: Judo Club 9

Sridhar, Srinivas



E-print Network

the student for ad- vanced work in law and medicine as well as theology. Based primarily upon Aristotle nature, was the path to wisdom. Undergraduate textbooks were Aristotle's logic (Organon), works on gram, and burnished by rhetoric, but only theology can use it." The overwhelming domination of Aristotle

Russell, Lynn


A Review of "Becoming Neapolitan. Citizen Culture in Baroque Naples" by John A. Marino  

E-print Network

(in October 1571) or the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius (in December 1631). There was a significant development in the nature of festivities in that the Church after Trent, and the viceroys tended to exert control over earlier more popular...

Litchfield, R. Burr




E-print Network

Physical Knowledge 14 2.3 .1 Representations 14 2.3 .2 Reasoning Methods 15 2 .4 Design Knowledge 20 2.4 .1 Heuristics 20 2.4 .2 Representing Heuristics 23 2.4 .3 Strategies 25 vi #12;2 .4.4 Configuration Synthesis helpful comments. · The NASA Johnson Space Center and the NASA Langley Research Center for supporting

Forbus, Kenneth D.


The "0", is it an obstacle? Di Leonardo M.V., Marino T., Spagnolo F.1  

E-print Network

, like Bruosseau say, "obstacles" to learn the mathematics. Surely that obstacles could be defined experimental phase relating to a preparation of a pre-test (see Appendice 2) 1.1 Why the "zero"? Does it exist and acquaintance process transforming something that in an inferior level is purely operational in something

Spagnolo, Filippo


Interacting with the User in Calendar Management Liliana Ardissono, Giovanna Petrone, Marino Segnan, and Gianluca Torta  

E-print Network

problems by incrementally exploring the solution space. Keywords: mixed-initiative scheduling, temporal scheduling options while being aware, at each stage, of their pros and cons. Thus, (s)he can follow to the adoption of a mixed-initiative interaction model, the user can incremen- tally explore the available

Ardissono, Liliana


Deslizamientos, flujos de escombrera y desastres geolgicos similares provenientes de volcanes  

E-print Network

fango, flujos de fango o avalanchas de escombrera) generalmente ocurren durante lluvias intensas en suelos ya saturados con agua. Usualmente los flujos de escombrera comienzan como pequeñós deslizamientos desliza- mientos durante lluvias intensas. Usualmente la intensidad de las lluvas ncesarias para que se

Torgersen, Christian


Basin boundary metamorphoses and phase J. M. Seoane, S. Zambrano, I. P. Mari~no and M. A. F. Sanjuan  

E-print Network

and the fractal dimension of the corresponding boundaries when this phenomenon occurs. Finally, Melnikov analysis critical value, is called basin boundary meta- morphosis (BBM) [1,2]. In this sense some works haveOFFPRINT Basin boundary metamorphoses and phase control J. M. Seoane, S. Zambrano, I. P. Mari

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Uso de imagens LANDSAT como subsídio ao estudo da dispersão de sedimentos na região da foz do rio São Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a sequence of water reservoirs along the lower São Francisco river basin has caused a severe change in the supply of water and sediments to the coastal zone. We present in this paper a first attempt to use Landsat data to estimate de Suspended Sediment Content (SSC) of the coastal plume. A simple log model proposed by

João Antonio Lorenzzetti; Eduardo Negri


Role for cheR of Vibrio fischeri in the Vibriosquid Cindy R. DeLoney-Marino and Karen L. Visick  

E-print Network

, and rap- idly becomes colonized by the bioluminescent bacterium Vi- brio fischeri shortly after hatching into and permanent colonization by V. fischeri, while excluding all other species of bacteria found in the seawater direct the bacteria towards the organ's surface (Nyholm et al. 2000, 2002). The bacteria are thus swept

McFall-Ngai, Margaret



Microsoft Academic Search

Menorca has experienced a growing popularity with regard to nautical tourism, as shown by saturated coles and beaches in the summer. The large number of boats found in some coastal spots can generate serious environmental problems on the Posidonia oceanica prairies, as well as on loading capacity and perception among the beach visitors.




Reasoning about Time Constraints in a Mixed-Initiative Calendar Manager Liliana Ardissono and Giovanna Petrone and Marino Segnan and Gianluca Torta  

E-print Network

of their properties, needed to present the pros and cons of each possible solution to the user. Keywords: mixed a mixed-initiative scheduling model supporting the user's awareness dur- ing the exploration of the solution space. The paper de- scribes the temporal reasoning techniques underlying MARA (Mixed

Ardissono, Liliana


Atti 17a Conferenza Nazionale ASITA -Riva del Garda 5-7 novembre 2013 Caratterizzazione dell'ambiente marino dei Campi Flegrei.  

E-print Network

delle zone vulcaniche più pericolose e popolate del mondo e comprende la parte occidentale della città. Abstract The caldera of the Phlegraean Fields (also known as Campi Flegrei) is one of the most dangerous (positive or negative) of part of the Earth's surface (bradyseism) combined, only during the positive phase

New Hampshire, University of


Metales pesados en organismos marinos de la zona costera de la Patagonia argentina continental Heavy metals in marine organisms from the coastal zone of Continental Argentine Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were analyzed in mollusks, crustaceans (soft tissue - µg\\/g dry weight), seabirds and marine mammals (kidney, liver and muscle - µg\\/g wet weight), from Patagonian coast of Argentina. Levels of Hg were undetected or very low. Higher than allowable Cd levels for human consumption were recorded in some mollusks (up to 6.75 µg\\/g), even

Mónica N. Gil; Américo Torres; Miguel Harvey; José Luis Esteves



A Designed Protein Interface That Blocks Fibril Formation Ushma J. Shukla, Heather Marino, Po-Ssu Huang, Stephen L. Mayo, and John J. Love*,  

E-print Network

-A. Monomer-B fibrils were subjected to TEM imaging to confirm that the fibrils formed were indeed amyloid multimers. Unlike native complexes, some proteins as- semble erroneously, resulting in amyloid fibrils-reactive protein has been shown to break down amyloid deposits in the body.3 In addition, Dumoulin et al. recently

Love, John J.


Humanities 3 (John Marino) Film is Required Viewing; Optional Extra Credit Natalie Zemon Davis, The Return of Martin Guerre (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University  

E-print Network

to help readers understand the problem of self and community at the heart of the case of establishing house late, reads marriage contract, contract signed, marriage feast begins, and couple blessed" attack Martin and Bertrande on a walk, uncle dismisses accusations, Martin's request to square accounts

Russell, Lynn


Relationship between PCBs in suspended and settled sediments from a coastal lagoon Relación entre PCBs en sedimentos suspendidos y depositados de una laguna costera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations and organic matter content were determined in 84 samples of suspended and settled sediments collected from six different locations in the Ria Formosa lagoon (Portugal). Total PCB (tPCB) concentrations were higher in the suspended matter (1.00-39.80 ng g -1 dw) than in the sediments (0.10-2.10 ng g -1 dw) and, in general, the same was

Luísa A. Barreira; Maria J. Bebianno; Stephen M. Mudge; Ana M. Ferreira; Clarisse I. Albino; Luís M. Veriato



100:2564-2576, 2008. First published Aug 27, 2008; doi:10.1152/jn.90688.2008J Neurophysiol Robert A. Marino, C. Kip Rodgers, Ron Levy and Douglas P. Munoz  

E-print Network

motor command signals. We collected extracellular single-unit recordings from 150 visual-motor (VM for Neuroscience Studies, 2 Canadian Institute of Health Research Group in Sensory-Motor Systems, 3 Departments.1152/jn.90688.2008. The oculomotor system is well understood compared with other motor systems; however

Munoz, Douglas Perry


Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica Coral communities and reefs of Ballena Marine National Park, Pacific coast of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coral communities and reefs at Ballena Marine National Park, on the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, were studied using three 10-m long transects per site, parallel to the coast, with 1-m2 quadrants. A total of 15 species of corals (11 hermatypic and 4 ahermatypic) were found, which when added to previous reports for the park makes a total

Juan José Alvarado; Jorge Cortés; Cindy Fernández; Jaime Nivia


Caracterización bioquímica del pasto marino Zostera marina en el límite sur de su distribución en el Pacífico Norte Biochemical characterization of the eelgrass Zostera marina at its southern distribution limit in the North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eelgrass Zostera marina L. is distributed along the Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) where it is exposed to a wide range of irradiances and temperatures that could promote changes in its biochemical composition. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize the variations in the levels of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, ash and calories in the shoots of Z.

Alejandro Cabello-Pasini; Raquel Muñiz-Salazar; David H. Ward


26 CFR 1.955-4 - Definition of less developed country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Republic) Hong Kong Italy Japan Liechtenstein Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Union of South Africa San Marino Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom. (c) Termination of designation. Section...



26 CFR 1.955-4 - Definition of less developed country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Republic) Hong Kong Italy Japan Liechtenstein Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Union of South Africa San Marino Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom. (c) Termination of designation. Section...



26 CFR 1.955-4 - Definition of less developed country.  

...Republic) Hong Kong Italy Japan Liechtenstein Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Union of South Africa San Marino Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom. (c) Termination of designation. Section...



Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivité hydraulique de la couverture dans son ensemble et les variations de la conductivité hydraulique liées à la stratigraphie de la couverture. A l'intérieur de la couverture, les variations de la conductivité hydraulique, dues à la stratigraphie ou à des discontinuités entre les unités stratigraphiques, sont le contrôle principal de la direction d'écoulement et de la répartition des niveaux et de la salinité de l'eau. La modélisation sur une section transversale a donné des résultats qui confirment l'organisation générale des directions d'écoulement, telle qu'elle pouvait être envisagée dans un aquifère littoral multicouche. L'écoulement souterrain est essentiellement vertical vers le haut dans les unités sédimentaires à faible perméabilité, et essentiellement horizontal dans les unités sédimentaires à forte perméabilité. Resumen El sistema acuífero costero de la zona sur de Oahu, en Hawaii, está formado por acuíferos volcánicos de alta permeabilidad, subyacentes a rocas volcánicas alteradas, con inclusiones de sedimentos marinos y terrestres, tanto de alta como de baja permeabilidad. Al conjunto de rocas volcánicas alteradas y sedimentos se le conoce por "tapón de roca", ya que impide la descarga libre de las aguas subterráneas del acuífero volcánico subyacente. Se usó un modelo de flujo de agua subterránea y transporte de solutos en sección vertical para evaluar los aspectos hidrogeológicos que controlan el flujo regional en la zona sudoeste de Oahu. Se consideraron: (a) la conductividad hidráulica global del tapón y (b) las variaciones estratigráficas de la conductividad hidráulica. En el tapón de roca, las variaciones de la conductividad hidráulica, causadas por la estratigrafía o por discontinuidades en las unidades estratigráficas, son las que controlan la dirección del flujo subterráneo y la distribución de niveles piezométricos y salinidad. Los resultados del modelo en sección transversal confirman la distribución del flujo subterráneo que cabría esperar en un sistema costero estrat

Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.


Explorando el costo-efectividad de instrumentos basados en el mercado para la mejora de la calidad del agua: una modelación espacial económico-ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

El uso agrícola de la tierra en cuencas costeras conduce a la contaminación del agua y degradación subsecuente de recursos costeros y marinos. Para asegurar el desarrollo económico sostenible de las regiones costeras, es necesario balancear los beneficios marginales de la contaminación (agrícola) del agua con los costos marginales asociados a la degradación de los recursos costeros y marinos. La

Peter C. Roebeling; Martijn E. van Grieken



Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quinti??n Bay, Baja California, Mexico [Uso de videografi??a multiespectral digital para evaluar la distributio??n del pasto marino en Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, A.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.; Kempka, R.



Biochemical characterization of the eelgrass Zostera marina at its southern distribution limit in the North Pacific [Caracterizacio??n bioqui??mica del pasto marino Zostera marina en el li??mite sur de su distribucio??n en el Paci??fico Norte  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eelgrass Zostera marina L. is distributed along the Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) where it is exposed to a wide range of irradiances and temperatures that could promote changes in its biochemical composition. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize the variations in the levels of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, ash and calories in the shoots of Z. marina from the north (San Quintin) and south (Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio lagoons) of the peninsula. Temperature in the southern lagoons was 5-6??C higher than in the northern lagoon; likewise, in situ irradiance was two-fold greater in the south than in the north. As a result of the lower irradiance levels, the concentration of chlorophyll in the shoots of Z. marina was twice as high (1.7 mg gWW-1) in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones (0.8 mg gWW-1). Similar to chlorophyll levels, the concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the shoots was greater in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones, suggesting that the high levels of chlorophyll are enough to compensate for the low irradiance levels and to maintain a positive carbon balance at San Quintin. On the other hand, the levels of proteins in the shoots from the north of the peninsula were slightly lower than those from the southern populations. In general, these results suggest that the different environmental conditions to which Z. marina is exposed along the peninsula impact its biochemical composition.

Cabello-Pasini, A.; Muniz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D.H.



15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg...



A review of "John Dryden: A Miscellany. And John Dryden (1631-1700): His Politics, His Plays, and His Poets." by Susan Green and Steven N. Zwicker eds. And Claude Rawson and Aaron Santesso eds.  

E-print Network

. San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 2001. vii+255 pp. And Claude Rawson and Aaron Santesso, eds. John Dryden (1631-1700): His Politics, His Plays, and His Poets. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2004. 301pp. Review by JEROME DONNELLY...

Jerome Donnelly



78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino...the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San...



9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...  

...Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the...



9 CFR 95.4 - Restrictions on the importation of processed animal protein, offal, tankage, fat, glands, certain...  

...Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the...



Operación IceBridge: Explorando la Antártida - Duration: 3:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

Operación IceBridge es una misión aérea de la NASA dedicada a estudiar cambios en el hielo marino y terrestre en ambos polos del planeta. En octubre y noviembre de 2012, IceBridge completó su cuart...


Virus Research 188 (2014) 146154 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

for the in vitro selection of artificial ssDNA or RNA ligands, known as aptamers, which bind to targets through seafood fish throughout China and Southeast Asia (Marino et al., 2001). In recent years, however

Gray, Matthew


15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restrictions in § 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway...



15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Restrictions in § 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway...



15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)  

...Restrictions in § 744.2(a ) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway...



DCC -1 semestre de 2012 TC021 Mecnica Geral I -1 Semestre  

E-print Network

Dalledone Machado Turma B Miguel Frederico Hilgenberg Neto Turma C Marcos Antonio Marino Turma D Marco André Estruturas de Madeira Turma A Miguel Frederico Hilgenberg Neto TC058 Pontes e Estruturas Especiais Turma

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


S E D I M E N T D E F I C I T IN RIVERS CAUSED BYDAMS AND INSTREAM G R AV E L MINING. A R E V I E W WITH EXAMPLES FROM NE SPA I N Déficit de sedimento fluvial a causa de las presas y las extracciones de áridos. Revisión con ejemplos del NE de España  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t : Rivers carry sediment almost continuously from headwaters to deposition zones. Dams and gravel mining interrupt such continuity, causing severe damages to downstream fluvial and coastline ecosystems. Sediment deficit is not only an environmental issue, but also a socio-economic problem. Sediment captured by reservoirs reduces their capacity to store water, and infrastructures

Ramon J. Batalla


INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE CHUFA (Cyperus esculentus) Y PASTO BERMUDA (Cynodon dactylon) CON MULCH VEGETAL PROVENIENTE DE CENTENO (Secale cereale) EN VIDES Growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) by a mulch derived from rye (Secale cereale) in grapevines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005) were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) growing on the planted row produced by a mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless) and

Juan Ormeño-Núñez; Gerardo Pino-Rojas; Farouk Garfe-Vergara


Why Should Community College Faculty Write Grant Proposals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges have seen dramatic enrollment increases (Kasper, 2002), and some are now offering 4-year degrees (Evelyn, 2003). They are eligible for more grants than in the past, and community college funding from state and federal appropriations is shrinking (Lawrence & Marino, 2003). For these reasons, it is imperative that community…

Renninger, Phyl; Meilof, Anne; Pitts, Todd; Smalley, Janie



Integer linear programming models for a cement delivery problem  

E-print Network

Integer linear programming models for a cement delivery problem Alain Hertz D´epartement de and April 4, 2011 Abstract We consider a cement delivery problem with an heterogeneous in [14], [15] and [16] and are reviewed in [4]. In this paper, we study a cement delivery problem which

Hertz, Alain


The Proximity Toolkit and ViconFace: Proximity Toolkit is a toolkit that simplifies the  

E-print Network

Diaz-Marino Department of Computer Science University of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, Alberta Canada T2N 1N4 #12;Proximity currently wraps a Vicon motion capture system: a high-end installation that tracks infrared reflective

Greenberg, Saul



E-print Network


Sridhar, Srinivas


This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

Heterodimer mutant Reaction center structure Primary donor redox potential Photosynthetic reaction center reaction center Nina S. Ponomarenko a , Liang Li a , Antony R. Marino a , Valentina Tereshko a , Agnes Microfluidic Heterodimer mutant reaction centers (RCs) of Blastochloris viridis were crystallized using

Ismagilov, Rustem F.


Abstract The pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma. A granuloma is a multifaceted cellular structure that serves to focus the host immune response,  

E-print Network

127 Abstract The pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma. A granuloma tuberculosis infection, and if a granuloma is capable of inhibiting or killing most of the M. tuberculosis Granuloma Formation and Function in Tuberculosis Mohammad Fallahi-Sichani, Simeone Marino, JoAnne L. Flynn

Kirschner, Denise


Journal of Theoretical Biology 227 (2004) 463486 The human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

tuberculosis in lung and lymph node Simeone Marino*, Denise E. Kirschner Department of Microbiology Abstract A key issue for the study of tuberculosis is to understand why individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) experience different clinical outcomes. To better understand the dynamics

Kirschner, Denise


TNF and IL-10 are major factors in modulation of the phagocytic cell environment in lung and lymph node in tuberculosis: A next-generation  

E-print Network

node in tuberculosis: A next-generation two-compartmental model Simeone Marino a , Amy Myers b , Jo a c t Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the earliest recorded human diseases and still one of the deadliest worldwide. Its causative agent is the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Cytokine

Kirschner, Denise


Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer  

E-print Network

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer Denise Kirschner and Simeone Marino of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the immune system. Different mathematical models were formulated on the basis that contribute to the success of M. tuberculosis as a human pathogen. Our goal is to stimulate experimentation

Kirschner, Denise


Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original…

Bingham, Frederick M.



Teledeteccin de Eventos de Lluvia Episdicos Afectando los Arrecifes de Coral en el Suroeste de Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Teledetección de Eventos de Lluvia Episódicos Afectando los Arrecifes de Coral en el Suroeste de de sus aguas someras y por la alta biodiversidad y densidad de ecosistemas marinos costeros tales como manglares, praderas de yerbas marinas y arrecifes de coral. Un evento de lluvia episódico que

Gilbes, Fernando


Literacy and Community. The Twentieth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association, 1998. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 1997].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 20th Yearbook of the College Reading Association reflects the theme of "community" again and again, in diverse ways. First in the yearbook are the Presidential Address by Marino C. Alvarez, "Adolescent Literacy: Are We in Contact?" and the three Keynote Addresses: "My Life in Reading" (J. Chall); "A Social-Constructivist View of Family…

Sturtevant, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Dugan, JoAnn, Ed.; Linder, Patricia, Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.


The Modifier Model of Autism and Social Development in Higher Functioning Children  

E-print Network

The Modifier Model of Autism and Social Development in Higher Functioning Children Peter C. Mundy, Marino Autism Research Institute Abstract The study of phenotypic variability in social impairments and comorbid emotional disorders in autism is important because it provides information on phenotypic

Nguyen, Danh



EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-ADA-00232 Hantush*, M.M., Harada, M., and Marino, M.A. On the Hydraulics of Stream Flow Routing with Bank Storage. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 7 (1):76-89 (2002). EPA/600/J-02/173. Bank storage is a process in which volumes o...


Wastewater and Watershed Influences on Primary Productivity and Oxygen Dynamics in the Lower Hudson River Estuary  

E-print Network

River Estuary Robert W. Howarth1, 2 , Roxanne Marino1, 2 Dennis P. Swaney2 , and Elizabeth W. Boyer3 1 estuary is strongly regulated by water residence times in the estuary. Nutrient loads and concentrations both by freshwater discharge into the estuary and by tidal mixing, so residence times are longest

Limburg, Karin E.


RARAF Publications This list does not include papers given at scientific meetings unless published in  

E-print Network

.M., Harris, A.L., Ivanov, V., Zhou, H., Amundson, S.A., Lieberman, H.B. and Hei, T.K. The ionizing radiation. 51: 381-390 (1972). 16. Belyakov, O.V., Mitchell, S.A., Parikh, D., Randers-Pehrson, G., Marino, S


Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2002 Section].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following full and short papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "Exploring Minds Network" (Marino C. Alvarez and others); "Learning Communities: A Kaleidoscope of Ecological Designs" (Alain Breuleux and others); "PDA's and Research: A…

Sarner, Ronald, Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary J., Ed.; Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.


Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

Nacional Unidad Mérida Recursos del Mar Investigador Línea de Investigación Luz María Dalila Aldana Aranda, fitoplancton, pastos marinos y manglares. Jesús Ernesto Arias González Ecología del paisaje, conectividad


Lateral adaptive control for vehicle lane keeping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with the vehicle lateral control problem. More precisely, we solve this problem by properly applying the self-tuning regulator proposed in [Marino, R and Tomei, P (1995)] to the concerned vehicle lateral model. The interest of this solution is that only the lateral displacement at a look-ahead distance is used as the measure for the controller. From a practical

Manana S. Netto; Salim Chaib; S. Mammar



Estrategia reproductiva de la poblacin canaria del erizo aff. Philippi, 1845  

E-print Network

DEPARTAMENTO DE BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (CIENCIAS MARINAS) 38206 LA LAGUNA, TENERIFE. ISLAS CANARIAS. Tel: 922, TENERIFE. ISLAS CANARIAS. Tel: 922.31.83.87 Fax: 922.31.83.11 D. Alberto Brito Hernández, Doctor en enclave... erizo de mar, marino. Domingo Chico, Sueños de Amor y de Mar. Tenerife #12;AGRADECIMIENTOS

Hernández, José Carlos


Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux sont grossièrement caractérisés par des différentes gammes de résistivitéélectrique se recouvrant, dépendant surtout de la teneur en argiles et du degré de cimentation. Les résistivités près de la côte diminuent du fait de l'intrusion marine. Ces variations de résistivité ont été cartographiées à partir de 400km de profils électromagnétiques, dans le domaine temporel ; trois zones ont été distinguées dans l'aquifère alluvial. Le biseau salé a aussi été délimité, jusqu'à 10km de la côte. L'épaisseur de la partie saturée des graviers va de 20-160m sur une étendue supérieure à 600km2. Resumen Un tercio de la población de Omán depende de las aguas subterráneas extraídas del aluvial de la Llanura de Batinah, en la costa del Golfo de Omán. Para determinar la profundidad y naturaleza del aluvial, así como los límites del acuífero, se han usado técnicas de exploración geofísica profunda. El basamento y los límites estructurales del aluvial en su contacto con los sedimentos marinos del Terciario y la ofiolita cretácica se obtuvieron mediante sísmica de reflexión, registrada previamente en campañas de exploración petrolífera. La base del aluvial buza hacia el norte desde el pie de las Montañas del Norte de Omán, alcanzando una profundidad máxima de 2000m en la costa. Las distintas facies del aluvial están caracterizadas por rangos distintos, pero superpuestos, de resistividad eléctrica, dependiendo del contenido en arcillas y del grado de cementación. Las resistividades cerca de la costa se reducen por la intrusión salina. Estas variaciones de resistividad se obtuvieron con registros electromagnéticos a lo largo de un perfil de 400km, con el objetivo de distinguir las tres zonas del acuífero aluvial. También se pudo obtener la geometría de la cuña de intrusión, que llega hasta 10km de la costa. El espesor de las gravas saturadas que forman el acuífero oscila entre los 20-160m en un área superior a 600km2.

Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim



E-print Network

-lago Poopó-salar de Coipasa (TDPS). Esta área presenta una estación seca (DS) y una de lluvias (WS). A pesar), donde un total de 91 muestras de sedimento y 222 muestras de agua intersticial (PW) fueron estudiadas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Shouting in the Jungle - The SETI Transmission Debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prudence of transmitting deliberate messages from Earth into interstellar space remains controversial. Reasoned risk- benefit analysis is needed, to inform policy recommendations by such bodies as the International Academy of Astronautics SETI Permanent Study Group. As a first step, at the 2005 International Astronautical Congress in Fukuoka, we discussed the San Marino Scale, a new analytical tool for assessing transmission risk. That Scale was updated, and a revised version presented at the 2006 IAC in Valencia. We are now in a position to recommend specific improvements to the scale we proposed for quantifying terrestrial transmissions. Our intent is to make this tool better reflect the detectability and potential impact of recent and proposed messages beamed from Earth. We believe the changes proposed herein strengthen the San Marino Scale as an analytical tool, and bring us closer to its eventual adoption.

Schuch, H. P.; Almar, I.


Contributed Paper Rapid Assessment of Risks to a Mobile Marine  

E-print Network

Protegida a Escala de Ecosistema Resumen: Las redes de ´areas marinas protegidas (AMPs) a escala de pastos marinos: uso de redes, cacer´ia por nativos, pesca con redes de arrastre, tr´afico de nav´ios y riesgo, se tendr´ia que disminuir el uso de redes comerciales y la cacer´ia por nativos en ´areas remotas

Marsh, Helene



Microsoft Academic Search

Bullock, N, Martin, DT, Ross, A, Rosemond, CD, Jordan, MJ, and Marino, FE. Acute effect of whole-body vibration on sprint and jumping performance in elite skeleton athletes. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1371-1374, 2008—The winter sliding sport known as skeleton requires athletes to produce a maximal sprint followed by high speed sliding down a bobsled track. Athletes are required to




Dinâmica molecular de hidrolases para sacarificação : de celulose e proteínas correlatas.  

E-print Network

??A biomassa lignocelulósica proveniente do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e de outras matérias-primas é um material altamente promissor para a geração de biocombustíveis renováveis e ambientalmente… (more)

Érica Teixeira Prates



LO SABA?... Jobbagy, Mercau & Nosetto  

E-print Network

, un ingreso al suelo de 20 mm de agua (una lluvia de 25-30 mm) genera un ascenso freático de 10 cm zona saturada (todos los poros ocupados por agua) del perfil de un suelo/sedimento. Los hidrólogos las llaman acuíferos freáticos y las asocian a estratos de buena conductividad capaces de ofrecer agua al

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad


Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original books and manuscripts from the library's own collections. The sheer magnitude of human achievement represented here and the amount of effort and money that must have been required to amass these books boggles the mind.

Bingham, Frederick M.



A Space Physicist's Adventure in K-5 Space Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A UCLA partnership with El Marino Language Elementary School in Culver City CA has provided the opportunity to work with primary grade teachers and students. Our activities have been based around NASA OSS's Sun-Earth Day and Space Day. This year's project is centered around Lockheed-Martin's Student Signatures in Space program and includes a 2-hour after-school Professional Development Workshop for K-5 teachers, solar viewing, and an in class "fun with magnets" activity. The presentation will include a discussion of what NASA K-3 activities have been used and the motivation of the author to form a University-Elementary School partnership.

Moldwin, M. B.



Talking about Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Introduction Timothy Ferris, Iris Fry, Steven Dick, Ann Druyan, Pinky Nelson, Neil Tyson, Steve Benner and William Bains; Part II. Earth Roger Buick, Lynn Rothschild, John Baross, Joe Kirschvink, Andrew Knoll, Simon Conway Morris, Roger Hanlon and Lori Marino; Part III. Solar System Chris McKay, David Grinspoon, Jonathan Lunine, Carolyn Porco, Laurie Leshin, Guy Consolmagno and Peter Smith; Part IV. Exoplanets Alan Boss, Geoff Marcy, Debra Fischer, Sara Seager, David Charbonneau and Vikki Meadows; Part V. Frontiers Jill Tarter, Seth Shostak, Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Ben Bova and Jennifer Michael Hecht; Reading list; Glossary; Index.

Impey, Chris



Four New Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Amazonas, Venezuela  

E-print Network

Four New Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Amazonas, Venezuela JONATHAN W. ARMBRUSTER. lunaorum are described based on specimens from the upper Ri´o Orinoco of southern Venezuela. Hypancistrus la base de especi´menes provenientes de la cuenca alta del ri´o Orinoco en el sur de Venezuela

Armbruster, Jonathan W.



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O estudo teve por objetivos: (a) avaliar a produção de biomassa proveniente da copa do cajueiro- anão precoce, clone CCP 76, com idades de 2, 3, 8 e 9 anos de implantação da cultura; (b) determinar a taxa de decomposição das folhas; e (c) quantificar a contribuição de nutrientes potencialmente disponíveis na biomassa para serem reciclados no solo.

Ismail Soares; Janayna de Albuquerque Queiroz; Vitor Hugo de Oliveira; Lindbergue Araújo Crisóstomo; Teógenes Senna de Oliveira



Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho aborda as características, operacionalidade e produção pesqueira da frota serreira, no município da Raposa, no período de março a dezembro de 2003, com desembarques nos portos da Praia da Raposa e Braga. Os dados utilizados são provenientes da Capitania dos Portos do Maranhão, Progra- ma Revizee (Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica exclusiva) e da comunidade de pescadores do

Elizabeth Galvão Soares; Milton Gonçalves da Silva Júnior


Seventy-One Important Questions for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

The ocean provides food, economic activity, and cultural value for a large proportion of humanity. Our knowledge of marine ecosystems lags behind that of terrestrial ecosystems, limiting effective protection of marine resources. We describe the outcome of 2 workshops in 2011 and 2012 to establish a list of important questions, which, if answered, would substantially improve our ability to conserve and manage the world’s marine resources. Participants included individuals from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations with broad experience across disciplines, marine ecosystems, and countries that vary in levels of development. Contributors from the fields of science, conservation, industry, and government submitted questions to our workshops, which we distilled into a list of priority research questions. Through this process, we identified 71 key questions. We grouped these into 8 subject categories, each pertaining to a broad component of marine conservation: fisheries, climate change, other anthropogenic threats, ecosystems, marine citizenship, policy, societal and cultural considerations, and scientific enterprise. Our questions address many issues that are specific to marine conservation, and will serve as a road map to funders and researchers to develop programs that can greatly benefit marine conservation. Setenta y Un Preguntas Importantes para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad Marina Resumen Los océanos proporcionan alimento, actividad económica y valor cultural para una gran porción de la humanidad. Nuestro conocimiento de los ecosistemas marinos está atrasado con respecto al que tenemos de los ecosistemas terrestres, lo que limita la protección efectiva de los recursos naturales. Describimos el resultado de dos talleres en 2011 y 2012 para establecer una lista de preguntas importantes, las cuales al ser respondidas, mejorarían sustancialmente nuestra habilidad de conservar y manejar los recursos marinos del mundo. Entre los participantes se incluyeron a individuos de la docencia, el gobierno y organizaciones no-gubernamentales, con una amplia experiencia que atraviesa disciplinas, ecosistemas marinos y países que varían en el nivel de desarrollo. Los contribuyentes de los campos de la ciencia, la conservación, la industria y el gobierno, presentaron preguntas a nuestros talleres, las cuales separamos en una lista de preguntas de investigación prioritarias. Por medio de este proceso, identificamos 71 preguntas clave. Las agrupamos en ocho categorías temáticas, cada una perteneciente a un componente amplio de la conservación marina: pesquerías, cambio climático, otras amenazas antropogénicas, ecosistemas, ciudadanía marina, política, consideraciones sociales y culturales, y la iniciativa científica. Nuestras preguntas se dirigen a muchas cuestiones que son específicas de la conservación marina, y servirán como una ruta a seguir para patrocinadores e investigadores que busquen desarrollar programas que puedan beneficiar ampliamente a la conservación marina. PMID:24779474




Exact slope and interpolating functions in N=6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory.  


Using the quantum spectral curve approach we compute, exactly, an observable (called slope function) in the planar Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory in terms of an unknown interpolating function h(?) which plays the role of the coupling in any integrability based calculation in this theory. We verified our results with known weak coupling expansion in the gauge theory and with the results of semiclassical string calculations. Quite surprisingly at strong coupling the result is given by an explicit rational function of h(?) to all orders. By comparing the structure of our result with that of an exact localization based calculation for a similar observable in Marino and Putrov [J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2010) 011], we conjecture an exact expression for h(?). PMID:25279619

Gromov, Nikolay; Sizov, Grigory



Nature's experiments in brain diversity.  


This special issue of The Anatomical Record originates from a symposium on the evolution of neurobiological specializations in mammals held at the American Association of Anatomists annual meeting in San Diego in April 2005. The symposium, co-organized by Patrick R. Hof and Lori Marino, provided the impetus for extending the discussion to a greater range of species. This special issue is the product of that goal and is fueled by the philosophy that it is largely against a backdrop of brain diversity that we can extract the higher-order commonalities across brains that may lead us to uncovering general higher-order principles of brain and behavioral evolution. Several major themes emerge from this issue. These are that there are no simple brains, that brains reflect ecology, and that brain evolution is a detective story. The 12 articles in this issue are outstanding reflections of these themes. PMID:16200645

Marino, Lori; Hof, Patrick R



Lifestyle changes associated with a new antioxidant formulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series.  


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a relevant issue in public health owing to its epidemiological burden. It represents the most common chronic liver disease in the general population and is expected to increase in future as a result of an ageing population. The only currently recommended treatment for NAFLD is lifestyle modification. However, literature reports pre-clinical and clinical studies on the use of antioxidant supplementation in NAFLD. A new antioxidant complex, called Bilirel (BIL) (Pharmaluce, Republic of San Marino), have recently introduced in the Italian market. However no data are reported on his effects on liver steatosis. Here we report on a cases series of seven overweight patients with NAFLD, in which the association of an Italian Mediterranean diet, increased physical activity, and daily administration of two pills of BIL for 6 weeks, have induced the rapid improvement of fatty liver accumulation, glucose and lipid metabolism, and weight reduction. PMID:25536650

Abenavoli, Ludovico; Peta, Valentina; Milic, Natasa



Energy impact of various inside air temperatures and humidities in a museum when located in five U. S. cities  

SciTech Connect

The art conservation literature presents a wide range of recommended temperatures and relative humidities required to protect the safety of collections in museums, but the operating energy costs for specific criteria have not been identified. The Scott Gallery at the Huntington Library and Art Gallery in San Marino, CA, was selected for a detailed study of energy costs associated with recommended environmental levels for museums. The results of computer simulations of the Scott Gallery when located in Albuquerque, NM; Burbank, CA; Minneapolis, MN; New Orleans, LA; and New York, NY are presented. The simulations were performed suing the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. The peak heating and cooling load components are identified, thermal zone loads quantified, and psychrometric analysis of the annual energy requirements with fixed and variable inside air temperature and relative humidity (RH) setpoints are presented. In all five climate regions the minimum energy consumption occurred with a 70 {degree} F and 50% RH setpoint.

Ayres, J.M.; Lau, H.; Haiad, J.C. (Ayres Ezer Lau Inc., Los Angeles, CA (US))



A note on instanton effects in ABJM theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the quantum spectral problem appearing the Fermi gas formulation of the ABJM (Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena) matrix model. This is known to related to the refined topological string on local ?1 × ?1 Calabi-Yau geometry. In the ABJM setting the problem is formulated by an integral equation, and is somewhat different from the one formulated directly in terms of the Calabi-Yau geometry and studied in our earlier paper. We use the similar method in our earlier paper to determine the non-perturbative contributions to the quantum phase volume in the ABJM case from the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. As in our earlier paper, the non-perturbative contributions contain higher order smooth corrections beyond those required by singularity cancellations with the perturbative contributions proposed by Kallen and Marino. Our results imply possible new contributions to the grand potential of the ABJM matrix model.

Wang, Xian-fu; Wang, Xin; Huang, Min-xin



A Note on Instanton Effects in ABJM Theory  

E-print Network

We consider the quantum spectral problem appearing the Fermi gas formulation of the ABJM (Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena) matrix model. This is known to related to the refined topological string on local P^1*P^1 Calabi-Yau geometry. In the ABJM setting the problem is formulated by an integral equation, and is somewhat different from the one formulated directly in terms of the Calabi-Yau geometry and studied in our earlier paper. We use the similar method in our earlier paper to determine the non-perturbative contributions to the quantum phase volume in the ABJM case from the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. As in our earlier paper, the non-perturbative contributions contain higher order smooth corrections beyond those required by singularity cancellations with the perturbative contributions proposed by Kallen and Marino. Our results imply possible new contributions to the grand potential of the ABJM matrix model.

Xian-fu Wang; Xin Wang; Min-xin Huang



Nonequilibrium dynamics of a noisy quantum Ising chain: Statistics of work and prethermalization after a sudden quench of the transverse field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum Ising chain following a quantum quench of the transverse field and in the presence of a Gaussian time-dependent noise. We discuss the probability distribution of the work done on the system both for static and dynamic noise. While the effect of static noise is to smooth the low energy threshold of the statistic of the work, appearing for sudden quenches, a dynamical noise protocol affects also the spectral weight of such features. We also provide a detailed derivation of the kinetic equation for the Green's functions on the Keldysh contour and the time evolution of observables of physical interest, extending previously reported results [Marino and Silva, Phys. Rev. B 86, 060408 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.060408], and discussing the extension of the concept of prethermalization which can be used to study noisy quantum many-body Hamiltonians driven out of equilibrium.

Marino, Jamir; Silva, Alessandro



Exact Slope and Interpolating Functions in N=6 Supersymmetric Chern-Simons Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the quantum spectral curve approach we compute, exactly, an observable (called slope function) in the planar Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory in terms of an unknown interpolating function h(?) which plays the role of the coupling in any integrability based calculation in this theory. We verified our results with known weak coupling expansion in the gauge theory and with the results of semiclassical string calculations. Quite surprisingly at strong coupling the result is given by an explicit rational function of h(?) to all orders. By comparing the structure of our result with that of an exact localization based calculation for a similar observable in Marino and Putrov [J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2010) 011], we conjecture an exact expression for h(?).

Gromov, Nikolay; Sizov, Grigory



The mysterious fate of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).  


In addition to the holdings at Bibliothèque Nationale de France and Musée du Pasteur Institut à Paris, major parts of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur are in four institutions in the United States - Reynolds Historical Library at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama; Burndy Library on the History of Science and Technology at Huntington Library in San Marino, California; Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at University of Texas in Austin, Texas; and Truman G Blocker History of Medicine Collections, The Moody Medical Library, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas. The circuitous paths that led each part of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur to their present locations were traced and the lives of key individuals in medicine, science and the humanities who obtained these valuable documents were recounted. The documents in each institution were discussed and a plan was considered to make them accessible to scholars who wish to further explore the life of Louis Pasteur. PMID:24585594

Oertling, Sarita B; Marlin, Robert O; Goldman, Armond S



La profesionalización del teatro nacional argentino. Un precursor: Nemesio Trejo  

E-print Network

acuerdo a las ineludibles reglas del mercado que el incipiente capitalismo había impuesto en la economía argentina. Los productores del mensaje teatral pertenecían en su mayoría a esa nueva promoción de escritores profesionalizados, provenientes de las.... Estas dos profesiones fueron asumidas en su vida con pasión y consciente de "la flagrante evidencia de la nueva economía de la época finisecular: la instauración del mercado," como apunta acertadamente Ángel Rama acerca de los poetas modernistas (1...

Pellarolo, Silvia



V Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro de Bogotá  

E-print Network

i?ALL 1996 111 V Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro de Bogotá Lucía Garavito El 22 de marzo al 7 de abril de 1996, los colombianos hicieron un breve intermedio en el drama político del "Proceso 8000" - la investigación de la infiltración de... dineros provenientes del narcotráfico en la campaña presidencial - y se lanzaron con gran entusiasmo a disfrutar de los 32 países, 86 compañías, 484 espectáculos y 1800 artistas que se tomaron 23 escenarios de la capital para celebrar el V Festival...

Garavito, Lucí a



Using ancient DNA to examine genetic continuity at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraiu-se ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt) de restos humanos provenientes de diferentes sítios mesolíticos do estuário do Sado e de grutas-necrópole neolíticas, e realizou-se uma análise filogenética dos resultados, com base na região hipervariável 1 mitocondrial (HSVI) e na comparação com populações europeias modernas. A ausência do haplogrupo J na amostra neolítica portuguesa indica que ela não representa derivação directa a partir

Helen Chandler; Bryan Sykes; João Zilhão



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO ñ O presente trabalho teve como objetivos desenvolver tØcnicas de regeneraÁªo in vitro a partir de segmentos de epicÛtilo, epicÛtilo invertido e explantes foliares provenientes de pl‚ntulas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla) germinadas em meio de cultura; e determinar a melhor concentraÁªo e tempo de exposiÁªo das sementes ao agente desinfestante, bem como a melhor posiÁªo de semeadura para germinaÁªo.

Juliana Margarido; Fonseca Couto; Wagner Campos Otoni


Ideología y grotesco en dos obras recientes de Adam Guevara  

E-print Network

FALL 1998 69 Ideología y grotesco en dos obras recientes de Adam Guevara Felipe Reyes Palacios Incorporado de lleno a la dramaturgia desde 1988 - a los veinte años exactos de la crisis política que se vivió en México en 1968, cuyo momento... culminante es la matanza de estudiantes en la plaza de Tlatelolco el 2 de octubre de dicho año -, y proveniente de la práctica de la dirección escénica desde sus años de estudiante en la Escuela Nacional de Teatro del INBA (1963-1967), Adam Guevara (México...

Reyes Palacios, Felipe



Cerebellum: Development and Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

In the last 20 years, it has become clear that developmental genes and their regulators, noncoding RNAs including microRNAs and long-noncoding RNAs, within signaling pathways play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Many of these pathways were first identified in genetic screens in Drosophila and other lower organisms. Mammalian orthologs were subsequently identified and genes within the pathways cloned and found to regulate cell growth. The GENES and pathways expressed during embryonic development, including the Notch, Wnt/?-Catenin, TGF-?/BMP, Shh/Patched, and Hippo pathways are mutated, lost, or aberrantly regulated in a wide variety of human cancers, including skin, breast, blood, and brain cancers, including medulloblastoma. These biochemical pathways affect cell fate determination, axis formation, and patterning during development and regulate tissue homeostasis and regeneration in adults. Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant nervous system tumor in childhood, are thought to arise from disruptions in cerebellar development [reviewed by Marino, S. (2005). Medulloblastoma: Developmental mechanisms out of control. Trends Mol. Med. 11, 17–22]. Defining the extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that control cerebellar neurogenesis, especially granule cell progenitor (GCP) proliferation and differentiation has been useful for developing models to unravel the mechanisms underlying medulloblastoma formation and growth. In this chapter, we will review the development of the cerebellar cortex, highlighting signaling pathways of potential relevance to tumorigenesis. PMID:21295689

Roussel, Martine F.; Hatten, Mary E.



New empirical metallicity calibrations: Joint analysis of CALIFA data and literature T e -based measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Marino et al. (2013) we provide revisited empirical calibrations for the oxygen abundances in HII regions based on the O3N2 and N2 indicators. This work is based on the most comprehensive compilation of both T e -based and multiple strong-line (ONS-based) ionized-gas abundance measurements in external galaxies to date in terms of all statistical significance, quality, and coverage of the parameters space. Our dataset compiles the T e -based abundances of 603 HII regions extracted from the literature but also includes new measurements from the CALIFA survey. We also present a comparison between our revisited calibrations with a total of 3423 additional CALIFA HII complexes with abundances derived using the ONS calibration. The O3N2 and N2 indicators can be empirically applied to derive oxygen abundances calibrations from either direct-abundance determinations with random errors of 0.18 and 0.16, respectively, and they show shallower abundance dependencies and statistically significant offsets compared to the classical calibrations (as the one of Pettini & Pagel (2004)).

Marino, R. A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, F.; Gil de Paz, A.



An oceanographic context for the foraging ecology of eastern Pacific leatherback turtles: Consequences of ENSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed some of the primary biological and physical dynamics within the eastern Pacific leatherback turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea) migration area in relation to ENSO and leatherback nesting ecology at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas (PNMB), Costa Rica. We used data from remote sensing to calculate resource availability via a net primary production (NPP) model, and to analyze the physical dynamics of the migration area via sea surface temperature fronts. Within the migration area, NPP north of 15°S was highly governed by interannual variability as indicated by the Multivariate ENSO Index while south of 15°S, production had a more seasonal signal. Nesting peaks of leatherbacks at PNMB were associated with cool, highly productive La Niña events and with large-scale equatorial phytoplankton blooms encompassing 110°W that were induced by iron enrichment following the termination of El Niño events. Resource availability in the northern migration area (eastern equatorial Pacific) appeared to determine the nesting response for the population at PNMB, Costa Rica. We suggest that ENSO significantly influences the nesting ecology of leatherbacks at PNMB because the majority of the population consists of pelagic foragers that strictly rely on the eastern equatorial Pacific for prey consumption prior to the nesting season. Coastal foragers may be a minority in the population because of high mortality rates associated with coastal gillnet fisheries along Central and South America.

Saba, Vincent S.; Shillinger, George L.; Swithenbank, Alan M.; Block, Barbara A.; Spotila, James R.; Musick, John A.; Paladino, Frank V.



The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

Stocchi, M. P.



Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.  


The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system. PMID:25402984

Kellerer, Aglaé



Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili Limit: Connecting Weak and Strong Coupling in the Mathieu and Lam'e Systems  

E-print Network

The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Marino and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-pe...

Basar, Gokce



Relationships between petrophysical, sedimentological and microstructural properties of the Oolithes Blanche formation, a saline aquifer in the Paris Basin.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paris Basin appears to be appropriate in terms of CO2 capture and storage when considering both the amount of CO2 produced and the availability of depleted fields and deep saline aquifers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the petrophysical properties in relation with the sedimento-diagenetic environment of the "Oolithe Blanche" formation (Dogger), a deep saline aquifer considered as a potential candidate for CO2 storage. Regarding the scarcity of the core data in the Paris Basin, our investigation was firstly based on the study of field analogs in the south-east of the Paris Basin. The Oolithe Blanche Formation is composed of very shallow marine oolitic and bioclastic limestones, mainly grainstones. Three main sedimentological fabrics were defined: tide-dominated, wave-dominated (oolitic shoal) and prograding oolitic shoal fabrics. These three fabrics show subtle variations in composition (ooliths vs bioclasts) and in the distribution of the carbonate textures. The Oolithe Blanche Formation (Bathonian) is 70-80 meters thick and water salinity ranges from 1 to 4 g NaCl/l. 18 oriented blocks were collected on outcrops selected for the different sedimentological facies recognised in the formation: 9 blocks in the Bierry Lès Belles Fontaines quarry (Yonne), 5 blocks in the Ravières quarries (Côte d'Or) and 4 blocks in the Massangis quarry (Yonne). On each block, several petrophysical properties were measured on three perpendicular plugs: porosity, pore size distribution derived from mercury injection tests, permeability, capillary imbibition parameters, electrical conductivity and acoustic velocities. The sedimento-diagenetic fabric and microstructural analysis was defined by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with image analysis on thin sections. The porosity measured using the water saturation triple weight method ranges from 6% to 34%. The permeability values are low, between 0.1 mD and 9 mD. The data from the mercury intrusion porosimetry show that the distribution of the pore-throat diameter is either unimodal (microporosity only) or bimodal (macro- and microporosity). The microporosity is intraparticles (intraoolitic) and macroporosity is interparticles and is related to processes of dolo-dedolomitization. Variations of the capillary imbibition parameters acoustic velocities and electric conductivity can be explained by the microstructure. So, our investigations show a relationship between the sedimento-diagenetic fabrics and the petrophysical fabrics. The variation of reservoir properties are mainly controlled by two microstructural characters : the cement (type, quantity and distribution) and the microporosity distribution inside the oolithe grains. Now, these latter results calibrated by studying field analogs must be extended to bore-hole data and core data to optimize our knowledge of the deep saline aquifer of the Oolithe Blanche. Without these investigations, it will be impossible to estimate the good or poor quality of this deep saline aquifer with respect to CO2 storage.

Casteleyn, Lisa; Robion, Philippe; Collin, Pierry-Yves; Menéndez, Beatriz; David, Christian; Fernandes, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Guy; Dreux, Rémi; Rigollet, Christophe; Badinier, Guillaume



Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.



Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde 1985 hasta 2012, que reportan datos colectados desde antes de 1900 y a lo largo del 2011. Investigamos específicamente si el predominio de la ingesta ha cambiado con el tiempo, qué tipos de residuos se ingieren comúnmente, la distribución geográfica de la ingesta de residuos por tortugas marinas en relación a la distribución global de residuos y cuáles especies y etapas de vida tienen más probabilidad de ingerir residuos. La probabilidad de que las tortugas verdes (Chelonia mydas) y laúd (Dermochelys coriacea) ingieran escombros incrementa significativamente con el tiempo; plástico fue el residuo que más se ingirió. Las tortugas en casi todas las regiones estudiadas ingieren residuos, pero la probabilidad de ingesta no estuvo relacionada con las densidades modeladas de residuos. Además de esto, tortugas más pequeñas, en etapa oceánica de vida, tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de ingerir residuos que las tortugas forrajeras terrestres, mientras que las especies carnívoras tuvieron menos probabilidad de ingerir residuos que las herbívoras o las gelatinívoras. Nuestros resultados indican que las tortugas verdes y laúd tienen el mayor riesgo de efectos letales y subletales de la ingesta de residuos marinos. Para reducir el riesgo, los residuos antropogénicos deben manejarse en un nivel global. PMID:23914794

Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy



Marine hydrogeology: recent accomplishments and future opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine hydrogeology is a broad-ranging scientific discipline involving the exploration of fluid-rock interactions below the seafloor. Studies have been conducted at seafloor spreading centers, mid-plate locations, and in plate- and continental-margin environments. Although many seafloor locations are remote, there are aspects of marine systems that make them uniquely suited for hydrologic analysis. Newly developed tools and techniques, and the establishment of several multidisciplinary programs for oceanographic exploration, have helped to push marine hydrogeology forward over the last several decades. Most marine hydrogeologic work has focused on measurement or estimation of hydrogeologic properties within the shallow subsurface, but additional work has emphasized measurements of local and global fluxes, fluid source and sink terms, and quantitative links between hydrogeologic, chemical, tectonic, biological, and geophysical processes. In addition to summarizing selected results from a small number of case studies, this paper includes a description of several new experiments and programs that will provide outstanding opportunities to address fundamental hydrogeologic questions within the seafloor during the next 20-30 years. L'hydrogéologie marine est une large discipline scientifique impliquant l' exploration des interactions entre les fluides et les roches sous les fonds marins. Des études ont été menées dans les différents environnements sous-marins (zone abyssale, plaque océanique, marges continentales). Bien que de nombreux fonds marins soient connus, il existe des aspects des systèmes marins qui les rendent inadaptés à l'analyse hydrologique. De nouveaux outils et techniques, et la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes multidisciplinaires d'exploration océanographique, ont aidé à pousser en avant l'hydrogéologie marine ces dix dernières années. La plus part des études hydrogéologiques se sont concentrées jusqu'à présent sur la mesure ou l'estimation des propriétés à la sub-surface des fonds marins, et des travaux complémentaires ont mis en valeur les mesures de flux, local ou global, de termes « sources » et « pertes », et des liens quantitatifs entre l'hydrogéologie, la chimie, la tectonique, la biologie, et les processus géophysiques. Cet article vise à résumer des résultats sélectionnés parmi un petit nombre d'études, et à décrire plusieurs nouvelles expériences et programmes, qui sont autant d'opportunités pour répondre aux questions fondamentales relatives aux fonds marins, posées ces dernières 20-30 années. La hidrogeología marina es una disciplina científica de amplios alcances que involucra la exploración de interacciones fluido-roca por debajo del fondo del mar. Se han llevado a cabo estudios en centros de expansión del fondo del mar, lugares en medio de una placa, y en ambientes de placa y margen continental. Aunque muchos sitios en el fondo del mar son remotos, existen aspectos de estos sistemas marinos que los hacen particularmente adaptables para análisis hidrológico. Nuevas técnicas y herramientas desarrolladas, y el establecimiento de varios programas multidisciplinarios para exploración oceanográfica, han ayudado a impulsar la hidrogeología marina hacia delante durante las ultimas décadas. La mayor parte del trabajo hidrogeológico marino se ha enfocado en la medición o estimación de propiedades hidrogeológicas dentro del subsuelo superficial, pero trabajo adicionalha enfatizado mediciones de flujos globales y locales, términos de fuente y sumidero de fluidos, y vínculos cuantitativos entre procesos hidrogeológicos, químicos, tectónicos, biológicos y geofísicos. Además de resumir resultados seleccionados de un número pequeño de estudios de caso, este artículo incluye una descripción de varios programas y experimentos nuevos que aportarán oportunidades excepcionales para dirigir preguntas hidrogeológicas fundamentales dentro del fondo oceánico durante los siguientes 20-30 años.

Fisher, A. T.




SciTech Connect

We use abundances of Ca, O, Na, and Al from high-resolution UVES spectra of 200 red giants in 17 globular clusters (GCs) to investigate the correlation found by Lee et al. between chemical enrichment from SN II and star-to-star variations in light elements in GC stars. We find that (1) the [Ca/H] variations between first and second generation stars are tiny in most GCs ({approx}0.02-0.03 dex, comparable with typical observational errors). In addition, (2) using a large sample of red giants in M 4 with abundances from UVES spectra from Marino et al., we find that Ca and Fe abundances in the two populations of Na-poor and Na-rich stars are identical. These facts suggest that the separation seen in color-magnitude diagrams using the U band or hk index (as observed in NGC 1851 by Han et al.) are not due to Ca variations. Small differences in [Ca/H] as associated with hk variations might be due to a small systematic effect in abundance analysis, because most O-poor/Na-rich (He-rich) stars have slightly larger [Fe/H] (by 0.027 dex on average, due to decreased H in the ratio) than first generation stars and are then located at redder positions in the V, hk plane. While a few GCs (M 54, {omega} Cen, M 22, maybe even NGC 1851) do actually show various degree of metallicity spread, our findings eliminate the need of a close link between the enrichment by core-collapse supernovae with the mechanism responsible for the Na-O anticorrelation.

Carretta, Eugenio; Bragaglia, Angela; Bellazzini, Michele [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Gratton, Raffaele; Lucatello, Sara; D'Orazi, Valentina [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:



Sobrevivendo a un tsunami: lecciones de Chile, Hawai y Japon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Este folleto contiene historias veridicas que ilustran como sobrevivir, y como no sobrevivir, a un tsunami. Esta publicacion esta dirigida a las personas que viven, trabajan o, simplemente, se divierten a lo largo de las costas que pueden ser afectadas por un tsunami. Tales costas rodean la mayor parte del Oceano Pacifico pero tambien incluyen algunas areas costeras de los Oceanos Atlantico e Indico. Aunque mucha gente llama a los tsunamis 'olas de marea', estos no estan relacionados a las mareas, sino son una serie de olas, o 'tren de olas', generalmente causadas por cambios en el nivel del fondo marino durante los terremotos. Los tsunamis tambien pueden ser generados por la erupcion de volcanes costeros, islas volconicas, deslizamientos submarinos e impactos de grandes meteoritos en el mar. Como sucedio en Sumatra en el 2004, los tsunamis pueden alcanzar alturas de 15 metros, no tan solo en la costa sino tambien kilometros tierra adentro. Los relatos presentados en este folleto fueron seleccionados de entrevistas realizadas a personas que sobrevivieron al tsunami del Oceano Pacifico de 1960. Muchas de estas personas, incluyendo a la enfermera de la foto, se enfrento a las olas generadas a poca distancia, en la costa chilena. En cambio, otros debieron hacer frente al tsunami muchas horas despues, en Hawai y Japon. La mayoria de las entrevistas fueron realizadas a fines de los anos ochenta y en los noventa. Las historias ofrecen una mezcla de lecciones de supervivencia a un tsunami. En algunos casos se presentan las acciones que confiablemente salvaron vidas: poner atencion a los avisos de la naturaleza, abandonar los bienes, dirigirse rapidamente a un sector alto y permanecer alli hasta que el tsunami realmente haya terminado. Otras historias describen como se encontro refugio al subir a construcciones y arboles o flotar sobre desechos, tacticas que tuvieron diferentes resultados y que pueden ser recomendadas solo como actos desesperados de personas atrapadas en sectores bajos.

Compilado por Atwater, Brian F.; Cisternas V., Marco; Bourgeois, Joanne; Dudley, Walter C.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.



Effects of illegal harvest of eggs on the population decline of leatherback turtles in Las Baulas Marine National Park, Costa Rica.  


Within 19 years the nesting population of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas declined from 1500 turtles nesting per year to about 100. We analyzed the effects of fishery bycatch and illegal harvesting (poaching) of eggs on this population. We modeled the population response to different levels of egg harvest (90, 75, 50, and 25%) and the effect of eradicating poaching at different times during the population decline. We compared effects of 90% poaching with those of 20% adult mortality because both of these processes were present in the population at Las Baulas. There was a stepwise decline in number of nesting turtles at all levels of egg harvest. Extirpation times for different levels of poaching ranged from 45 to 282 years. The nesting population declined more slowly and survived longer with 20% adult mortality (146 years) than it did with 90% poaching (45 years). Time that elapsed until poaching stopped determined the average population size at which the population stabilized, ranging from 90 to 420 nesting turtles. Our model predicted that saving clutches lost naturally would restore the population when adult mortality rates were low and would contribute more to population recovery when there were short remigration intervals between nesting seasons and a large proportion of natural loss of clutches. Because the model indicated that poaching was the most important cause of the leatherback decline at Las Baulas, protecting nests on the beach and protecting the beach from development are critical for survival of this population. Nevertheless, the model predicted that current high mortality rates of adults will prevent population recovery. Therefore, protection of the beach habitat and nests must be continued and fishery bycatch must be reduced to save this population. PMID:18637915

Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián; Saba, Vincent S; Piedra, Rotney; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R



Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.  


Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El Cambio Climático, los Ecosistemas Marinos y el Acta Estadunidense de Especies en Peligro. PMID:24299080

Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M



The reduction of the change of secondary ions yield in the thin SiON/Si system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the analyses of gate insulating materials of thin silicon oxy-nitride (SiON) and dielectric films, SIMS is one of the available tool along with TEM and ESCA, etc. Especially, to investigate the distribution of dopant in the thin films, SIMS is appreciably effective in these techniques because of its depth profiling capability and high sensitivity. One of the problem occurring in this SIMS measurement is the change of secondary ion yield at the interface as well as in the layers with different chemical composition. To solve this problem, some groups have researched the phenomenon for SiO 2/Si interface [W. Vandervorst, T. Janssens, R. Loo, M. Caymax, I. Peytier, R. Lindsay, J. Fruhauf, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 203-204 (2003) 371-376; S. Hayashi, K.Yanagihara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 203-204 (2003) 339-342; M. Barozzi, D. Giubertoni, M.Anderle, M. Bersani, Appl. Surf. Sci. 231-232 (2004) 632-635; T.H. Buyuklimanli, J.W. Marino, S.W. Novak, Appl. Surf. Sci. 231-232 (2004) 636-639]. In the present study, profiles of boron and matrix elements in the Si/SiON layers on Si substrate have been investigated. The sensitivity change of Si and B profiles in SiON layer become smaller by using oxygen flood than those without oxygen flood for both O 2+ and Cs + beam. At the range of 0-25 at.% of N composition, 11B dosimetry in SiON layer implanted through amorphous Si depends on N composition. This trend could be caused by the sensitivity change of 11B, or it indicates real 11B concentration change in SiON lyaer. N areal density determined by Cs + SIMS with oxygen flooding also shows linear relationship with N composition estimated by XPS.

Sameshima, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Nishina, T.; Nishitani, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Karen, A.



The game of active search for extra-terrestrial intelligence: breaking the `Great Silence'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been performed principally as a one-way survey, listening of radio frequencies across the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, scientists have engaged in an active messaging only rarely. This suggests the simple rationale that if other civilizations exist and take a similar approach to ours, namely listening but not broadcasting, the result is a silent universe. A simple game theoretical model, the prisoner's dilemma, explains this situation: each player (civilization) can passively search (defect), or actively search and broadcast (cooperate). In order to maximize the payoff (or, equivalently, minimize the risks) the best strategy is not to broadcast. In fact, the active search has been opposed on the basis that it might be dangerous to expose ourselves. However, most of these ideas have not been based on objective arguments, and ignore accounting of the possible gains and losses. Thus, the question stands: should we perform an active search? I develop a game-theoretical framework where civilizations can be of different types, and explicitly apply it to a situation where societies are either interested in establishing a two-way communication or belligerent and in urge to exploit ours. The framework gives a quantitative solution (a mixed-strategy), which is how frequent we should perform the active SETI. This frequency is roughly proportional to the inverse of the risk, and can be extremely small. However, given the immense amount of stars being scanned, it supports active SETI. The model is compared with simulations, and the possible actions are evaluated through the San Marino scale, measuring the risks of messaging.

de Vladar, Harold P.



Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estiméà 17,000m3 a été entraîné lors de la formation de ces entonnoirs. Treize tranchées ont été creusées à des profondeurs de 4 à 6m afin de caractériser les sédiments proches de la surface dans les zones avec et sans entonnoirs. Les sédiments situés à 2m environ sous la surface contiennent un fort pourcentage d'argile dispersée, dans les zones à entonnoirs. Dans les zones sans entonnoirs, la granulométrie des sédiments est constituée en fortes proportions de sables moyens à grossiers, moyennement à bien lités, qui remplissent probablement un ancien chenal. Des levés électromagnétiques montrent que l'association de silts et d'argiles dans les zones à entonnoirs possède une forte conductivitéélectrique, par comparaison avec les sables des zones sans entonnoirs. Les entonnoirs sont dus probablement à des processus, proches de la surface, d'érosion souterraine des sédiments constitués surtout de silts et d'argiles. Les fractures préexistantes résultent sans doute de la dessiccation ou de la tension se produisant lors des périodes d'abaissement de la nappe, liéà l'enfoncement du lit de la rivière au cours des cent dernières années ou même avant.1 Resumen Se ha detectado la formación de dolinas como resultado de la subsidencia que ha tenido lugar en las zonas agrícolas Condado de Pima, Arizona, EEUU. Estos colapsos han aparecido en depósitos aluviales a lo largo de la llanura de inundación del Río Santa Cruz y han hecho que las zonas agrícolas sean peligrosas e inadecuadas para su uso. Las más de 1700 dolinas aparecidas se agrupan a lo largo de dos bandas con dirección nor-noroeste, paralelas al río y a otros ejes de drenaje del llano. Se ha estimado un desplazamiento de 17.000metros cúbicos de sedimentos para formar estas dolinas. Se excavaron trece zanjas de entre 4 y 6metros para caracterizar los sedimentos más superficiales tanto en áreas colapsadas como no colapsadas. Por debajo de los dos metros de profundidad, los sedimentos presentan altos porcentajes de arcillas dispersivas en las zonas de dolinas. En las

Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.


Recent Developments of the Local Effect Model (LEM) - Implications of clustered damage on cell transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to radiation of high-energy and highly charged ions (HZE) causes a major risk to human beings, since in long term space explorations about 10 protons per month and about one HZE particle per month hit each cell nucleus (1). Despite the larger number of light ions, the high ionisation power of HZE particles and its corresponding more complex damage represents a major hazard for astronauts. Therefore, in order to get a reasonable risk estimate, it is necessary to take into account the entire mixed radiation field. Frequently, neoplastic cell transformation serves as an indicator for the oncogenic potential of radiation exposure. It can be measured for a small number of ion and energy combinations. However, due to the complexity of the radiation field it is necessary to know the contribution to the radiation damage of each ion species for the entire range of energies. Therefore, a model is required which transfers the few experimental data to other particles with different LETs. We use the Local Effect Model (LEM) (2) with its cluster extension (3) to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neoplastic transformation. It was originally developed in the framework of hadrontherapy and is applicable for a large range of ions and energies. The input parameters for the model include the linear-quadratic parameters for the induction of lethal events as well as for the induction of transformation events per surviving cell. Both processes of cell inactivation and neoplastic transformation per viable cell are combined to eventually yield the RBE for cell transformation. We show that the Local Effect Model is capable of predicting the RBE of neoplastic cell transformation for a broad range of ions and energies. The comparison of experimental data (4) with model calculations shows a reasonable agreement. We find that the cluster extension results in a better representation of the measured RBE values. With this model it should be possible to better predict the risk of the complex mixed radiation field occurring in deep space. 1. F. A. Cucinotta and M. Durante, Lancet Oncol. 7, 431-435 (2006). 2. M. Scholz and G. Kraft, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 52, 29-33 (1994). 3. Th. Els¨sser and M. Scholz, Radiat. Res. 167, 319-329 (2007). a 4. R. C. Miller, S. A. Marino, D. J. Brenner, S. G. Martin, M. Richards, G. Randers-Pehrson, and E. J. Hall, Radiat. Res. 142, 54-60 (1995).

Elsässer, Thilo


Experimental simulation of gravity currents in erodible bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity currents are commonly met in nature, when a flow of denser fluid moves into a less dense one. A typical example of a gravity current is given by the sea water which flows into the bottom of a river during the summer, in correspondence of the estuary, when the river's discharge attains low values. In this case, dangerous consequences can occur, because of the polluting of the aquifer caused by the salty water. Density currents also occurs in lakes and reservoirs, because of a change in temperature or because a flood, both can produce some environmental impacts that are of interest to the local water Agency of the different countries. Of particular relevance is also the interaction of the gravity current with the movement of the sediments from the bottom of the bed. The international state of the art is particularly concerned with experimental and numerical investigation on gravity currents on fixed and porous bed [1-2-3], while, to the authors' knowledge, the interaction of a gravity current with an erodible bed is still an open field of investigation. In this paper experiments concerning with the propagation of a gravity current over fixed and erodible bed are presented. The experiments, conducted at the laboratory of Hydraulics of the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (actually in the Prof. Bateman's blue room), were concerned with a transparent tank 2 m long, 0.2 m wide and 0.3 m deep, partly filled with salty water and partly with fresh water, up to a depth of 0.28 m. The salty water, whose density was in the range 1050Marino, P.F. Linden, Lock-release inertial gravity currents over a thick porous layer, The Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 503, 2004 [2] John E. Simpson. Gravity Currents [3] J.J. Monaghan, R.A.F. Cas, A.M. Kos, M. Hallworth, Gravity currents descending a ramp in a stratified tank, The Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 379, 1999

Bateman, A.; La Roca, M.; Medina, V.



Feeding behavior after metergoline or GR-46611 injections into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the pigeon.  


The present study examined changes in spontaneous behavior of free-feeding pigeons in response to local injections of metergoline (MET, an antagonist of 5-HT(1/2) receptors; 5, 10 and 20 nmol), GR-46611 (GR, a 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist; 0.6 and 6 nmol) or vehicle into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). When infused into the PVN, MET and GR promptly and reliably elicited feeding at their higher doses, without affecting drinking or non-ingestive behaviors (locomotion, exploration, preening, sleep) during the first hour after injection. Both GR- and MET-evoked ingestive responses were associated only with an increase in feeding duration, with no changes in latency to start feeding. In a second series of experiments, the effective doses of MET (20 nmol) and GR (6 nmol) were injected into other diencephalic areas. This exploratory study revealed that intense feeding responses to both MET and GR local injections are also observed in the n. medialis hypothalami posterioris and in the adjacent n. lateralis hypothalami posterioris (PMH/PLH complex, in the caudoventral hypothalamus) and in the n. magnocellularis preopticus (PPM, in the caudal preoptic region). The behavioral profiles associated with these hyperphagic responses were nucleus-specific: in the PMH/PLH, MET-induced feeding was accompanied by an increase in total feeding duration and by a reduction in the latency to start feeding, while ingestive responses evoked by MET in the PPM were associated only with an increase in feeding duration (similar to that observed in the PVN experiments). No ingestive effects were observed after intracerebroventricular (ICV, lateral ventricle) injections of MET (10, 30, 100 or 300 nmol), while ICV injections of GR (3, 15 or 30 nmol) increased feeding only at the higher dose [Da Silva RA, De Oliveira ST, Hackl LPN, Spilere CI, Faria MS, Marino-Neto J, Paschoalini MA. Ingestive behaviors and metabolic fuels after central injections of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D/1B receptors agonists in the pigeon. Brain Res, 2004;1026:275-283]. These data indicate the presence of a tonic inhibitory influence on feeding behavior exerted by 5-HT afferents on these hypothalamic areas, and suggest that these inputs, possibly mediated by non-rodent-type 5-HT1D/1B receptors, can affect both satiety and satiation mechanisms. PMID:17360049

Da Silva, Renata A; Da Silva, Aderley S S; Poffo, Marine Josiane; Ribas, Déborah C; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta A



Measuring Sleep: Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Wrist Actigraphy Compared to Polysomnography  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We validated actigraphy for detecting sleep and wakefulness versus polysomnography (PSG). Design: Actigraphy and polysomnography were simultaneously collected during sleep laboratory admissions. All studies involved 8.5 h time in bed, except for sleep restriction studies. Epochs (30-sec; n = 232,849) were characterized for sensitivity (actigraphy = sleep when PSG = sleep), specificity (actigraphy = wake when PSG = wake), and accuracy (total proportion correct); the amount of wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) was also assessed. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model included age, gender, insomnia diagnosis, and daytime/nighttime sleep timing factors. Setting: Controlled sleep laboratory conditions. Participants: Young and older adults, healthy or chronic primary insomniac (PI) patients, and daytime sleep of 23 night-workers (n = 77, age 35.0 ± 12.5, 30F, mean nights = 3.2). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Overall, sensitivity (0.965) and accuracy (0.863) were high, whereas specificity (0.329) was low; each was only slightly modified by gender, insomnia, day/night sleep timing (magnitude of change < 0.04). Increasing age slightly reduced specificity. Mean WASO/night was 49.1 min by PSG compared to 36.8 min/night by actigraphy (? = 0.81; CI = 0.42, 1.21), unbiased when WASO < 30 min/night, and overestimated when WASO > 30 min/night. Conclusions: This validation quantifies strengths and weaknesses of actigraphy as a tool measuring sleep in clinical and population studies. Overall, the participant-specific accuracy is relatively high, and for most participants, above 80%. We validate this finding across multiple nights and a variety of adults across much of the young to midlife years, in both men and women, in those with and without insomnia, and in 77 participants. We conclude that actigraphy is overall a useful and valid means for estimating total sleep time and wakefulness after sleep onset in field and workplace studies, with some limitations in specificity. Citation: Marino M; Li Y; Rueschman MN; Winkelman JW; Ellenbogen JM; Solet JM; Dulin H; Berkman LF; Buxton OM. Measuring sleep: accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of wrist actigraphy compared to polysomnography. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1747-1755. PMID:24179309

Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Rueschman, Michael N.; Winkelman, J. W.; Ellenbogen, J. M.; Solet, J. M.; Dulin, Hilary; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.



Towards an organic palaeosalinity proxy: the effect of salinity, growth rate and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones produced by haptophyte algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeosalinity is one of the most important oceanographic parameters which currently cannot be quantified with reasonable accuracy from sedimentary records. Schouten et al.1 established that the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between growth water and alkenones produced by the haptophyte algae Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica is salinity dependent. As such, the ?D values of alkenones recovered from sediment cores can be used to reconstruct variations in palaeo- sea surface salinity.2 However, to accurately determine absolute palaeosalinity requires a better constraining of the relationship between this hydrogen fractionation, salinity and other parameters such as growth rate and growth phase. Here, we present results from our ongoing work to constrain the relationship between the fractionation factor ?alkenone-water, salinity, growth rate and growth phase for the major alkenone-producing haptophytes. In batch cultures of different strains of the open-ocean haptophyte E. huxleyi sampled during the exponential growth phase, ?C37alkenone-growthwater increases by between 0.0022 and 0.0033 per unit increase in salinity. A similar relationship is observed in batch cultures of the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana, where ? increases with each unit of salinity by 0.0019 - slightly less than for E. huxleyi. However, absolute ?C37alkenone-growthwater values vary strongly between species suggesting that species composition has a strong impact on the ?D value of alkenones. The fractionation factor for alkenones produced by batch cultures of I. galbana is affected by growth phase: the rate of change of ?C37alkenone-growthwater with each unit of salinity decreases from 0.0019 in the exponential phase to 0.0010 during the stationary phase. We also show the effect of varying growth rate over the range 0.2-0.8 day-1 on the fractionation factor for alkenones produced by E. huxleyi grown in continuous culture. These data show that alkenone ?D can be used to reconstruct relative shifts in palaeosalinity in coastal as well as open ocean environments; however, for absolute salinity reconstructions changes in species composition, growth rate and growth phase effects will have to be constrained. References 1. Schouten, S., Ossebaar, J., Schreiber, K., Kienhuis, M. V. M., Langer, G., Benthien, A., Bijma, J. Biogeosciences 3, 113, 2006 2. van der Meer, M. T. J., Baas, M., Rijpstra, W. I. C., Marino, G., Rohling, E. J., Sinninghe Damsté, J S., Schouten, S., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 262, 594, 2007

Chivall, David; M'Boule, Daniela; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.



Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sudden and catastrophic, or slow and continuous, release at surface of naturally occurring toxic gases like CO 2, H 2S and Rn poses a serious health risk to people living in geologically active regions. In general this problem receives little attention from local governments, although public concern is raised periodically when anomalous toxic-gas concentrations suddenly kill humans or livestock. For example, elevated CO 2 concentrations have been linked to the death of at least 10 people in the central Italian region of Lazio over the last 20 years, while it was the CO 2 asphyxiation of 30 cows in a heavily populated area near Rome in 1999 which prompted the present soil-gas study into the distribution of the local health risk. A detailed geochemical survey was carried out in an area of about 4 km 2 in the Ciampino and Marino districts, whereby a total of 274 soil-gas samples were collected and analysed for more than 10 major and trace gas species. Data were then processed using both statistical and geostatistical methods, and the resulting maps were examined in order to highlight areas of elevated risk. General trends of elevated CO 2 and Rn concentrations imply the presence of preferential pathways (i.e. faults and fractures) along which deep gases are able to migrate towards the surface. The CO 2 and Rn anomalous trends often correspond to and are usually elongated parallel to the Apennine mountain range, the controlling structural feature in central Italy. Because of this fundamental anisotropy in the factors controlling the soil-gas distribution, it was found that a geostatistical approach using variogram analysis allowed for a better interpretation of the data. With regard to the health risk to local inhabitants, it was found that although some high risk areas had been zoned as parkland, others had been heavily developed for residential purposes. For example, many new houses were found to have been built on ground which has soil-gas CO 2 concentrations of more than 70% and radon values of more than 250 kBq m -3. It is recommended that land-use planners incorporate soil-gas and/or gas flux measurements in environmental assessments in areas of possible risk (i.e. volcanic or structurally active areas).

Beaubien, S. E.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.



Magnesium Sulfate Potentiates Effect of Digifab on Marinobufagenin-Induced Na/K-ATPase Inhibition  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Immunoneutralization of elevated circulating levels of endogenous digitalis-like Na/K-ATPase inhibitors (i.e. cardiotonic steroids (CTS)) represents a novel approach in the treatment of preeclampsia (PE). Recently we demonstrated that DigiFab (Fab fragments of affinity-purified ovine digoxin antibody) restores PE-induced inhibition of Na/K-ATPase in erythrocytes ex vivo. Previously magnesium ions were shown to antagonize digitalis-induced toxicity, which is mediated by Na/K-ATPase inhibition. We hypothesized that magnesium sulfate would potentiate the effect of DigiFab in the reversal of CTS-induced Na/K-ATPase inhibition. METHODS To test this hypothesis, we studied the ex vivo effect of DigiFab on Na/K-ATPase activity in erythrocytes from patients with PE in the absence and in the presence of 3 mmol/L magnesium sulfate. RESULTS Compared with 11 normotensive pregnant subjects (29±1 years; gestational age = 39.0±0.2 weeks; blood pressure = 111±2/73±2mm Hg), the 12 patients with PE (30±1 years; gestational age = 37.9±0.3 weeks; blood pressure = 159±5/99±3mm Hg) had plasma levels of marino bufagenin increased 3-fold (1.38±0.40 vs. 0.38±0.10 nmol/L; P < 0.01) and activity of Na/K-ATPase in erythrocytes was inhibited (1.16±0.11 vs. 2.80±0.20 ?mol Pi/ml/h; P < 0.01). Ex vivo, DigiFab (1 µg/ml) restored erythrocyte Na/K-ATPase activity (1.72±0.13 µmol Pi/ml/h; P < 0.01), and 3 mmol magnesium sulfate potentiated the effect of DigiFab (2.30±0.20 µmol Pi/ml/h; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Magnesium is capable of increasing the efficacy of immunoneutralization of marinobufagenin-induced Na/K-ATPase inhibition. PMID:23878005



Remote sensing of plant emissions of volatile isoprenoids with PRI. Prospects for upscaling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Josep Peñuelas*1,2, Giovanni Marino1,2,3,4, Joan LLusia1,2, Catherine Morfopoulos1,2,5, Gerard Farre-Armengol1,2, Shawn Kefauver, Alex Guenther6 , Francesca Rapparini7 , Roger Seco1,2,6, Marc Estiarte1,2, Mónica Mejia-Chang1,2, Romà Ogaya1,2, Jordi Sardans1,2 , Andrew Turnipseed6, Peter Harley6, Osvaldo Facini7, Rita Baraldi7, Jim Greenberg6 , Iolanda Filella1,2 1 CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 2 CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 3 Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (IS), Italy 4 Institute for Plant Protection, National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy 5 Division of Ecology and Evolution, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK 6 Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA 7 Biometeorology Institute, IBIMET-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy Abstract Terrestrial plants re-emit around 1-2% of the carbon they fix as isoprene and monoterpenes. These emissions play major roles in the ecological relationships among living organisms and in atmospheric chemistry and climate, and yet their actual quantification at the ecosystem level in different regions is far from being resolved. Phenomenological models are used to estimate the emission rates, but the limited understanding of the function and regulation of these emissions leads to large uncertainties in such estimations. Many measurements have been made at the foliar but few at the ecosystem level, and those that do exist are limited in space and time. We here provide evidence that a simple remote sensing index, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which is indicative of light use efficiency (LUE), is a good indirect estimator of foliar isoprenoid emissions and therefore can be used to sense them remotely. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sense techniques of vegetation in order to track isoprenoid emissions at larger scales. At ecosystemic scale, in a field measurement campaign in NE Iberian peninsula, PRI estimations fitted well both with MEGAN modelled data and with satellite data assessing formaldehyde as oxidation product of isoprenoids. On the other hand, our study shows the potential of this PRI technique to validate the availability of photosynthetic reducing power as a factor involved in isoprenoid production.

Penuelas, J.



Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires  

PubMed Central

Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.



Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y characterísticas sociodemográficas en la población Latina  

PubMed Central

El interés por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnóstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramáticos en el curso clínico del trastorno psicótico tales como: mayores recaídas, re-hospitalizaciones, síntomas más severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsicótico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideación suicida, así como alteraciones en otras áreas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimización, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnóstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnóstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, así como sus características sociodemográficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando énfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnóstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la población latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demográficos, clínicos y otras características de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnóstico permitiría mejorar los métodos para la detección y adecuada valoración del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia. PMID:21404151

Jiménez-Castro, Lorena; Raventós-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael



Estudio de eventos dinámicos en ondas milimétricas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El estudio de la actividad solar con el telescopio para ondas submilimétricas (SST), nos permite, por vez primera, trabajar con una resolución temporal de milisegundos. Este hecho ha permitido observar emisión nunca antes comprobada, pulsos o flashes extremadamente rápidos provenientes de las regiones activas, los cuales parecen preanunciar fulguraciones en dichas regiones. Se muestra, como ejemplo, una fulguración observada con el telescopio HASTA en H?, y los pulsos rápidos que la preceden observados con el SST. Para cuantificar la influencia de la atmósfera terrestre en los datos registrados, se está estudiando la variabilidad temporal de las opacidades a las frecuecias de trabajo (212 y 405 Ghz), es decir los rangos de tiempo para los cuales la opacidad puede variar apreciablemente. Con este fin se calcula la eficiencia de cada canal multiplicada por la temperatura del Sol a estas frecuencias (estas son conocidas con una incerteza del 20 %). Se muestran los resultados obtenidos para cada canal, en donde se grafica este producto como función de la opacidad.

Cristiani, G.; Martínez, G.; Raulin, J. P.; Giménez de Castro, G.; Rovira, M.


Aquifer/aquitard interfaces: mixing zones that enhance biogeochemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several important biogeochemical reactions are known to occur near the interface between aquifer and aquitard sediments. These reactions include O2 reduction; denitrification; and Fe3+, SO42-, and CO2 (methanogenesis) reduction. In some settings, these reactions occur on the aquitard side of the interface as electron acceptors move from the aquifer into the electron-donor-enriched aquitard. In other settings, these reactions occur on the aquifer side of the interface as electron donors move from the aquitard into the electron-acceptor-enriched, or microorganism-enriched, aquifer. Thus, the aquifer/aquitard interface represents a mixing zone capable of supporting greater microbial activity than either hydrogeologic unit alone. The extent to which biogeochemical reactions proceed in the mixing zone and the width of the mixing zone depend on several factors, including the abundance and solubility of electron acceptors and donors on either side of the interface and the rate at which electron acceptors and donors react and move across the interface. Biogeochemical reactions near the aquifer/aquitard interface can have a substantial influence on the chemistry of water in aquifers and on the chemistry of sediments near the interface. Résumé. Il se produit au voisinage de l'interface entre les aquifères et les imperméables plusieurs réactions biogéochimiques importantes. Il s'agit des réactions de réduction de l'oxygène, de la dénitrification et de la réduction de Fe3+, SO42- et CO2 (méthanogenèse). Dans certaines situations, ces réactions se produisent du côté imperméable de l'interface, avec des accepteurs d'électrons qui vont de l'aquifère vers l'imperméable riche en donneurs d'électrons. Dans d'autres situations, ces réactions se produisent du côté aquifère de l'interface, avec des donneurs d'électrons qui se déplacent de l'imperméable vers l'aquifère riche en accepteurs d'électrons ou en microorganismes. Ainsi, l'interface aquifère/imperméable constitue une zone de mélange capable de supporter une plus grande activité microbienne que chacune des deux unités hydrogéologiques seules. L'extension des réactions biogéochimiques dans la zone de mélange et la largeur de cette zone dépendent de plusieurs facteurs, dont l'abondance et la solubilité des accepteurs et des donneurs d'électrons de chaque côté de l'interface, et le taux de réaction et de déplacement des accepteurs et des donneurs d'électrons au travers de cette interface. Les réactions biogéochimiques au voisinage de l'interface aquifère/imperméable peuvent avoir une influence appréciable sur le chimisme de l'eau des aquifères et sur celui des sédiments au niveau de l'interface. Resúmen. Es conocido que varias reacciones biogeoquímicas de importancia pueden tener lugar cerca de la interfaz entre los sedimentos de un acuífero y de un acuitardo. Entre ellas, destaca la reducción del O2, la denitrificación, y la reducción del Fe+3, SO4-2 y CO2 (metanogénesis). En algunos casos, estas reacciones se producen en la región cercana al acuitardo, ya que los dadores de electrones se mueven desde éste hacia el acuífero, el cual está enriquecido en aceptores de electrones o en microorganismos. Así, la interfaz acuífero/acuitardo constituye una zona de mezcla que es capaz de sustentar una actividad microbiana mayor que cualquier unidad hidrogeológica por sí misma. El alcance de las reacciones biogeoquímicas en la zona de mezcla y el ancho de esta zona de mezcla depende de varios factores, como la abundancia y la solubilidad de los aceptores y dadores de electrones en ambas caras de la interfaz y la velocidad a la que los aceptores y dadores de electrones reaccionan y se mueven a través de la interfaz. Las reacciones biogeoquímicas cerca de la interfaz acuífero/acuitardo pueden tener una influencia substancial en la hidroquímica de los acuíferos y en la química de los sedimentos cerca de la superficie.

McMahon, P. B.



Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Abstract The potential for conservation of individual species has been greatly advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) development of objective, repeatable, and transparent criteria for assessing extinction risk that explicitly separate risk assessment from priority setting. At the IV World Conservation Congress in 2008, the process began to develop and implement comparable global standards for ecosystems. A working group established by the IUCN has begun formulating a system of quantitative categories and criteria, analogous to those used for species, for assigning levels of threat to ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels. A final system will require definitions of ecosystems; quantification of ecosystem status; identification of the stages of degradation and loss of ecosystems; proxy measures of risk (criteria); classification thresholds for these criteria; and standardized methods for performing assessments. The system will need to reflect the degree and rate of change in an ecosystem's extent, composition, structure, and function, and have its conceptual roots in ecological theory and empirical research. On the basis of these requirements and the hypothesis that ecosystem risk is a function of the risk of its component species, we propose a set of four criteria: recent declines in distribution or ecological function, historical total loss in distribution or ecological function, small distribution combined with decline, or very small distribution. Most work has focused on terrestrial ecosystems, but comparable thresholds and criteria for freshwater and marine ecosystems are also needed. These are the first steps in an international consultation process that will lead to a unified proposal to be presented at the next World Conservation Congress in 2012. Establecimiento de Criterios para la Lista Roja de UICN de Ecosistemas Amenazados Resumen El potencial para la conservación de muchas especies ha avanzado enormemente porque la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) ha desarrollado criterios objetivos, repetibles y transparentes para evaluar el riesgo de extinción que explícitamente separa la evaluación de riesgo de la definición de prioridades. En el IV Congreso Mundial de Conservación en 2008, el proceso comenzó a desarrollar e implementar estándares globales comparables para ecosistemas. Un grupo de trabajo establecido por la UICN ha formulado un sistema inicial de categorías y criterios cuantitativos, análogos a los utilizados para especies, para asignar niveles de amenaza a ecosistemas a niveles local, regional y global. Un sistema final requerirá de definiciones de ecosistemas; cuantificación del estatus de ecosistemas; identificación de las etapas de degradación y pérdida de los ecosistemas; medidas de riesgo (criterios) alternativas; umbrales de clasificación para esos criterios y métodos estandarizados para la realización de evaluaciones. El sistema deberá reflejar el nivel y tasa de cambio en la extensión, composición, estructura y funcionamiento de un ecosistema, y tener sus raíces conceptuales en la teoría ecológica y la investigación empírica. Sobre la base de esos requerimientos y la hipótesis de que el riesgo del ecosistema es una función del riesgo de las especies que lo componen, proponemos un conjunto de 4 criterios: declinaciones recientes en la distribución o funcionamiento ecológica, pérdida total histórica en la distribución o funcionamiento ecológico, distribución pequeña combinada con declinación, o distribución muy pequeña. La mayor parte del trabajo se ha concentrado en ecosistemas terrestres, pero también se requieren umbrales y criterios comparables para ecosistemas dulceacuícolas y marinos. Estos son los primeros pasos de un proceso de consulta internacional que llevará a una propuesta unificada que será

Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Smith, Tammy; Spalding, Mark; Taber, Andrew; Walpole, Matt; Zager, Irene; Zamin, Tara



Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation of monuments. For example, insurance, tourism and real estate companies are also interested in evaluating how buildings and land-use have changed over time. Context: Central to making decisions concerning the preservation of patrimony is the practical issue of monitoring material change over time. Is an intervention effective? Should a sculpture be moved indoors or a structure sheltered? Efficiently measuring changes in heritage materials is a significant scientific and logistical challenge to preserving our cultural legacy in stone. Conservation professionals in charge of the long-term survival of material cultural heritage need to know how fast and why these materials change. With a baseline in place, decisions regarding resource allocation and conservation interventions can more readily be made from a basis of scientific understanding. Lacking a baseline, it can be difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate the effectiveness of a preservation intervention or treatment.

Doehne, E.



Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem A. Pouquet, R. Marino, P. D. Mininni, C. Rorai & D. Rosenberg, NCAR Interactions between winds and waves have important roles in planetary and oceanic boundary layers, affecting momentum, heat and CO2 transport. Within the Abyssal Southern Ocean at Mid latitude, this may result in a mixed layer which is too shallow in climate models thereby affecting the overall evolution because of poor handling of wave breaking as in Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities: gravity waves couple nonlinearly on slow time scales and undergo steepening through resonant interactions, or due to the presence of shear. In the oceans, sub-mesoscale frontogenesis and significant departure from quasi-geostrophy can be seen as turbulence intensifies. The ensuing anomalous vertical dispersion may not be simply modeled by a random walk, due to intermittent structures, wave propagation and to their interactions. Conversely, the energy and seeds required for such intermittent events to occur, say in the stable planetary boundary layer, may come from the wave field that is perturbed, or from winds and the effect of topography. Under the assumption of stationarity, weak nonlinearities, dissipation and forcing, one obtains large-scale geostrophic balance linking pressure gradient, gravity and Coriolis force. The role of helicity (velocity-vorticity correlations) has not received as much attention, outside the realm of astrophysics when considering the growth of large-scale magnetic fields. However, it is measured routinely in the atmosphere in order to gauge the likelihood of supercell convective storms to strengthen, and it may be a factor to consider in the formation of hurricanes. In this context, we examine the transition from a wave-dominated regime to an isotropic small-scale turbulent one in rotating flows with helical forcing. Using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) on a 3072^3 grid with Rossby and Reynolds numbers of 0.07 and 27000, one can resolve both the Zeman scale at which the inertial and eddy turn-over times equalize, and the dissipation scale. We show that fully helical vertical columns dominate at intermediate scales, presumably self-similar and shrouded by a sea of small-scale vortex filaments as in Kolmogorov turbulence. Helicity has a profound effect on the structures of the flow, and a previously developed model that includes a helical component in its eddy viscosity and eddy noise shows a measurable improvement. Indeed, if dimensionless parameters for inertial and gravity waves are reachable numerically, the Reynolds number is too low in DNS for geophysics unless one uses parametrizations of small scale interactions. For spin-down stably-stratified flows, energy and helicity undergo a substantially slower decay than in the unstratified case, and a type of large-scale cyclostrophic balance is invoked to explain this behavior. The decay rate is similar to that occurring in the unstratified rotating case, as modeled by taking into account the quasi-conservation of helicity. We finally mention helicity production when rotation and stratification are both combined. In conclusion, much remains to be done, e.g. examining transport properties of rotating stratified turbulence, such as the effect of helicity on mixing in geophysical flows that can be studied with high-performance computing allowing multi-scale interactions and intermittency to develop.

Pouquet, A.; Marino, R.; Mininni, P.; Rorai, C.; Rosenberg, D. L.



Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a divisão da família no HCM, sem prejuízo para o agrupamento dos demais membros.

Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.



The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. Résumé La migration, la dissolution et l'évolution consécutive des rejets de solvants chlorés dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest des États-Unis paraissent déterminées par un même ensemble de processus hydrogéologiques et géochimiques intervenant dans des formations de dépôts clastiques terrigènes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le piégeage des solvants par des sédiments fins sous les centres des vallées urbanisées, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqués par le pompage à l'échelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, étendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de solvants chlorés piégés. Malgré leur faible solubilité dans l'eau, ces solvants denses sont suffisamment mobiles et solubles pour avoir produit, dans le sud-ouest des vallées alluviales, des panaches aqueux qui ont migré de plusieurs kilomètres dans les alluvions plus profondes et ont contaminé des champs captants pour l'eau potable en Californie, en Arizona et au Nouveau-Mexique. La longueur de ces panaches et la présence d'eau souterraine en conditions oxiques indiquent qu'il est peu probable que la décroissance naturelle soit un recours pratique de décontamination dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest ou dans d'autres systèmes alluviaux dans lesquels existent des conditions hydrogéologiques et géochimiques semblables. Resumen La migración, disolución y transporte de compuestos clorados en valles aluviales urbanos del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de América parecen estar gobernados por un conjunto único de procesos hidrogeológicos y geoquímicos que tienen lugar en los depósitos clásticos. El relleno aluvial y lacustre de las cuencas, la inmovilización de los solutos en sedimentos de grano fino bajo las zonas urbanizadas, los condiciones óxicas típicas del aluvial profundo y las direcciones de transporte regidas por los fuertes bombeos en las cuencas se combinan para producir grandes penachos en fase acuosa procedentes de la disolución de los compuestos clorados atrapados en el medio. Aunque la solubilidad de estos compuestos clorados densos es pequeña, es suficiente para producir penachos que en algunos casos se han desplazado varios kilómetros a través del aluvial profundo y han llegado a contaminar zonas de extracción muy productivas en California, Arizona y Nuevo México. La longitud de estos penachos y la presencia de agua subterránea oxidante indican que es improbable que la degradación natural sea un buen método de limpieza de estos acuíferos o de otros sistemas aluviales que presenten características hidrogeológicas y geoquímicas semejantes.

Jackson, R. E.


Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des variations spatiales de la conductivité hydraulique (K). L'analyse de l'hétérogénéité des alluvions complexes de la vallée de Livermore (Californie, États-Unis), sur la base de descriptions de carottes relativement nombreuses et de données d'essais de pompage, montre que l'hétérogénéité souterraine peut être caractérisée par une approche des faciès de dépôt. Des classifications conventionnelles de la texture de la carotte montrent une corrélation médiocre avec K; toutefois, une amélioration ultérieure des classifications de texture en faciès de dépôt de chenal, de levée d'inondation, de coulée boueuse et de plaine d'inondation a fourni un cadre systématique pour une modélisation spatiale de K. Ce cadre géologique montre que le système est composé pour l'essentiel par des matériaux d'inondation à très faible perméabilité ceci laisse envisager qu'on ne peut pas supposer que K suit une distribution log-normal, sauf peut-être à l'intérieur de chaque faciès. Une modélisation par chaîne de Markov de la probabilité de passage, représentant la corrélation spatiale dans les faciès et entre eux, prend en compte les faits géologiques intéressants tout en fournissant une approche nouvelle pour une caractérisation statistique de la variabilité spatiale des faciès. La présence de séquences à faciès tronqués vers le haut, d'une corrélation croisée entre faciès, ainsi que d'autres caractères géologiques pris en compte par les chaînes de Markov conduisent à se poser des questions sur l'adéquation des approches géostatistiques conventionnelles utilisant les variogrammes ou les covariances pour modéliser l'hétérogénéité géologique. Resumen La información respecto a la textura de los sedimentos y la continuidad espacial es inherente a las descripciones de las facies deposicionales sedimentarias. De este modo, estas descripciones se convierten en excelentes predictores potenciales de las variaciones espaciales de la conductividad hidráulica (K). El análisis de la heterogeneidad en un aluvial en el Valle de L

Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.


Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.



Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

Briceno, D. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria (Costa Rica); Eberhard, W. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Costa Rica); Vilardi, J. [Dpto. de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cayol, J.-P. [Technical Cooperation Division, IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100 A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Shelly, T. [A. C. , D. , E. USDA/APHIS/CPHST, 41-650 Ahiki St. Waimanalo, HI 96795 (United States)



Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins adjacent to orogenic systems, Raman-assisted heavy-mineral studies allow us to detect the first arrival of eclogitic garnet, and thus to assess the minimum age of exhumation and final unroofing of high-pressure rocks (Malusà et al., 2011; Malusà and Garzanti, 2012). However, in the (U)HP terrane of southeastern Papua New Guinea, sediments derived from the actively exhuming D'Entrecasteaux Island core complexes are still being deposited offshore, are rarely preserved sub-aerially, and as such stratigraphic constraints are limited. Raman analysis of detrital garnets from placer sand thus provides invaluable constraints to compare with mineral assemblages preserved in exhumed eclogites. REFERENCES Andò S., Bersani D., Vignola P., Garzanti E. 2009. Raman spectroscopy as an effective tool for high-resolution heavy-mineral analysis: Examples from major Himalayan and Alpine fluvio-deltaic systems. Spectrochim. Acta A73:450-455. Andò S., Morton A., Garzanti E. 2013. Metamorphic grade of source rocks revealed by chemical fingerprints of detrital amphibole and garnet. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. Sediment Provenance Studies in Hydrocarbon Exploration & Production. Baldwin S.L., Monteleone B., Webb L.E., Fitzgerald P.G., Grove M., Hill E.J. 2004. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea. Nature 431:263-267. Baldwin S.L., Webb L.E., Monteleone B.D. 2008. Late Miocene coesite-eclogite exhumed in the Woodlark Rift. Geology 36:735-738 Bersani D., Andò S., Vignola P., Moltifiori G., Marino I.G., Lottici P.P., Diella V., 2009. Micro-Raman spectroscopy as a routine tool for garnet analysis. Spectrochim. Acta A73:484-491. Hill E.J., Baldwin S.L. 1993. Exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks during crustal extension in the D'Entrecasteaux region, Papua New Guinea. J. Metam. Geol. 11:261-277. Malusà M.G., Faccenna C., Garzanti E., Polino R. 2011. Divergence in subduction zones and exhumation of high-pressure rocks (Eocene Western Alps). Earth Pl. Sci. Lett. 310:21-32. Malusà M.G., Garzanti E. 2012. Actualistic snapshot o

Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo



A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. Résumé. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une épaisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste région à faible perméabilité. Le modèle conceptuel conventionnel pour la présence d'eau souterraine à Hawaii et dans les autres îles de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si épaisse. Dans ce modèle conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont formés la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes régions à relativement forte perméabilité, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu épaisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les sédiments constituent une région étendue à faible conductivité hydraulique régionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est saturée presque jusqu'à sa surface; les surfaces piézométriques sont plusieurs centaines de mètres au-dessus du niveau de la mer à quelques kilomètres de la côte. On pensait jusqu'à présent que des niveaux piézométriques aussi élevés dans des îles de volcans en bouclier n'existaient que dans le cas de nappes perchées ou de blocage par un dyke, mais dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, des niveaux piézométriques élevés existent dans un aquifère apparemment sans dyke et complètement saturé. Un nouveau modèle conceptuel de présence d'eau souterraine dans les îles de volcans en bouclier est nécessaire pour expliquer les conditions observées dans le sud du bassin de Lihue. Resumen. Se ha determinado la existencia de un espeso lentejón de aguas subterráneas dulces en una extensa región de baja permeabilidad situada al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, en Kauai (Hawaii, Estados Unidos de América). El modelo conceptual convencional de las aguas subterráneas en Hawai y en otros cinturones de islas volcánicas no considera la existencia de lentejones tan gruesos de agua dulce. En dicho modelo, las acumulaciones de flujos de lava que constituyen la mayoría de los cinturones volcánicos se desarrollan en grandes áreas de permeabilidad relativamente baja y con pequeños lentejones de agua dulce. En el sur de la cuenca de Lihue, las lavas de relleno y los sedimentos forman una región extensa de baja conductividad hidráulica regional que, con el clima húmedo de la zona, está saturada hasta prácticamente la superficie del terreno, mientras que el nivel freático se encuentra centenares de metros por encima del nivel del mar a pocos kilómetros de la línea de costa. Se creía hasta ahora que, en los cinturones de islas volcánicas, tales niveles sólo tenían lugar en acuíferos colgados o en condiciones de confinamiento por diques, pero, al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, se dan en acuíferos completamente saturados que no están limitados por diques. Se necesita un nuevo modelo conceptual de las aguas subterráneas en cinturones de islas volcánicas para explicar las condiciones halladas en la cuenca meridional de Lihue.

Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen



Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determi

Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J. [Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Central Poniente No. 14 altos-Esq. 2a Avenida Sur. CP 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)



Caracterización espectroscópica de hielos de interés atmosférico y astrofísico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En años recientes se ha incrementado el estudio de procesos físicos y químicos que tienen lugar en la superficie o el interior de hielos, tanto en medios astrofísicos como en la atmósfera terrestre y en otros cuerpos del sistema solar. Se ha comprobado que las partículas heladas actúan como catalizadores de reacciones químicas, que no ocurrirían en su ausencia. En la atmósfera terrestre, es bien conocida la importancia de partículas de hidratos de ácido nítrico, formando las llamadas nubes estratosféricas polares, en los procesos de destrucción de ozono estratosférico. En hielos astrofísicos, átomos como H, C, N y O pueden adherirse o introducirse en la estructura cristalina o amorfa del hielo, y dar lugar a reacciones de formación de moléculas evitando su barrera de activación. Existen partículas heladas en el medio interestelar formando parte de las llamadas nubes moleculares densas y frías, con valores del orden de 106 átomos de H por cm3 y temperaturas entre 3 y 90 K. Alrededor de protoestrellas, pueden formarse hielos de distinta composición, polares o apolares, en las zonas de alejamiento y temperatura decreciente a partir del núcleo caliente. Por su parte, los cometas están formados por un núcleo de hielo y rocas, sobre el que se encuentran adheridas moléculas gaseosas, y una cola, formada por los gases liberados por efecto del calentamiento debido a la radiación solar incidente. En nuestro sistema solar, los polos de La Tierra y de Marte están cubiertos de hielo, así como la mayoría de los cuerpos externos. Los satélites de Júpiter han sido estudiados detalladamente, y se han encontrado en ellos, y en Tritón (satélite de Neptuno), hielos de moléculas como SON2, CO2, N2, CH4 y otros. Para la caracterización espectroscópica de estos hielos se precisan medidas en el laboratorio, aún conociendo la imposibilidad intrínseca de reproducir exactamente las condiciones en que se formaron y se encuentran en los medios astrofísicos. El montaje experimental requiere un sistema que permita alcanzar bajas presiones y temperaturas, formado usualmente por una cámara en cuyo interior se forman películas de hielo de la composición deseada, depositadas sobre un sustrato inerte. Las películas pueden ser a continuación tratadas por diversas técnicas, tales como irradiación UV, bombardeo con electrones o iones, calentamiento y enfriamiento, etc. Habitualmente todos los procesos se controlan por espectroscopía de infrarrojo. La radiación proveniente de un espectrómetro se hace incidir sobre la muestra y se extrae de la cámara mediante ventanas, y se enfoca posteriormente sobre el detector. En el laboratorio de Física Molecular del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia disponemos de un montaje experimental diseñado para el estudio de partículas de hielo similares a las formadas en las nubes estratosféricas polares de nuestra atmósfera. El montaje es similar al descrito anteriormente, excepto en lo que se refiere a las condiciones de presión y temperatura, que son menos estrictas en nuestros experimentos. La extensión de estas condiciones de trabajo a las requeridas en medios astrofísicos es una posibilidad a discutir. Por otra parte, disponemos de un método de cálculo de estructuras periódicas, basado en el programa SIESTA (acrónimo de Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations of Thousands of Atoms), que ha proporcionado excelentes resultados en lo relativo a la determinación de estructuras cristalinas y predicción de su espectro infrarrojo, en los sistemas estudiados hasta la fecha, es decir, los hidratos de ácido nítrico de interés atmosféricos. Su aplicación para el estudio de hielos de relevancia astrofísica podría ser del máximo interés.

Escribano, R.