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1

San Marino.  

PubMed

San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to collectors around the world and from payment of an annual budget subsidy by the Italian government. Despite its close ties with Italy, San Marino has maintained its distinctive status for centuries. PMID:12178101

1985-02-01

2

Dan Marino Helping Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Marino Foundation. Photo: Dan Marino Foundation Former NFL star quarterback Dan Marino and his wife Claire experienced ... to succeed in life,'" says the former NFL star. "That's where the focus for The Dan Marino ...

3

DE MEDIO AMBIENTE Y MEDIO RURAL Y MARINO  

E-print Network

MINISTERIO DE MEDIO AMBIENTE Y MEDIO RURAL Y MARINO 5ECRETAl'JA GEN~RAL DE MEDIO RURAL DIRECCIÓN Medio Natural y Política Forestal (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino Política Forestal (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino) en el marco del Inven- tario

Moreno Saiz, Juan Carlos

4

July 14, 2006: Consortium for Functional Glycomics, Pamela Marino  

Cancer.gov

Paulson 2004 06/21/04 1 05/12/04 Consortium for Functional Glycomics Pamela A. Marino, Program Director Paulson 2004 06/21/04 2 05/12/04 Consortium for Functional Glycomics http://www.functionalglycomics.org Define paradigms by which protein-carbohydrate

5

Matematica ed Ecologia: un'interazione feconda MARINO GATTO  

E-print Network

'apporto di altre scienze come la fisica dell'atmosfera e la geologia, ma sempre più si parla al giorno dMatematica ed Ecologia: un'interazione feconda MARINO GATTO Professore ordinario di Ecologia, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano

Gatto, Marino

6

Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Hardware Mario Marino, Gabriel Robins, Kevin Skadron, and Liang Wang  

E-print Network

of automatically translating theoretical computation models into an implementation-ready hardware description computational models, such as the Bounded-Error Quantum Polynomial-Time model employed in quantum computing [2Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Hardware Mario Marino, Gabriel Robins, Kevin Skadron, and Liang

Skadron, Kevin

7

ESTIMACIN DE PARMETROS ESTRUCTURALES EN RISERS MARINOS UTILIZANDO FILTROS DE KALMAN  

E-print Network

ESTIMACI�N DE PARÁMETROS ESTRUCTURALES EN RISERS MARINOS UTILIZANDO FILTROS DE KALMAN EXTENDIDOS STRUCTURAL PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN MARINE RISERS USING EXTENDED KALMAN FILTERS LIZETH TORRES ORTIZ Instituto. Torres, C. Verde, O. Vázquez, "Parameter identification of marine risers using an extended Kalman filter

Boyer, Edmond

8

VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 2808 HB stars abundances (Marino+, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To identify our stellar sample, we use the photometric catalogue of Momany et al. (2004), which has been obtained from U, B and V images collected with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) mounted at the 2.2m ESO-MPI (Max-Planck-Institut) telescope at La Silla observatory, Chile. Our spectroscopic data consist of FLAMES/GIRAFFE and FLAMES/UVES data collected under the ESO programme 086.D-0141 (PI: Marino). The GIRAFFE fibres were used with the HR12 setup, covering the spectral range from ~5820 to ~6140Å with a resolution of ~18700. (6 data files).

Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Przybilla, N.; Bergemann, M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Cassisi, S.; Catelan, M.; Casagrande, L.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Bedin, L. R.; Cortes, C.; D'Antona, F.; Jerjen, H.; Piotto, G.; Schlesinger, K.; Zoccali, M.; Angeloni, R.

2014-11-01

9

Comparacin de la dinmica de sedimentos suspendidos entre una baha tropical abierta y una baha tropical cerrada  

E-print Network

explorado completamente. Su estudio es esencial para definir la calidad del agua, lo que conlleva una gran de sedimentos suspendidos (TSS) constituye uno de los parámetros de calidad de agua más importantes arcilla, el limo y la arena (Miller et al. 2004). Además de afectar la calidad del agua, el TSS es

Gilbes, Fernando

10

Humanities 3 (John Marino) Film is Required Viewing; Optional Extra Credit Natalie Zemon Davis, The Return of Martin Guerre (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University  

E-print Network

Humanities 3 (John Marino) Film is Required Viewing; Optional Extra Credit Natalie Zemon Davis topics drawn from her research on the complexities of sixteenth-century French society and culture, Fiction, and Film C. Ambiguity and Uncertainty FILM: The Return of Martin Guerre (1982), DVD 123 min

Russell, Lynn

11

First-principles characterization of Ni diffusion kinetics in -NiAl Kristen A. Marino1 and Emily A. Carter2  

E-print Network

First-principles characterization of Ni diffusion kinetics in -NiAl Kristen A. Marino1 and Emily A been measured.4 While our interest ultimately lies in characterizing Al diffu- sion, a logical first in bulk metals involve ei- ther vacancies or interstitials. The sizes of Ni and Al atoms dictate

Carter, Emily A.

12

Utilización de métodos cuantitativos para el estudio de la dinámica de los pastos marinos: Una revisión crítica About the use of quantitative methods for the study of the dynamics of seagrasses: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen.- Se presenta una revisión sobre el tema: aplicación de métodos cuantitativos al estudio de aspectos dinámicos en poblaciones de pastos marinos. Se incluyen los modelos más importantes utilizados para describir crecimiento, edad, demografía y densidad. En algunos casos se proponen modificaciones a los modelos existentes o bien se sugieren ideas para la realización de futuras investigaciones. Palabras clave: modelos

Elena Solana-Arellano

13

The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological observations began in Lisbon,in December 1854, in a site not far away from Franzini's station. The long series of Lisbon includes the 1835-54 Franzini's series.

Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima

2013-04-01

14

With NSF support, Marino Xanthos,  

E-print Network

Mitra, professor of chemistry, is collaborating in an NIH-sponsored study to assess the potential biological and toxicological impacts of carbon nanotubes. 7 Cheul Cho, assistant professor of biomedical engi. Somenath Mitra, professor of chemistry, is collaborating with Frank Witzmann, professor of cellular

Bieber, Michael

15

El Futuro de los Recursos Pesqueros Marinos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we do not act soon, many marine fish species will disappear. To address this potential catastrophe, we need to reduce overfishing, destructive fishing practices, and ecosystem pollution. The English version is found at http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/duffy.html.

J. Emmett Duffy (Virginia Institute of Marine Science; )

2010-03-28

16

Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

Tancredi, G.

17

Humanities 3 LEARNING IN THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY Prof. J. Marino  

E-print Network

the student for ad- vanced work in law and medicine as well as theology. Based primarily upon Aristotle nature, was the path to wisdom. Undergraduate textbooks were Aristotle's logic (Organon), works on gram, and burnished by rhetoric, but only theology can use it." The overwhelming domination of Aristotle

Russell, Lynn

18

LSSSLife Sciences Seminar Series 18.09.2012 Marino Zerial  

E-print Network

Structural Principles of Protein Kinase Regulation 27.11.2012 Chris Bowler Revealing the Molecular Secrets of Diatoms in the World's Oceans 08.01.2013 Julius Brennecke Genetic Approaches to Dissect the piRNA Pathway

Halazonetis, Thanos

19

DISORDERED BINDING OF SMALL MOLECULES TO A12-28 Marino Convertino, Andreas Vitalis*  

E-print Network

.4 19 17.6 48.7 0.4 9,10-anthraquinone 8.2 6.3 15.5 0.2 8.2 10.8 30.4 0.2 anthracene 5.4 3.6 9.7 0.9 5,10-anthraquinone 10.3 7.1 18.3 1.1 10.3 11.4 33.3 0.7 anthracene 6.8 3.7 11.1 1.8 6.8 4.4 12.7 2.2 Tyr,10-anthraquinone full -6.6 -2.9 5.4 -1.5 -5.6 1st block -8.1 -5.4 8.1 -1.7 -6.9 2nd block -6.9 -3.1 5.7 -1.5 -5.9 3

Caflisch, Amedeo

20

Oh, no! Not Another Web-based Desktop! Anna Goy, Giovanna Petrone, Marino Segnan  

E-print Network

for smartphones and tablets enable users to connect to online services anytime/anywhere; social software provided; they can participate in a discussion aimed at taking an urgent decision through their smartphones; and so collaboration in work environment results in huge benefits for the company itself. Effective collaboration

Goy, Anna

21

Melting a Terminatrix Nigel Sumner, Samir Hoon, Willi Geiger, Sebastian Marino, Nick Rasmussen, Ron Fedkiw  

E-print Network

as- sailants, being comprised of both an armored endoskeleton and a liquid metal exterior a variety of techniques were being used to create liquid metal effects in the film using both particle of our pipeline highlighting control, pre- view, texture and liquid metal. was used to generate level

Fedkiw, Ron

22

RELAÇÃO ESPACIAL DO MERCÚRIO E ELEMENTOS TRAÇOS EM SEDIMENTO DE FUNDO NO ALTO RIO MADEIRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of mercury in several compartments of the aquatic ecosystems represents a problem of great concern in the Amazonian basin. The goal of this work is to correlate the amount mercury found in bottom sediment with other trace elements as well as its spatial distribution in the upper Madeira River. Field samples were acquired on February of 2004. Total

Roberta Carolina Ferreira Galvão; José Vicente Elias Bernardi; Ronaldo Almeida

23

Modelo y diseño de tren de lavado de gases provenientes de la incineración de residuos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its various deleterious effects, abatement of pollutants gases from point sources assumes significant importance over the years. In order to decrease their emissions, the design and construction of an acid gas removal from a solid waste incinerator was developed. The incinerator is located in the San Juan Industrial Park, Argentina. This system is formed by a quench and

Rodríguez Rosa; E. Echegaray Marcelo; Castro María; Palacios Carlos; Hektor Klaus; Udaquiola Stella

2008-01-01

24

Basin boundary metamorphoses and phase J. M. Seoane, S. Zambrano, I. P. Mari~no and M. A. F. Sanjuan  

E-print Network

OFFPRINT Basin boundary metamorphoses and phase control J. M. Seoane, S. Zambrano, I. P. Mari.epljournal.org/alerts #12;May 2010 EPL, 90 (2010) 30002 www.epljournal.org doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/90/30002 Basin boundary PACS 05.45.Pq ­ Numerical simulations of chaotic systems Abstract ­ Basin boundary metamorphoses

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

25

Estudio de la contaminación por metales pesados en sedimentos y ostiones de la bahía de Manzanillo, Cub a  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination by heavy metals was determined at th e coastal tract in the Manzanillo's Bahia, Cuba. Space temporary ch a - racteristics and their accumulative effects were measured in sed i - ments and oysters, in the studied zone. Collected samples wer e obtained of the floor's sediments and organisms from seven station s located in the mentioned zone.

Comunicación Técnic; Pilar Dania; Amat Infante; Allan Pierra Conde; Iván Casals Blet; Daili Vázquez Abell; Antonio Núñez Jiménez

2002-01-01

26

Uso de imagens LANDSAT como subsídio ao estudo da dispersão de sedimentos na região da foz do rio São Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a sequence of water reservoirs along the lower São Francisco river basin has caused a severe change in the supply of water and sediments to the coastal zone. We present in this paper a first attempt to use Landsat data to estimate de Suspended Sediment Content (SSC) of the coastal plume. A simple log model proposed by

João Antonio Lorenzzetti; Eduardo Negri

27

PRODUÇÃO DA ARARUTA COMUM PROVENIENTE DE TRÊS TIPOS DE PROPÁGULOS Production of Comum arrowroot obtained from three types of propagules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was carried out in Dourados-MS, from October 2 nd , 2003, to August 21 st , 2004, in a Dystrorthox Soil, clay texture. The objective was to evaluate the productivity capacity of Comum industrial Arrowroot using three types of propagules. Propagules were pieces of rhizomes with six buds, got from the base (3.7 g to 9.0 g; average

Néstor Antonio; Heredia Zárate; Maria do Carmo Vieira

28

Evaluación económica del uso de las celdas de combustible para generar energía utilizando biogás proveniente de un relleno sanitario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an unknown technology in our country and to keep in mind the volume of biogas pro- duced in the landfill of Doña Juana, this work is intended to make an economical evaluation of use fuel cells for energy generation. Once made this evaluation it showed that the project is attractive in a long period of time, but in practical

D. Espinel; E. Giraldo

29

Role for cheR of Vibrio fischeri in the Vibriosquid Cindy R. DeLoney-Marino and Karen L. Visick  

E-print Network

symbiotic partner, the biolumines- cent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Vibrio fischeri cells present. In this study, we investigated the role chemotaxis may play in establishing this symbiotic colonization symbiote, la bactérie marine bioluminescente Vibrio fischeri. Les cellules de V. fischeri présentes dans l

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

30

COLIFORMES EN MEDIOS MARINOS DE ÁREAS PROTEGIDAS CON PRESENCIA SIGNIFICATIVA DE AVES: ¿INDICADORES DE CONTAMINACIÓN? CASO DE ESTUDIO: Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourist boom of the National Park Archipielago Los Roques in Venezuela has taken place in recent times and as consequence also the housing and boarding has increased, demanding public services such as energy, water and communications and producing larger amounts of solid wastes and wastewater. Isolated previous determinations of water quality in the beaches showed presence of faecal coliforms in

M. A. NORDELO; N. EXPÓSITO; Y B. VARGAS

31

A Designed Protein Interface That Blocks Fibril Formation Ushma J. Shukla, Heather Marino, Po-Ssu Huang, Stephen L. Mayo, and John J. Love*,  

E-print Network

multimers. Unlike native complexes, some proteins as- semble erroneously, resulting in amyloid fibrils-reactive protein has been shown to break down amyloid deposits in the body.3 In addition, Dumoulin et al. recently required for NMR studies, monomer-B alone was observed to form macroscopic fibers (Figure 1). Although

Love, John J.

32

INFLUÊNCIA DA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA NA ADSORÇÃO DE Hg E OUTROS ELEMENTOS EM SEDIMENTOS DE LAGOS DA BACIA DO RIO MADEIRA (RO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold has been exploited intensively in the Brazilian Amazon during the past twenty years, where Hg used in amalgamating the gold has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in waterways. Particular attention to the Madeira River has been given since 1986 because it is the largest tributary of the Amazon River and the gold mining was officially allowed on a 350-km sector

M. Vergotti; D. M. Bonotto; E. G. Silveira; W. R. Bastos

2009-01-01

33

78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain...Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

2013-12-04

34

75 FR 15991 - Designation of Greece for the Visa Waiver Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia...Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore...Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia...Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore...Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Channel...

2010-03-31

35

77 FR 64409 - Designation of Taiwan for the Visa Waiver Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia...Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore...Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia...Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore...Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Channel...

2012-10-22

36

Toxicidade de água e sedimentos e comunidade bentônica do estuário do rio Itanhaém, SP, Brasil: bases para a educação ambiental Water toxicity and sediments and benthic community from the estuary of the Itanhaém river, (SP Brazil): basis for environmental education Toxicidad del agua y sedimentos y comunidad béntica del estuario del río Itanhaém, (SP el Brasil): base para la educación ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESCRITORES: Água, Toxicidade, Comunidade bentônica - Itanhaém Abstract: The Estuary of the Itanhaém River is situated at Baixada Santista, located on the Southern Coast of São Paulo State (23°50'-24°15'S; 46°35'- 47°00'W). This area is now the object of human settlements. Although the estuary seems to be low degraded, the discharge of pollutants into this river may put aquatic life in

Fernanda Voietta Pinna; Denis Moledo de; Souza Abessa; Robson Seriani; Fabiana Lima Silveira; Priscilla Romano

37

Attractiveness of investments on Hydroeletric Power Generation in Brazil - Topics on new hydroelectric energy trading A Atratividade do Investimento em Geração de Energia Hidrelétrica no Brasil - Aspectos da Comercialização de Energia Elétrica proveniente de novos empreendimentos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brazilian eletric regulatory model was passed in march 2004 and brought new rules for hydroeletric generation concessions auctions and for new hydroelectric energy trading. On this new model, the generators may trade the energy produced in two different market environments: Environment for Regulated Trading (ACR), in which the energy is traded among generators and utilities concessionaries and Environment for

Almeida Prado

38

22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro*, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia,...

2011-04-01

39

22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro*, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia,...

2010-04-01

40

Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivité hydraulique de la couverture dans son ensemble et les variations de la conductivité hydraulique liées à la stratigraphie de la couverture. A l'intérieur de la couverture, les variations de la conductivité hydraulique, dues à la stratigraphie ou à des discontinuités entre les unités stratigraphiques, sont le contrôle principal de la direction d'écoulement et de la répartition des niveaux et de la salinité de l'eau. La modélisation sur une section transversale a donné des résultats qui confirment l'organisation générale des directions d'écoulement, telle qu'elle pouvait être envisagée dans un aquifère littoral multicouche. L'écoulement souterrain est essentiellement vertical vers le haut dans les unités sédimentaires à faible perméabilité, et essentiellement horizontal dans les unités sédimentaires à forte perméabilité. Resumen El sistema acuífero costero de la zona sur de Oahu, en Hawaii, está formado por acuíferos volcánicos de alta permeabilidad, subyacentes a rocas volcánicas alteradas, con inclusiones de sedimentos marinos y terrestres, tanto de alta como de baja permeabilidad. Al conjunto de rocas volcánicas alteradas y sedimentos se le conoce por "tapón de roca", ya que impide la descarga libre de las aguas subterráneas del acuífero volcánico subyacente. Se usó un modelo de flujo de agua subterránea y transporte de solutos en sección vertical para evaluar los aspectos hidrogeológicos que controlan el flujo regional en la zona sudoeste de Oahu. Se consideraron: (a) la conductividad hidráulica global del tapón y (b) las variaciones estratigráficas de la conductividad hidráulica. En el tapón de roca, las variaciones de la conductividad hidráulica, causadas por la estratigrafía o por discontinuidades en las unidades estratigráficas, son las que controlan la dirección del flujo subterráneo y la distribución de niveles piezométricos y salinidad. Los resultados del modelo en sección transversal confirman la distribución del flujo subterráneo que cabría esperar en un sistema costero estrat

Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

41

LONG EXPOSURE POINT SPREAD FUNCTION ESTIMATION FROM SOLAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS LOOP DATA  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT LONG EXPOSURE POINT SPREAD FUNCTION ESTIMATION FROM SOLAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS LOOP DATA by Jose Marino Adaptive optics (AO) systems provide partial correction to wavefront distortions introduced ESTIMATION FROM SOLAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS LOOP DATA Jose Marino Dr. Thomas Rimmele, Dissertation Co-Advisor Date

42

Remember when you were a child and you shot up like a weed that one summer before  

E-print Network

was The Dan Marino Foundation announced a pledge of $1.2 million over 3 years to establish the Marino Autism Research Institute (MARI) as a joint partnership with the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD) and the University of Miami Center for Autism

Sarkar, Nilanjan

43

Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quinti??n Bay, Baja California, Mexico [Uso de videografi??a multiespectral digital para evaluar la distributio??n del pasto marino en Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, A.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.; Kempka, R.

2004-01-01

44

An Evaluation of the TRIPS Computer System Mark Gebhart Bertrand A. Maher Katherine E. Coons Jeff Diamond Paul Gratz  

E-print Network

Diamond Paul Gratz Mario Marino Nitya Ranganathan Behnam Robatmili Aaron Smith James Burrill Stephen W in which blocks are composed of dataflow instructions. The goal of the TRIPS design is to mine concurrency

John, Lizy Kurian

45

NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Campus Recreation  

E-print Network

evaluation of cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, body composition, flexibility, and a functionalNORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Campus Recreation 140 Marino Center Boston, MA 02115 Fitness: Northeastern University's policy regarding registration for the Group Fitness, NUOPPS, and Personal Training

Sridhar, Srinivas

46

26 CFR 1.955-4 - Definition of less developed country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section with respect to— Australia Austria Belgium CanadaDenmark France Germany (Federal Republic) Hong Kong Italy Japan Liechtenstein Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Union of South Africa San Marino...

2010-04-01

47

26 CFR 1.955-4 - Definition of less developed country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...section with respect to— Australia Austria Belgium CanadaDenmark France Germany (Federal Republic) Hong Kong Italy Japan Liechtenstein Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Union of South Africa San Marino...

2014-04-01

48

Nuove tendenze dell'ICT (New ICT trends) Laboratorio del CdLM in Produzione e Organizzazione della Comunicazione e della Conoscenza -a.a. 2013/2014  

E-print Network

) aula Li5, Campus Luigi Einaudi (L.go Dora Siena 104, Torino) A cura di: M. Segnan, A. Goy, F. Cena Informatica dell'Università di Torino) 15 aprile Cloud Computing e Virtual Desktop Interface Relatore: Marino

Goy, Anna

49

Astro Camp Counselors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barbara Marino (left), Stennis Space Center education technology specialist, shows Astro Camp Counselor Beverly Fitzsimmons a LEGO model during a teambuilding exercise May 29 at SSC's North Gate computer lab as a part of the counselors' `new hire' orientation.

2007-01-01

50

9 CFR 95.4 - Restrictions on the importation of processed animal protein, offal, tankage, fat, glands, certain...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. (b)...

2014-01-01

51

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ireland (Eire), Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Republic of China, (Taiwan), Republic of Croatia, Republic of Slovenia, Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland,...

2014-01-01

52

20 CFR 404.463 - Nonpayment of benefits of aliens outside the United States; “foreign social insurance system...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1986) Norway (effective June 1968) Panama Peru (effective February 1969) Philippines (effective June 1960) Poland (effective March 1957) Portugal (effective May 1968) San Marino (effective January 1965) Spain (effective May...

2013-04-01

53

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ireland (Eire), Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Republic of China, (Taiwan), Republic of Croatia, Republic of Slovenia, Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland,...

2012-01-01

54

9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. (b)...

2014-01-01

55

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ireland (Eire), Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Republic of China, (Taiwan), Republic of Croatia, Republic of Slovenia, Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland,...

2011-01-01

56

20 CFR 404.463 - Nonpayment of benefits of aliens outside the United States; “foreign social insurance system...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1986) Norway (effective June 1968) Panama Peru (effective February 1969) Philippines (effective June 1960) Poland (effective March 1957) Portugal (effective May 1968) San Marino (effective January 1965) Spain (effective May...

2014-04-01

57

20 CFR 404.463 - Nonpayment of benefits of aliens outside the United States; “foreign social insurance system...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1986) Norway (effective June 1968) Panama Peru (effective February 1969) Philippines (effective June 1960) Poland (effective March 1957) Portugal (effective May 1968) San Marino (effective January 1965) Spain (effective May...

2011-04-01

58

20 CFR 404.463 - Nonpayment of benefits of aliens outside the United States; “foreign social insurance system...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1986) Norway (effective June 1968) Panama Peru (effective February 1969) Philippines (effective June 1960) Poland (effective March 1957) Portugal (effective May 1968) San Marino (effective January 1965) Spain (effective May...

2012-04-01

59

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ireland (Eire), Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Republic of China, (Taiwan), Republic of Croatia, Republic of Slovenia, Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland,...

2013-01-01

60

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ireland (Eire), Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Republic of China, (Taiwan), Republic of Croatia, Republic of Slovenia, Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland,...

2010-01-01

61

20 CFR 404.463 - Nonpayment of benefits of aliens outside the United States; “foreign social insurance system...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1986) Norway (effective June 1968) Panama Peru (effective February 1969) Philippines (effective June 1960) Poland (effective March 1957) Portugal (effective May 1968) San Marino (effective January 1965) Spain (effective May...

2010-04-01

62

8 CFR 217.2 - Eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein...Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore, Slovak...England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands and the...

2010-01-01

63

Operación IceBridge: Explorando la Antártida - Duration: 3:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

Operación IceBridge es una misión aérea de la NASA dedicada a estudiar cambios en el hielo marino y terrestre en ambos polos del planeta. En octubre y noviembre de 2012, IceBridge completó su cuart...

64

15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restrictions in § 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain...

2013-01-01

65

15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in § 744.2(a ) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain...

2014-01-01

66

15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Restrictions in § 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain...

2012-01-01

67

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL TO THE MANUSCRIPT A multi-compartment agent-based model of TB granuloma formation and T  

E-print Network

formation and T cell priming Simeone Marino, Mohammed El-Kebir, Denise Kirschner Supplementary Text S1) in a containment scenario and the corresponding MDC dynamics (dotted line) generated by the LN-ODE module (seeded

Kirschner, Denise

68

SCRS/2012/168 Collect. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 69(5): 2087-2102 (2013) SEAMOUNTS AND TUNA FISHERIES: TUNA HOTSPOTS OR  

E-print Network

FISHERIES: TUNA HOTSPOTS OR FISHERMEN HABITS? Laurent Dubroca1 , Emmanuel Chassot2 , Laurent Floch3 , Hervé, estos patrones pueden variar entre los diferentes montes marinos considerados. KEYWORDS Fishery sciences

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2013-01-01

69

Caracterización molecular de las comunidades bacterianas asociadas a sedimentos de un sistema costero del norte de la corriente de Humboldt, bahía de Mejillones del Sur, Chile Molecular characterization of bacterial communities associated to sediments in the northern Humboldt Current system, Mejillones del Sur bay, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the structure of bacterial communities associated to coastal marine sediments of the Humboldt Current System of Mejillones bay (23ºS), Chile, we examined 16S rDNA fragments of Bacteria Domain by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), along with multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS). Sediments were taken from four sampling stations located at the bay and samples from four different depth points

Rubén Araya; Juan C. Leiva; Jorge Valdés

2008-01-01

70

Fases geoquímicas del Fe y grado de piritización en sedimentos de la Ría de Pontevedra (NO de España): Implicaciones del cultivo del mejillón en bateas Geochemical phases of Fe and degree of pyritization in sediments from Ría de Pontevedra (NW Spain): Implications of mussel raft culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the influence of mussel raft systems on several geochemical and sedimentological properties (carbonate and organic matter contents, fractions of Fe and degree of pyritization), six sediment cores were collected from the Ría de Pontevedra area. Four of those cores were collected in mussel raft areas (biodeposits) and the other two in adjacent areas where mussel rafts do not

I. León; G. Méndez; B. Rubio

2004-01-01

71

Care and Feeding of the Library Researcher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the patrons of and typical research projects conducted at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, as well as the role of the library, including research services and grants, library collections, and assistance to researchers beyond the library setting. (CLB)

Woodward, Daniel

1987-01-01

72

75 FR 32955 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Genetics. Date: July 8-9, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Churchill Hotel, 1914 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20009. Contact Person: Michael A. Marino, PhD, Scientific...

2010-06-10

73

Genus/Common Name Cultivar Acalypha Kilanea  

E-print Network

Tut Dahlia Seattle Dahlia Edge of Joy Datura purple Diacsia Diva Red Dianthus Velvet N Lace Diascia) Clorinada Geranium (Scented) Lemona Gerbera Color Mix Gloxinia Single Symphony Heliotroe Marino Blue Lantana White Trailing Lavender Kew Red Lavender Ellagance Purple Lobelia Fan Burgundy Lobelia Fan Salmon

74

Issues and Progress in Transforming a Middle-division Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Course  

E-print Network

Steven J. Pollock* , Rachel E. Pepper* , and Alysia D. Marino * Science Education Initiative to upper-division courses, and is often among the first physics courses students take that involves long guided the rest of the course transformation. More details of this process are described in Pepper et al

Colorado at Boulder, University of

75

Segmentacion linguistica de tuplas para el modelado de la traduccion estocastica mediante n-gramas  

E-print Network

-gramas Adri`a de Gispert , Jos´e B. Mari~no Centre de Recerca TALP Universitat Polit`ecnica de Catalunya (UPC´ia, que en realidad no es ninguna palabra. Es- te modelo tiene sus or´igenes en la traducci´on es- toc

de Gispert, Adrià

76

78 FR 86 - In the Matter of:  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulations for a period of five years from the date of Chua's...denying its export privileges for five years from the date of Chua's...of Chua's conviction. The five-year denial period will end...San Marino, CA 91108, and 27 Cambridge Street, Hillsborough...

2013-01-02

77

The effects of the adequacy of general education teachers on special needs students in inclusive classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem. Many general education teachers have not had the professional training and specific coursework to teach students with special needs (Monohan, Marino & Miller, 1996). Currently, teacher preparation programs differ from general educators and special educators; there are two distinct tracks. ^ This study investigated the effects that teacher attitude and training have on the academic achievement of included special

Lisa C Currie

2005-01-01

78

What are the longterm effects of the 2007 spring freeze and summer drought in the Southeast?  

E-print Network

, 2008) Drought - a condition of moisture deficit sufficient to have an adverse effect on vegetation (premature development) eg from 100 to 85 days to spring leaf out TN ­ development of crops such as pecan://applicationlink.labworks.org/serch/pdfs/Marino.pdf Starting of growing seasons ­leaf out NDVI only 25% above winter baseline http

Gray, Matthew

79

MANEJO DE UN MINI-SUBMARINO POR MEDIO DE UNA COMPUTADORA PERSONAL: INTERFAZ, ACTUADORES, ENCAPSULADO, COMUNICACIÓN SERIAL Y PROGRAMACION  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. RESUMEN En la ac tualidad los robots s onda son de gran ayuda para simplificar trabajo en la industria e investigación algunos de estos realizan maniobras muy complicadas y de alto grado de dificultad con el fin de tener exactitud, velocidad y eficiencia. Los biólogos marinos en ocasiones tienen que tomar muestras y medicinas en agua de acceso difícil

A. Mendoza; F. Porras; J. Méndez; F. Reyes; A. Viccon; J. Cid; M. Benemérita

80

Exp Brain Res DOI 10.1007/s00221-013-3467-7  

E-print Network

the body image, regarded as a pictorial description of the body which is mainly based on visual the propriocep- tive input for motor control. Keywords Body schema · Body image · Body-size distortion · Reach the visual size of the body recalibrates the body schema N. F. Bernardi · B. F. Marino · A. Maravita · G

Malfait, Nicole

81

Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2002 Section].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following full and short papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "Exploring Minds Network" (Marino C. Alvarez and others); "Learning Communities: A Kaleidoscope of Ecological Designs" (Alain Breuleux and others); "PDA's and Research: A…

Sarner, Ronald, Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary J., Ed.; Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.

82

NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Campus Recreation  

E-print Network

are designed to improve fitness levels and focus on cardiovascular, muscular, and flexibility training an individualized fitness plan based on an initial evaluation of cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, bodyNORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Campus Recreation 140 Marino Center Boston, MA 02115 Fitness

Sridhar, Srinivas

83

Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original…

Bingham, Frederick M.

2013-01-01

84

The pressures of trying to put into place the best interventions that are available now,  

E-print Network

targets for treating these symptoms. Genetic Engineering and Angelman Syndrome By Melanie Marino Continued. Although the "crack baby" hysteria of the 1980s was fed by a number of exaggerated claims of brain damage the `crack baby' was sort of overblown," said Stanwood, research assistant professor of pharmacology and lead

Sarkar, Nilanjan

85

Graduate Studies Committee April 3, 2012  

E-print Network

. Goodstein, P. David, Members Absent: A. Panchenko, S. Mesarovic, M. Marino, D. Heo, A. Miller, M. Johnson complete syllabus of course content) Biol/Math 579: Mathematical Modeling in the Biological and Health/521: Multidisciplinary Engineering Design II ­ Tabled ENTRP 502: Business Planning ­ Tabled ES/RP 502: Human Health

Collins, Gary S.

86

Updated On: 9/11/2014 18:20 Teams: Beta Chi Ballerz points Davenport A Room 126 Residents points  

E-print Network

points Delta Tau Delta points Marino Misfits 0 Josh Belinsky - C 0 Ben Hughes - C 0 Katherine Thomas - C Sherman 0 Nicholas Martin 0 Eric Ishahak 0 Andrew Rice 0 Scott Stewart 0 Brian Rose 0 Michael McDonough 0

Sridhar, Srinivas

87

Anti-Terror Technology One of the most significant spurs to the growth of NJIT's  

E-print Network

while he was a doctoral student at NJIT along with his advisors, MARINO XANTHOS, professor of chemical of chemical engineering; and COSTAS GOGOS, distinguished research professor of chemical engineering -- an industrial waste product -- for use in concrete and mortar for high com- pressive strength. In Other Research

Bieber, Michael

88

Auslandsreisekostenverordnung des Landes bersicht der Auslandstage-und Auslandsbernachtungsgelder  

E-print Network

,00 28,50 San Marino 34,00 30,00 Sao Tome und Principe 35,00 30,00 Saudi- Arabien 40,00 30,00 Schweden 50,00 Bosnien und Herzegowina 20,00 30,00 Botsuana 27,00 30,00 Brasilien ° Rio de Janeiro 30,00 30,00 ° Sao

Schindelhauer, Christian

89

AFG AF AFGANISTAN ABN AL ALBANIA  

E-print Network

SANTA LUCIA STO ST SANTO TOME Y PRINCIPE SEN SN SENEGAL SEY SC SEYCHELLES ISLAS SLA SL SIERRA LEONA SGE ISLAS SAO WS SAMOA SOM SM SAN MARINO STP PM SAN PEDRO Y MIQUELON STV VC SAN VICENTE Y GRANADINAS STL LC

Escolano, Francisco

90

en asociacin Asociaciones  

E-print Network

. Coloquio sobre contaminaciones por metales y su impacto en el medio ambiente, la salud y la sociedad, en de las islas del Caribe. Coloquio internacional sobre observatorios del medio ambiente amazónico para formación sobre herramientas de evaluación y de gestión del medio ambiente marino costero, en Cuba. Institut

91

Adipocyte Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Evidence of Adipocyte  

E-print Network

Hypertrophy and Tissue-Specific Inflammation Joseph S. Marino, Jeffrey Iler, Abigail R. Dowling, Streamson also had increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy. These traits accompanied elevations in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Evidence of Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Tissue

Toledo, University of

92

Literacy and Community. The Twentieth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association, 1998. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 1997].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 20th Yearbook of the College Reading Association reflects the theme of "community" again and again, in diverse ways. First in the yearbook are the Presidential Address by Marino C. Alvarez, "Adolescent Literacy: Are We in Contact?" and the three Keynote Addresses: "My Life in Reading" (J. Chall); "A Social-Constructivist View of Family…

Sturtevant, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Dugan, JoAnn, Ed.; Linder, Patricia, Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.

93

Drugs of Abuse Pharm 4248 (2 credits) Fall 2012  

E-print Network

to mechanism of action and associated physiological effects such as tolerance and physical dependence to perform the following tasks: 1. Describe the pharmacological mechanism of action and how it relates Stimulants (Methamphetamine, Ritalin) Montana Meth Marino (Chapter 5, p. 34-38) Oct 10 Hallucinogens (Ecstasy

Thomas, David D.

94

President's List Spring 2013 Semester  

E-print Network

Meredith Baade Salvatore Baisley Sean Baldwin David Barcia Alexander Becker Alexis Benedetti Rani Berry Lourencao Alyssa Lowell Ellen Lowndes Michael Lum Molly Lynch M Carolyn Maas Kayla Mancusi Katherine MarinoCann Kathryn McCarty Nathaniel McDonald Sean McDonald Margaret McDonough Nathanial McGovern Rose Meehan Joshua

95

ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Nuclear Safety Research at the University of Maryland  

E-print Network

and nuclear weapons was followed by controversial accidents and regulation. Today, nuclear power is considered are in designing and building nuclear plants, accidents happen. Parts break. Systems fail. Marino di Marzo, chairReseaRch at the University of Maryland Nuclear Safety Research at the University of Maryland

Hill, Wendell T.

96

CURRICULUM VITAE ET STUDIORUM Nome: Margherita Carletti  

E-print Network

. Beretta, M. Carletti, F. Solimano, On the effects of environmental fluctuations in a simple model (2006), 297­310. 8. E. Beretta, M. Carletti, D. E. Kirschner, S. Marino, Stability analysis, p.177-206, Springer, 2007. 9. M. Carletti, E. Beretta, Numerical detection of instability regions

Lattanzi, Emanuele

97

Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Skip to main content at the National Institutes of Health www.cancer.gov Home About Team Science About the Toolkit Discover Contribute Connect News & Events About Us Anne Heberger Marino Edit resource 100 Academy, 2nd Floor Irvine, CA 92617 949-233-3964 aheberger@nas.edu Area

98

KINEMATICS OF THE FOOT AND ANKLE IN FORWARD ICE HOCKEY SKATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Studies on the kinematics of ice hockey skating have focused mainly on the stride rate and stride length (Marino, 1977, 1979), and on the effectiveness of starts, turns and stops (Naud & Holt 1979, 1980). Hoshizaki et al. (1989) are among the few that have examined foot kinematics during skating using a two dimensional high-speed camera system. However, using

David Pearsall; Rene Turcotte; Richard Lefebvre; Hamid Bateni; Maria Nicolaou

99

THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY  

E-print Network

: Stephen A. Marino, M.S. Chief Physicist: Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, Ph.D. Funding During this year, we were delighted that NIH funding for continued development of our single-particle microbeam facility was renewed and awards from NIH, DOE, and NASA. Brief descriptions of these experiments are given here: Studies

100

ON THE HYDRAULICS OF STREAM FLOW ROUTING WITH BANK STORAGE: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-ADA-00232 Hantush*, M.M., Harada, M., and Marino, M.A. On the Hydraulics of Stream Flow Routing with Bank Storage. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 7 (1):76-89 (2002). EPA/600/J-02/173. Bank storage is a process in which volumes o...

101

COVER IMAGE Linear-stability measures for  

E-print Network

the signs Bernhard Urbaszek 66 Solar physics: Magnetic dance Iulia Georgescu 67 Superconductors: No charge BEATTIE ON THE COVER Quantum dots Nucleus of influence Letter p74; News & Views p65 Planck-scale physics set limits to Planck-scale physics on macroscopic variables Francesco Marin, Francesco Marino, Michele

Loss, Daniel

102

OPERACIÃ?N IceBridge: Explorando cambios en el hielo de Groenlandia - Duration: 2 minutes, 29 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Operación IceBridge es una misión aérea de la NASA dedicada a estudiar cambios en la capa de hielo y el hielo marino en ambos polos del planeta. En la primavera de 2012, IceBridge llevó a cabo ...

103

Central insulin and leptin-mediated autonomic control of glucose  

E-print Network

Central insulin and leptin-mediated autonomic control of glucose homeostasis Joseph S. Marino1 indicates that the brain is the master regulator of glucose homeostasis, and that hy- pothalamic insulin are integral to maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. Introduction Despite over a century of research

Toledo, University of

104

Abstract The pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma. A granuloma is a multifaceted cellular structure that serves to focus the host immune response,  

E-print Network

127 Abstract The pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma. A granuloma tuberculosis infection, and if a granuloma is capable of inhibiting or killing most of the M. tuberculosis Granuloma Formation and Function in Tuberculosis Mohammad Fallahi-Sichani, Simeone Marino, JoAnne L. Flynn

Kirschner, Denise

105

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer  

E-print Network

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer Denise Kirschner and Simeone Marino of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the immune system. Different mathematical models were formulated on the basis that contribute to the success of M. tuberculosis as a human pathogen. Our goal is to stimulate experimentation

Kirschner, Denise

106

TNF and IL-10 are major factors in modulation of the phagocytic cell environment in lung and lymph node in tuberculosis: A next-generation  

E-print Network

node in tuberculosis: A next-generation two-compartmental model Simeone Marino a , Amy Myers b , Jo a c t Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the earliest recorded human diseases and still one of the deadliest worldwide. Its causative agent is the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Cytokine

Kirschner, Denise

107

Journal of Theoretical Biology 227 (2004) 463486 The human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

tuberculosis in lung and lymph node Simeone Marino*, Denise E. Kirschner Department of Microbiology Abstract A key issue for the study of tuberculosis is to understand why individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) experience different clinical outcomes. To better understand the dynamics

Kirschner, Denise

108

The chemoreceptor VfcA mediates amino acid chemotaxis in Vibrio fischeri1 Caitlin A. Brennan1  

E-print Network

0 The chemoreceptor VfcA mediates amino acid chemotaxis in Vibrio fischeri1 2 Caitlin A. Brennan1 , Cindy R. DeLoney-Marino2 , and Mark J. Mandel3, *3 1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology of7 Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA8 9 *Correspondence to:10 Mark J. Mandel11 Northwestern

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

109

Original article Increasing pasture intakes enhances  

E-print Network

Original article Increasing pasture intakes enhances polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipophilic antioxidants in plasma and milk of dairy cows fed total mix ration Stefania LA TERRA 1*, Vita Maria MARINO 1 health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in fatty acid composition and fat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

a.a. 2014/2015 1 Office for students with foreign title 2 a.a. 2014/2015 3  

E-print Network

a.a. 2014/2015 1 #12;Office for students with foreign title 2 a.a. 2014/2015 3 Office for students to receive the study visa. The candidates Extra EU, accepted with reserve, in order to enter and stay · Citizens of Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Republic of San Marino; · Non-EU citizens

Di Pillo, Gianni

111

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF ANTI-TNF THERAPIES AND  

E-print Network

of differential reactivation risks for different drugs. We review basic epi- demiology and immunology of TB MARINO Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1 INTRODUCTION In the last 12 years

Kirschner, Denise

112

Global Seminars Faculty Handbook 2014 Dear Global Seminar Faculty,  

E-print Network

About For Students Culture Shock Stages LGBTQ Information & Resources SAFETI Article: Top Ten Ways Humanities 4) Professor Michael Parrish London, UK History and Culture in London (Making of the Modern World John Marino Toledo, Spain Crusaders and Conquistadors in Spain Professor Paul Goldstein #12;Global

Gleeson, Joseph G.

113

In vitro growth of immature peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] embryos as related to carbohydrate source and pH  

E-print Network

than sucrose in apricot (P. armeniaca) tissue culture (Marino et al. , 1993). Sorbitol at 34io produced greater growth in peach (P. persica) stem callus cultures than sucrose at 3'/a (Coffin et al. , 1976). Of the five common carbohydrate sugars...

Sinclair, Jonathan Walker

2000-01-01

114

THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility  

E-print Network

: Stephen A. Marino, M.S. Chief Physicist: Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, Ph.D. Research Using RARAF numbers of particles 1.0 76 A. Xu, T.K. Hei CRR Biology Mutation at the S1 locus of human- hamster hybrid.5 101 K. Komatsu (Zhou) Hiroshima Univ. Biology Bystander effect of Ataxia Telangiecta- sia cells 1

115

Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux sont grossièrement caractérisés par des différentes gammes de résistivitéélectrique se recouvrant, dépendant surtout de la teneur en argiles et du degré de cimentation. Les résistivités près de la côte diminuent du fait de l'intrusion marine. Ces variations de résistivité ont été cartographiées à partir de 400km de profils électromagnétiques, dans le domaine temporel ; trois zones ont été distinguées dans l'aquifère alluvial. Le biseau salé a aussi été délimité, jusqu'à 10km de la côte. L'épaisseur de la partie saturée des graviers va de 20-160m sur une étendue supérieure à 600km2. Resumen Un tercio de la población de Omán depende de las aguas subterráneas extraídas del aluvial de la Llanura de Batinah, en la costa del Golfo de Omán. Para determinar la profundidad y naturaleza del aluvial, así como los límites del acuífero, se han usado técnicas de exploración geofísica profunda. El basamento y los límites estructurales del aluvial en su contacto con los sedimentos marinos del Terciario y la ofiolita cretácica se obtuvieron mediante sísmica de reflexión, registrada previamente en campañas de exploración petrolífera. La base del aluvial buza hacia el norte desde el pie de las Montañas del Norte de Omán, alcanzando una profundidad máxima de 2000m en la costa. Las distintas facies del aluvial están caracterizadas por rangos distintos, pero superpuestos, de resistividad eléctrica, dependiendo del contenido en arcillas y del grado de cementación. Las resistividades cerca de la costa se reducen por la intrusión salina. Estas variaciones de resistividad se obtuvieron con registros electromagnéticos a lo largo de un perfil de 400km, con el objetivo de distinguir las tres zonas del acuífero aluvial. También se pudo obtener la geometría de la cuña de intrusión, que llega hasta 10km de la costa. El espesor de las gravas saturadas que forman el acuífero oscila entre los 20-160m en un área superior a 600km2.

Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim

116

XX Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica La Habana MODELO NUMÉRICO PARA EL ANÁLISIS DEL TRANSPORTE DE FONDO Y SUSPENSIÓN EN RÍOS Y ESTUARIOS DESARROLLADO MEDIANTE EL USO DEL MÉTODO DEL VOLUMEN FINITO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La necesidad de estudiar ríos y estuarios llevan al estudio continuado de diversas formas de predecir lo que sucederá en ese tipo de sistemas en un futuro. En el caso de los ríos y estuario s, la predicción se traduce en el cálculo de dos elementos: el agua y el sedimento. En este trabajo se presenta un código de

C. Aguilar

117

La Mojana: riqueza natural y potencial económico  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Mojana es una subregión ubicada en la parte norte de Colombia, caracterizada por ser una zona de humedales productivos, perteneciente a la Depresión Momposina, con la función ambiental de regular los cauces de los ríos Magdalena, Cauca y San Jorge, amortiguar las inundaciones y facilitar la decantación y acumulación de sus sedimentos. La dinámica de sus aguas y la

María M. Aguilera Díaz

2004-01-01

118

ANLISE DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPAIS COMO FERRAMENTA PARA A INVESTIGAO DE CONTAMINAO  

E-print Network

do derramamento de óleo do petroleiro Exxon Valdez em sedimentos marinhos na região de component analysis, an exploratory data analysis method, on the oil spill effects of the tanker Exxon Valdez over marine sediments in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The data, extracted from literature

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

119

Controlando el Deslave de la Irrigacion de Aspersión, la Erosión, y la Perdida del Fósforo con Paja y Poliacrilamido  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Controlar la erosión por deslave y erosión es importante para mantener la productividad del suelo y reducir el destrucción fuera del sitio debido al enriquecimiento de sedimentos y nutrientes. Comparamos los efectos combinados del residuo superficial de PAM en el deslave, perdidas de suelo de suelo irrigado con aspersores en el laboratorio. Hipotizamos que el residuo superficial pudiese mejorar

D. L. Bjorneberg; J. K. Aase; D. T. Westermann

2000-01-01

120

The Chemistry of Coffee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The paper Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic by Marino Petracco provides a hearty blend of molecules for this month. The author deals with coffee at a number of different levels ranging from the economic and social to the still perplexing questions of flavor and aroma. The associated molecules demonstrate a range of structural features that students will benefit from examining in three dimensions.

121

New books in review  

Microsoft Academic Search

12 AMERICANS SPEAK. Facsimiles of Original Editions selected and annotated by John E. Pomfret. San Marino, Calif: Hunting?ton Library, 1954; pp. vi+183. $5.00.AMERICAN DEMAGOGUES: TWENTIETH CENTURY. By Reinhard H. Luthin. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1954; pp. xv+368. $5.00,ADVENTURES IN POLITICS: WE GO TO THE LEGISLATURE. By Richard L. Neuberger. New York: Oxford University Press, 1954; pp. 203. $3.50.CIVILIZATION AND THE

Wilbur Samuel Howell; Barnet Baskerville; Robert D. Clark; James J. Murphy; Guy A. Cardwell; Jonathan Curvin; Russell W. Lembke; Harold Ehrensperger; E. J. West; Albert E. Johnson; Fairfax Proudfit Walkup; John T. Dugan; Edwin Duerr; Claude L. Shaver; Harold P. Zelko; Harold F. Harding; John Robson; Roy F. Hudson; Paul C. Boomsliter; R. S. Brubaker; John Keltner; Elwood Murray; John P. Highlander; Willard Bellman; E. Winston Jones

1955-01-01

122

XI INTI International Conference La Plata 2012 Equipo TAG Territorios Posibles UNLP-CONICET y Universidades asociadas del GDRI  

E-print Network

midiáticos oriundos da era pré-internet - como livros, filmes e videogames - pela rede, relacionando-o com de produtos midiáticos provenientes de tecnologias pré-internet - como livros, filmes e videogames

Boyer, Edmond

123

ESTRATEGIASYPROPUESTASPARALAOBTENCINDEFUENTES ALTERNASDEFINANCIAMIENTOYELUSOEFICIENTEDELOSRECURSOS  

E-print Network

"gastosdelaUniversidadynodelproyecto,bien oservicioqueseestáofreciendo". 6. Generar ingresos netos o ser más eficientes con el presupuesto proveniente del Estado, está directamente vinculado a la reducción de costos,hayqueinvertirlosparaquegenerenmayores ingresos. Porotraparte,nohayqueolvidarsequelaUniversidadpúblicarecibe presupuesto para orientarlo a las

Vásquez, Carlos

124

Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original books and manuscripts from the library's own collections. The sheer magnitude of human achievement represented here and the amount of effort and money that must have been required to amass these books boggles the mind.

Bingham, Frederick M.

2013-03-01

125

Talking about Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Introduction Timothy Ferris, Iris Fry, Steven Dick, Ann Druyan, Pinky Nelson, Neil Tyson, Steve Benner and William Bains; Part II. Earth Roger Buick, Lynn Rothschild, John Baross, Joe Kirschvink, Andrew Knoll, Simon Conway Morris, Roger Hanlon and Lori Marino; Part III. Solar System Chris McKay, David Grinspoon, Jonathan Lunine, Carolyn Porco, Laurie Leshin, Guy Consolmagno and Peter Smith; Part IV. Exoplanets Alan Boss, Geoff Marcy, Debra Fischer, Sara Seager, David Charbonneau and Vikki Meadows; Part V. Frontiers Jill Tarter, Seth Shostak, Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Ben Bova and Jennifer Michael Hecht; Reading list; Glossary; Index.

Impey, Chris

2010-08-01

126

Determinant Formulas for Matrix Model Free Energy  

E-print Network

The paper contains a new non-perturbative representation for subleading contribution to the free energy of multicut solution for hermitian matrix model. This representation is a generalisation of the formula, proposed by Klemm, Marino and Theisen for two cut solution, which was obtained by comparing the cubic matrix model with the topological B-model on the local Calabi-Yau geometry $\\hat {II}$ and was checked perturbatively. In this paper we give a direct proof of their formula and generalise it to the general multicut solution.

D. Vasiliev

2005-07-11

127

EFECTO DE APLICACIONES FOLIARES DE METANOL SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO DE LECHUGA (Lactuca sativa L.) EFFECTS OF METHANOL FOLIAR APPLICATIONS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Anteriores investigaciones, sugieren una incorporación por las plantas del carbono proveniente del metanol; por ello se diseñaron experimentos para determinar si su aplicación foliar afectaría el rendimiento y crecimiento en un cultivo hidropónico de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.). Se utilizó metanol a los porcentajes de 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 y 80, con un testigo sin tratamiento.

Mónica Solari; Alfredo Rodríguez-Delfín; Sven E. Jacobsen; Hugo Soplín; Juan Guerrero; Salomón Helfgott

128

Futuro de las telecomunicaciones en México ¿Cuál debe ser el rol del gobierno ante los nuevos escenarios del mercado?  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar las decisiones de política pública que está llevando a cabo el gobierno de México para impulsar la competencia en el mercado de telecomunicaciones. Para ello, se identifica la forma en la que está organizado este sector y se utilizan herramientas provenientes de la teoría económica de redes para evaluar las acciones de este

Fernando G. Toriz Flores

2010-01-01

129

DIETARY SHIFTS BASED UPON PREY AVAILABILITY IN PEREGRINE FALCONS AND AUSTRALIAN HOBBIES BREEDING NEAR  

E-print Network

Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nest territories (975 prey items from 152 collections) and one Australian Hobby species that foraged close to cover, such as Common Mynas. KEY WORDS: Peregrine Falcon; Falco peregrinus presas y egagro´pilas en 16 territorios de anidacio´n de Falco peregrinus (975 i´tems presa provenientes

Canberra, University of

130

Second Life: contextualização e inserção social do ensino da informática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Desde 2006, realizam-se na UTAD ensaios de utilização do mundo virtual Second Life® no ensino de programação de computadores. Nestes dois anos foram identificados problemas no uso da plataforma para este fim, mas também vantagens, nem sempre provenientes dos locais esperados: a imersão social e cultural dos alunos foi factor importante de compreensão dos conceitos informáticos. A imersão

Leonel Morgado

2008-01-01

131

LA PROGRAMACIÓN LINEAL EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE MEZCLAS DE FERTILIZANTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Programación Lineal es una importante herramienta matemática que ayuda a resolver problemas de optimización de los recursos escasos. Con el objetivo de generar una recomendación técnico económica que permita maximizar la utilidad proveniente de la fabricación de cuatro mezclas de fertilizantes, sujeta a la disponibilidad y uso de los recursos nitrógeno fósforo y potasio en un periodo de producción

Samuel Rebollar Rebollar; Juvencio Hernández Martínez; Rolando Rojo Rubio; Daniel Cardoso Jiménez; Gabriela Rodríguez-Licea; Eugenio Guzmán-Soria

2008-01-01

132

La recuperación de ambientes degradados como método para la inclusión social en áreas periurbanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Todos los días, los residuos generados por los habitantes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y del conurbano, se desechan en rellenos sanitarios y basurales a cielo abierto. El aumento de la densidad de población, delinea la necesidad de encontrar otras prácticas de disposición de los residuos. Los residuos sólidos urbanos o domiciliarios son los provenientes de los hogares y

Gabriela Civeira

133

O USO DE MODELOS MATEMÁTICOS NA ESTIMATIVA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA EM PLANTIOS DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 , em torno das quais foram cubadas 216 árvores. Foram avaliados 2 clones (híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla), nas idades 3, 4,5 e 6 anos, provenientes de três sítios, na região leste do Brasil, abrangendo a parte leste e nordeste do Estado do Espírito Santo e o extremo sul do Estado da Bahia. Em cada altura de

Cláudio Roberto Thiersch; Jose Roberto Scolforo; Antonio Donizette de Oliveira; Gabriel Dehon; Sampaio Peçanha Rezende; Romualdo Maestri

134

Exploración de Actitudes Masculinas en relación al Rol Femenino a través de Metodología Proyectiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El presente artículo da a conocer el estudio exploratorio realizado en estudiantes universitarios de sexo masculino provenientes de diferentes dominios de conocimiento (Humanista, Científico y Artístico), orientado a reconocer actitudes frente al rol femenino. Para ello, se estructuraron -en base al reconocimiento efectuado a través de una amplia revisión histórica, de ideas arquetípicas y recurrentes respecto a lo femenino-

Elisabeth Wenk; Armando Ortiz; Andrea Urrea

135

Creencias de las profesoras de la Fundación Íntegramente. Un primer acercamiento al contexto sociocultural de la enseñanza de castellano a los inmigrantes de Santa Coloma de Gramenet  

Microsoft Academic Search

La constante llegada de inmigrantes a Cataluña provenientes de diferentes partes de África, Medio Oriente y Asia ha llevado a la creación de centros de acogida en los cuales se les ayuda a estos a integrarse socialmente. Uno de los centros en la mancha urbana de Barcelona es la Fundación Integramenet en Santa Coloma de Gramenet. En este apareció la

Hermes Iván Díaz Ceniceros

2010-01-01

136

CARACTERÍSTICAS, OPERACIONALIDADE E PRODUÇÃO DA FROTA SERREIRA NO MUNICÍPIO DA RAPOSA - MA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho aborda as características, operacionalidade e produção pesqueira da frota serreira, no município da Raposa, no período de março a dezembro de 2003, com desembarques nos portos da Praia da Raposa e Braga. Os dados utilizados são provenientes da Capitania dos Portos do Maranhão, Progra- ma Revizee (Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica exclusiva) e da comunidade de pescadores do

Elizabeth Galvão Soares; Milton Gonçalves da Silva Júnior

137

EL VALOR DE LA PRODUCTIVIDAD MARGINAL DEL AGUA EN LA INDUSTRIA MANUFACTURERA COLOMBIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio considera el valor de la productividad marginal del agua en la industria manufacturera colombiana. Su estimación se realiza con información proveniente de aquellos establecimientos industriales que reportaron algún consumo de agua como materia prima, agregados a cuatro dígitos CIIU, en la Encuesta Anual Manufacturera (EAM), durante el periodo 1992 - 1999. A través de la estimación de una

Martha Patricia Cruz; Eduardo Uribe; Harold Coronado

2003-01-01

138

Determinantes del crecimiento de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en España (1990-2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

La evolución de los gases de efecto invernadero en España se está distanciando notablemente del objetivo marcado por el Protocolo de Kyoto. En el presente trabajo se analizan los diferentes factores que han contribuido al importante aumento experimentado en las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero provenientes del consumo de energía en España en el período 1990-2007. La metodología de

Vicent Alcantara Escolano; Emilio Padilla Rosa

2009-01-01

139

Corruption, Economic Freedom and Political Freedom in South America: In Pursuit of the missing Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La corrupción se puede definir como “el abuso de la autoridad o confianza pública con fines privados”. Sin embargo, esta definición sugiere que la corrupción es una enfermedad de la sociedad y no un síntoma resultante de problemas estructurales como la inequidad o falta de democracia. Luego de analizar información proveniente de Freedom House y Transparency International, este estudio

Danny Garcia Callejas

2010-01-01

140

Descubre la biblioteca con Gua rpida  

E-print Network

provenientes de los recursos electrónicos y del repositorio institucional #12;Acceso desde la página web de la, revistas, audiovisuales, mapas, ... Repositorio UAM: tesis doctorales, proyectos de investigación, revistas Repositorio · Algunas suscripciones a recursos electrónicos #12;Enlace con el documento Acceso mediante el

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

141

Seventy-One Important Questions for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

The ocean provides food, economic activity, and cultural value for a large proportion of humanity. Our knowledge of marine ecosystems lags behind that of terrestrial ecosystems, limiting effective protection of marine resources. We describe the outcome of 2 workshops in 2011 and 2012 to establish a list of important questions, which, if answered, would substantially improve our ability to conserve and manage the world’s marine resources. Participants included individuals from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations with broad experience across disciplines, marine ecosystems, and countries that vary in levels of development. Contributors from the fields of science, conservation, industry, and government submitted questions to our workshops, which we distilled into a list of priority research questions. Through this process, we identified 71 key questions. We grouped these into 8 subject categories, each pertaining to a broad component of marine conservation: fisheries, climate change, other anthropogenic threats, ecosystems, marine citizenship, policy, societal and cultural considerations, and scientific enterprise. Our questions address many issues that are specific to marine conservation, and will serve as a road map to funders and researchers to develop programs that can greatly benefit marine conservation. Setenta y Un Preguntas Importantes para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad Marina Resumen Los océanos proporcionan alimento, actividad económica y valor cultural para una gran porción de la humanidad. Nuestro conocimiento de los ecosistemas marinos está atrasado con respecto al que tenemos de los ecosistemas terrestres, lo que limita la protección efectiva de los recursos naturales. Describimos el resultado de dos talleres en 2011 y 2012 para establecer una lista de preguntas importantes, las cuales al ser respondidas, mejorarían sustancialmente nuestra habilidad de conservar y manejar los recursos marinos del mundo. Entre los participantes se incluyeron a individuos de la docencia, el gobierno y organizaciones no-gubernamentales, con una amplia experiencia que atraviesa disciplinas, ecosistemas marinos y países que varían en el nivel de desarrollo. Los contribuyentes de los campos de la ciencia, la conservación, la industria y el gobierno, presentaron preguntas a nuestros talleres, las cuales separamos en una lista de preguntas de investigación prioritarias. Por medio de este proceso, identificamos 71 preguntas clave. Las agrupamos en ocho categorías temáticas, cada una perteneciente a un componente amplio de la conservación marina: pesquerías, cambio climático, otras amenazas antropogénicas, ecosistemas, ciudadanía marina, política, consideraciones sociales y culturales, y la iniciativa científica. Nuestras preguntas se dirigen a muchas cuestiones que son específicas de la conservación marina, y servirán como una ruta a seguir para patrocinadores e investigadores que busquen desarrollar programas que puedan beneficiar ampliamente a la conservación marina. PMID:24779474

PARSONS, E C M; FAVARO, BRETT; AGUIRRE, A ALONSO; BAUER, AMY L; BLIGHT, LOUISE K; CIGLIANO, JOHN A; COLEMAN, MELINDA A; CÔTÉ, ISABELLE M; DRAHEIM, MEGAN; FLETCHER, STEPHEN; FOLEY, MELISSA M; JEFFERSON, REBECCA; JONES, MIRANDA C; KELAHER, BRENDAN P; LUNDQUIST, CAROLYN J; MCCARTHY, JULIE-BETH; NELSON, ANNE; PATTERSON, KATHERYN; WALSH, LESLIE; WRIGHT, ANDREW J; SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM J

2014-01-01

142

Assessing ecological correlates of marine bird declines to inform marine conservation  

PubMed Central

Identifying drivers of ecosystem change in large marine ecosystems is central for their effective management and conservation. This is a sizable challenge, particularly in ecosystems transcending international borders, where monitoring and conservation of long-range migratory species and their habitats are logistically and financially problematic. Here, using tools borrowed from epidemiology, we elucidated common drivers underlying species declines within a marine ecosystem, much in the way epidemiological analyses evaluate risk factors for negative health outcomes to better inform decisions. Thus, we identified ecological traits and dietary specializations associated with species declines in a community of marine predators that could be reflective of ecosystem change. To do so, we integrated count data from winter surveys collected in long-term marine bird monitoring programs conducted throughout the Salish Sea—a transboundary large marine ecosystem in North America's Pacific Northwest. We found that decadal declines in winter counts were most prevalent among pursuit divers such as alcids (Alcidae) and grebes (Podicipedidae) that have specialized diets based on forage fish, and that wide-ranging species without local breeding colonies were more prone to these declines. Although a combination of factors is most likely driving declines of diving forage fish specialists, we propose that changes in the availability of low-trophic prey may be forcing wintering range shifts of diving birds in the Salish Sea. Such a synthesis of long-term trends in a marine predator community not only provides unique insights into the types of species that are at risk of extirpation and why, but may also inform proactive conservation measures to counteract threats—information that is paramount for species-specific and ecosystem-wide conservation. Evaluación de las Correlaciones Ecológicas de las Declinaciones de Aves Marinas para Informar a la Conservación Marina Resumen La identificación de los conductores del cambio ambiental en los grandes ecosistemas marinos es esencial para su conservación y manejo efectivo. Esto es un reto bastante grande, particularmente en los ecosistemas que trascienden fronteras internacionales, cuando el monitoreo y la conservación de especies migratorias de amplio rango y sus hábitats son logística y financieramente problemáticos. En este caso, usando herramientas tomadas de la epidemiología, elucidamos conductores comunes subyacentes en la declinación de especies dentro de un ecosistema marino, muy similar a cómo los análisis epidemiológicos evalúan los factores de riesgo para los resultados de salud negativos e informar mejor sus decisiones. Con esto, identificamos los rasgos ecológicos y las especializaciones de dieta asociados con la declinación de especies en una comunidad de depredadores marinos que podría ser un reflejo de cambios ambientales. Para lograr esto, integramos datos de conteo de programas de censos de invierno recolectados a lo largo de monitoreos a largo plazo de aves marinas llevados a cabo en el mar Salish – un gran ecosistema marino que trasciende fronteras en el noroeste del Océano Pacífico. Encontramos que las declinaciones por década en los conteos de invierno fueron más prevalentes entre los pescadores de persecución, como los álcidos (Alcidae) y los zambullidores (Podicipedidae), que tienen dietas especializadas basadas en peces forrajeros y que las especies con distribución amplia y sin colonias reproductivas locales estaban más predispuestas a estas declinaciones. Mientras que una combinación de factores posiblemente esté causando las declinaciones de especialistas de peces forrajeros, proponemos que los cambios en la disponibilidad de presas de niveles tróficos bajos pueden estar forzando cambios en la extensión invernal de aves pescadoras en el mar Salish. Dicha síntesis de tendencias a largo plazo en una comun

Vilchis, L Ignacio; Johnson, Christine K; Evenson, Joseph R; Pearson, Scott F; Barry, Karen L; Davidson, Peter; Raphael, Martin G; Gaydos, Joseph K

2015-01-01

143

Population Models for Massive Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing number of massive globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way are now turned out to host multiple stellar populations having different heavy element abundances enriched by supernovae. Recent observations have further shown that [CNO/Fe] is also enhanced in metal-rich subpopulations in most of these GCs, including ? Cen and M22 (Marino et al. 2011, 2012). In order to reflect this in our population modeling, we have expanded the parameter space of Y 2 isochrones and horizontal-branch (HB) evolutionary tracks to include the cases of normal and enhanced nitrogen abundances ([N/Fe] = 0.0, 0.8, and 1.6). The observed variations in the total CNO content were reproduced by interpolating these nitrogen enhanced stellar models. Our test simulations with varying N and O abundances show that, once the total CNO sum ([CNO/Fe]) is held constant, both N and O have almost identical effects on the HR diagram (see Fig. 1).

Lee, Young-Wook; Joo, Seok-Joo; Han, Sang-Il; Na, Chongsam; Lim, Dongwook; Roh, Dong-Goo

2015-03-01

144

Two new Typhloreicheia species from Sardinia and their biogeographical significance (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Typhloreicheia monacha sp. n. and Typhloreicheia ilianae sp. n. are described from two caves of Central-Eastern Sardinia (Nuoro province): the Bue Marino cave and the Nurra ‘e Pradu cave, respectively. Both caves are located in the part of the island where many highly specialised subterranean carabid beetles are localised. Typhloreicheia monacha is apparently related to two other species of the same area, i.e. Typhloreicheia onnisi Casale & Magrini, 2004 and Typhloreicheia elegans (Dodero, 1916); Typhloreicheia ilianae is closely related to Typhloreicheia henroti Jeannel, 1957, known from a cave near Dorgali. Relationships and diagnostic features among these taxa are discussed and illustrated, and a key for identification of the specialised subterranean Typhloreicheia species of Sardinia is provided. The hypothesis of adaptive radiation of Reicheiina species in Sardinia, recently proposed by the senior author of this contribution, is further elaborated in light of new data. PMID:22140340

Casale, Achille; Marcia, Paolo

2011-01-01

145

Clinicopathological study of thymomas--correlation of histologic subtype to myasthenia gravis and prognosis.  

PubMed

Thymoma is the most common primary tumor of anterior superior mediastinum. Sixty cases of thymomas over a 12 year period were analysed and the histologic subtype, according to Marino and Muller-Hermilink, classification was correlated with presence or absence of myasthenia gravis (MG) and capsular invasion. Thirty four patients had myasthenia gravis associated with thymoma and there was one case of pure red cell aplasia. There were 3 (1) predominantly cortical, 28 (20) cortical, 12 (9) mixed, 16 (4) medullary thymomas and 1 (0) thymic carcinoma (Figures in parenthesis indicate number of cases associated with MG). Capsular invasion was seen in 25 cases. Association with myasthenia gravis and capsular invasion were seen predominantly in cortical and mixed thymomas which were also associated with aggressive behaviour. PMID:15025278

Sundaram, C; Rajagopal, P; Rakshak, A D; Omprakash, G; Das, S Mohan; Murthy, J M K

2003-07-01

146

Exact slope and interpolating functions in N=6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory.  

PubMed

Using the quantum spectral curve approach we compute, exactly, an observable (called slope function) in the planar Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory in terms of an unknown interpolating function h(?) which plays the role of the coupling in any integrability based calculation in this theory. We verified our results with known weak coupling expansion in the gauge theory and with the results of semiclassical string calculations. Quite surprisingly at strong coupling the result is given by an explicit rational function of h(?) to all orders. By comparing the structure of our result with that of an exact localization based calculation for a similar observable in Marino and Putrov [J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2010) 011], we conjecture an exact expression for h(?). PMID:25279619

Gromov, Nikolay; Sizov, Grigory

2014-09-19

147

In search of ortolani: the man and the method.  

PubMed

Dr Marino Ortolani was an Italian pediatrician who developed a test for hip instability in the infant (1936) and then promoted early diagnosis of this condition to the medical community. He studied the pathoanatomy of hip instability in the 1940s. He wrote his textbook in 1948 and in 1952 he produced a movie about the examination and treatment of hip dysplasia which was translated into many languages to promote early diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). In his career, he wrote a monograph and 31 articles on the subject of hip dysplasia and besides his classic test he developed various braces to treat the infants with hip instability. A remarkable achievement for this early clinician-scientist. PMID:25197944

Mubarak, Scott J

2015-03-01

148

LITHIUM ABUNDANCES IN RED GIANTS OF M4: EVIDENCE FOR ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR POLLUTION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS?  

SciTech Connect

The determination of Li and proton-capture element abundances in globular cluster (GC) giants allows us to constrain several key questions on the multiple population scenarios in GCs, from formation and early evolution to pollution and dilution mechanisms. In this Letter, we present our results on Li abundances for a large sample of giants in the intermediate-metallicity GC NGC 6121 (M4), for which Na and O have been already determined by Marino et al. The stars analyzed are both below and above the red giant branch bump luminosity. We found that the first and second generation stars share the same Li content, suggesting that a Li production must have occurred. This provides strong observational evidence supporting the scenario in which asymptotic giant branch stars are GC polluters.

D'Orazi, Valentina [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Marino, Anna F., E-mail: valentina.dorazi@oapd.inaf.i, E-mail: anna.marino@unipd.i [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy)

2010-06-20

149

Research Note--Computational Identification of Reassortments  

E-print Network

in reassortment identification of NP segments in H5N1 AIVs. We identified two new potential reassortments for H5N1 los segmentos del gen de la nucleoprotei´na provenientes de virus H5N1 de influenza aviar. Se logro´ la identificacio´n de dos recombinaciones potenciales para los virus H5N1 de influenza aviar, mas

Lin, Guohui

150

Desenvolvimento de um data logger portátil para sinais de movimento utilizando cartões MMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Neste artigo descreve-se o desenvolvimento de um data logger portátil para armazenagem de sinais relacionados ao movimento humano. O sistema utiliza cartões MultiMediaCard™ como dispositivo de armazenamento de alta capacidade e um microcontrolador com oito canais de conversão A\\/D para entrada dos sinais analógicos provenientes de sensores de movimento ou eletrodos de eletromiografia. A taxa de amostragem pode

R. E. M. Farias; J. P. J Conti; E. F. Manffra; P. Nohama

151

VARIA?'ES GEN…TICAS PARA CARACTER?STICAS DO SISTEMA RADICULAR DE MUDAS DE BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog.)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO ñ Este estudo objetivou estimar os par‚metros genØticos relativos ‡ qualidade do sistema radicular de mudas de baru. Para isso, foram utilizadas mudas provenientes de sementes colhidas em 21 Ærvores-matriz de polinizaÁªo livre no MunicÌpio de CapinÛpolis, Minas Gerais. Quarenta e cinco dias apÛs a germinaÁªo, as imagens das raÌzes de 20 mudas de cada progŒnie foram obtidas por

Adelson Nascimento Oliveira; Ana Carolina da Silva; Carlos da Silva Rosado; Crespo Rodrigues

2006-01-01

152

Carbohydrates as indicators of biogeochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented to study the carbohydrate composition of marine objects involved into sedimento- and diagenesis (plankton, particulate matter, benthos, and bottom sediments). The analysis of the carbohydrates is based upon the consecutive separation of their fractions with different solvents (water, alkali, and acid). The ratio of the carbohydrate fractions allows one to evaluate the lability of the carbohydrate complex. It is also usable as an indicator of the biogeochemical processes in the ocean, as well of the genesis and the degree of conversion of organic matter in the bottom sediments and nodules. The similarity in the monosaccharide composition is shown for dissolved organic matter and aqueous and alkaline fractions of seston and particulate matter.

Lazareva, E. V.; Romankevich, E. A.

2012-05-01

153

Tracing the evolution within nearby galaxy groups: a multi-wavelength approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary scenarios suggest that several mechanisms (from inner secular evolution to accretion/merging) may transform galaxy members, driving groups from an active star forming phase to a more passive, typical of dense environments. We are investigating this transition in a nearby group sample, designed to cover a wide range of properties (see also Marino et al. (2010), Bettoni et al. (2011) and Marino et al. (2012)). We study two groups, USGC U268 and USGC U376 located in different regions of the Leo cloud, through a photometric and kinematic characterization of their member galaxies. We revisit the group membership, using results from recent red-shift surveys, and we investigate their substructures. U268, composed of 10 catalogued members and 11 new added members, has a small fraction (~24%) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). U376 has 16 plus 8 new added members, with ~38% of ETGs. We find the significant substructuring in both groups suggesting that they are likely accreting galaxies. U268 is located in a more loose environment than U376. For each member galaxy, broad band integrated and surface photometry have been obtained in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) with GALEX, and in u, g, r, i, z (SDSS) bands. H? imaging and 2D high resolution kinematical data have been obtained using PUMA Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.12 m telescope in San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México). We improved the galaxy classification and we detected morphological and kinematical distortions that may be connected to either on-going and/or past interaction/accretion events or environmental induced secular evolution. U268 appears more active than U376, with a large fraction of galaxies showing interaction signatures (60% vs. 13%). The presence of bars among late-type galaxies is ~10% in U268 and 29% in U376. The cumulative distribution of (FUV - NUV) colors of galaxies in U268 is significantly different (bluer) than that of U376's galaxies. Most (80%) of the early-type members in U376 inhabits the red sequence, a large fraction of galaxies, of different morphological types, are located in the green valley, while the blue sequence is under-populated with respect to U268.

Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Plana, Henri; Rosado, Margarita; Galletta, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Paola; Bianchi, Luciana; Buson, Lucio M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia; Gabbasov, Ruslan

2015-03-01

154

Um Modelo Conceitual Compatvel com a Plataforma EDUCOM/IMS para Comparao de Ambientes de Educao na  

E-print Network

veículo de comunicação para a apresentação de aulas à distância (conferência multimídia). Um processo de o AulaNetTM (provenientes de 21 instituições) e 316 alunos estão matriculados nos 39 cursos oferecidos neste semestre; o Virtual-U e Web-CT também contam com uma grande comunidade de usuários e o mesmo

Fontoura, Marcus F.

155

Modelos Teoricos de Linhas de Recombinacao EM Radio Frequencias Para Regioes H II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foram feitos modelos de linhas de recombinção provenientes de regiões HII nas frequências de rádio para distintos números quãnticos. Estes modelos consideram regrões H II esfericamente simétricas com variações radiais na densidade e temperatura eletrônica, efeitos de colisoes inelásticas dos eletrons (alargarnento por pressão), e afastarnento do equiliíbrio termodinâmico local. 0 bojetivo é construir o perfil da linha para cada ponto da nuvern e obter o valor médio resultante da sua convoluçã com o feixe da antena de tarnanho comparável corn o tarnanho angular da nuvern para posterIor cornpara o corn

Abraham, Z.; Cancoro, A. C. O.

1987-05-01

156

The bottom quartile for health indices in America vs Europe.  

PubMed

The inequities in health outcomes in different parts of the developed world merit further analysis. An index comprising mortality and morbidity factors was composed for American states and European nations. Multiple factors and bottom quartile status were analyzed by regression methodology. The 51 American states (and District of Columbia) showed a "Health Index" value based on life expectancy at birth and morbidity determined by rates of cardiac disease and cancer that ranged from 63 (Mississippi and West Virginia) to 94 (Utah). The 48 of 51 European states with assessable data showed a Health Index based on life expectancy at birth and quality adjusted life years that ranged from 53 (Russia) to 98 (San Marino). American states with the lowest quartile values were clustered in the American South and Appalachian areas. European states ranking in the bottom quartile were typically from Eastern Europe and showed a history of a Communism and recognized governmental corruption. Because American poor health rankings are the result of controllable factors (smoking, adult onset diabetes, obesity), Americans can improve their bottom quartile status more readily than Europeans whose ranking status is a function of history (Communism, civil conflicts) and poverty (Southeastern and Eastern nations). PMID:25037885

Shandera, Wayne Xavier

2014-01-01

157

Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.  

PubMed

The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system. PMID:25402984

Kellerer, Aglaé

2014-11-10

158

The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

Stocchi, M. P.

2011-06-01

159

Iron and neutron-capture element abundance variations in the globular cluster M2 (NGC 7089)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present CN and CH indices and Ca II triplet metallicities for 34 giant stars and chemical abundances for 33 elements in 14 giants in the globular cluster M2. Assuming that the programme stars are cluster members, our analysis reveals (i) an extreme variation in CN and CH line strengths, (ii) a metallicity dispersion with a dominant peak at [Fe/H] ? -1.7 and smaller peaks at -1.5 and -1.0, (iii) star-to-star abundance variations and correlations for the light elements O, Na, Al and Si and (iv) a large (and possibly bimodal) distribution in the abundances of all elements produced mainly via the s-process in Solar system material. Following Roederer, Marino & Sneden, we define two groups of stars, `r + s' and `r-only', and subtract the average abundances of the latter from the former group to obtain an `s-process residual'. This s-process residual is remarkably similar to that found in M22 and in M4 despite the range in metallicity covered by these three systems. With recent studies identifying a double subgiant branch in M2 and a dispersion in Sr and Ba abundances, our spectroscopic analysis confirms that this globular cluster has experienced a complex formation history with similarities to M22, NGC 1851 and ? Centauri.

Yong, David; Roederer, Ian U.; Grundahl, Frank; Da Costa, Gary S.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Norris, John E.; Aoki, Wako; Fishlock, Cherie K.; Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Shingles, Luke J.

2014-07-01

160

The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo.  

PubMed

The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time) organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery. PMID:24676444

Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Taricco, Mario Augusto; Plese, José Píndaro P; Flores, Camila; Teixeira, Saulo A; Luzio, José

2014-03-01

161

Neoproterozoic ice sheets of the Siberian Platform: U-Pb-LA-ICP-MS ages of detrital zircons from the Bol'shoi Patom formation and the geotectonic position of its provenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The centers of many Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic glaciations were located on cratons and crystalline shields not necessarily, as some researchers believe, associated with rifts. An example is the Vendian Bol'shoi Patom glacial formation (Lena River, Yakutia). The U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from this formation imply that it was deposited by glaciers located on the pre-Riphean crystalline shields of the Siberian Platform. Glaciation in this region occurred after cessation of rifting and could not be related to the latter. The Bol'shoi Patom Formation is an element of the Middle Siberian glacial horizon that was deposited during the Marino Glaciation and is traceable along the southern periphery of the Siberian Platform from the Aldan Shield to the Baikal and Sayany regions. This indicates that the Marinoan Glaciation in Siberia involved at least the entire southern part of the Siberian Platform. Rifting was not the single, or even a principal, factor responsible for glaciations, although it could accompany and enhance them simultaneously providing space for sedimentation and conditions for preserving glacial deposits from erosion.

Chumakov, N. M.; Linnemann, U.; Hofmann, M.; Pokrovskii, B. G.

2011-12-01

162

An oceanographic context for the foraging ecology of eastern Pacific leatherback turtles: Consequences of ENSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed some of the primary biological and physical dynamics within the eastern Pacific leatherback turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea) migration area in relation to ENSO and leatherback nesting ecology at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas (PNMB), Costa Rica. We used data from remote sensing to calculate resource availability via a net primary production (NPP) model, and to analyze the physical dynamics of the migration area via sea surface temperature fronts. Within the migration area, NPP north of 15°S was highly governed by interannual variability as indicated by the Multivariate ENSO Index while south of 15°S, production had a more seasonal signal. Nesting peaks of leatherbacks at PNMB were associated with cool, highly productive La Niña events and with large-scale equatorial phytoplankton blooms encompassing 110°W that were induced by iron enrichment following the termination of El Niño events. Resource availability in the northern migration area (eastern equatorial Pacific) appeared to determine the nesting response for the population at PNMB, Costa Rica. We suggest that ENSO significantly influences the nesting ecology of leatherbacks at PNMB because the majority of the population consists of pelagic foragers that strictly rely on the eastern equatorial Pacific for prey consumption prior to the nesting season. Coastal foragers may be a minority in the population because of high mortality rates associated with coastal gillnet fisheries along Central and South America.

Saba, Vincent S.; Shillinger, George L.; Swithenbank, Alan M.; Block, Barbara A.; Spotila, James R.; Musick, John A.; Paladino, Frank V.

2008-05-01

163

Marine hydrogeology: recent accomplishments and future opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine hydrogeology is a broad-ranging scientific discipline involving the exploration of fluid-rock interactions below the seafloor. Studies have been conducted at seafloor spreading centers, mid-plate locations, and in plate- and continental-margin environments. Although many seafloor locations are remote, there are aspects of marine systems that make them uniquely suited for hydrologic analysis. Newly developed tools and techniques, and the establishment of several multidisciplinary programs for oceanographic exploration, have helped to push marine hydrogeology forward over the last several decades. Most marine hydrogeologic work has focused on measurement or estimation of hydrogeologic properties within the shallow subsurface, but additional work has emphasized measurements of local and global fluxes, fluid source and sink terms, and quantitative links between hydrogeologic, chemical, tectonic, biological, and geophysical processes. In addition to summarizing selected results from a small number of case studies, this paper includes a description of several new experiments and programs that will provide outstanding opportunities to address fundamental hydrogeologic questions within the seafloor during the next 20-30 years. L'hydrogéologie marine est une large discipline scientifique impliquant l' exploration des interactions entre les fluides et les roches sous les fonds marins. Des études ont été menées dans les différents environnements sous-marins (zone abyssale, plaque océanique, marges continentales). Bien que de nombreux fonds marins soient connus, il existe des aspects des systèmes marins qui les rendent inadaptés à l'analyse hydrologique. De nouveaux outils et techniques, et la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes multidisciplinaires d'exploration océanographique, ont aidé à pousser en avant l'hydrogéologie marine ces dix dernières années. La plus part des études hydrogéologiques se sont concentrées jusqu'à présent sur la mesure ou l'estimation des propriétés à la sub-surface des fonds marins, et des travaux complémentaires ont mis en valeur les mesures de flux, local ou global, de termes « sources » et « pertes », et des liens quantitatifs entre l'hydrogéologie, la chimie, la tectonique, la biologie, et les processus géophysiques. Cet article vise à résumer des résultats sélectionnés parmi un petit nombre d'études, et à décrire plusieurs nouvelles expériences et programmes, qui sont autant d'opportunités pour répondre aux questions fondamentales relatives aux fonds marins, posées ces dernières 20-30 années. La hidrogeología marina es una disciplina científica de amplios alcances que involucra la exploración de interacciones fluido-roca por debajo del fondo del mar. Se han llevado a cabo estudios en centros de expansión del fondo del mar, lugares en medio de una placa, y en ambientes de placa y margen continental. Aunque muchos sitios en el fondo del mar son remotos, existen aspectos de estos sistemas marinos que los hacen particularmente adaptables para análisis hidrológico. Nuevas técnicas y herramientas desarrolladas, y el establecimiento de varios programas multidisciplinarios para exploración oceanográfica, han ayudado a impulsar la hidrogeología marina hacia delante durante las ultimas décadas. La mayor parte del trabajo hidrogeológico marino se ha enfocado en la medición o estimación de propiedades hidrogeológicas dentro del subsuelo superficial, pero trabajo adicionalha enfatizado mediciones de flujos globales y locales, términos de fuente y sumidero de fluidos, y vínculos cuantitativos entre procesos hidrogeológicos, químicos, tectónicos, biológicos y geofísicos. Además de resumir resultados seleccionados de un número pequeño de estudios de caso, este artículo incluye una descripción de varios programas y experimentos nuevos que aportarán oportunidades excepcionales para dirigir preguntas hidrogeológicas fundamentales dentro del fondo oceánico durante los siguientes 20-30 años.

Fisher, A. T.

2005-03-01

164

Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde 1985 hasta 2012, que reportan datos colectados desde antes de 1900 y a lo largo del 2011. Investigamos específicamente si el predominio de la ingesta ha cambiado con el tiempo, qué tipos de residuos se ingieren comúnmente, la distribución geográfica de la ingesta de residuos por tortugas marinas en relación a la distribución global de residuos y cuáles especies y etapas de vida tienen más probabilidad de ingerir residuos. La probabilidad de que las tortugas verdes (Chelonia mydas) y laúd (Dermochelys coriacea) ingieran escombros incrementa significativamente con el tiempo; plástico fue el residuo que más se ingirió. Las tortugas en casi todas las regiones estudiadas ingieren residuos, pero la probabilidad de ingesta no estuvo relacionada con las densidades modeladas de residuos. Además de esto, tortugas más pequeñas, en etapa oceánica de vida, tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de ingerir residuos que las tortugas forrajeras terrestres, mientras que las especies carnívoras tuvieron menos probabilidad de ingerir residuos que las herbívoras o las gelatinívoras. Nuestros resultados indican que las tortugas verdes y laúd tienen el mayor riesgo de efectos letales y subletales de la ingesta de residuos marinos. Para reducir el riesgo, los residuos antropogénicos deben manejarse en un nivel global. PMID:23914794

Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

2014-01-01

165

Sobrevivendo a un tsunami: lecciones de Chile, Hawai y Japon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Este folleto contiene historias veridicas que ilustran como sobrevivir, y como no sobrevivir, a un tsunami. Esta publicacion esta dirigida a las personas que viven, trabajan o, simplemente, se divierten a lo largo de las costas que pueden ser afectadas por un tsunami. Tales costas rodean la mayor parte del Oceano Pacifico pero tambien incluyen algunas areas costeras de los Oceanos Atlantico e Indico. Aunque mucha gente llama a los tsunamis 'olas de marea', estos no estan relacionados a las mareas, sino son una serie de olas, o 'tren de olas', generalmente causadas por cambios en el nivel del fondo marino durante los terremotos. Los tsunamis tambien pueden ser generados por la erupcion de volcanes costeros, islas volconicas, deslizamientos submarinos e impactos de grandes meteoritos en el mar. Como sucedio en Sumatra en el 2004, los tsunamis pueden alcanzar alturas de 15 metros, no tan solo en la costa sino tambien kilometros tierra adentro. Los relatos presentados en este folleto fueron seleccionados de entrevistas realizadas a personas que sobrevivieron al tsunami del Oceano Pacifico de 1960. Muchas de estas personas, incluyendo a la enfermera de la foto, se enfrento a las olas generadas a poca distancia, en la costa chilena. En cambio, otros debieron hacer frente al tsunami muchas horas despues, en Hawai y Japon. La mayoria de las entrevistas fueron realizadas a fines de los anos ochenta y en los noventa. Las historias ofrecen una mezcla de lecciones de supervivencia a un tsunami. En algunos casos se presentan las acciones que confiablemente salvaron vidas: poner atencion a los avisos de la naturaleza, abandonar los bienes, dirigirse rapidamente a un sector alto y permanecer alli hasta que el tsunami realmente haya terminado. Otras historias describen como se encontro refugio al subir a construcciones y arboles o flotar sobre desechos, tacticas que tuvieron diferentes resultados y que pueden ser recomendadas solo como actos desesperados de personas atrapadas en sectores bajos.

Compilado por Atwater, Brian F.; Cisternas V., Marco; Bourgeois, Joanne; Dudley, Walter C.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

1999-01-01

166

The game of active search for extra-terrestrial intelligence: breaking the `Great Silence'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been performed principally as a one-way survey, listening of radio frequencies across the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, scientists have engaged in an active messaging only rarely. This suggests the simple rationale that if other civilizations exist and take a similar approach to ours, namely listening but not broadcasting, the result is a silent universe. A simple game theoretical model, the prisoner's dilemma, explains this situation: each player (civilization) can passively search (defect), or actively search and broadcast (cooperate). In order to maximize the payoff (or, equivalently, minimize the risks) the best strategy is not to broadcast. In fact, the active search has been opposed on the basis that it might be dangerous to expose ourselves. However, most of these ideas have not been based on objective arguments, and ignore accounting of the possible gains and losses. Thus, the question stands: should we perform an active search? I develop a game-theoretical framework where civilizations can be of different types, and explicitly apply it to a situation where societies are either interested in establishing a two-way communication or belligerent and in urge to exploit ours. The framework gives a quantitative solution (a mixed-strategy), which is how frequent we should perform the active SETI. This frequency is roughly proportional to the inverse of the risk, and can be extremely small. However, given the immense amount of stars being scanned, it supports active SETI. The model is compared with simulations, and the possible actions are evaluated through the San Marino scale, measuring the risks of messaging.

de Vladar, Harold P.

2013-01-01

167

Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El Cambio Climático, los Ecosistemas Marinos y el Acta Estadunidense de Especies en Peligro. PMID:24299080

Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

2013-12-01

168

Dansyl labeling and bidimensional mass spectrometry to investigate protein carbonylation.  

PubMed

Carbonylation is a non-enzymatic irreversible post-translational modification. The adduction of carbonyl groups to proteins is due to the presence of excess of ROS in cells. Carbonylation of specific amino acid side chains is one of the most abundant consequences of oxidative stress; therefore, the determination of carbonyl groups content in proteins is regarded as a reliable way to estimate the cellular damage caused by oxidative stress. This paper reports a novel RIGhT (Reporter Ion Generating Tag) (A. Amoresano, G. Monti, C. Cirulli, G. Marino. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2006, 20, 1400) approach for selective labeling of carbonyl groups in proteins using dansylhydrazide, coupled with selective analysis by bidimensional mass spectrometry. We first applied this approach to ribonuclease A and lysozyme as model proteins. According to the so-called 'gel-free procedures', the analysis is carried out at the level of peptides following tryptic digest of the whole protein mixture. Modified RNaseA was analyzed in combined MS(2) and MS(3) scan mode, to specifically select the dansylated species taking advantage of the dansyl-specific fragmentation pathways. This combination allowed us to obtain a significant increase in signal/noise ratio and a significant increase in sensitivity of analysis, due to the reduction of duty cycle of the mass spectrometer. The unique signal obtained was correlated to peptide 1-10 of RNaseA carbonylated and labeled by dansylhydrazide. This strategy represents the first method leading to the direct identification of the carbonylation sites in proteins, thus indicating the feasibility of this strategy to investigate protein carbonylation in a proteomic approach. PMID:21157867

Palmese, Angelo; De Rosa, Chiara; Marino, Gennaro; Amoresano, Angela

2011-01-15

169

Characterization and dynamics of aggresome formation by a cytosolic GFP-chimera.  

PubMed

Formation of a novel structure, the aggresome, has been proposed to represent a general cellular response to the presence of misfolded proteins (Johnston, J.A., C.L. Ward, and R.R. Kopito. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 143:1883-1898; Wigley, W.C., R.P. Fabunmi, M.G. Lee, C.R. Marino, S. Muallem, G.N. DeMartino, and P.J. Thomas. 1999. J. Cell Biol. 145:481-490). To test the generality of this finding and characterize aspects of aggresome composition and its formation, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a cytosolic protein chimera (GFP-250) in cells. Overexpression of GFP-250 caused formation of aggresomes and was paralleled by the redistribution of the intermediate filament protein vimentin as well as by the recruitment of the proteasome, and the Hsp70 and the chaperonin systems of chaperones. Interestingly, GFP-250 within the aggresome appeared not to be ubiquitinated. In vivo time-lapse analysis of aggresome dynamics showed that small aggregates form within the periphery of the cell and travel on microtubules to the MTOC region where they remain as distinct but closely apposed particulate structures. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which causes the dissociation of the dynactin complex, significantly inhibited the formation of aggresomes, suggesting that the minus-end-directed motor activities of cytoplasmic dynein are required for aggresome formation. Perinuclear aggresomes interfered with correct Golgi localization and disrupted the normal astral distribution of microtubules. However, ER-to-Golgi protein transport occurred normally in aggresome containing cells. Our results suggest that aggresomes can be formed by soluble, nonubiquitinated proteins as well as by integral transmembrane ubiquitinated ones, supporting the hypothesis that aggresome formation might be a general cellular response to the presence of misfolded proteins. PMID:10491388

García-Mata, R; Bebök, Z; Sorscher, E J; Sztul, E S

1999-09-20

170

CALCIUM AND LIGHT-ELEMENTS ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We use abundances of Ca, O, Na, and Al from high-resolution UVES spectra of 200 red giants in 17 globular clusters (GCs) to investigate the correlation found by Lee et al. between chemical enrichment from SN II and star-to-star variations in light elements in GC stars. We find that (1) the [Ca/H] variations between first and second generation stars are tiny in most GCs ({approx}0.02-0.03 dex, comparable with typical observational errors). In addition, (2) using a large sample of red giants in M 4 with abundances from UVES spectra from Marino et al., we find that Ca and Fe abundances in the two populations of Na-poor and Na-rich stars are identical. These facts suggest that the separation seen in color-magnitude diagrams using the U band or hk index (as observed in NGC 1851 by Han et al.) are not due to Ca variations. Small differences in [Ca/H] as associated with hk variations might be due to a small systematic effect in abundance analysis, because most O-poor/Na-rich (He-rich) stars have slightly larger [Fe/H] (by 0.027 dex on average, due to decreased H in the ratio) than first generation stars and are then located at redder positions in the V, hk plane. While a few GCs (M 54, {omega} Cen, M 22, maybe even NGC 1851) do actually show various degree of metallicity spread, our findings eliminate the need of a close link between the enrichment by core-collapse supernovae with the mechanism responsible for the Na-O anticorrelation.

Carretta, Eugenio; Bragaglia, Angela; Bellazzini, Michele [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Gratton, Raffaele; Lucatello, Sara; D'Orazi, Valentina [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: eugenio.carretta@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: angela.bragaglia@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: michele.bellazzini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: raffaele.gratton@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: valentina.dorazi@oapd.inaf.it

2010-03-20

171

Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estiméà 17,000m3 a été entraîné lors de la formation de ces entonnoirs. Treize tranchées ont été creusées à des profondeurs de 4 à 6m afin de caractériser les sédiments proches de la surface dans les zones avec et sans entonnoirs. Les sédiments situés à 2m environ sous la surface contiennent un fort pourcentage d'argile dispersée, dans les zones à entonnoirs. Dans les zones sans entonnoirs, la granulométrie des sédiments est constituée en fortes proportions de sables moyens à grossiers, moyennement à bien lités, qui remplissent probablement un ancien chenal. Des levés électromagnétiques montrent que l'association de silts et d'argiles dans les zones à entonnoirs possède une forte conductivitéélectrique, par comparaison avec les sables des zones sans entonnoirs. Les entonnoirs sont dus probablement à des processus, proches de la surface, d'érosion souterraine des sédiments constitués surtout de silts et d'argiles. Les fractures préexistantes résultent sans doute de la dessiccation ou de la tension se produisant lors des périodes d'abaissement de la nappe, liéà l'enfoncement du lit de la rivière au cours des cent dernières années ou même avant.1 Resumen Se ha detectado la formación de dolinas como resultado de la subsidencia que ha tenido lugar en las zonas agrícolas Condado de Pima, Arizona, EEUU. Estos colapsos han aparecido en depósitos aluviales a lo largo de la llanura de inundación del Río Santa Cruz y han hecho que las zonas agrícolas sean peligrosas e inadecuadas para su uso. Las más de 1700 dolinas aparecidas se agrupan a lo largo de dos bandas con dirección nor-noroeste, paralelas al río y a otros ejes de drenaje del llano. Se ha estimado un desplazamiento de 17.000metros cúbicos de sedimentos para formar estas dolinas. Se excavaron trece zanjas de entre 4 y 6metros para caracterizar los sedimentos más superficiales tanto en áreas colapsadas como no colapsadas. Por debajo de los dos metros de profundidad, los sedimentos presentan altos porcentajes de arcillas dispersivas en las zonas de dolinas. En las

Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

172

Remote sensing of plant emissions of volatile isoprenoids with PRI. Prospects for upscaling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Josep Peñuelas*1,2, Giovanni Marino1,2,3,4, Joan LLusia1,2, Catherine Morfopoulos1,2,5, Gerard Farre-Armengol1,2, Shawn Kefauver, Alex Guenther6 , Francesca Rapparini7 , Roger Seco1,2,6, Marc Estiarte1,2, Mónica Mejia-Chang1,2, Romà Ogaya1,2, Jordi Sardans1,2 , Andrew Turnipseed6, Peter Harley6, Osvaldo Facini7, Rita Baraldi7, Jim Greenberg6 , Iolanda Filella1,2 1 CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 2 CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 3 Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (IS), Italy 4 Institute for Plant Protection, National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy 5 Division of Ecology and Evolution, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK 6 Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA 7 Biometeorology Institute, IBIMET-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy Abstract Terrestrial plants re-emit around 1-2% of the carbon they fix as isoprene and monoterpenes. These emissions play major roles in the ecological relationships among living organisms and in atmospheric chemistry and climate, and yet their actual quantification at the ecosystem level in different regions is far from being resolved. Phenomenological models are used to estimate the emission rates, but the limited understanding of the function and regulation of these emissions leads to large uncertainties in such estimations. Many measurements have been made at the foliar but few at the ecosystem level, and those that do exist are limited in space and time. We here provide evidence that a simple remote sensing index, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which is indicative of light use efficiency (LUE), is a good indirect estimator of foliar isoprenoid emissions and therefore can be used to sense them remotely. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sense techniques of vegetation in order to track isoprenoid emissions at larger scales. At ecosystemic scale, in a field measurement campaign in NE Iberian peninsula, PRI estimations fitted well both with MEGAN modelled data and with satellite data assessing formaldehyde as oxidation product of isoprenoids. On the other hand, our study shows the potential of this PRI technique to validate the availability of photosynthetic reducing power as a factor involved in isoprenoid production.

Penuelas, J.

2013-12-01

173

Towards an organic palaeosalinity proxy: the effect of salinity, growth rate and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones produced by haptophyte algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeosalinity is one of the most important oceanographic parameters which currently cannot be quantified with reasonable accuracy from sedimentary records. Schouten et al.1 established that the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between growth water and alkenones produced by the haptophyte algae Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica is salinity dependent. As such, the ?D values of alkenones recovered from sediment cores can be used to reconstruct variations in palaeo- sea surface salinity.2 However, to accurately determine absolute palaeosalinity requires a better constraining of the relationship between this hydrogen fractionation, salinity and other parameters such as growth rate and growth phase. Here, we present results from our ongoing work to constrain the relationship between the fractionation factor ?alkenone-water, salinity, growth rate and growth phase for the major alkenone-producing haptophytes. In batch cultures of different strains of the open-ocean haptophyte E. huxleyi sampled during the exponential growth phase, ?C37alkenone-growthwater increases by between 0.0022 and 0.0033 per unit increase in salinity. A similar relationship is observed in batch cultures of the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana, where ? increases with each unit of salinity by 0.0019 - slightly less than for E. huxleyi. However, absolute ?C37alkenone-growthwater values vary strongly between species suggesting that species composition has a strong impact on the ?D value of alkenones. The fractionation factor for alkenones produced by batch cultures of I. galbana is affected by growth phase: the rate of change of ?C37alkenone-growthwater with each unit of salinity decreases from 0.0019 in the exponential phase to 0.0010 during the stationary phase. We also show the effect of varying growth rate over the range 0.2-0.8 day-1 on the fractionation factor for alkenones produced by E. huxleyi grown in continuous culture. These data show that alkenone ?D can be used to reconstruct relative shifts in palaeosalinity in coastal as well as open ocean environments; however, for absolute salinity reconstructions changes in species composition, growth rate and growth phase effects will have to be constrained. References 1. Schouten, S., Ossebaar, J., Schreiber, K., Kienhuis, M. V. M., Langer, G., Benthien, A., Bijma, J. Biogeosciences 3, 113, 2006 2. van der Meer, M. T. J., Baas, M., Rijpstra, W. I. C., Marino, G., Rohling, E. J., Sinninghe Damsté, J S., Schouten, S., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 262, 594, 2007

Chivall, David; M'Boule, Daniela; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

2013-04-01

174

Mineral Dust Elemental Composition Over the Last 220 Kyr from the EPICA-Dome C ice core (East Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral windblown aerosol (dust) represents a small fraction of the total mass of atmospheric aerosols. However, it may play an important role in climate and, in turn, it is itself sensitive to climatic changes. The investigation of the temporal variability of dust flux as well as the changes of its mineralogical composition within different climatic periods offers a unique way of assessing the source-related environmental changes, the variation in atmospheric circulation, and the potential influence of dust on biogeochemical cycles, for several key elements (such as Si and Fe). The mineral composition of dust found in ice cores is still poorly known, because few techniques are able to provide information on the chemical composition of the insoluble aerosol fraction, because of the very low mass of dust usually present in polar ice samples. Total volume of mineral content is provided by Coulter Counter measurements, and the dust record shows higher dust input during glacial periods than during interglacials (Delmonte et al., 2004). Sr and Nd isotopic tracers for identification of dust provenance to East Antarctica suggest southern South America as the dominant common source for dust in glacial periods of the late Pleistocene (Delmonte et al., 2004), whereas dust provenance during interglacials periods is still highly uncertain. Elemental composition of mineral dust from the Dome C ice core (75° 06' S, 123° 21' E) drilled in the framework of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) is presented, showing measurements obtained by the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique applied on insoluble atmospheric dust in ice cores. Within this work, substantial improvements to the experimental set-up and data processing have been made, compared to previously presented works on the first 2200 m of the EDC ice core, corresponding to about 220 kyr of climatic history (Marino et al., 2004; Ghermandi et al., 2003). The PIXE technique, based on X-ray spectrometry, allows direct measurements on filters of the insoluble dust fraction without sample pre-treatment, with analytical detection limits less than 1 ppb. The minimum required mass density of sample material on the filter is about 0.1 microg cm-2. Improvements made here allowed us to obtain accurate records of 8 major and minor crustal elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, Na). The data for these 8 elements, as well as their proportions as oxides, are shown for different climatic periods. Because O, Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, Na are the principal constituents (99.90 %) of the Earth's Continental Crust, a comparison with literature data can reveal changes in relative elemental abundances, and hence variable composition of dust under different climatic conditions.

Marino, F.; Maggi, V.; Delmonte, B.; Ghermandi, G.; Petit, J.; Hinkley, T. K.

2004-12-01

175

Star Formation History of Early-Type Galaxies with Tidal Debris in the S 4 G  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local early-type galaxies (ETGs), despite typically being associated to old stellar populations and passive evolution, have been in some cases observed to present peculiarities in their stellar structure, like disks and shells (e.g., Kormendy et al. 1997, Rix, Carollo & Freeman 1999). Moreover, it has been observed that ETGs with such tidal features may present UV emission (Rampazzo et al. 2007, Salim & Rich 2010). These properties make them relevant constraints to galaxy formation models. We are analysing the structure of nearby ETGs observed in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G; Sheth et al. 2010), which comprises the largest mid-IR survey of galaxies in the local Universe. We perform a 2D GALFIT decomposition of the 3.6?m images of 146 ETGs and examine their residual images. We identify tidal features in 17% of these, suggesting that a non-negligible ETGs fraction may have experienced (after the formation of the bulk of their stellar budget) merger events that have left signatures (Canalizo et al. 2007). For 6 of these peculiar ETGs, we also applied GALFIT decomposition to public GALEX/UV and SDSS/optical images. With measurements in multiple bands, we applied SED fitting techniques to estimate star formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses for the galaxies and their tidal features. We find that these 6 peculiar ETGs present masses in agreement with the population of non-peculiar ETGs. However, SFRs are higher than what has been measured for the average ETG population (Shapiro et al. 2010, SDSS MPA-JHU catalog). Based on the Kaviraj (2010) relation, we find that for these peculiar ETGs the estimated age of the most recent star formation event is less than 3Gyrs. Despite this indication of recent star formation, we have not found evidence of prominent UV emission in the tidal features (Marino et al. 2010). We are currently extending our work to the full sample of peculiar ETGs identified in our sample.

Ramos, Beatriz H. F.; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik

2015-03-01

176

Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, Física e Astronomia. Tal panorama histórico foi desenvolvido com o intuito de favorecer nossa compreensão sobre os contextos nos quais os pesquisadores entrevistados se desenvolveram profissionalmente. Ademais, buscou-se recobrar a memória do crescente campo de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país. Entendemos que o histórico apresentado possa contribuir para com os que buscam entender o passado na tentativa de solucionar demandas atuais e futuras.

Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

2014-12-01

177

Ambiente e formação estelar em galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudamos o ambiente de galáxias com formação estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galáxias com formação estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificação as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente é caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galáxias. Mostramos que a fração de galáxias com formação estelar é bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galáxias passivas aumenta nestas regiões. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a fração de galáxias que apresentam um surto recente de formação estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regiões mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distorções em sua morfologia. Estes resultados são confrontados com a análise da dependência ambiental da taxa de formação estelar, estimada pela emissão em Ha, de uma amostra extraída do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declínio gradual da formação estelar também é observado nesta análise, sugerindo que as interações por efeitos de maré sejam responsáveis pela redução da formação estelar em ambientes densos através da remoção do reservatório de gás das galáxias. No entanto, estas interações também podem induzir surtos de formação estelar nas galáxias, além de peculiaridades morfológicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regiões mais densas.

Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodré, L., Jr.

2003-08-01

178

Argumentos Antrópicos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A existência de observadores é um fato. Este fato, entretanto, permite que possam ser extraídas informações físicas, astrofísicas e cosmológicas. A realidade da existência de observadores foi elevada por Carter [1] ao nível de um princípio, chamado Princípio Antrópico. Em linhas gerais o Princípio Antrópico afirma que a existência de observadores só é possível dentro de certos parâmetros físicos muito restritos. O Princípio Antrópico é uma fonte de compreensão de fatos observáveis do Universo. Na ausência de explicações provenientes das leis da física, as previsões antrópicas tornam-se importantes fatores de esclarecimento. Além disso, o Princípio Antrópico pode ainda atuar como supressor da necessidade de novas teorias. Foi aliás no quadro de discussões em torno da necessidade de novas teorias que o Princípio Antrópico foi concebido, nomeadamente na discussão em torno dos números muito grandes. Para explicar estes grandes números, Dirac [2] formulou uma hipótese inovadora, a de que a constante gravitacional variaria com o tempo na forma 1 - µ G t . Se aceita, tal relação se constituiria numa revisão das leis da física já estabelecida. Daria origem a uma nova física. Entretanto, com a elaboração do Princípio Antrópico por Dicke [3] e Carter [1] a coincidência de tais grandes números foi compreendida dentro da física tradicional, sem a necessidade de recurso a novas leis.

Villas da Rocha, J.F.; Casarejos, F.

2004-02-01

179

Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y characterísticas sociodemográficas en la población Latina  

PubMed Central

El interés por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnóstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramáticos en el curso clínico del trastorno psicótico tales como: mayores recaídas, re-hospitalizaciones, síntomas más severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsicótico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideación suicida, así como alteraciones en otras áreas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimización, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnóstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnóstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, así como sus características sociodemográficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando énfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnóstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la población latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demográficos, clínicos y otras características de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnóstico permitiría mejorar los métodos para la detección y adecuada valoración del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia. PMID:21404151

Jiménez-Castro, Lorena; Raventós-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael

2012-01-01

180

Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires  

PubMed Central

Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

2011-01-01

181

Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.  

PubMed

El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

2011-03-01

182

Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

2003-08-01

183

Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation of monuments. For example, insurance, tourism and real estate companies are also interested in evaluating how buildings and land-use have changed over time. Context: Central to making decisions concerning the preservation of patrimony is the practical issue of monitoring material change over time. Is an intervention effective? Should a sculpture be moved indoors or a structure sheltered? Efficiently measuring changes in heritage materials is a significant scientific and logistical challenge to preserving our cultural legacy in stone. Conservation professionals in charge of the long-term survival of material cultural heritage need to know how fast and why these materials change. With a baseline in place, decisions regarding resource allocation and conservation interventions can more readily be made from a basis of scientific understanding. Lacking a baseline, it can be difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate the effectiveness of a preservation intervention or treatment.

Doehne, E.

2012-04-01

184

Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Abstract The potential for conservation of individual species has been greatly advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) development of objective, repeatable, and transparent criteria for assessing extinction risk that explicitly separate risk assessment from priority setting. At the IV World Conservation Congress in 2008, the process began to develop and implement comparable global standards for ecosystems. A working group established by the IUCN has begun formulating a system of quantitative categories and criteria, analogous to those used for species, for assigning levels of threat to ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels. A final system will require definitions of ecosystems; quantification of ecosystem status; identification of the stages of degradation and loss of ecosystems; proxy measures of risk (criteria); classification thresholds for these criteria; and standardized methods for performing assessments. The system will need to reflect the degree and rate of change in an ecosystem's extent, composition, structure, and function, and have its conceptual roots in ecological theory and empirical research. On the basis of these requirements and the hypothesis that ecosystem risk is a function of the risk of its component species, we propose a set of four criteria: recent declines in distribution or ecological function, historical total loss in distribution or ecological function, small distribution combined with decline, or very small distribution. Most work has focused on terrestrial ecosystems, but comparable thresholds and criteria for freshwater and marine ecosystems are also needed. These are the first steps in an international consultation process that will lead to a unified proposal to be presented at the next World Conservation Congress in 2012. Establecimiento de Criterios para la Lista Roja de UICN de Ecosistemas Amenazados Resumen El potencial para la conservación de muchas especies ha avanzado enormemente porque la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) ha desarrollado criterios objetivos, repetibles y transparentes para evaluar el riesgo de extinción que explícitamente separa la evaluación de riesgo de la definición de prioridades. En el IV Congreso Mundial de Conservación en 2008, el proceso comenzó a desarrollar e implementar estándares globales comparables para ecosistemas. Un grupo de trabajo establecido por la UICN ha formulado un sistema inicial de categorías y criterios cuantitativos, análogos a los utilizados para especies, para asignar niveles de amenaza a ecosistemas a niveles local, regional y global. Un sistema final requerirá de definiciones de ecosistemas; cuantificación del estatus de ecosistemas; identificación de las etapas de degradación y pérdida de los ecosistemas; medidas de riesgo (criterios) alternativas; umbrales de clasificación para esos criterios y métodos estandarizados para la realización de evaluaciones. El sistema deberá reflejar el nivel y tasa de cambio en la extensión, composición, estructura y funcionamiento de un ecosistema, y tener sus raíces conceptuales en la teoría ecológica y la investigación empírica. Sobre la base de esos requerimientos y la hipótesis de que el riesgo del ecosistema es una función del riesgo de las especies que lo componen, proponemos un conjunto de 4 criterios: declinaciones recientes en la distribución o funcionamiento ecológica, pérdida total histórica en la distribución o funcionamiento ecológico, distribución pequeña combinada con declinación, o distribución muy pequeña. La mayor parte del trabajo se ha concentrado en ecosistemas terrestres, pero también se requieren umbrales y criterios comparables para ecosistemas dulceacuícolas y marinos. Estos son los primeros pasos de un proceso de consulta internacional que llevará a una propuesta unificada que será

Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Smith, Tammy; Spalding, Mark; Taber, Andrew; Walpole, Matt; Zager, Irene; Zamin, Tara

2011-01-01

185

Chlorine-36 in groundwater of the United States: empirical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural production of the radionuclide chlorine-36 (36Cl) has provided a valuable tracer for groundwater studies. The nuclear industry, especially the testing of thermonuclear weapons, has also produced large amounts of 36Cl that can be detected in many samples of groundwater. In order to be most useful in hydrologic studies, the natural production prior to 1952 should be distinguished from more recent artificial sources. The object of this study was to reconstruct the probable preanthropogenic levels of 36Cl in groundwater in the United States. Although significant local variations exist, they are superimposed on a broad regional pattern of 36Cl/Cl ratios in the United States. Owing to the influence of atmospherically transported ocean salt, natural ratios of 36Cl/total Cl are lowest near the coast and increase to a maximum in the central Rocky Mountains of the United States. Résumé. La production naturelle du radionucléide chlore-36 (36Cl) fournit un intéressant traceur pour l'étude des eaux souterraines. L'industrie nucléaire, en particulier les essais de bombes thermonucléaires, a également produit de grandes quantités de 36Cl qui a pu être détecté dans de nombreux échantillons d'eau souterraine. Afin d'en améliorer l'usage dans les études hydrologiques, la production naturelle avant 1952 doit être distinguée des sources artificielles plus récentes. L'objectif de cette étude a été la reconstruction des niveaux probables de 36Cl dans les eaux souterraines des États-Unis, avant la production anthropique du 36Cl. Bien qu'il existe des variations locales significatives, elles se surimposent à un canevas régional de rapports 36Cl/Cl dans les États-Unis. Du fait de l'influence du sel océanique transporté dans l'atmosphère, les rapports naturels de 36Cl/Cl total sont plus faibles près de la côte et augmentent jusqu'à un maximum dans les Montagnes Rocheuses centrales des États-Unis. Resumen. La producción natural del radionucleido cloro-36 (36Cl) representa un trazador valioso para estudios de hidrogeología. La industria nuclear, sobretodo por los ensayos con armas nucleares, también ha producido grandes cantidades de 36Cl que pueden ser detectadas en muchas muestras de aguas subterráneas. Para que sean lo más útiles posible en estudios hidrológicos, la producción natural anterior al año 1952 debe ser diferenciada de la procedente de fuentes artificiales más recientes. El objeto de este estudio era la reconstrucción de los niveles probables de 36Cl en las aguas subterráneas de los Estados Unidos de América con anterioridad a las aportaciones de origen antrópico. Aunque existen variaciones locales significativas, éstas se superponen a un extenso patrón regional de la relación 36Cl/Cl en el país. Debido a la influencia de la sal transportada en los aerosoles marinos, las proporciones naturales de 36Cl/Cl total son menores cerca de la costa, y alcanzan su máximo en el centro de las Montañas Rocosas.

Davis, Stanley; Moysey, Stephen; Cecil, DeWayne; Zreda, Marek

2002-11-01

186

Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem A. Pouquet, R. Marino, P. D. Mininni, C. Rorai & D. Rosenberg, NCAR Interactions between winds and waves have important roles in planetary and oceanic boundary layers, affecting momentum, heat and CO2 transport. Within the Abyssal Southern Ocean at Mid latitude, this may result in a mixed layer which is too shallow in climate models thereby affecting the overall evolution because of poor handling of wave breaking as in Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities: gravity waves couple nonlinearly on slow time scales and undergo steepening through resonant interactions, or due to the presence of shear. In the oceans, sub-mesoscale frontogenesis and significant departure from quasi-geostrophy can be seen as turbulence intensifies. The ensuing anomalous vertical dispersion may not be simply modeled by a random walk, due to intermittent structures, wave propagation and to their interactions. Conversely, the energy and seeds required for such intermittent events to occur, say in the stable planetary boundary layer, may come from the wave field that is perturbed, or from winds and the effect of topography. Under the assumption of stationarity, weak nonlinearities, dissipation and forcing, one obtains large-scale geostrophic balance linking pressure gradient, gravity and Coriolis force. The role of helicity (velocity-vorticity correlations) has not received as much attention, outside the realm of astrophysics when considering the growth of large-scale magnetic fields. However, it is measured routinely in the atmosphere in order to gauge the likelihood of supercell convective storms to strengthen, and it may be a factor to consider in the formation of hurricanes. In this context, we examine the transition from a wave-dominated regime to an isotropic small-scale turbulent one in rotating flows with helical forcing. Using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) on a 3072^3 grid with Rossby and Reynolds numbers of 0.07 and 27000, one can resolve both the Zeman scale at which the inertial and eddy turn-over times equalize, and the dissipation scale. We show that fully helical vertical columns dominate at intermediate scales, presumably self-similar and shrouded by a sea of small-scale vortex filaments as in Kolmogorov turbulence. Helicity has a profound effect on the structures of the flow, and a previously developed model that includes a helical component in its eddy viscosity and eddy noise shows a measurable improvement. Indeed, if dimensionless parameters for inertial and gravity waves are reachable numerically, the Reynolds number is too low in DNS for geophysics unless one uses parametrizations of small scale interactions. For spin-down stably-stratified flows, energy and helicity undergo a substantially slower decay than in the unstratified case, and a type of large-scale cyclostrophic balance is invoked to explain this behavior. The decay rate is similar to that occurring in the unstratified rotating case, as modeled by taking into account the quasi-conservation of helicity. We finally mention helicity production when rotation and stratification are both combined. In conclusion, much remains to be done, e.g. examining transport properties of rotating stratified turbulence, such as the effect of helicity on mixing in geophysical flows that can be studied with high-performance computing allowing multi-scale interactions and intermittency to develop.

Pouquet, A.; Marino, R.; Mininni, P.; Rorai, C.; Rosenberg, D. L.

2012-12-01

187

Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

2003-08-01

188

Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a divisão da família no HCM, sem prejuízo para o agrupamento dos demais membros.

Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.

2003-08-01

189

Microbial degradation of chloroethenes in groundwater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chloroethenes, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are among the most common contaminants detected in groundwater systems. As recently as 1980, the consensus was that chloroethene compounds were not significantly biodegradable in groundwater. Consequently, efforts to remediate chloroethene-contaminated groundwater were limited to largely unsuccessful pump-and-treat attempts. Subsequent investigation revealed that under reducing conditions, aquifer microorganisms can reductively dechlorinate PCE and TCE to the less chlorinated daughter products dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Although recent laboratory studies conducted with halorespiring microorganisms suggest that complete reduction to ethene is possible, in the majority of groundwater systems reductive dechlorination apparently stops at DCE or VC. However, recent investigations conducted with aquifer and stream-bed sediments have demonstrated that microbial oxidation of these reduced daughter products can be significant under anaerobic redox conditions. The combination of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE under anaerobic conditions followed by anaerobic microbial oxidation of DCE and VC provides a possible microbial pathway for complete degradation of chloroethene contaminants in groundwater systems. Résumé Les chloroéthanes, tétrachloroéthane (PCE) et trichloroéthane (TCE) sont parmi les polluants les plus communs trouvés dans les aquifères. Depuis les années 1980, on considère que les chloroéthanes ne sont pas significativement biodégradables dans les aquifères. Par conséquent, les efforts pour dépolluer les nappes contaminées par des chloroéthanes se sont limités à des tentatives de pompage-traitement globalement sans succès. Des travaux ultérieurs ont montré que dans des conditions réductrices, des micro-organismes présents dans les aquifères peuvent, par réduction, dégrader les PCE et TCE en composés moins chlorés, comme le dichloréthane (DCE) et le chlorure de vinyl (VC). Bien que des études de laboratoire réalisées avec des micro-organismes adaptés aux composés halogénés montrent que la réduction complète en éthane est possible, dans la plupart des nappes la réaction de déchloration par réduction s'arrête apparemment au DCE et au VC. Cependant, des recherches récentes menées sur des sédiments d'un aquifère et d'alluvions ont démontré que l'oxydation microbienne de ces descendants réduits peut se produire de manière significative dans des conditions de redox anérobies. La déchloration par réduction de PCE et de TCE dans des conditions anérobies suivie par une oxydation microbienne anérobie des DCE et VC fournit une piste microbienne possible pour obtenir une dégradation complète des chloroéthanes polluants dans les aquifères. Resumen Los cloroetanos (tetracloroetano PCE y tricloroetano TCE) son contaminantes muy habituales en los acuíferos. Hasta 1980 se consideraba que los cloroetanos no eran biodegradables y, por tanto, los métodos de rehabilitación en acuíferos contaminados con cloroetanos se limitaban al pump-and-treat, generalmente con poco éxito. Posteriormente se vio que, en condiciones reductoras, algunos microorganismos pueden reducir PCE y TCE a unos subproductos menos clorados, como el dicloroetano (DCE) y el cloruro de vinilo (VC). Aunque estudios de laboratorio recientes sugieren que la reducción completa a etano es posible, en la mayoría de los sistemas acuíferos la decloración suele detenerse en los DCE o VC. Sin embargo, investigaciones más recientes en acuíferos y sedimentos fluviales demuestran que la oxidación microbiana de estos subproductos puede ser importante bajo condiciones redox anaerobias. La combinación de la reducción de PCE y TCE en condiciones anaerobias seguida de la oxidación microbiana anaerobia de DCE y VC proporciona un método potencial para la degradación total de los cloroetanos en los sistemas acuíferos.

Bradley, Paul M.

190

The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. Résumé La migration, la dissolution et l'évolution consécutive des rejets de solvants chlorés dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest des États-Unis paraissent déterminées par un même ensemble de processus hydrogéologiques et géochimiques intervenant dans des formations de dépôts clastiques terrigènes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le piégeage des solvants par des sédiments fins sous les centres des vallées urbanisées, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqués par le pompage à l'échelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, étendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de solvants chlorés piégés. Malgré leur faible solubilité dans l'eau, ces solvants denses sont suffisamment mobiles et solubles pour avoir produit, dans le sud-ouest des vallées alluviales, des panaches aqueux qui ont migré de plusieurs kilomètres dans les alluvions plus profondes et ont contaminé des champs captants pour l'eau potable en Californie, en Arizona et au Nouveau-Mexique. La longueur de ces panaches et la présence d'eau souterraine en conditions oxiques indiquent qu'il est peu probable que la décroissance naturelle soit un recours pratique de décontamination dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest ou dans d'autres systèmes alluviaux dans lesquels existent des conditions hydrogéologiques et géochimiques semblables. Resumen La migración, disolución y transporte de compuestos clorados en valles aluviales urbanos del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de América parecen estar gobernados por un conjunto único de procesos hidrogeológicos y geoquímicos que tienen lugar en los depósitos clásticos. El relleno aluvial y lacustre de las cuencas, la inmovilización de los solutos en sedimentos de grano fino bajo las zonas urbanizadas, los condiciones óxicas típicas del aluvial profundo y las direcciones de transporte regidas por los fuertes bombeos en las cuencas se combinan para producir grandes penachos en fase acuosa procedentes de la disolución de los compuestos clorados atrapados en el medio. Aunque la solubilidad de estos compuestos clorados densos es pequeña, es suficiente para producir penachos que en algunos casos se han desplazado varios kilómetros a través del aluvial profundo y han llegado a contaminar zonas de extracción muy productivas en California, Arizona y Nuevo México. La longitud de estos penachos y la presencia de agua subterránea oxidante indican que es improbable que la degradación natural sea un buen método de limpieza de estos acuíferos o de otros sistemas aluviales que presenten características hidrogeológicas y geoquímicas semejantes.

Jackson, R. E.

191

Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des variations spatiales de la conductivité hydraulique (K). L'analyse de l'hétérogénéité des alluvions complexes de la vallée de Livermore (Californie, États-Unis), sur la base de descriptions de carottes relativement nombreuses et de données d'essais de pompage, montre que l'hétérogénéité souterraine peut être caractérisée par une approche des faciès de dépôt. Des classifications conventionnelles de la texture de la carotte montrent une corrélation médiocre avec K; toutefois, une amélioration ultérieure des classifications de texture en faciès de dépôt de chenal, de levée d'inondation, de coulée boueuse et de plaine d'inondation a fourni un cadre systématique pour une modélisation spatiale de K. Ce cadre géologique montre que le système est composé pour l'essentiel par des matériaux d'inondation à très faible perméabilité ceci laisse envisager qu'on ne peut pas supposer que K suit une distribution log-normal, sauf peut-être à l'intérieur de chaque faciès. Une modélisation par chaîne de Markov de la probabilité de passage, représentant la corrélation spatiale dans les faciès et entre eux, prend en compte les faits géologiques intéressants tout en fournissant une approche nouvelle pour une caractérisation statistique de la variabilité spatiale des faciès. La présence de séquences à faciès tronqués vers le haut, d'une corrélation croisée entre faciès, ainsi que d'autres caractères géologiques pris en compte par les chaînes de Markov conduisent à se poser des questions sur l'adéquation des approches géostatistiques conventionnelles utilisant les variogrammes ou les covariances pour modéliser l'hétérogénéité géologique. Resumen La información respecto a la textura de los sedimentos y la continuidad espacial es inherente a las descripciones de las facies deposicionales sedimentarias. De este modo, estas descripciones se convierten en excelentes predictores potenciales de las variaciones espaciales de la conductividad hidráulica (K). El análisis de la heterogeneidad en un aluvial en el Valle de L

Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

192

Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

Briceno, D. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria (Costa Rica); Eberhard, W. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Costa Rica); Vilardi, J. [Dpto. de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cayol, J.-P. [Technical Cooperation Division, IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100 A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Shelly, T. [A. C. , D. , E. USDA/APHIS/CPHST, 41-650 Ahiki St. Waimanalo, HI 96795 (United States)

2007-03-15

193

Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins adjacent to orogenic systems, Raman-assisted heavy-mineral studies allow us to detect the first arrival of eclogitic garnet, and thus to assess the minimum age of exhumation and final unroofing of high-pressure rocks (Malusà et al., 2011; Malusà and Garzanti, 2012). However, in the (U)HP terrane of southeastern Papua New Guinea, sediments derived from the actively exhuming D'Entrecasteaux Island core complexes are still being deposited offshore, are rarely preserved sub-aerially, and as such stratigraphic constraints are limited. Raman analysis of detrital garnets from placer sand thus provides invaluable constraints to compare with mineral assemblages preserved in exhumed eclogites. REFERENCES Andò S., Bersani D., Vignola P., Garzanti E. 2009. Raman spectroscopy as an effective tool for high-resolution heavy-mineral analysis: Examples from major Himalayan and Alpine fluvio-deltaic systems. Spectrochim. Acta A73:450-455. Andò S., Morton A., Garzanti E. 2013. Metamorphic grade of source rocks revealed by chemical fingerprints of detrital amphibole and garnet. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. Sediment Provenance Studies in Hydrocarbon Exploration & Production. Baldwin S.L., Monteleone B., Webb L.E., Fitzgerald P.G., Grove M., Hill E.J. 2004. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea. Nature 431:263-267. Baldwin S.L., Webb L.E., Monteleone B.D. 2008. Late Miocene coesite-eclogite exhumed in the Woodlark Rift. Geology 36:735-738 Bersani D., Andò S., Vignola P., Moltifiori G., Marino I.G., Lottici P.P., Diella V., 2009. Micro-Raman spectroscopy as a routine tool for garnet analysis. Spectrochim. Acta A73:484-491. Hill E.J., Baldwin S.L. 1993. Exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks during crustal extension in the D'Entrecasteaux region, Papua New Guinea. J. Metam. Geol. 11:261-277. Malusà M.G., Faccenna C., Garzanti E., Polino R. 2011. Divergence in subduction zones and exhumation of high-pressure rocks (Eocene Western Alps). Earth Pl. Sci. Lett. 310:21-32. Malusà M.G., Garzanti E. 2012. Actualistic snapshot o

Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

2013-04-01

194

Accuracy of CFC groundwater dating in a crystalline bedrock aquifer: Data from a site in southern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) and tritium were determined in groundwater in fractured crystalline bedrock at Finnsjön, Sweden. The specific goal was to investigate the accuracy of CFC dating in such an environment, taking potential degradation and mixing of water into consideration. The water was sampled to a depth of 42 m in three boreholes along an 800-m transect, from a recharge area to a local discharge area. The CFC-113 concentration was at the detection limit in most samples. The apparent recharge date obtained from CFC-11 was earlier than from CFC-12 for all samples, with a difference of over 20 years for some samples. The difference was probably caused by degradation of CFC-11. The CFC-12 dating of the samples ranged from before 1945 to 1975, with the exception of a sample from the water table, which had a present-day concentration. Conclusions about flow paths or groundwater velocity could not be drawn from the CFCs. The comparison between CFC-12 and tritium concentrations showed that most samples could be unmixed or mixtures of waters with different ages, and the binary mixtures that matched the measured concentrations were determined. The mixing model approach can be extended with additional tracers. Précision de la datation au CFC dans un aquifère rocheux-fracturé: données d'un site du sud de la Suède. Les concentrations en chlorofluorocarbones (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) et entritium ont été déterminées dans l'eau souterraine d'un massif fracturé à Finnsjön en Suède. Le but de cette étude est de mieux cerner la précision de la méthode de datation au CFC dans ce type d'environnement hydrogéologique, tout en considérant d'éventuels phénomènes de dégradation et de mélange d'eaux. L'eau a été échantillonnée à une profondeur de 42 mètres dans trois forages alignés sur 800 mètres entre une zone de recharge et une zone de déversement. Les concentrations en CFC-113 sont dans la plupart des échantillons à la limite de détection. Pour tous les échantillons, la date de la recharge établie avec le CFC-11 est antérieure à la date établie avec le CFC-12. La différence entre les deux dates peut dépasser 20 ans et s'explique-probablement-par la dégradation du CFC-11. Les dates de recharge de la nappe mesurées au CFC-12 sont comprises entre 1945 et 1975, excepté pour un échantillon qui possède une concentration actuelle. Il n'est pas possible de tirer des conclusions concernant la direction des écoulements et la vitesse de l'eau souterraine. La comparaison entre CFC-12 et tritium montre que des échantillons pourraient être soit le résultat du mélange d'eaux d'âges différents, soit des échantillons non-mélangés. Dans le cas d'un mélange binaire, les rapports du mélange composant la concentration mesurée sont déterminés. L'approche par modèle de mélange peut être étendue à des traceurs additionnels. Precisión en la datación de aguas subterráneas utilizando CFC en un acuífero de rocas cristalinas: datos provenientes de un sitio al sur de Suecia. Se determinaron las concentraciones de clorofluorucarbonos (CFC-11, CFC-12, y CFC-113) y de tritio en aguas subterráneas alojadas en rocas cristalinas fracturadas de Finnsjön, Suecia. El objetivo específico consistió en investigar la precisión de la datación de aguas subterráneas con CFC en este tipo de ambiente, tomando en consideración la degradación potencial y la mezcla de agua. Las muestras de agua se tomaron a una profundidad de 42 m en tres pozos ubicados a lo largo de una línea de 800 m transversal a una zona de recarga y de zona de descarga local. En la mayoría de las muestras se encontró que la concentración de CFC-113 estuvo en el límite de detección. La edad que se estimó en todas las muestras para la recarga aparente en base a CFC-11 fue más joven que la edad proveniente de CFC-12, con una diferencia de más de 20 años para algunas muestras. Esta diferencia fue causada probablemente por la degradación del CFC-11. La datación CFC-12 de las muest

Bockgård, Niclas; Rodhe, Allan; Olsson, K. A.

195

A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. Résumé. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une épaisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste région à faible perméabilité. Le modèle conceptuel conventionnel pour la présence d'eau souterraine à Hawaii et dans les autres îles de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si épaisse. Dans ce modèle conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont formés la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes régions à relativement forte perméabilité, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu épaisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les sédiments constituent une région étendue à faible conductivité hydraulique régionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est saturée presque jusqu'à sa surface; les surfaces piézométriques sont plusieurs centaines de mètres au-dessus du niveau de la mer à quelques kilomètres de la côte. On pensait jusqu'à présent que des niveaux piézométriques aussi élevés dans des îles de volcans en bouclier n'existaient que dans le cas de nappes perchées ou de blocage par un dyke, mais dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, des niveaux piézométriques élevés existent dans un aquifère apparemment sans dyke et complètement saturé. Un nouveau modèle conceptuel de présence d'eau souterraine dans les îles de volcans en bouclier est nécessaire pour expliquer les conditions observées dans le sud du bassin de Lihue. Resumen. Se ha determinado la existencia de un espeso lentejón de aguas subterráneas dulces en una extensa región de baja permeabilidad situada al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, en Kauai (Hawaii, Estados Unidos de América). El modelo conceptual convencional de las aguas subterráneas en Hawai y en otros cinturones de islas volcánicas no considera la existencia de lentejones tan gruesos de agua dulce. En dicho modelo, las acumulaciones de flujos de lava que constituyen la mayoría de los cinturones volcánicos se desarrollan en grandes áreas de permeabilidad relativamente baja y con pequeños lentejones de agua dulce. En el sur de la cuenca de Lihue, las lavas de relleno y los sedimentos forman una región extensa de baja conductividad hidráulica regional que, con el clima húmedo de la zona, está saturada hasta prácticamente la superficie del terreno, mientras que el nivel freático se encuentra centenares de metros por encima del nivel del mar a pocos kilómetros de la línea de costa. Se creía hasta ahora que, en los cinturones de islas volcánicas, tales niveles sólo tenían lugar en acuíferos colgados o en condiciones de confinamiento por diques, pero, al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, se dan en acuíferos completamente saturados que no están limitados por diques. Se necesita un nuevo modelo conceptual de las aguas subterráneas en cinturones de islas volcánicas para explicar las condiciones halladas en la cuenca meridional de Lihue.

Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

2002-11-01

196

Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determi

Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J. [Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Central Poniente No. 14 altos-Esq. 2a Avenida Sur. CP 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

2007-03-15