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Sample records for sedimento marino proveniente

  1. Dan Marino Helping Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Marino Foundation. Photo: Dan Marino Foundation Former NFL star quarterback Dan Marino and his wife Claire experienced ... to succeed in life,'" says the former NFL star. "That's where the focus for The Dan Marino ...

  2. *Correspondence to: Marinos Charalambides, University College London, UK E-mail: marinos.charalambides@ucl.ac.uk

    E-print Network

    Calyam, Prasad

    . The traditional approach of management through a set of Quality of Service parameters (e.g. packet loss, delay, management approaches require the identification of key quality indicators, QoE monitoring as well as Qo London, UK E-mail: marinos.charalambides@ucl.ac.uk Editorial Advances in Management of Multimedia

  3. Multiple sclerosis in the Republic of San Marino.

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, G; Naccarato, S; Elian, M; Ferrari, P; Kelly, R; Karhausen, L; Dean, G

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy have grossly underestimated the prevalence of the disease. The prevalence in the Republic of San Marino (near Rimini), in Sicily, and no doubt in the rest of Italy, is of the same order of magnitude as in Europe--that is, 40-60/100 000. The contrast of this with the very low prevalence in Malta (only 60 miles (96 km) away from Sicily) of 4/100 000 should provide a clue to the genetic and environmental factors responsible for multiple sclerosis. PMID:6707559

  4. SPECIAL REFLEXIVE GRAPHS IN MODULAR VARIETIES MARINO GRAN AND JIRI ROSICKY

    E-print Network

    Rosický, Jirí

    SPECIAL REFLEXIVE GRAPHS IN MODULAR VARIETIES MARINO GRAN AND JIR´I ROSICK´Y Abstract. We investigate a special kind of reflexive graphs in any congruence modular variety. When the variety is Maltsev these special reflexive graphs are exactly the internal groupoids, when the variety is distributive

  5. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Hardware Mario Marino, Gabriel Robins, Kevin Skadron, and Liang Wang

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Hardware Mario Marino, Gabriel Robins, Kevin Skadron, and Liang and implementation. To help narrow this gap between theory and practice, we developed a tool that shows the potential the theory, with smaller overheads of language translation and code generation, reducing the gap between

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 2808 HB stars abundances (Marino+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Przybilla, N.; Bergemann, M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Cassisi, S.; Catelan, M.; Casagrande, L.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Bedin, L. R.; Cortes, C.; D'Antona, F.; Jerjen, H.; Piotto, G.; Schlesinger, K.; Zoccali, M.; Angeloni, R.

    2014-11-01

    To identify our stellar sample, we use the photometric catalogue of Momany et al. (2004), which has been obtained from U, B and V images collected with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) mounted at the 2.2m ESO-MPI (Max-Planck-Institut) telescope at La Silla observatory, Chile. Our spectroscopic data consist of FLAMES/GIRAFFE and FLAMES/UVES data collected under the ESO programme 086.D-0141 (PI: Marino). The GIRAFFE fibres were used with the HR12 setup, covering the spectral range from ~5820 to ~6140 with a resolution of ~18700. (6 data files).

  7. Comparacin de la dinmica de sedimentos suspendidos entre una baha tropical abierta y una baha tropical cerrada

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    explorado completamente. Su estudio es esencial para definir la calidad del agua, lo que conlleva una gran de sedimentos suspendidos (TSS) constituye uno de los parmetros de calidad de agua ms importantes arcilla, el limo y la arena (Miller et al. 2004). Adems de afectar la calidad del agua, el TSS es

  8. Bystander effect and adaptive response in C3H 10TK cells S. A. MITCHELL, S. A. MARINO, D. J. BRENNER and E. J. HALL

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Bystander effect and adaptive response in C3H 10TK cells S. A. MITCHELL, S. A. MARINO, D. J the relationship between the bystander effect and the adaptive response that can compete to impact on the dose. It was further examined whether a bystander effect or an adaptive response could be induced by a factor

  9. Role for cheR of Vibrio fischeri in the Vibriosquid Cindy R. DeLoney-Marino and Karen L. Visick

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Role for cheR of Vibrio fischeri in the Vibriosquid symbiosis Cindy R. DeLoney-Marino and Karen L symbiotic partner, the biolumines- cent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Vibrio fischeri cells present during colonization, but not essential. Key words: Vibrio fischeri, chemotaxis, colonization, Che

  10. A population based study of Helicobacter pylori infection in a European country: the San Marino Study. Relations with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Gasbarrini, G; Pretolani, S; Bonvicini, F; Gatto, M R; Tonelli, E; Mgraud, F; Mayo, K; Ghironzi, G; Giulianelli, G; Grassi, M

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is present worldwide but few large population studies exist on the epidemiology of the infection. A random cross sectional study was performed of H pylori infection in the adult population of San Marino, a European country with high gastric cancer rate, to assess its prevalence and to evaluate its relations with gastrointestinal disease. In 2237 subjects (77% of the initial sample) H pylori IgG antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. A questionnaire including questions about occupation, place of birth, and smoking was given to all subjects. Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer in the subjects, relatives, and partners as well as use of drug, dental treatment/prostheses, and gastrointestinal endoscopies, were evaluated by multivariate analysis. H pylori prevalence was of 51%, increased with age from 23% (20-29 years) to 68% (> or = 70 years), and was higher among manual workers. H pylori was independently associated with ulcer (OR = 1.63, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16 to 2.27), H2 antagonists (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.10), and benzodiazepines (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.42), dental prostheses (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.49), gastroscopy in the past five years (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.14), peptic ulcer in siblings (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.12), gastric cancer in father (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.52). The association of seropositivity with history of ulcer, gastric cancer in family, gastroscopy, and H2 antagonists suggests that H pylori is an epidemiological key factor in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases in this area. PMID:7615270

  11. The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima

    2013-04-01

    After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological observations began in Lisbon,in December 1854, in a site not far away from Franzini's station. The long series of Lisbon includes the 1835-54 Franzini's series.

  12. MARINO CENTER Monday, November 23 Monday, November 30, 2015

    E-print Network

    :00am 6:00am Court 2: Open for Basketball 5:00am 12:45am Court 3: Open for Basketball 6:00am 7 for Hockey 7:00am 8:00pm Court 2: Open for Basketball 6:00pm 8:00pm Court 1: Closed: Wrestling Club 8:00pm 10:00pm Court 1: Open for Basketball 8:00pm 10:00pm Court 2: Closed: W.Volleyball Club 10:00pm

  13. MARINO RECREATION CENTER Monday, July 5 Monday, July 12, 2010

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    for Basketball 5:00am 11:45pm Court 3: Open for Basketball Friday 5:00am 6:00pm Court 1: Open for Hockey 5:00am 6:00pm Court 2: Open for Basketball 5:00am 11:45pm Court 3: Open for Basketball 6:00pm 11 Court 1: Open for Hockey 8:00am 8:45pm Court 2: Open for Basketball 8:00am 8:45pm Court 3: Open

  14. A Review of "Becoming Neapolitan. Citizen Culture in Baroque Naples" by John A. Marino

    E-print Network

    Litchfield, R. Burr

    2011-01-01

    accumulated a week-long celebration with conspicuous popular involvement: the guilds decorated floats in the procession, there were mountains of free food, and there was nude bathing in the Bay of Naples. There was a confraternity of S. Giovanni and his...

  15. Guanghui Lin John Adams Blake Farnsworth Yongdan Wei Bruno D.V. Marino Joseph A. Berry

    E-print Network

    and respi- ration were measured under dierent CO2 concentra- tions in the tropical rainforest under similar CO2 concentrations over a 12-week period. In the rainforest mesocosm, daily NEE, plant dark respiration was increased signi- cantly by the high CO2 treatments in the rainforest

  16. David Aurloles Gamboa Departamento de Recursos Marinos. Division de Biologia Marina

    E-print Network

    Otolith Size versus Weight and Body-Length Relationships for Eleven Fish Species of Baja California, Mexico Identification of otoliths recovered from scats or stomachs of marine mammals has been used of otoliths from fish in the study area. The relative frequency of a prey species in the diet is determined

  17. Melting a Terminatrix Nigel Sumner, Samir Hoon, Willi Geiger, Sebastian Marino, Nick Rasmussen, Ron Fedkiw

    E-print Network

    Fedkiw, Ron

    realistic dynamics, we turned instead to a physics-based 3d fluid simulation engine based on the particle to be extensible on both a global and local definition scale. 3 Simulation and Control We used Maya particles

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and abundances of NGC1851 stars (Marino+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Yong, D.; Dotter, A.; da Costa, G.; Asplund, M.; Jerjen, H.; Mackey, D.; Norris, J.; Cassisi, S.; Sbordone, L.; Stetson, P. B.; Weiss, A.; Aparicio, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Lind, K.; Monelli, M.; Piotto, G.; Angeloni, R.; Buonanno, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we used four distinct photometric data sets. First, we used Stetson (2000PASP..112..925S) ground-based B, V, R and I photometry. This photometric catalogue has been established from about 550 images taken at different telescopes, i.e. the Max Planck 2.2m, the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4, 1.5 and 0.9m telescopes, and the Dutch 0.9m telescope in La Silla. In the present work, we have complemented the Stetson catalogue with images collected with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) of the Max Planck 2.2m telescope at La Silla (WFI@2.2m) through the U filter under the SUrvey of Multiple pOpulations (SUMO) campaign. Secondly, to study stars in the halo of NGC 1851, we collected BVI images with WFI@2.2m of a field between ~10 and 35 arcmin to the south of the cluster centre. Photometry and astrometry for this data set have been obtained by using the program img2xym_WFI and the procedure described by Anderson et al. (2006A&A...454.1029A). Third and finally, to investigate the most crowded central regions, we use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F606W and F814W photometry obtained with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Survey (WFC/ACS) and F275W photometry collected with the Ultraviolet and Visual Channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (UVIS/WFC3). (2 data files).

  19. LyricText: An Animated Display of Song Lyrics Rob Diaz-Marino1

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    -time visualization of song lyrics, intended for applications such as Karaoke. By visualizing vocal properties. Applications such as Karaoke utilize a "bouncing ball" or changing text color to synchronize lyric presentation

  20. Deslizamientos, flujos de escombrera y desastres geolgicos similares provenientes de volcanes

    E-print Network

    suelos ya saturados con agua. Usualmente los flujos de escombrera comienzan como peques deslizamientos de suelo que luego se lucan y aceleran a veloci- dades tan rapidas como 56 km (35 millas) por hora

  1. Thirteen pump-probe resonances of the sodium D1 line Vincent Wong,* Robert W. Boyd, C. R. Stroud, Jr., Ryan S. Bennink, and Alberto M. Marino

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Robert W.

    Thirteen pump-probe resonances of the sodium D1 line Vincent Wong,* Robert W. Boyd, C. R. Stroud of a pump-probe laser spectroscopic investigation of the Doppler-broadened sodium D1 resonance line. We find predictions of a four-level atomic model of the hyperfine structure of the sodium D1 line. We also find

  2. 78 FR 63978 - Proposed CERCLA Settlements Relating to the Truckers Warehouse Site in Passaic, Passaic County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Settlements Relating to the Truckers Warehouse Site in Passaic, Passaic County, New...1) RJS Corp.; (2) Your Factory Warehouse, Inc., Douglas Marino and Mark Marino...at or in connection with the Truckers Warehouse Site (``Site''), located in...

  3. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Norway, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan*, Tajikistan,...

  4. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Norway, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan*, Tajikistan,...

  5. 8 CFR 217.2 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland..., airline employee passes indicating return passage, individual vouchers for return passage, group...

  6. 75 FR 60740 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, [[Page 60741

  7. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Rsum Le systme aquifre littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, tats-Unis) est constitu par des aquifres de terrains volcaniques trs permables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altres, et interstratifis avec des sdiments marins et continentaux de permabilit aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altres et les sdiments sont globalement considrs comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent l'coulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifres volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrles hydrogologiques sur le systme aquifre rgional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont tvalues au moyen d'un modle d'coulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrles prennent en compte la conductivit hydraulique de la couverture dans son ensemble et les variations de la conductivit hydraulique lies la stratigraphie de la couverture. A l'intrieur de la couverture, les variations de la conductivit hydraulique, dues la stratigraphie ou des discontinuits entre les units stratigraphiques, sont le contrle principal de la direction d'coulement et de la rpartition des niveaux et de la salinit de l'eau. La modlisation sur une section transversale a donn des rsultats qui confirment l'organisation gnrale des directions d'coulement, telle qu'elle pouvait tre envisage dans un aquifre littoral multicouche. L'coulement souterrain est essentiellement vertical vers le haut dans les units sdimentaires faible permabilit, et essentiellement horizontal dans les units sdimentaires forte permabilit. Resumen El sistema acufero costero de la zona sur de Oahu, en Hawaii, est formado por acuferos volcnicos de alta permeabilidad, subyacentes a rocas volcnicas alteradas, con inclusiones de sedimentos marinos y terrestres, tanto de alta como de baja permeabilidad. Al conjunto de rocas volcnicas alteradas y sedimentos se le conoce por "tapn de roca", ya que impide la descarga libre de las aguas subterrneas del acufero volcnico subyacente. Se us un modelo de flujo de agua subterrnea y transporte de solutos en seccin vertical para evaluar los aspectos hidrogeolgicos que controlan el flujo regional en la zona sudoeste de Oahu. Se consideraron: (a) la conductividad hidrulica global del tapn y (b) las variaciones estratigrficas de la conductividad hidrulica. En el tapn de roca, las variaciones de la conductividad hidrulica, causadas por la estratigrafa o por discontinuidades en las unidades estratigrficas, son las que controlan la direccin del flujo subterrneo y la distribucin de niveles piezomtricos y salinidad. Los resultados del modelo en seccin transversal confirman la distribucin del flujo subterrneo que cabra esperar en un sistema costero estrat

  8. INSTITUT MEDITERRANI D'ESTUDIS AVANATS

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    los ecosistemas marinos, costeros e insulares. Identificar y dilucidar las causas, mecanismos, amenazas e impactos antropognicos y del cambio global en los ecosistemas marino, costero e insular mitigacin de esos impactos y de la gestin de esos ecosistemas para alcanzar su gestin sostenible e

  9. The emergence of regularity and variability in marine ecosystems: the combined role of physics,

    E-print Network

    . RESUMEN: La aparicin de regularidades y variabilidad en ecosistemas marinos: el papel combinado de la fsica, la qumica y la biologa. Los ecosistemas marinos juegan un papel integral en el funcionamiento y limitan la estructura y funcin de los ecosistemas mari- nos, y exponemos importantes

  10. INSTITUT MEDITERRANI D'ESTUDIS AVANATS

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    nuevos conocimientos sobre los ecosistemas marinos, costeros e insulares. Identificar y dilucidar las causas, mecanismos, amenazas e impac- tos del cambio global en los ecosistemas marino, costero e insular mitigacin de esos im- pactos y de la gestin de esos ecosistemas para alcanzar su ges- tin sostenible e

  11. 77 FR 59692 - 2014 Diversity Immigrant Visa Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ...after the respective regional lists. Africa Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina...Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo...and dependent areas overseas) Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia...

  12. 76 FR 62134 - Bureau of Consular Affairs; Registration for the Diversity Immigrant (DV-2013) Visa Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...overseas) Northern Ireland Norway Poland Portugal (including components and dependent areas overseas) Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Vatican City Natives of Great...

  13. 71 FR 38066 - Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income; Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-07-05

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, Room 107 Altmeyer...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet web site, Social Security Online, at...

  14. 71 FR 12648 - Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income; Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-03-13

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, Room 100 Altmeyer...1-800-325-0778 or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  15. 67 FR 78196 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Impairments That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-12-23

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Process and Innovation Management, Social Security Administration, 2109 West...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet web site, Social Security Online, at...

  16. 68 FR 45180 - Continuation of Benefit Payments to Certain Individuals Who Are Participating in a Program of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-08-01

    ...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Social Security Administration, 100 Altmeyer Building...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  17. 74 FR 16326 - Testimony by Employees and the Production of Records and Information in Legal Proceedings, Claims...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-04-10

    ...applications for testimony of a Social Security Administration (SSA...DiMarino, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, 6401 Security...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  18. 69 FR 32260 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Skin Disorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-06-09

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, 100 Altmeyer...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  19. 66 FR 58010 - Revised Medical Criteria for Determination of Disability, Musculoskeletal System and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-11-19

    ...Process and Innovation Management, Social Security Administration, L2109...INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of...1-800-325- 0778, or visit our Internet web site, Social Security Online, at...

  20. 70 FR 51252 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Impairments That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-08-30

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, 107 Altmeyer...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  1. 71 FR 10419 - Evidentiary Requirements for Making Findings About Medical Equivalence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-03-01

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne DiMarino, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, 107 Altmeyer...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  2. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76

    E-print Network

    , Oak Ridge, Tennessee Fred Bertrand, Greg Capps, Ren Cooper, Kim Jeskie, David Radford, Robert Varner, Jonathan Diaz, Peter J. Doe, Greg Harper, Robert Johnson, Andreas Knecht, Michael Marino, Mike Miller

  3. UCSB Materials Colloquium 4/16/2010 Compositional tuning of functional inorganic

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Colloquium 4/16/2010 The Chanel Building in Osaka (Peter Marino Architect). LED lamps for indoor cultivation/16/2010 Garnet crystal structure: AlO4 tetrahedra and AlO6 octahedra, all completely corner- connected. Y

  4. Vegan Friendly Options Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Wenderholm, Elaine

    Vegenaise Spread HomeFree Mini Cookies: Sugar, Chocolate, & Double Chocolate Marino's Italian Ice: Cherry, Orange, Lemon, Watermelon Salad BarBeverages Silk Plain Soymilk Silk Chocolate Soymilk Silk Vanilla

  5. Operacin IceBridge: Explorando la Antrtida - Duration: 3 minutes, 4 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Operacin IceBridge es una misin area de la NASA dedicada a estudiar cambios en el hielo marino y terrestre en ambos polos del planeta. En octubre y noviembre de 2012, IceBridge complet su cuart...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in 744.2(a)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...in 744.2(a ) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in 744.2(a)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Restrictions in 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in 744.2(a)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Restrictions in 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in 744.2(a)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Restrictions in 744.2(a) Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain...

  10. ZONES MARINES MRITANT DES MESURES DE PROTECTION ET DE GESTION

    E-print Network

    Boudouresque, Charles F.

    GROUPE DE TRAVAIL CRATION DE ZONES PROTGES DANS LA ZONE RAMOGE RAMOGE ZONE MARINE MERITEVOLI DI MISURE PROTEZIONE E LA GESTIONE RAZIONALE DELL'AMBIENTE NATURALE MARINO COSTIERO...9 ESPACES LITTORAUX MARINS

  11. 78 FR 52996 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Face to Face: Flanders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ...determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, CA, from on or about September 28, 2013, until on or about January 13, 2014, and at possible...

  12. 26 CFR 1.955-4 - Definition of less developed country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Austria Belgium CanadaDenmark France Germany (Federal Republic) Hong Kong Italy Japan Liechtenstein Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Union of South Africa San Marino Sweden Switzerland United...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in 744.2(a)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Turkey United Kingdom [61 FR 12802, Mar. 25,...

  14. OBSERVATIONAL MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO OF GALAXY SYSTEMS FROM POOR GROUPS TO RICH CLUSTERS

    E-print Network

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    Girardi, Patrizia Manzato, and Marino Mezzetti Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita` degli Studi di@ts.astro.it Giuliano Giuricin1 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita` degli Studi di Trieste and Fu¨sun Limboz

  15. Gographie physique et Quaternaire, 1996, vol. 50, n 1, p. 35-46, 7 fig., 4 tabl. FORAMINIFERAL EVIDENCE OF LATE

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Timothy

    , Ontario M5S 1H9. ABSTRACT Foraminiferal and sedimento- logical analysis of an underwater stratigraphie- dicates that the recovery of archaeological remains of the Charles culture (ca.6500-3200 years BP

  16. Transfer of amplitude and phase modulation to a different wavelength using coherently prepared sodium vapor

    E-print Network

    Stroud Jr., Carlos R.

    sodium vapor Ryan S. Bennink,* Alberto M. Marino, Vincent Wong, Robert W. Boyd, and C. R. Stroud, Jr by scattering in a coherently prepared sodium vapor. The scattering process for this system has a bandwidth sodium vapor. The transfer fidelity is excellent, and unlike other modulation transfer schemes e.g., Refs

  17. THE 2014 CHARLOTTE RESEARCH SCHOLARS SCHOLAR NAME SCHOLAR MAJOR(S) MENTOR(S)

    E-print Network

    Nasipuri, Asis

    1 THE 2014 CHARLOTTE RESEARCH SCHOLARS SCHOLAR NAME SCHOLAR MAJOR(S) MENTOR(S) Manuel Alvarez: Recent African immigrants as agents in the changing cultural and economic landscape of Charlotte Jenna-Mecklenburg middle schools Samantha Glenn Exercise Science Dr. Joseph Marino Project: Mechanisms regulating glucose

  18. 78 FR 59743 - Bureau of Consular Affairs; Registration for the Diversity Immigrant (DV-2015) Visa Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...respective regional lists. Africa Algeria Angola Benin Botswana...Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland...are chargeable to Syria. In Africa, natives of Nigeria are not...dependent areas overseas) Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia...

  19. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original

  20. THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY RARAF -Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    -Pehrson, Ph.D. Manager: Stephen A. Marino, M.S. Research Using RARAF The "bystander" effect is the response. To investigate cell-to-cell communication in the bystander effect using the Track Segment Facility a special type, have examined this effect. The emphasis of most of the present experiments is to determine

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, John Andre, November 15, 1777, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, John Andre, November 15, 1777, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California, See Catalog of Graphic Material #44, PHOTOCOPY OF 'MUD ISLAND WITH THE OPERATIONS FOR REDUCING IT'. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Paralelizacin del modelo hidrodinmico secuencial COHERENS para sistemas multicore mediante OpenMP

    E-print Network

    Gimnez, Domingo

    nuestro caso el medio marino. Reciben este nombre debido a Claude-Louis Navier y George Gabriel Stokes Ec.Navier-Stokes hidrodinmico es un programa computacional basado en las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes, las cuales se tratan de un

  3. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Pace, Michael L.

    are rarely observed in the plankton of estuaries even though most temperate zone estuaries are strongly N on planktonic nitrogen fixation in saline estuaries. I. Nutrient and trophic controls Roxanne Marino1, 2, yet they are rarely observed in estuaries at salinities >10 ppt, even when strongly N limited

  4. Abstract The pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma. A granuloma is a multifaceted cellular structure that serves to focus the host immune response,

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    127 Abstract The pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma. A granuloma tuberculosis infection, and if a granuloma is capable of inhibiting or killing most of the M. tuberculosis Granuloma Formation and Function in Tuberculosis Mohammad Fallahi-Sichani, Simeone Marino, JoAnne L. Flynn

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer Denise Kirschner and Simeone Marino of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the immune system. Different mathematical models were formulated on the basis that contribute to the success of M. tuberculosis as a human pathogen. Our goal is to stimulate experimentation

  6. Dendritic Cell Trafficking and Antigen Presentation in the Human Immune Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis1

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    tuberculosis1 Simeone Marino,* Santosh Pawar, Craig L. Fuller, Todd A. Reinhart, JoAnne L. Flynn, and Denise E. Kirschner2 * Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an extraordinarily successful human pathogen, one of the major causes of death by infectious disease worldwide. A key issue for the study of tuberculosis

  7. Literacy and Community. The Twentieth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association, 1998. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 1997].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturtevant, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Dugan, JoAnn, Ed.; Linder, Patricia, Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.

    This 20th Yearbook of the College Reading Association reflects the theme of "community" again and again, in diverse ways. First in the yearbook are the Presidential Address by Marino C. Alvarez, "Adolescent Literacy: Are We in Contact?" and the three Keynote Addresses: "My Life in Reading" (J. Chall); "A Social-Constructivist View of Family

  8. THE 2015 CHARLOTTE RESEARCH SCHOLARS SCHOLAR NAME SCHOLAR MAJOR(S) MENTOR(S)

    E-print Network

    Nasipuri, Asis

    Exercise Science Dr. Joseph Marino Project: The Contribution of Skeletal Muscle PKC Theta to Glucose on Wnt signaling in skeletal muscle Christina Henderson Social Work Dr. Diana Rowan Project: HIV watersheds Jessica Lu Computer Science Dr. Srinivas Akella Project: Building a Raspberry Pi Mobile Robot

  9. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    ecosistemas costeros, calidad e Intrusin de agua costera de mar en acuferos de agua dulce. Jorge Ivn Eun, distribucin y destino ambiental de contaminantes txicos en ecosistemas costeros; efectos de contaminantes en Liceaga Correa Anlisis espacial y temporal de ecosistemas marinos y costeros: Percepcin remota y

  10. as invasiones biolgicas hacen referencia al proceso de introduccin,

    E-print Network

    Garca-Berthou, Emili

    , los movimientos humanos, la intensificacin del comercio, la alteracin de los ecosistemas y el mayor estima que en los ecosistemas marinos --los cuales son bastante permeables a la entrada de nuevas biogeogrfica, hoy slo tardara un da. En los ecosistemas terrestres, las tasas de invasin no han sido menos

  11. A N U A R I O C I N V E S T A V838 RECURSOS DEL MAR

    E-print Network

    Mrida del Cinvestav, considerando que el estudio de los ecosistemas costeros y marinos es una de las gestin y uso racional de los ecosistemas costeros del Golfo de Mxico y Mar Caribe, en beneficio de la ecosistemas arrecifales. reas marinas pro- tegidas. Indicadores ecolgicos del estado de condicin de

  12. Key Features and Context-Dependence of Fishery-Induced Trophic Cascades

    E-print Network

    Smith, Jennifer E.

    niveles troficos y pueden ser acompa~nados por cambios en el estado de los ecosistemas. Mas aun, su pesqueria misma. Para conservar y manejar ecosistemas marinos explotados, existe una necesidad imperiosa los atributos del ecosistema que confieren resiliencia a la explotacion, determinar los rangos de

  13. MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 22(2): 413425 (April 2006) C 2006 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy

    E-print Network

    Fussman, Gregor

    physiological constraint is all the more intriguing. There have been three previous tests of the dive constraint: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00042.x DOES DIVING LIMIT BRAIN SIZE IN CETACEANS? LORI MARINO Neuroscience test the longstanding hypothesis, known as the dive constraint hypothesis, that the oxygenation demands

  14. 78 FR 63978 - Proposed CERCLA Settlements Relating to the Truckers Warehouse Site in Passaic, Passaic County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Settlements Relating to the Truckers Warehouse Site in Passaic, Passaic County...(h)(1) of CERCLA, with (1) RJS Corp.; (2) Your Factory Warehouse, Inc., Douglas Marino and Mark... response costs incurred at or in connection with the Truckers Warehouse Site (``Site''), located in...

  15. Why Should Community College Faculty Write Grant Proposals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renninger, Phyl; Meilof, Anne; Pitts, Todd; Smalley, Janie

    2007-01-01

    Community colleges have seen dramatic enrollment increases (Kasper, 2002), and some are now offering 4-year degrees (Evelyn, 2003). They are eligible for more grants than in the past, and community college funding from state and federal appropriations is shrinking (Lawrence & Marino, 2003). For these reasons, it is imperative that community

  16. Business-driven Management of Differentiated Services

    E-print Network

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Business-driven Management of Differentiated Services Javier Rubio-Loyola1 , Marinos Charalambides2, the incremental efforts needed to manage DiffServ networks from a business-oriented viewpoint have received of business indicators over service management policies. Business and service indicators are used to control

  17. Exp Brain Res DOI 10.1007/s00221-013-3467-7

    E-print Network

    Malfait, Nicole

    the body image, regarded as a pictorial description of the body which is mainly based on visual the propriocep- tive input for motor control. Keywords Body schema Body image Body-size distortion Reach the visual size of the body recalibrates the body schema N. F. Bernardi B. F. Marino A. Maravita G

  18. An Analysis of Linux Scalability to Many Cores 1 / 44 An Analysis of Linux Scalability to Many Cores

    E-print Network

    Karp, Brad

    An Analysis of Linux Scalability to Many Cores 1 / 44 An Analysis of Linux Scalability to Many Cores Peter Tsonchev Ilias Marinos University College London 19 March 2012 #12;An Analysis of Linux Evaluation 5 Conclusions #12;An Analysis of Linux Scalability to Many Cores 3 / 44 Introduction Introduction

  19. OPERACI?N IceBridge: Explorando cambios en el hielo de Groenlandia - Duration: 2 minutes, 29 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Operación IceBridge es una misión aérea de la NASA dedicada a estudiar cambios en la capa de hielo y el hielo marino en ambos polos del planeta. En la primavera de 2012, IceBridge llevó a cabo ...

  20. Diego Campos, Construction Manager de Ferrovial Agroman en la recin creada Direccin de Energa, se desplaz a Dinamarca en

    E-print Network

    Greff, Isabelle

    elico marino de Butendiek, a 32 kilmetros de la isla de Sylt, en el rea alemana del Mar del Norte Direccin de Energa, han debido especializarse en diferentes reas para afrontar proyectos como los del Mar del Nor- te, teniendo en cuenta factores como oleaje, viento, profundidad del mar, fauna marina, etc

  1. Curriculum vitae BERTINI Adele Laureata in Scienze Geologiche ha conseguito il titolo di Dottore di ricerca in paleontologia nel

    E-print Network

    continentali e marine americane per l'intervallo tardo pleistocenico-olocenico. Ha partecipato a diversi' autore di diversi lavori scientifici (78) ed abstract (156), questi ultimi testimoniano la sua, 2012; Congresso AIQUA 2013. L'ambiente Marino Costiero del Mediterraneo oggi e nel recente passato

  2. Team Science Toolkit

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content at the National Institutes of Health www.cancer.gov Home About Team Science About the Toolkit Discover Contribute Connect News & Events About Us Anne Heberger Marino Edit resource 100 Academy, 2nd Floor Irvine, CA 92617 949-233-3964 aheberger@nas.edu Area

  3. Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarner, Ronald, Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary J., Ed.; Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.

    This document contains the following full and short papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "Exploring Minds Network" (Marino C. Alvarez and others); "Learning Communities: A Kaleidoscope of Ecological Designs" (Alain Breuleux and others); "PDA's and Research: A

  4. The Central American Career of E. George Squier

    E-print Network

    Stansifer, Charles Lee

    1959-04-20

    /2. The manuscript materials upon, which this study is based are located in.four principal depositories! the Library of Congress in Washington,, D. C., the New-York Historical Society in New York City, the Huntington Library in San Marino, Cali fornia...

  5. colon cancer Can genetics help tackle

    E-print Network

    Rasdeaconu, Rares

    Predicting colon cancer Can genetics help tackle the second leading cancer killer? momentum without cancer. #12;EDITOR Melissa Marino CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Stephanie Crowe Leigh MacMillan Cynthia, TN 37232-2390 (615) 322-4747 Momentum is published twice a year by Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center

  6. From Service Clouds to User-centric Personal Clouds L. Ardissono, A. Goy, G. Petrone and M. Segnan

    E-print Network

    Goy, Anna

    ,goy,giovanna,marino}@di.unito.it Abstract-- We present the Personal Cloud Platform (PCP) for the management of service clouds providing are increasingly exploiting remote services in their everyday life, as well as at work. A consequence of this trend applications, and are accessible from desktop and mobile terminals; e.g., [3]. Furthermore, the concept of Web

  7. Doyle Group Publications Updated September 2015 66. Doyle, R. P., Ron. L. Bonaccorso, Oleg G. Chepurny, Christian Becker-Pauly,

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    . Burke, C. Elfers and C. L. Roth Vitamin B12 conjugation of Peptide-YY3-36 decreases food intake compared ubiquitin-like modifier fusion Protein Exp. Purif. 2012, 85, 51-59. 54. Doyle, R. P., Nadia Marino, Susan K-James, Jamie L. Bernstein Site selective oxidation

  8. 78 FR 86 - In the Matter of:

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2012 (77 FR 49699, August 16, 2012), has continued the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Henson Chua, 2945 Somerset Place, San Marino, CA...

  9. NOVEL Al2O3:C,Mg FLUORESCENT NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTORS FOR PASSIVE NEUTRON DOSIMETRY

    E-print Network

    ) based on single aluminium oxide crystals doped with carbon and magnesium and having aggre- gate oxygen, Mark S. Akselrod1,*, M. Salasky2 and Stephen A. Marino3 1 Landauer, Inc., Stillwater Crystal Growth a new luminescent aluminium oxide single crystal detector (Al2O3:C,Mg) with an imaging technique based

  10. Identificacin de Humedales en Puerto Rico utilizando Imgenes Multiespectrales Lola Xiomara Bautista Rozo

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    reas cuyos suelos estn saturados con agua durante toda la parte del tiempo y que alberga plantas caractersticas de suelos hidrcos. Son excelentes filtros biolgicos y reducen el movimiento de nutrientes hacia suelo, la hidrologa y la vegetacin. El suelo se compone primordialmente de sedimentos anaerbicos y

  11. Esteban G. Jobbgy y Marcelo D. Nosetto Grupo de Estudios Ambientales -IMASL-CONICET & Departamento de Agronoma -

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    ;152 saturada de los perfiles de suelo/sedimento) muy cercanas a la superficie ( fretico. Si se divide verticalmente el perfil de suelo/sedimentoquepuedeocuparlanapafreticayserecono- cen Arenoso de la regin pampeana en suelos sin impedancias subsuperficiales y con napas de baja salinidad

  12. LO SABA?... Jobbagy, Mercau & Nosetto

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    zona saturada (todos los poros ocupados por agua) del perfil de un suelo/sedimento. Los hidrlogos las Verdadera. ZONA CAPILAR 1 El agua asciende sobre la altura de la napa por los capilares del suelo. En.0-1.5 m por sobre la napa. En suelos ms arenosos hasta 0.5-1.0 m. En suelos ms arcillosos la tasa de

  13. PETRLEO EN EL MAR ABIERTO La presencia de petrleo en el agua del mar puede

    E-print Network

    AGUA Y SEDIMENTOS Monitoreo de la calidad del agua Encuestas para detectar petrleo debajo de la actividades necesarias para restaurar el Golfo de Mxico. PRUEBAS DE CALIDAD DEL AGUA ESTUDIOS DE CAMPOPETRLEO EN EL MAR ABIERTO La presencia de petrleo en el agua del mar puede afectar la salud de

  14. Estudo revela que dunas da cratera de Gale em Marte esto ativas Autor: Catarina Solano

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Estudo revela que dunas da cratera de Gale em Marte esto ativas Autor: Catarina Solano Data de liderada pelo instituto norte-americano SETI concluiu que as dunas da cratera de Gale, no planeta Marte transporte de sedimentos em Marte", sublinha David Vaz, que tambm investigador no Centro de Recursos

  15. Supplement 21, Part 2, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Protozoa

    E-print Network

    Zidar, Judith A; Shaw, Judith H.; Haneman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

    1978-01-01

    . Persons using this Catalogue are requested to preserve it, because it is not designed for general distribution and the edition is limited. Reprints of papers on parasitology are requested. Ill EXPLANATORY NOTE Coverage of human malaria... other products not men- tioned. - t;( . '??? ; - .,,. ; - ? * PROTOZOA 1 Acanthamoeba Griffin, J.L., 1976 a differentiation of Acanthamoeba from Naegleria as cause of human meningoencephalitis: Britain Acanthamoeba Marino, J.T. (jr.), 1975 a...

  16. The impact of identity and power on marital social support behavior

    E-print Network

    Hunter-Holmes, Pam

    2005-11-01

    is a multifactorial construct? (Turner and Marino 1994:195), and that both objective and subjective components exist. Gottlieb (1985) asserts that data collected using only subjective measures may be affected by self-perceptions, personality traits... forms of social support. Gottlieb (1985) emphasizes the important impact of covert, unintentional and indirect forms of support, which may be only accessible using objective, and more specifically, visual methods of data collection. Objectively...

  17. Research and Graduate Studies at KU Newsletter, April 2012

    E-print Network

    2012-04-01

    , and technical services. Pre-Award Services (Barbara Earl) and Contract Negotiations (Lucille Marino) continue to report to Joanne Altieri, director of research administration, as assistant directors. Both Stevens and Altieri report directly to Vice Chancellor... direction from the Comptrollers Office and with assistance from many individuals across campus. Immediate questions affecting current projects can be addressed to Barbara Earl in Pre-Award Services, 864-7781, or Pat Kuester in Post-Award Services, 864...

  18. Istituzioni di Matematica C. d. L. in Biotecnologie Esercizi 20. 10. 2006

    E-print Network

    Achilles, Rdiger

    proveniente da Chernobyl in seguito all'incidente nei primi giorni del maggio 1986 era 1 : 2. (e) La provenienza dei due isotopi nei funghi `e da imputare alla deposizione in seguito all'incidente di Chernobyl

  19. 75 FR 45497 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Threatened Status for Five...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...Aprovechamiento de Abonos Provenientes de Aves (PROABONOS), a small government company that produces fertilizer for organic farming (Cushman 2007, p. 24). Reports from 1936 described completely denuded guano islands and indicated that by...

  20. Supplementation of Organic Acids and Algae Extracts in Aqua Feeds: Immunological Impacts

    E-print Network

    Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria G

    2013-12-02

    methods of analysis of the AOAC, Vol 2. K.C Helrich. Cab Direct, Arlington, Virginia, USA. Bagni M., N. Romano, M.G. Finoia, L. Abelli, G. Scapigliati, P.G. Tiscar, M. Sarti, and G. Marino. 2005. Short- and long-term effects of a dietary yeast ?-glucan... saxatilis). Microbial Ecology 59:187-198. Chapman V.J. and D.J. Chapman. 1980. Seaweeds and their uses. 3rd ed: Chapman and Hall. London, England. Cheng A.C., Y.Y. Chen and J.C. Chen. 2008. Dietary administration of sodium alginate and ?...

  1. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-03-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original books and manuscripts from the library's own collections. The sheer magnitude of human achievement represented here and the amount of effort and money that must have been required to amass these books boggles the mind.

  2. Talking about Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction Timothy Ferris, Iris Fry, Steven Dick, Ann Druyan, Pinky Nelson, Neil Tyson, Steve Benner and William Bains; Part II. Earth Roger Buick, Lynn Rothschild, John Baross, Joe Kirschvink, Andrew Knoll, Simon Conway Morris, Roger Hanlon and Lori Marino; Part III. Solar System Chris McKay, David Grinspoon, Jonathan Lunine, Carolyn Porco, Laurie Leshin, Guy Consolmagno and Peter Smith; Part IV. Exoplanets Alan Boss, Geoff Marcy, Debra Fischer, Sara Seager, David Charbonneau and Vikki Meadows; Part V. Frontiers Jill Tarter, Seth Shostak, Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Ben Bova and Jennifer Michael Hecht; Reading list; Glossary; Index.

  3. Esquema Hibrido para Amostragem de Mapas de Iluminac~ao em renderizac~oes foto-realistas

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    Esquema Hibrido para Amostragem de Mapas de Iluminac~ao em renderizac~oes foto-realistas Aldo R~ao foto- realista com mapas de iluminac~ao provenientes de cenas reais. Desenvolvemos um sistema que~ao grafica. Atual- mente a renderizac~ao foto-realista de cenas sinteticas com iluminac

  4. MSTER EXECUTIVE EN LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT.

    E-print Network

    Politcnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    ;El IOC es un instituto de investigacin de la Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC). Sus mbitos de actuacin del IOC son la Automtica, la Robtica y la Organizacin Industrial con una especial campos. El IOC cuenta con personal docente e investigador (PDI) proveniente de diversos dptos. de la UPC

  5. Four New Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Amazonas, Venezuela

    E-print Network

    Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    Four New Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Amazonas, Venezuela JONATHAN W. ARMBRUSTER. lunaorum are described based on specimens from the upper Rio Orinoco of southern Venezuela. Hypancistrus la base de especimenes provenientes de la cuenca alta del rio Orinoco en el sur de Venezuela

  6. Se busca reducir de forma drstica la exposicin a la radiacin en los exmenes por imgenes

    Cancer.gov

    La exposicin a la radiacin proveniente de exmenes mdicos por imaginologa en los Estados Unidos ha aumentado en forma significativa. El NCI y diversas organizaciones patrocinaron una reunin en 2011 para promover esfuerzos para reducir la exposicin a la radiacin por imaginologa.

  7. Seventy-One Important Questions for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    PARSONS, E C M; FAVARO, BRETT; AGUIRRE, A ALONSO; BAUER, AMY L; BLIGHT, LOUISE K; CIGLIANO, JOHN A; COLEMAN, MELINDA A; CT, ISABELLE M; DRAHEIM, MEGAN; FLETCHER, STEPHEN; FOLEY, MELISSA M; JEFFERSON, REBECCA; JONES, MIRANDA C; KELAHER, BRENDAN P; LUNDQUIST, CAROLYN J; MCCARTHY, JULIE-BETH; NELSON, ANNE; PATTERSON, KATHERYN; WALSH, LESLIE; WRIGHT, ANDREW J; SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM J

    2014-01-01

    The ocean provides food, economic activity, and cultural value for a large proportion of humanity. Our knowledge of marine ecosystems lags behind that of terrestrial ecosystems, limiting effective protection of marine resources. We describe the outcome of 2 workshops in 2011 and 2012 to establish a list of important questions, which, if answered, would substantially improve our ability to conserve and manage the worlds marine resources. Participants included individuals from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations with broad experience across disciplines, marine ecosystems, and countries that vary in levels of development. Contributors from the fields of science, conservation, industry, and government submitted questions to our workshops, which we distilled into a list of priority research questions. Through this process, we identified 71 key questions. We grouped these into 8 subject categories, each pertaining to a broad component of marine conservation: fisheries, climate change, other anthropogenic threats, ecosystems, marine citizenship, policy, societal and cultural considerations, and scientific enterprise. Our questions address many issues that are specific to marine conservation, and will serve as a road map to funders and researchers to develop programs that can greatly benefit marine conservation. Setenta y Un Preguntas Importantes para la Conservacin de la Biodiversidad Marina Resumen Los ocanos proporcionan alimento, actividad econmica y valor cultural para una gran porcin de la humanidad. Nuestro conocimiento de los ecosistemas marinos est atrasado con respecto al que tenemos de los ecosistemas terrestres, lo que limita la proteccin efectiva de los recursos naturales. Describimos el resultado de dos talleres en 2011 y 2012 para establecer una lista de preguntas importantes, las cuales al ser respondidas, mejoraran sustancialmente nuestra habilidad de conservar y manejar los recursos marinos del mundo. Entre los participantes se incluyeron a individuos de la docencia, el gobierno y organizaciones no-gubernamentales, con una amplia experiencia que atraviesa disciplinas, ecosistemas marinos y pases que varan en el nivel de desarrollo. Los contribuyentes de los campos de la ciencia, la conservacin, la industria y el gobierno, presentaron preguntas a nuestros talleres, las cuales separamos en una lista de preguntas de investigacin prioritarias. Por medio de este proceso, identificamos 71 preguntas clave. Las agrupamos en ocho categoras temticas, cada una perteneciente a un componente amplio de la conservacin marina: pesqueras, cambio climtico, otras amenazas antropognicas, ecosistemas, ciudadana marina, poltica, consideraciones sociales y culturales, y la iniciativa cientfica. Nuestras preguntas se dirigen a muchas cuestiones que son especficas de la conservacin marina, y servirn como una ruta a seguir para patrocinadores e investigadores que busquen desarrollar programas que puedan beneficiar ampliamente a la conservacin marina. PMID:24779474

  8. The Upper Neoproterozoic glacial complex in central areas of the Siberian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochnev, B. B.; Pokrovskii, B. G.; Proshenkin, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    A stratum of glacial diamictites with thickness of up to 160 m at the basement of the sedimentary cover, overlain by a series of cap carbonates up to 40 m thick is described for several boreholes in the central regions of the Siberian platform. The isotope composition of carbon in carbonates is identical to the Ediacaran cap carbonates from the Patom upland. The series of detrital zircons from diamictites (60 grains) contains three young grains aged 740-690 Ma, which restricts the time of formation of the glacial deposits to the late Neoproterozoic. Thus, the glaciations that were synchronous to the Stert and/or Marino glacial stages on the Siberian platform had a cap character.

  9. Survival and movements of Magellanic penguins rehabilitated from oil fouling along the coast of South America, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Woehler, Eric J; Heredia, Sergio Andres Rodrguez; Adornes, Andra Corrado; da Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Matus, Ricardo; Poleschi, Carla; Griot, Karen; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K Miyaji; Serafini, Patrcia

    2012-07-01

    Oil pollution is a significant conservation concern. We examined data from six institutions along the coast of South America: Emergency Relief Team of the International Fund for Animal Welfare, Fundacin Mundo Marino, Centro de Recuperao de Animais Marinhos, Natura Patagonia, Associao R3 Animal, and Mar del Plata Aquarium and data from resightings in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Falkland/Malvinas Islands. From 2000 to 2010, 2183 oiled Magellanic penguins were rehabilitated as part of the routine activities of these institutions or during emergency responses to eight oil spills in which they were involved; all rehabilitated penguins were flipper banded and released. Since their release, 41 penguins were resighted until 31 December 2011. The results demonstrate that, when combined with other prevention strategies, the rehabilitation of Magellanic penguins is a strategy that contributes to the mitigation of adverse effects of oil spills and chronic pollution to the species. PMID:22683106

  10. Exact slope and interpolating functions in N=6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory.

    PubMed

    Gromov, Nikolay; Sizov, Grigory

    2014-09-19

    Using the quantum spectral curve approach we compute, exactly, an observable (called slope function) in the planar Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory in terms of an unknown interpolating function h(?) which plays the role of the coupling in any integrability based calculation in this theory. We verified our results with known weak coupling expansion in the gauge theory and with the results of semiclassical string calculations. Quite surprisingly at strong coupling the result is given by an explicit rational function of h(?) to all orders. By comparing the structure of our result with that of an exact localization based calculation for a similar observable in Marino and Putrov [J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2010) 011], we conjecture an exact expression for h(?). PMID:25279619

  11. Exact Slope and Interpolating Functions in N=6 Supersymmetric Chern-Simons Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Sizov, Grigory

    2014-09-01

    Using the quantum spectral curve approach we compute, exactly, an observable (called slope function) in the planar Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory in terms of an unknown interpolating function h(?) which plays the role of the coupling in any integrability based calculation in this theory. We verified our results with known weak coupling expansion in the gauge theory and with the results of semiclassical string calculations. Quite surprisingly at strong coupling the result is given by an explicit rational function of h(?) to all orders. By comparing the structure of our result with that of an exact localization based calculation for a similar observable in Marino and Putrov [J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2010) 011], we conjecture an exact expression for h(?).

  12. A note on instanton effects in ABJM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-fu; Wang, Xin; Huang, Min-xin

    2014-11-01

    We consider the quantum spectral problem appearing the Fermi gas formulation of the ABJM (Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena) matrix model. This is known to related to the refined topological string on local ?1 ?1 Calabi-Yau geometry. In the ABJM setting the problem is formulated by an integral equation, and is somewhat different from the one formulated directly in terms of the Calabi-Yau geometry and studied in our earlier paper. We use the similar method in our earlier paper to determine the non-perturbative contributions to the quantum phase volume in the ABJM case from the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. As in our earlier paper, the non-perturbative contributions contain higher order smooth corrections beyond those required by singularity cancellations with the perturbative contributions proposed by Kallen and Marino. Our results imply possible new contributions to the grand potential of the ABJM matrix model.

  13. Biosphere 2 anew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The seven scientists who volunteered to live in Biosphere 2 for the past 6.5 months will be reentering the real world this Saturday, September 17, as Biosphere's new management team shifts into high gear to revitalize the $150 million sealed ecosystem's science plan. The new management team stepped in April 1 after a court order obtained by the project's owner Ed Bass kicked out its then prevailing management team. In mid-August, Biosphere 2 announced that it had joined forces with Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in a nonprofit venture to set a new research agenda for the reportedly troubled 3.2-acre facility. Biosphere has commissioned about a dozen white papers to be written during the next 7 months to help articulate the optimum science program. The past really isn't the issue, says biogeochemist Bruno Marino, Biosphere's new research director.

  14. Nonequilibrium dynamics of a noisy quantum Ising chain: Statistics of work and prethermalization after a sudden quench of the transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jamir; Silva, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum Ising chain following a quantum quench of the transverse field and in the presence of a Gaussian time-dependent noise. We discuss the probability distribution of the work done on the system both for static and dynamic noise. While the effect of static noise is to smooth the low energy threshold of the statistic of the work, appearing for sudden quenches, a dynamical noise protocol affects also the spectral weight of such features. We also provide a detailed derivation of the kinetic equation for the Green's functions on the Keldysh contour and the time evolution of observables of physical interest, extending previously reported results [Marino and Silva, Phys. Rev. B 86, 060408 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.060408], and discussing the extension of the concept of prethermalization which can be used to study noisy quantum many-body Hamiltonians driven out of equilibrium.

  15. Assessing ecological correlates of marine bird declines to inform marine conservation

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis, L Ignacio; Johnson, Christine K; Evenson, Joseph R; Pearson, Scott F; Barry, Karen L; Davidson, Peter; Raphael, Martin G; Gaydos, Joseph K

    2015-01-01

    Identifying drivers of ecosystem change in large marine ecosystems is central for their effective management and conservation. This is a sizable challenge, particularly in ecosystems transcending international borders, where monitoring and conservation of long-range migratory species and their habitats are logistically and financially problematic. Here, using tools borrowed from epidemiology, we elucidated common drivers underlying species declines within a marine ecosystem, much in the way epidemiological analyses evaluate risk factors for negative health outcomes to better inform decisions. Thus, we identified ecological traits and dietary specializations associated with species declines in a community of marine predators that could be reflective of ecosystem change. To do so, we integrated count data from winter surveys collected in long-term marine bird monitoring programs conducted throughout the Salish Seaa transboundary large marine ecosystem in North America's Pacific Northwest. We found that decadal declines in winter counts were most prevalent among pursuit divers such as alcids (Alcidae) and grebes (Podicipedidae) that have specialized diets based on forage fish, and that wide-ranging species without local breeding colonies were more prone to these declines. Although a combination of factors is most likely driving declines of diving forage fish specialists, we propose that changes in the availability of low-trophic prey may be forcing wintering range shifts of diving birds in the Salish Sea. Such a synthesis of long-term trends in a marine predator community not only provides unique insights into the types of species that are at risk of extirpation and why, but may also inform proactive conservation measures to counteract threatsinformation that is paramount for species-specific and ecosystem-wide conservation. Evaluacin de las Correlaciones Ecolgicas de las Declinaciones de Aves Marinas para Informar a la Conservacin Marina Resumen La identificacin de los conductores del cambio ambiental en los grandes ecosistemas marinos es esencial para su conservacin y manejo efectivo. Esto es un reto bastante grande, particularmente en los ecosistemas que trascienden fronteras internacionales, cuando el monitoreo y la conservacin de especies migratorias de amplio rango y sus hbitats son logstica y financieramente problemticos. En este caso, usando herramientas tomadas de la epidemiologa, elucidamos conductores comunes subyacentes en la declinacin de especies dentro de un ecosistema marino, muy similar a cmo los anlisis epidemiolgicos evalan los factores de riesgo para los resultados de salud negativos e informar mejor sus decisiones. Con esto, identificamos los rasgos ecolgicos y las especializaciones de dieta asociados con la declinacin de especies en una comunidad de depredadores marinos que podra ser un reflejo de cambios ambientales. Para lograr esto, integramos datos de conteo de programas de censos de invierno recolectados a lo largo de monitoreos a largo plazo de aves marinas llevados a cabo en el mar Salish un gran ecosistema marino que trasciende fronteras en el noroeste del Ocano Pacfico. Encontramos que las declinaciones por dcada en los conteos de invierno fueron ms prevalentes entre los pescadores de persecucin, como los lcidos (Alcidae) y los zambullidores (Podicipedidae), que tienen dietas especializadas basadas en peces forrajeros y que las especies con distribucin amplia y sin colonias reproductivas locales estaban ms predispuestas a estas declinaciones. Mientras que una combinacin de factores posiblemente est causando las declinaciones de especialistas de peces forrajeros, proponemos que los cambios en la disponibilidad de presas de niveles trficos bajos pueden estar forzando cambios en la extensin invernal de aves pescadoras en el mar Salish. Dicha sntesis de tendencias a largo plazo en una comun

  16. Population Models for Massive Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Wook; Joo, Seok-Joo; Han, Sang-Il; Na, Chongsam; Lim, Dongwook; Roh, Dong-Goo

    2015-03-01

    Increasing number of massive globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way are now turned out to host multiple stellar populations having different heavy element abundances enriched by supernovae. Recent observations have further shown that [CNO/Fe] is also enhanced in metal-rich subpopulations in most of these GCs, including ? Cen and M22 (Marino et al. 2011, 2012). In order to reflect this in our population modeling, we have expanded the parameter space of Y 2 isochrones and horizontal-branch (HB) evolutionary tracks to include the cases of normal and enhanced nitrogen abundances ([N/Fe] = 0.0, 0.8, and 1.6). The observed variations in the total CNO content were reproduced by interpolating these nitrogen enhanced stellar models. Our test simulations with varying N and O abundances show that, once the total CNO sum ([CNO/Fe]) is held constant, both N and O have almost identical effects on the HR diagram (see Fig. 1).

  17. The mysterious fate of la Bibliothque de Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).

    PubMed

    Oertling, Sarita B; Marlin, Robert O; Goldman, Armond S

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the holdings at Bibliothque Nationale de France and Muse du Pasteur Institut Paris, major parts of la Bibliothque de Louis Pasteur are in four institutions in the United States - Reynolds Historical Library at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama; Burndy Library on the History of Science and Technology at Huntington Library in San Marino, California; Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at University of Texas in Austin, Texas; and Truman G Blocker History of Medicine Collections, The Moody Medical Library, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas. The circuitous paths that led each part of la Bibliothque de Louis Pasteur to their present locations were traced and the lives of key individuals in medicine, science and the humanities who obtained these valuable documents were recounted. The documents in each institution were discussed and a plan was considered to make them accessible to scholars who wish to further explore the life of Louis Pasteur. PMID:24585594

  18. Los intertextos europeos en el teatro de Florencio Snchez: El honor y Magda de Hermann Sudermann

    E-print Network

    Dubatti, Jorge A.

    1995-10-01

    abundante crtica sobre su obra permiten relacionar sus piezas con los estmulos, mayores o menores, provenientes de esta textualidad dramtica y/o espectacular europea. En muchas pginas de investigacin, sin embargo, el afn por encontrar vnculos... accedi frecuentemente a los escenarios porteos, cont con ediciones nacionales, se intertextualiz en la produccin de los dramaturgos argentinos, gener muchas pginas crticas y testimonios de lectores y espectadores. Con el fin de sealar algunos...

  19. UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTIAGO DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIA

    E-print Network

    y procedimental, proveniente de la física clásica, relatividad y física cuántica y utilizando competencia para: Dominar principios y métodos de la Física, en particular de la Relatividad Especial y de la de la Física Moderna: Relatividad Especial y Mecánica Cuántica, además utilizando TICE, podrá

  20. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Glen; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-03-01

    Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65% of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara) it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%), oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Trraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Rio Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed delta-endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3-cry7 and 8% with cry8. The cry11 and cyt genes were found in 8% and 7% of the strains, respectively. When analyzed with specific primers for the cryl subfamily, 13 different genetic profiles were obtained. In addition, twenty-four strains did not amplify with any of the primers used, suggesting they contain novel cry genes. The diversity of Bt genes found in this collection indicates it could have great potential for the control of different species of insect pests. The toxicological characterization of the strains by bioassays against important insect pests will provide useful information about their potential use for the formulation of biological insecticides and their respective cry and vip genes for the transformation of crops to confer resistance to insects. PMID:18457170

  1. Tracing the evolution within nearby galaxy groups: a multi-wavelength approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Plana, Henri; Rosado, Margarita; Galletta, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Paola; Bianchi, Luciana; Buson, Lucio M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia; Gabbasov, Ruslan

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary scenarios suggest that several mechanisms (from inner secular evolution to accretion/merging) may transform galaxy members, driving groups from an active star forming phase to a more passive, typical of dense environments. We are investigating this transition in a nearby group sample, designed to cover a wide range of properties (see also Marino et al. (2010), Bettoni et al. (2011) and Marino et al. (2012)). We study two groups, USGC U268 and USGC U376 located in different regions of the Leo cloud, through a photometric and kinematic characterization of their member galaxies. We revisit the group membership, using results from recent red-shift surveys, and we investigate their substructures. U268, composed of 10 catalogued members and 11 new added members, has a small fraction (~24%) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). U376 has 16 plus 8 new added members, with ~38% of ETGs. We find the significant substructuring in both groups suggesting that they are likely accreting galaxies. U268 is located in a more loose environment than U376. For each member galaxy, broad band integrated and surface photometry have been obtained in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) with GALEX, and in u, g, r, i, z (SDSS) bands. H? imaging and 2D high resolution kinematical data have been obtained using PUMA Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.12 m telescope in San Pedro Mrtir (Baja California, Mxico). We improved the galaxy classification and we detected morphological and kinematical distortions that may be connected to either on-going and/or past interaction/accretion events or environmental induced secular evolution. U268 appears more active than U376, with a large fraction of galaxies showing interaction signatures (60% vs. 13%). The presence of bars among late-type galaxies is ~10% in U268 and 29% in U376. The cumulative distribution of (FUV - NUV) colors of galaxies in U268 is significantly different (bluer) than that of U376's galaxies. Most (80%) of the early-type members in U376 inhabits the red sequence, a large fraction of galaxies, of different morphological types, are located in the green valley, while the blue sequence is under-populated with respect to U268.

  2. Festival Report: III Festival Don Quijote de Teatro Hispano

    E-print Network

    Parola-Leconte, Nora

    1996-04-01

    Festival Don Quijote de Teatro Hispano Nora Parola-Leconte La Maison des Cultures du Monde de la Alianza Francesa de Pars acogi entre el 5 y el 23 de octubre de 1994 el Tercer Festival Don Quijote de Teatro Hispano. Este prestigioso centro, conocido..., sntesis aqu de las divinidades de la tradicin afrocubana, se confunden escenas provenientes de Don Quijotelos molinos de viento, la gruta de Montesinosy, entre otros textos, fragmentos del descubrimiento de Amrica. Se hace referencia adems tanto a...

  3. Chemical Abundances of Multiple Stellar Populations in Massive Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Anna

    2015-08-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed that, contrary to expectations, some of the most massive globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way show variations in the heavy element content, including s-process elements and iron, and that these stellar groups populate different sequences on the color-magnitude diagram. We refer to these objects as anomlous GCs, as discussed in Marino et al. (2015, arXiv150207438M). On the other hand, typical Galactic GCs show just variations in the elements involved in the hot H-burning, resulting in well-known chemical patterns such as the C-N/O-Na/Mg-Al anticorrelations.Interestingly, the chemical analogies of these newly-discovered anomalous GCs with the most massive Milky Way GC, Omega Centauri, considered the nuclear relict of a dwarf galaxy, suggest the fascinating idea that they could be the survived nuclei of more massive systems.Hence, the most massive GCs could be the ''bridge'' between *normal* mono-metallic GCs, those showing chemical variations only in the light elements, and more massive systems like dwarf galaxies.I will present the spectroscopic and photometric current obsevational scenario for the anomalous GCs, focusing on Omega Centauri, M22, NGC5286 and NGC1851; and discuss the observational scenario in the context of the possible origin of these objects as nuclei of dwarf galaxies.

  4. An oceanographic context for the foraging ecology of eastern Pacific leatherback turtles: Consequences of ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Shillinger, George L.; Swithenbank, Alan M.; Block, Barbara A.; Spotila, James R.; Musick, John A.; Paladino, Frank V.

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed some of the primary biological and physical dynamics within the eastern Pacific leatherback turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea) migration area in relation to ENSO and leatherback nesting ecology at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas (PNMB), Costa Rica. We used data from remote sensing to calculate resource availability via a net primary production (NPP) model, and to analyze the physical dynamics of the migration area via sea surface temperature fronts. Within the migration area, NPP north of 15S was highly governed by interannual variability as indicated by the Multivariate ENSO Index while south of 15S, production had a more seasonal signal. Nesting peaks of leatherbacks at PNMB were associated with cool, highly productive La Nia events and with large-scale equatorial phytoplankton blooms encompassing 110W that were induced by iron enrichment following the termination of El Nio events. Resource availability in the northern migration area (eastern equatorial Pacific) appeared to determine the nesting response for the population at PNMB, Costa Rica. We suggest that ENSO significantly influences the nesting ecology of leatherbacks at PNMB because the majority of the population consists of pelagic foragers that strictly rely on the eastern equatorial Pacific for prey consumption prior to the nesting season. Coastal foragers may be a minority in the population because of high mortality rates associated with coastal gillnet fisheries along Central and South America.

  5. The bottom quartile for health indices in America vs Europe.

    PubMed

    Shandera, Wayne Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The inequities in health outcomes in different parts of the developed world merit further analysis. An index comprising mortality and morbidity factors was composed for American states and European nations. Multiple factors and bottom quartile status were analyzed by regression methodology. The 51 American states (and District of Columbia) showed a "Health Index" value based on life expectancy at birth and morbidity determined by rates of cardiac disease and cancer that ranged from 63 (Mississippi and West Virginia) to 94 (Utah). The 48 of 51 European states with assessable data showed a Health Index based on life expectancy at birth and quality adjusted life years that ranged from 53 (Russia) to 98 (San Marino). American states with the lowest quartile values were clustered in the American South and Appalachian areas. European states ranking in the bottom quartile were typically from Eastern Europe and showed a history of a Communism and recognized governmental corruption. Because American poor health rankings are the result of controllable factors (smoking, adult onset diabetes, obesity), Americans can improve their bottom quartile status more readily than Europeans whose ranking status is a function of history (Communism, civil conflicts) and poverty (Southeastern and Eastern nations). PMID:25037885

  6. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Agla

    2014-11-10

    The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system. PMID:25402984

  7. Experimental studies of the direct flexoelectric effect in bone materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, John

    2010-03-01

    The piezoelectric effect in biological tissues has been attracting research interest due to the hypothesis that it may behave as a biological transducer, which can convert external stimuli into biologically-recognizable signals capable of controlling growth or resorptive processes. The piezoelectric effect in dried bone materials was first observed in 1957 [1]. A link between the effect and the adaptive response of bone cells was proposed in 1970 [2]. In this paper, we report our recent measurements on the direct flexoelectric effect in bone materials. Our specimens are both dried and wet bones. The origin of both piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity in bone may be ascribed to the crystalline alignment of the micelle of collagen molecules. The Curie group symmetries of the configuration of collagen fibres in the bone texture demonstrate the existence of both effects. However, our experimental results show that the piezoelectric responses in bone materials may be dominated by flexoelectricity at the micro and nano scales. Finally, we propose a link between the flexoelectric effect and bone spur (osteophyte). [1] E. Fukada and I. Yasuda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 1158 (1957). [2] A. Marino and R. Becker, Nature 228, 78 (1970).

  8. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili Limit: Connecting Weak and Strong Coupling in the Mathieu and Lam'e Systems

    E-print Network

    Basar, Gokce

    2015-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Marino and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-pe...

  9. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili Limit: Connecting Weak and Strong Coupling in the Mathieu and Lam'e Systems

    E-print Network

    Gokce Basar; Gerald V. Dunne

    2015-01-22

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Marino and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-perturbative effects are related to complex space-time instantons. In this paper we study how these very different regimes arise from an exact WKB analysis, and join smoothly through the magnetic region. This approach also leads to a simple proof of a resurgence relation found recently by Dunne and Unsal, showing that for these spectral systems all non-perturbative effects are subtly encoded in perturbation theory, and identifies this with the Picard-Fuchs equation for the quantized elliptic curve.

  10. Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhes, N. S.

    2003-08-01

    Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formao do buraco negro, o espao-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbaes que se propagam na forma de radiao gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiao gravitacional, durante este estgio, aproxima-se a uma senide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrizao so muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observ-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste terico ajudou-nos a criar estratgias de deteco de sinais imersos no rudo instrumental. Calculamos a relao sinal-rudo como uma funo da frequncia, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg ter sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofsicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

  11. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  12. Marine hydrogeology: recent accomplishments and future opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.

    2005-03-01

    Marine hydrogeology is a broad-ranging scientific discipline involving the exploration of fluid-rock interactions below the seafloor. Studies have been conducted at seafloor spreading centers, mid-plate locations, and in plate- and continental-margin environments. Although many seafloor locations are remote, there are aspects of marine systems that make them uniquely suited for hydrologic analysis. Newly developed tools and techniques, and the establishment of several multidisciplinary programs for oceanographic exploration, have helped to push marine hydrogeology forward over the last several decades. Most marine hydrogeologic work has focused on measurement or estimation of hydrogeologic properties within the shallow subsurface, but additional work has emphasized measurements of local and global fluxes, fluid source and sink terms, and quantitative links between hydrogeologic, chemical, tectonic, biological, and geophysical processes. In addition to summarizing selected results from a small number of case studies, this paper includes a description of several new experiments and programs that will provide outstanding opportunities to address fundamental hydrogeologic questions within the seafloor during the next 20-30 years. L'hydrogologie marine est une large discipline scientifique impliquant l' exploration des interactions entre les fluides et les roches sous les fonds marins. Des tudes ont t menes dans les diffrents environnements sous-marins (zone abyssale, plaque ocanique, marges continentales). Bien que de nombreux fonds marins soient connus, il existe des aspects des systmes marins qui les rendent inadapts l'analyse hydrologique. De nouveaux outils et techniques, et la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes multidisciplinaires d'exploration ocanographique, ont aid pousser en avant l'hydrogologie marine ces dix dernires annes. La plus part des tudes hydrogologiques se sont concentres jusqu' prsent sur la mesure ou l'estimation des proprits la sub-surface des fonds marins, et des travaux complmentaires ont mis en valeur les mesures de flux, local ou global, de termes sources et pertes , et des liens quantitatifs entre l'hydrogologie, la chimie, la tectonique, la biologie, et les processus gophysiques. Cet article vise rsumer des rsultats slectionns parmi un petit nombre d'tudes, et dcrire plusieurs nouvelles expriences et programmes, qui sont autant d'opportunits pour rpondre aux questions fondamentales relatives aux fonds marins, poses ces dernires 20-30 annes. La hidrogeologa marina es una disciplina cientfica de amplios alcances que involucra la exploracin de interacciones fluido-roca por debajo del fondo del mar. Se han llevado a cabo estudios en centros de expansin del fondo del mar, lugares en medio de una placa, y en ambientes de placa y margen continental. Aunque muchos sitios en el fondo del mar son remotos, existen aspectos de estos sistemas marinos que los hacen particularmente adaptables para anlisis hidrolgico. Nuevas tcnicas y herramientas desarrolladas, y el establecimiento de varios programas multidisciplinarios para exploracin oceanogrfica, han ayudado a impulsar la hidrogeologa marina hacia delante durante las ultimas dcadas. La mayor parte del trabajo hidrogeolgico marino se ha enfocado en la medicin o estimacin de propiedades hidrogeolgicas dentro del subsuelo superficial, pero trabajo adicionalha enfatizado mediciones de flujos globales y locales, trminos de fuente y sumidero de fluidos, y vnculos cuantitativos entre procesos hidrogeolgicos, qumicos, tectnicos, biolgicos y geofsicos. Adems de resumir resultados seleccionados de un nmero pequeo de estudios de caso, este artculo incluye una descripcin de varios programas y experimentos nuevos que aportarn oportunidades excepcionales para dirigir preguntas hidrogeolgicas fundamentales dentro del fondo ocenico durante los siguientes 20-30 aos.

  13. Exact relations between M2-brane theories with and without Orientifolds

    E-print Network

    Masazumi Honda

    2015-12-14

    We study partition functions of low-energy effective theories of M2-branes, whose type IIB brane constructions include orientifolds. We mainly focus on circular quiver superconformal Chern-Simons theory on S^3, whose gauge group is O(2N+1)x USp(2N)x ... x O(2N+1)x USp(2N). This theory is a natural generalization of N=5 ABJM theory with the gauge group O(2N+1)_{2k}x USp(2N)_{-k}. We find that the partition function of this type of theory has a simple relation to the one of the M2-brane theories without the orientifolds, whose gauge group is U(N)x ... x U(N). By using this relation, we determine an exact form of the grand partition function of the O(2N+1)_2 x USp(2N)_{-1} ABJM theory, where its supersymmetry is expected to enhance to N=6. As another interesting application, we discuss that our result gives a natural physical interpretation of a relation between grand partition functions of the U(N+1)_4 x U(N)_{-4} ABJ theory and U(N)_2 x U(N)_{-2} ABJM theory, recently conjectured by Grassi-Hatsuda-Marino. We also argue that partition function of \\hat{A}_3 quiver theory has a representation in terms of an ideal Fermi gas system associated with \\hat{D}-type quiver theory and this leads an interesting relation between certain U(N) and USp(2N) supersymmetric gauge theories.

  14. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El Cambio Climtico, los Ecosistemas Marinos y el Acta Estadunidense de Especies en Peligro. PMID:24299080

  15. The reduction of the change of secondary ions yield in the thin SiON/Si system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Nishina, T.; Nishitani, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Karen, A.

    2006-07-01

    For the analyses of gate insulating materials of thin silicon oxy-nitride (SiON) and dielectric films, SIMS is one of the available tool along with TEM and ESCA, etc. Especially, to investigate the distribution of dopant in the thin films, SIMS is appreciably effective in these techniques because of its depth profiling capability and high sensitivity. One of the problem occurring in this SIMS measurement is the change of secondary ion yield at the interface as well as in the layers with different chemical composition. To solve this problem, some groups have researched the phenomenon for SiO 2/Si interface [W. Vandervorst, T. Janssens, R. Loo, M. Caymax, I. Peytier, R. Lindsay, J. Fruhauf, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 203-204 (2003) 371-376; S. Hayashi, K.Yanagihara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 203-204 (2003) 339-342; M. Barozzi, D. Giubertoni, M.Anderle, M. Bersani, Appl. Surf. Sci. 231-232 (2004) 632-635; T.H. Buyuklimanli, J.W. Marino, S.W. Novak, Appl. Surf. Sci. 231-232 (2004) 636-639]. In the present study, profiles of boron and matrix elements in the Si/SiON layers on Si substrate have been investigated. The sensitivity change of Si and B profiles in SiON layer become smaller by using oxygen flood than those without oxygen flood for both O 2+ and Cs + beam. At the range of 0-25 at.% of N composition, 11B dosimetry in SiON layer implanted through amorphous Si depends on N composition. This trend could be caused by the sensitivity change of 11B, or it indicates real 11B concentration change in SiON lyaer. N areal density determined by Cs + SIMS with oxygen flooding also shows linear relationship with N composition estimated by XPS.

  16. Variacin temporal de las constantes fundamentales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Vucetich, H.

    La variacin temporal de las constantes fundamentales es un problema que ha motivado numerosos trabajos tericos y experimentales desde la hiptesis de los grandes nmeros de Dirac en 1937. Entre los mtodos experimentales y observacionales para establecer restricciones sobre la variacin de las constantes fundamentes es importante mencionar: comparacin entre relojes atmicos[1], mtodos geofsicos[2][3], anlisis de sistemas de absorcin en quasares[4][5][6] y cotas provenientes de la nucleosntesis primordial[7]. En un trabajo reciente[5], se report una significativa variacin en la constante de estructura fina. Intentos de unificar las cuatro interacciones fundamentales dieron como resultado teoras con mltiples dimensiones como las teoras de Kaluza-Klein y teoras de supercuerdas. Estas teoras proporcionan un marco terico natural para el estudio de la variacin temporal de las constantes fundamentales. A su vez, un modelo sencillo para estudiar la variacin de la constante de estructura fina, fue propuesto en [8], a partir de premisas muy generales como ser covarianza, invarianza de gauge, causalidad y invarianza ante reversiones temporales en el electromagnetismo. Diferentes versiones de las teoras antes mencionadas coinciden en predecir variaciones temporales de las constantes fundamentales pero difieren en la forma de esta variacin[9][10]. De esta manera, las restricciones establecidas experimentalmente sobre la variacin de las constantes fundamentales pueden ser una herramienta importante para testear estas diferentes teoras. En este trabajo, utilizamos las cotas provenientes de diversas tcnicas experimentales, para testear si las mismas son consistentes con alguna de las teoras antes mencionadas. En particular, establecemos cotas sobre la variacin de los parmentros libres de las diferentes teoras como por ejemplo el radio de las dimensiones extras en las teoras tipo Kaluza-Klein.

  17. Towards an organic palaeosalinity proxy: the effect of salinity, growth rate and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones produced by haptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivall, David; M'Boule, Daniela; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damst, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2013-04-01

    Palaeosalinity is one of the most important oceanographic parameters which currently cannot be quantified with reasonable accuracy from sedimentary records. Schouten et al.1 established that the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between growth water and alkenones produced by the haptophyte algae Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica is salinity dependent. As such, the ?D values of alkenones recovered from sediment cores can be used to reconstruct variations in palaeo- sea surface salinity.2 However, to accurately determine absolute palaeosalinity requires a better constraining of the relationship between this hydrogen fractionation, salinity and other parameters such as growth rate and growth phase. Here, we present results from our ongoing work to constrain the relationship between the fractionation factor ?alkenone-water, salinity, growth rate and growth phase for the major alkenone-producing haptophytes. In batch cultures of different strains of the open-ocean haptophyte E. huxleyi sampled during the exponential growth phase, ?C37alkenone-growthwater increases by between 0.0022 and 0.0033 per unit increase in salinity. A similar relationship is observed in batch cultures of the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana, where ? increases with each unit of salinity by 0.0019 - slightly less than for E. huxleyi. However, absolute ?C37alkenone-growthwater values vary strongly between species suggesting that species composition has a strong impact on the ?D value of alkenones. The fractionation factor for alkenones produced by batch cultures of I. galbana is affected by growth phase: the rate of change of ?C37alkenone-growthwater with each unit of salinity decreases from 0.0019 in the exponential phase to 0.0010 during the stationary phase. We also show the effect of varying growth rate over the range 0.2-0.8 day-1 on the fractionation factor for alkenones produced by E. huxleyi grown in continuous culture. These data show that alkenone ?D can be used to reconstruct relative shifts in palaeosalinity in coastal as well as open ocean environments; however, for absolute salinity reconstructions changes in species composition, growth rate and growth phase effects will have to be constrained. References 1. Schouten, S., Ossebaar, J., Schreiber, K., Kienhuis, M. V. M., Langer, G., Benthien, A., Bijma, J. Biogeosciences 3, 113, 2006 2. van der Meer, M. T. J., Baas, M., Rijpstra, W. I. C., Marino, G., Rohling, E. J., Sinninghe Damst, J S., Schouten, S., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 262, 594, 2007

  18. Remote sensing of plant emissions of volatile isoprenoids with PRI. Prospects for upscaling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuelas, J.

    2013-12-01

    Josep Peuelas*1,2, Giovanni Marino1,2,3,4, Joan LLusia1,2, Catherine Morfopoulos1,2,5, Gerard Farre-Armengol1,2, Shawn Kefauver, Alex Guenther6 , Francesca Rapparini7 , Roger Seco1,2,6, Marc Estiarte1,2, Mnica Mejia-Chang1,2, Rom Ogaya1,2, Jordi Sardans1,2 , Andrew Turnipseed6, Peter Harley6, Osvaldo Facini7, Rita Baraldi7, Jim Greenberg6 , Iolanda Filella1,2 1 CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-UAB, Cerdanyola del Valls 08193, Catalonia, Spain 2 CREAF, Cerdanyola del Valls 08193, Catalonia, Spain 3 Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Universit degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (IS), Italy 4 Institute for Plant Protection, National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy 5 Division of Ecology and Evolution, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK 6 Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA 7 Biometeorology Institute, IBIMET-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy Abstract Terrestrial plants re-emit around 1-2% of the carbon they fix as isoprene and monoterpenes. These emissions play major roles in the ecological relationships among living organisms and in atmospheric chemistry and climate, and yet their actual quantification at the ecosystem level in different regions is far from being resolved. Phenomenological models are used to estimate the emission rates, but the limited understanding of the function and regulation of these emissions leads to large uncertainties in such estimations. Many measurements have been made at the foliar but few at the ecosystem level, and those that do exist are limited in space and time. We here provide evidence that a simple remote sensing index, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which is indicative of light use efficiency (LUE), is a good indirect estimator of foliar isoprenoid emissions and therefore can be used to sense them remotely. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sense techniques of vegetation in order to track isoprenoid emissions at larger scales. At ecosystemic scale, in a field measurement campaign in NE Iberian peninsula, PRI estimations fitted well both with MEGAN modelled data and with satellite data assessing formaldehyde as oxidation product of isoprenoids. On the other hand, our study shows the potential of this PRI technique to validate the availability of photosynthetic reducing power as a factor involved in isoprenoid production.

  19. Mineral Dust Elemental Composition Over the Last 220 Kyr from the EPICA-Dome C ice core (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, F.; Maggi, V.; Delmonte, B.; Ghermandi, G.; Petit, J.; Hinkley, T. K.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral windblown aerosol (dust) represents a small fraction of the total mass of atmospheric aerosols. However, it may play an important role in climate and, in turn, it is itself sensitive to climatic changes. The investigation of the temporal variability of dust flux as well as the changes of its mineralogical composition within different climatic periods offers a unique way of assessing the source-related environmental changes, the variation in atmospheric circulation, and the potential influence of dust on biogeochemical cycles, for several key elements (such as Si and Fe). The mineral composition of dust found in ice cores is still poorly known, because few techniques are able to provide information on the chemical composition of the insoluble aerosol fraction, because of the very low mass of dust usually present in polar ice samples. Total volume of mineral content is provided by Coulter Counter measurements, and the dust record shows higher dust input during glacial periods than during interglacials (Delmonte et al., 2004). Sr and Nd isotopic tracers for identification of dust provenance to East Antarctica suggest southern South America as the dominant common source for dust in glacial periods of the late Pleistocene (Delmonte et al., 2004), whereas dust provenance during interglacials periods is still highly uncertain. Elemental composition of mineral dust from the Dome C ice core (75 06' S, 123 21' E) drilled in the framework of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) is presented, showing measurements obtained by the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique applied on insoluble atmospheric dust in ice cores. Within this work, substantial improvements to the experimental set-up and data processing have been made, compared to previously presented works on the first 2200 m of the EDC ice core, corresponding to about 220 kyr of climatic history (Marino et al., 2004; Ghermandi et al., 2003). The PIXE technique, based on X-ray spectrometry, allows direct measurements on filters of the insoluble dust fraction without sample pre-treatment, with analytical detection limits less than 1 ppb. The minimum required mass density of sample material on the filter is about 0.1 microg cm-2. Improvements made here allowed us to obtain accurate records of 8 major and minor crustal elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, Na). The data for these 8 elements, as well as their proportions as oxides, are shown for different climatic periods. Because O, Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, Na are the principal constituents (99.90 %) of the Earth's Continental Crust, a comparison with literature data can reveal changes in relative elemental abundances, and hence variable composition of dust under different climatic conditions.

  20. Tracing Aeolian dust provenance at Talos Dome (East Antarctica): local versus remote sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, B.; Andersson, P. S.; Hansson, M.; Petit, J. R.; Frezzotti, M.; Maggi, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Strontium and Neodymium isotopic composition of Aeolian mineral dust is a robust method for mineral dust source tracing. Over the last decade, efforts have been put on the reconstruction of Aeolian dust provenance onto the interior of East Antarctica. These works have been carried out in parallel on both (1) ice core samples and (2) on target samples from the Potential Souce regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Results from Vostok, EPICA-Dome C and other sites from the interior of Antarctica, and comparison with results from potential sources suggested an overall uniform geographic provenance for dust during glacial periods over the last 800.000 years, likely from southern South America (SSA), and different dust source(s) during interglacials. These evidence have been then corroborated by several complementary studies based on dust elemental composition (e.g. Marino et al., 2008), on dust magnetic properties (e.g. Lanci et al., 2008) and dust mineralogical composition (Sala, 2009). Today, a new deep ice core has been drilled in Talos dome (7248'S, 15906'E) in the framework of the TALos Dome ICE core drilling project (TALDICE). The site is located on the edge of the East Antarctic Plateau on the opposite side with respect to south America. A preliminary dust concentration and size profile for the TALDICE ice core is available today, and according to preliminary dating it spans about 250 kyrs. Comparison with EDC shows striking similarities for the oldest part of the record and until the deglaciation, but some slight differences arise during the ACR and the beginning of the Holocene. Preliminary results on dust Strontium and Neodymium isotopic fingerprint of TALDICE dust are available. Interestingly the isotopic composition of TALDICE glacial dust is remarkably similar to that obtained from ice core dust samples of similar age from sites located in the East Antarctic interior. Results will be presented and compared with new data from (I) local Antarctic dust sources and (II) from continental areas of the Southern Hemisphere.

  1. Hepatitis B: vaccination programmes in Europe--an update.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, P

    2001-03-21

    In the eight years since the Global Advisory Group of the Expanded Program on Immunisation set 1997 as the target for integrating hepatitis B (HB) vaccination into national immunisation programs world-wide, more than 116 countries have included HB vaccine as part of their routine infant or adolescent immunisation programs. Meanwhile, many countries have performed economic evaluation studies, while others have initiated sero-epidemiological studies to generate input data for burden of disease calculation. These studies have indicated that epidemiological and economic arguments cannot be used to delay the implementation of universal hepatitis B vaccination. Some countries have improved their surveillance system and included viral hepatitis in the surveillance programs. Other have put hepatitis B vaccination on the political agenda. By the year 2000, following countries of the WHO European Region (51 countries) have implemented a universal hepatitis B immunisation programme: Andorra, Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, parts of the Russian Federation, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, San Marino, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and Uzbekistan. The Netherlands and some other European countries are seriously studying the issues or are making budgetary provisions for introduction of HB vaccine into their vaccination programme. Most of the European countries, which now use the vaccine routinely, have started with adolescent or infant immunisation. Belgium (1999), France (1994) and Italy (1991) have begun with both adolescent and infant HB immunisation. France continues since 1st October 1998 with the infant immunisation programme only. The rewards of effective implementation of the programmes in these countries are becoming apparent; and their success offers an exemplary model for other countries. The deadline was 1997. Globally, work still remains to be done to support and implement interventions that will bring us closer to the WHO goal and to control, eliminate and eradicate hepatitis B in the coming generations at large. If all the 145 million infants born in 1991 had been vaccinated in this way, the number of chronic carriers would have been reduced by 7.5 million, and 1.8 million deaths prevented. PMID:11257363

  2. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2009-07-10

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O?Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.; July 10, 2009; LBNL-2260E; ACC0524

  3. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educacin en Astronoma en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memrias da Educao em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artculo una retrospectiva histrica referente a datos provenientes de la investigacin en enseanza de la astronoma en el Brasil, despus de 1973, organizada sobre la base del anlisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y tambin en la lectura de las publicaciones en las reas de Enseanza de las Ciencias, Fsica y Astronoma. Este repaso histrico se desarroll con el fin de facilitar la comprensin de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intent recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigacin en Educacin en Astronoma en el pas. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histrica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educao em Astronomia no pas, ps 1973, organizada com base na anlise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referncias nacionais nesse campo, como tambm na leitura de publicaes das reas de ensino de Cincias, Fsica e Astronomia. Tal panorama histrico foi desenvolvido com o intuito de favorecer nossa compreenso sobre os contextos nos quais os pesquisadores entrevistados se desenvolveram profissionalmente. Ademais, buscou-se recobrar a memria do crescente campo de pesquisa em Educao em Astronomia no pas. Entendemos que o histrico apresentado possa contribuir para com os que buscam entender o passado na tentativa de solucionar demandas atuais e futuras.

  4. Aceptabilidad del diagnstico rpido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Baln, Ivn C.; Carballo-Diguez, Alex; Marone, Rubn O.; Pando, Mara A.; Barreda, Victoria; vila, Mara M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnstico rpido para HIV en Argentina, as como otros pases de Latinoamrica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relacin al diagnstico rpido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discuti acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnsticos rpidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para anlisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnstico rpido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En trminos generales se observ una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnstico rpido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  5. Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y charactersticas sociodemogrficas en la poblacin Latina

    PubMed Central

    Jimnez-Castro, Lorena; Ravents-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-01-01

    El inters por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramticos en el curso clnico del trastorno psictico tales como: mayores recadas, re-hospitalizaciones, sntomas ms severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsictico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideacin suicida, as como alteraciones en otras reas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimizacin, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, as como sus caractersticas sociodemogrficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando nfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la poblacin latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demogrficos, clnicos y otras caractersticas de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnstico permitira mejorar los mtodos para la deteccin y adecuada valoracin del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia. PMID:21404151

  6. Aceptabilidad del diagnstico rpido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Baln, Ivn C; Carballo-Diguez, Alex; Marone, Rubn O; Pando, Mara A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, Mara M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnstico rpido para HIV en Argentina, as como otros pases de Latinoamrica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relacin al diagnstico rpido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discuti acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnsticos rpidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para anlisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnstico rpido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En trminos generales se observ una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnstico rpido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  7. Aquifer/aquitard interfaces: mixing zones that enhance biogeochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    Several important biogeochemical reactions are known to occur near the interface between aquifer and aquitard sediments. These reactions include O2 reduction; denitrification; and Fe3+, SO42-, and CO2 (methanogenesis) reduction. In some settings, these reactions occur on the aquitard side of the interface as electron acceptors move from the aquifer into the electron-donor-enriched aquitard. In other settings, these reactions occur on the aquifer side of the interface as electron donors move from the aquitard into the electron-acceptor-enriched, or microorganism-enriched, aquifer. Thus, the aquifer/aquitard interface represents a mixing zone capable of supporting greater microbial activity than either hydrogeologic unit alone. The extent to which biogeochemical reactions proceed in the mixing zone and the width of the mixing zone depend on several factors, including the abundance and solubility of electron acceptors and donors on either side of the interface and the rate at which electron acceptors and donors react and move across the interface. Biogeochemical reactions near the aquifer/aquitard interface can have a substantial influence on the chemistry of water in aquifers and on the chemistry of sediments near the interface. Rsum. Il se produit au voisinage de l'interface entre les aquifres et les impermables plusieurs ractions biogochimiques importantes. Il s'agit des ractions de rduction de l'oxygne, de la dnitrification et de la rduction de Fe3+, SO42- et CO2 (mthanogense). Dans certaines situations, ces ractions se produisent du ct impermable de l'interface, avec des accepteurs d'lectrons qui vont de l'aquifre vers l'impermable riche en donneurs d'lectrons. Dans d'autres situations, ces ractions se produisent du ct aquifre de l'interface, avec des donneurs d'lectrons qui se dplacent de l'impermable vers l'aquifre riche en accepteurs d'lectrons ou en microorganismes. Ainsi, l'interface aquifre/impermable constitue une zone de mlange capable de supporter une plus grande activit microbienne que chacune des deux units hydrogologiques seules. L'extension des ractions biogochimiques dans la zone de mlange et la largeur de cette zone dpendent de plusieurs facteurs, dont l'abondance et la solubilit des accepteurs et des donneurs d'lectrons de chaque ct de l'interface, et le taux de raction et de dplacement des accepteurs et des donneurs d'lectrons au travers de cette interface. Les ractions biogochimiques au voisinage de l'interface aquifre/impermable peuvent avoir une influence apprciable sur le chimisme de l'eau des aquifres et sur celui des sdiments au niveau de l'interface. Resmen. Es conocido que varias reacciones biogeoqumicas de importancia pueden tener lugar cerca de la interfaz entre los sedimentos de un acufero y de un acuitardo. Entre ellas, destaca la reduccin del O2, la denitrificacin, y la reduccin del Fe+3, SO4-2 y CO2 (metanognesis). En algunos casos, estas reacciones se producen en la regin cercana al acuitardo, ya que los dadores de electrones se mueven desde ste hacia el acufero, el cual est enriquecido en aceptores de electrones o en microorganismos. As, la interfaz acufero/acuitardo constituye una zona de mezcla que es capaz de sustentar una actividad microbiana mayor que cualquier unidad hidrogeolgica por s misma. El alcance de las reacciones biogeoqumicas en la zona de mezcla y el ancho de esta zona de mezcla depende de varios factores, como la abundancia y la solubilidad de los aceptores y dadores de electrones en ambas caras de la interfaz y la velocidad a la que los aceptores y dadores de electrones reaccionan y se mueven a travs de la interfaz. Las reacciones biogeoqumicas cerca de la interfaz acufero/acuitardo pueden tener una influencia substancial en la hidroqumica de los acuferos y en la qumica de los sedimentos cerca de la superficie.

  8. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation of monuments. For example, insurance, tourism and real estate companies are also interested in evaluating how buildings and land-use have changed over time. Context: Central to making decisions concerning the preservation of patrimony is the practical issue of monitoring material change over time. Is an intervention effective? Should a sculpture be moved indoors or a structure sheltered? Efficiently measuring changes in heritage materials is a significant scientific and logistical challenge to preserving our cultural legacy in stone. Conservation professionals in charge of the long-term survival of material cultural heritage need to know how fast and why these materials change. With a baseline in place, decisions regarding resource allocation and conservation interventions can more readily be made from a basis of scientific understanding. Lacking a baseline, it can be difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate the effectiveness of a preservation intervention or treatment.

  9. Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil deposits in the petroleum-rich sediments of the Santa Elena Peninsula in southwestern Ecuador contain some of the largest and best-preserved assemblages of Pleistocene megafaunal remains known from the neotropics, and thus represent an opportunity to greatly expand our knowledge of Pleistocene paleoecology and the extinction of Quaternary megafauna in this region. This paper reports data from excavations at Tanque Loma, a late-Pleistocene locality on the Santa Elena Peninsula that preserves a dense assemblage of megafaunal remains in hydrocarbon-saturated sediments along with microfaunal and paleobotanical material. The megafauna bones are concentrated in and just above a ?0.5m thick asphaltic layer, but occur sparsely and with poorer preservation up to 1m above this deposit. Several meters of presumed-Holocene sediments overlying the megafauna-bearing strata are rich in bones of microvertebrates including birds, squamates, and rodents. These are interpreted as raptor assemblages. While over 1000 megafaunal bones have been identified from the Pleistocene strata at Tanque Loma, more than 85% of these remains pertain to a single species, the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi. Only five other megafauna taxa have been identified from this site, including Glossotherium cf. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaeelenae, and a cervid tentatively assigned to cf. Odocoileus salinae based on body size and geography. No carnivores have yet been identified from Tanque Loma, and microvertebrate remains are extremely rare in the Pleistocene deposits, although terrestrial snail shells and fragmented remains of marine invertebrates are occasionally encountered. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates on Eremotherium and cf. Notiomaston bones from within and just above the asphaltic layer yielded dates of ?17,000 - 23,500 radiocarbon years BP. Taken together, the taxonomic composition, taphonomy, geologic context, and sedimentology of Tanque Loma suggest that this site represents a bone bed assemblage in a heavily vegetated, low-energy riparian environment with secondary infiltration of asphalt that helped to preserve the bones. The predominance of Eremotherium fossils at this site indicate that it may have been an area where these animals congregated, suggesting possible gregarious behavior in this taxon. The radiocarbon dates so far obtained on extinct taxa at Tanque Loma are consistent with a model positing earlier extinctions of megafauna in tropical South America than of related taxa further south on the continent, although this pattern may be an artifact of low sampling in the region. xml:lang="es" Aunque ms de 1.000 huesos de megafauna han sido identificados en los estratos del Pleistoceno en Tanque Loma, ms del 85% de esos mismos pertenecen a una sola especie, el perezoso gigante Eremotherium laurillardi. Sin embargo, otros cinco taxones de megafauna han sido recuperados de este sitio, los cuales son: Glossotherium cf. G. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaelenae y un crvido identificado tentativamente en base a tamao y geografa como cf. Odocoileus salinae. Ningn carnvoro ha sido identificado an en Tanque Loma, y los restos de microvertebrados son muy raros en los estratos del Pleistoceno, aunque las conchas de caracol terrestre y los restos fragmentados de invertebrados marinos son encontrados ocasionalmente dentro de esas capas. Los fechados de radiocarbono por espectrmetro de acelerador de masas (AMS) en huesos de Eremotherium y cf. Notiomastodon de la capa de asfalto y por encima de esta resultaron en ?17,000-23,500 aos radiocarbnicos AP. En conjunto, la tafonoma, la composicin taxonmica, el contexto geolgico, y la sedimentolga del sitio Tanque Loma surgieren que esta localidad representa un yacimiento depositado en un ambiente ribereo con bajo flujo y vegetacin densa, con infiltraciones secundarias de asfalto lo que ayud a preserv

  10. Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez, Jon Paul; Rodrguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Smith, Tammy; Spalding, Mark; Taber, Andrew; Walpole, Matt; Zager, Irene; Zamin, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The potential for conservation of individual species has been greatly advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) development of objective, repeatable, and transparent criteria for assessing extinction risk that explicitly separate risk assessment from priority setting. At the IV World Conservation Congress in 2008, the process began to develop and implement comparable global standards for ecosystems. A working group established by the IUCN has begun formulating a system of quantitative categories and criteria, analogous to those used for species, for assigning levels of threat to ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels. A final system will require definitions of ecosystems; quantification of ecosystem status; identification of the stages of degradation and loss of ecosystems; proxy measures of risk (criteria); classification thresholds for these criteria; and standardized methods for performing assessments. The system will need to reflect the degree and rate of change in an ecosystem's extent, composition, structure, and function, and have its conceptual roots in ecological theory and empirical research. On the basis of these requirements and the hypothesis that ecosystem risk is a function of the risk of its component species, we propose a set of four criteria: recent declines in distribution or ecological function, historical total loss in distribution or ecological function, small distribution combined with decline, or very small distribution. Most work has focused on terrestrial ecosystems, but comparable thresholds and criteria for freshwater and marine ecosystems are also needed. These are the first steps in an international consultation process that will lead to a unified proposal to be presented at the next World Conservation Congress in 2012. Establecimiento de Criterios para la Lista Roja de UICN de Ecosistemas Amenazados Resumen El potencial para la conservacin de muchas especies ha avanzado enormemente porque la Unin Internacional para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza (UICN) ha desarrollado criterios objetivos, repetibles y transparentes para evaluar el riesgo de extincin que explcitamente separa la evaluacin de riesgo de la definicin de prioridades. En el IV Congreso Mundial de Conservacin en 2008, el proceso comenz a desarrollar e implementar estndares globales comparables para ecosistemas. Un grupo de trabajo establecido por la UICN ha formulado un sistema inicial de categoras y criterios cuantitativos, anlogos a los utilizados para especies, para asignar niveles de amenaza a ecosistemas a niveles local, regional y global. Un sistema final requerir de definiciones de ecosistemas; cuantificacin del estatus de ecosistemas; identificacin de las etapas de degradacin y prdida de los ecosistemas; medidas de riesgo (criterios) alternativas; umbrales de clasificacin para esos criterios y mtodos estandarizados para la realizacin de evaluaciones. El sistema deber reflejar el nivel y tasa de cambio en la extensin, composicin, estructura y funcionamiento de un ecosistema, y tener sus races conceptuales en la teora ecolgica y la investigacin emprica. Sobre la base de esos requerimientos y la hiptesis de que el riesgo del ecosistema es una funcin del riesgo de las especies que lo componen, proponemos un conjunto de 4 criterios: declinaciones recientes en la distribucin o funcionamiento ecolgica, prdida total histrica en la distribucin o funcionamiento ecolgico, distribucin pequea combinada con declinacin, o distribucin muy pequea. La mayor parte del trabajo se ha concentrado en ecosistemas terrestres, pero tambin se requieren umbrales y criterios comparables para ecosistemas dulceacucolas y marinos. Estos son los primeros pasos de un proceso de consulta internacional que llevar a una propuesta unificada que será

  11. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2001-09-24

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. B?hler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O?Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh; September 24, 2001; LBNL--50719; ACC0523

  12. Las fulguraciones como manifestacin de reconexin en el campo magntico solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagal, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Dmoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenmenos transitorios de liberacin de energa que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagntico, y acelerar partculas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicacin de los abrillantamientos en H? de diversas fulguraciones est relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las lneas del campo magntico de la regin, como se espera por las teoras de reconexin en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Dmoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magntico coronal se extrapola del campo fotosfrico observado suponiendo una configuracin libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drstico en la conectividad de las lneas de campo (lmites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magntico se reconectar con ms probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producir allla liberacin de energa proveniente del campo magntico. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Dmoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en H?. Alldonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, stas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las lneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orgenes fotosfricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexin magntica en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  13. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamund, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rio Nhamund is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamund, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamund um rio de gua clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em territrio brasileiro. Nesse estudo, ns reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunstico preliminar dessa rea, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Ns identificamos um total de 36 espcies (31 gneros, sete famlias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espcies j conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rpidos podem gerar informaes importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amaznicos, sugerindo potenciais espcies novas, ampliando a rea de distribuio de espcies, alm de apontar a necessidade de revises taxonmicas e estudos genticos para alguns taxa. Para alm das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espcimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padro de colorao dos espcimes vivos, informaes essas que sero de valor inestimvel para futuros estudos que abordem grupos taxonmicos difceis. PMID:25977611

  14. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamund, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamund is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamund, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamund um rio de gua clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em territrio brasileiro. Nesse estudo, ns reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunstico preliminar dessa rea, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Ns identificamos um total de 36 espcies (31 gneros, sete famlias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espcies j conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rpidos podem gerar informaes importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amaznicos, sugerindo potenciais espcies novas, ampliando a rea de distribuio de espcies, alm de apontar a necessidade de revises taxonmicas e estudos genticos para alguns taxa. Para alm das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espcimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padro de colorao dos espcimes vivos, informaes essas que sero de valor inestimvel para futuros estudos que abordem grupos taxonmicos difceis. PMID:25977611

  15. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseanza de la Astronoma y la Formacin Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educao EM Astronomia E Formao Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artculo se describe cmo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despert el inters cientfico en los estudiantes mediante un fenmeno astronmico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y despus del eclipse, reuniones para la formacin continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronoma, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenmeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participacin de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura cientfica y la motivacin para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: cientficos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse cientfico utilizando um fenmeno natural astronmico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formao continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importncia das observaes de fenmenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenmeno, alm do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam para caminhos que podem proporcionar a motivao e a cultura cientfica, atravs de aproximaes entre as comunidades cientfica, amadora e escolar.

  16. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Rsum Les informations sur la texture des sdiments et leur continuit spatiale font partie des descriptions de facis sdimentaires de dpt. Par consquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prdicteurs potentiels des variations spatiales de la conductivit hydraulique (K). L'analyse de l'htrognit des alluvions complexes de la valle de Livermore (Californie, tats-Unis), sur la base de descriptions de carottes relativement nombreuses et de donnes d'essais de pompage, montre que l'htrognit souterraine peut tre caractrise par une approche des facis de dpt. Des classifications conventionnelles de la texture de la carotte montrent une corrlation mdiocre avec K; toutefois, une amlioration ultrieure des classifications de texture en facis de dpt de chenal, de leve d'inondation, de coule boueuse et de plaine d'inondation a fourni un cadre systmatique pour une modlisation spatiale de K. Ce cadre gologique montre que le systme est compos pour l'essentiel par des matriaux d'inondation trs faible permabilit ceci laisse envisager qu'on ne peut pas supposer que K suit une distribution log-normal, sauf peut-tre l'intrieur de chaque facis. Une modlisation par chane de Markov de la probabilit de passage, reprsentant la corrlation spatiale dans les facis et entre eux, prend en compte les faits gologiques intressants tout en fournissant une approche nouvelle pour une caractrisation statistique de la variabilit spatiale des facis. La prsence de squences facis tronqus vers le haut, d'une corrlation croise entre facis, ainsi que d'autres caractres gologiques pris en compte par les chanes de Markov conduisent se poser des questions sur l'adquation des approches gostatistiques conventionnelles utilisant les variogrammes ou les covariances pour modliser l'htrognit gologique. Resumen La informacin respecto a la textura de los sedimentos y la continuidad espacial es inherente a las descripciones de las facies deposicionales sedimentarias. De este modo, estas descripciones se convierten en excelentes predictores potenciales de las variaciones espaciales de la conductividad hidrulica (K). El anlisis de la heterogeneidad en un aluvial en el Valle de L

  17. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

  18. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    And, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malus, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; And et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; And et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins adjacent to orogenic systems, Raman-assisted heavy-mineral studies allow us to detect the first arrival of eclogitic garnet, and thus to assess the minimum age of exhumation and final unroofing of high-pressure rocks (Malus et al., 2011; Malus and Garzanti, 2012). However, in the (U)HP terrane of southeastern Papua New Guinea, sediments derived from the actively exhuming D'Entrecasteaux Island core complexes are still being deposited offshore, are rarely preserved sub-aerially, and as such stratigraphic constraints are limited. Raman analysis of detrital garnets from placer sand thus provides invaluable constraints to compare with mineral assemblages preserved in exhumed eclogites. REFERENCES And S., Bersani D., Vignola P., Garzanti E. 2009. Raman spectroscopy as an effective tool for high-resolution heavy-mineral analysis: Examples from major Himalayan and Alpine fluvio-deltaic systems. Spectrochim. Acta A73:450-455. And S., Morton A., Garzanti E. 2013. Metamorphic grade of source rocks revealed by chemical fingerprints of detrital amphibole and garnet. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. Sediment Provenance Studies in Hydrocarbon Exploration & Production. Baldwin S.L., Monteleone B., Webb L.E., Fitzgerald P.G., Grove M., Hill E.J. 2004. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea. Nature 431:263-267. Baldwin S.L., Webb L.E., Monteleone B.D. 2008. Late Miocene coesite-eclogite exhumed in the Woodlark Rift. Geology 36:735-738 Bersani D., And S., Vignola P., Moltifiori G., Marino I.G., Lottici P.P., Diella V., 2009. Micro-Raman spectroscopy as a routine tool for garnet analysis. Spectrochim. Acta A73:484-491. Hill E.J., Baldwin S.L. 1993. Exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks during crustal extension in the D'Entrecasteaux region, Papua New Guinea. J. Metam. Geol. 11:261-277. Malus M.G., Faccenna C., Garzanti E., Polino R. 2011. Divergence in subduction zones and exhumation of high-pressure rocks (Eocene Western Alps). Earth Pl. Sci. Lett. 310:21-32. Malus M.G., Garzanti E. 2012. Actualistic snapshot o

  19. Accuracy of CFC groundwater dating in a crystalline bedrock aquifer: Data from a site in southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockgrd, Niclas; Rodhe, Allan; Olsson, K. A.

    The concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) and tritium were determined in groundwater in fractured crystalline bedrock at Finnsjn, Sweden. The specific goal was to investigate the accuracy of CFC dating in such an environment, taking potential degradation and mixing of water into consideration. The water was sampled to a depth of 42 m in three boreholes along an 800-m transect, from a recharge area to a local discharge area. The CFC-113 concentration was at the detection limit in most samples. The apparent recharge date obtained from CFC-11 was earlier than from CFC-12 for all samples, with a difference of over 20 years for some samples. The difference was probably caused by degradation of CFC-11. The CFC-12 dating of the samples ranged from before 1945 to 1975, with the exception of a sample from the water table, which had a present-day concentration. Conclusions about flow paths or groundwater velocity could not be drawn from the CFCs. The comparison between CFC-12 and tritium concentrations showed that most samples could be unmixed or mixtures of waters with different ages, and the binary mixtures that matched the measured concentrations were determined. The mixing model approach can be extended with additional tracers. Prcision de la datation au CFC dans un aquifre rocheux-fractur: donnes d'un site du sud de la Sude. Les concentrations en chlorofluorocarbones (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) et entritium ont t dtermines dans l'eau souterraine d'un massif fractur Finnsjn en Sude. Le but de cette tude est de mieux cerner la prcision de la mthode de datation au CFC dans ce type d'environnement hydrogologique, tout en considrant d'ventuels phnomnes de dgradation et de mlange d'eaux. L'eau a t chantillonne une profondeur de 42 mtres dans trois forages aligns sur 800 mtres entre une zone de recharge et une zone de dversement. Les concentrations en CFC-113 sont dans la plupart des chantillons la limite de dtection. Pour tous les chantillons, la date de la recharge tablie avec le CFC-11 est antrieure la date tablie avec le CFC-12. La diffrence entre les deux dates peut dpasser 20 ans et s'explique-probablement-par la dgradation du CFC-11. Les dates de recharge de la nappe mesures au CFC-12 sont comprises entre 1945 et 1975, except pour un chantillon qui possde une concentration actuelle. Il n'est pas possible de tirer des conclusions concernant la direction des coulements et la vitesse de l'eau souterraine. La comparaison entre CFC-12 et tritium montre que des chantillons pourraient tre soit le rsultat du mlange d'eaux d'ges diffrents, soit des chantillons non-mlangs. Dans le cas d'un mlange binaire, les rapports du mlange composant la concentration mesure sont dtermins. L'approche par modle de mlange peut tre tendue des traceurs additionnels. Precisin en la datacin de aguas subterrneas utilizando CFC en un acufero de rocas cristalinas: datos provenientes de un sitio al sur de Suecia. Se determinaron las concentraciones de clorofluorucarbonos (CFC-11, CFC-12, y CFC-113) y de tritio en aguas subterrneas alojadas en rocas cristalinas fracturadas de Finnsjn, Suecia. El objetivo especfico consisti en investigar la precisin de la datacin de aguas subterrneas con CFC en este tipo de ambiente, tomando en consideracin la degradacin potencial y la mezcla de agua. Las muestras de agua se tomaron a una profundidad de 42 m en tres pozos ubicados a lo largo de una lnea de 800 m transversal a una zona de recarga y de zona de descarga local. En la mayora de las muestras se encontr que la concentracin de CFC-113 estuvo en el lmite de deteccin. La edad que se estim en todas las muestras para la recarga aparente en base a CFC-11 fue ms joven que la edad proveniente de CFC-12, con una diferencia de ms de 20 aos para algunas muestras. Esta diferencia fue causada probablemente por la degradacin del CFC-11. La datacin CFC-12 de las muest

  20. A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. Rsum. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une paisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste rgion faible permabilit. Le modle conceptuel conventionnel pour la prsence d'eau souterraine Hawaii et dans les autres les de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si paisse. Dans ce modle conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont forms la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes rgions relativement forte permabilit, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu paisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les sdiments constituent une rgion tendue faible conductivit hydraulique rgionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est sature presque jusqu' sa surface; les surfaces pizomtriques sont plusieurs centaines de mtres au-dessus du niveau de la mer quelques kilomtres de la cte. On pensait jusqu' prsent que des niveaux pizomtriques aussi levs dans des les de volcans en bouclier n'existaient que dans le cas de nappes perches ou de blocage par un dyke, mais dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, des niveaux pizomtriques levs existent dans un aquifre apparemment sans dyke et compltement satur. Un nouveau modle conceptuel de prsence d'eau souterraine dans les les de volcans en bouclier est ncessaire pour expliquer les conditions observes dans le sud du bassin de Lihue. Resumen. Se ha determinado la existencia de un espeso lentejn de aguas subterrneas dulces en una extensa regin de baja permeabilidad situada al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, en Kauai (Hawaii, Estados Unidos de Amrica). El modelo conceptual convencional de las aguas subterrneas en Hawai y en otros cinturones de islas volcnicas no considera la existencia de lentejones tan gruesos de agua dulce. En dicho modelo, las acumulaciones de flujos de lava que constituyen la mayora de los cinturones volcnicos se desarrollan en grandes reas de permeabilidad relativamente baja y con pequeos lentejones de agua dulce. En el sur de la cuenca de Lihue, las lavas de relleno y los sedimentos forman una regin extensa de baja conductividad hidrulica regional que, con el clima hmedo de la zona, est saturada hasta prcticamente la superficie del terreno, mientras que el nivel fretico se encuentra centenares de metros por encima del nivel del mar a pocos kilmetros de la lnea de costa. Se crea hasta ahora que, en los cinturones de islas volcnicas, tales niveles slo tenan lugar en acuferos colgados o en condiciones de confinamiento por diques, pero, al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, se dan en acuferos completamente saturados que no estn limitados por diques. Se necesita un nuevo modelo conceptual de las aguas subterrneas en cinturones de islas volcnicas para explicar las condiciones halladas en la cuenca meridional de Lihue.

  1. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determi

  2. Eventos de Desconexo no Cometa P/Halley sob a tica do Modelo de Reconexo Magntica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1998-08-01

    531 imagens contidas no The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (Brandt et al., 1992) cobrindo o perodo de setembro de 1985 a julho de 1986 foram analisadas visando identificar, caracterizar as propriedades e correlacionar estruturas morfolgicas da cauda de plasma do cometa P/Halley. A anlise revelou 47 eventos de desconexo (DEs) (Niedner & Brandt, 1979; Jockers, 1985; Celnik et al., 1988; Delva et al., 1991). A anlise completa de todas as imagens encontra-se publicada em Voelzke & Matsuura, 1998. A distribuio dos DEs na distncia heliocntrica apresenta um carter bimodal possivelmente associado com a distribuio espacial das fronteiras de setor magntico do meio interplanetrio. Os 47 DEs fotografados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram determinar 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o instante em que supostamente o cometa cruzou a fronteira entre setores magnticos do vento solar. Tais dados cometrios foram comparados com dados do vento solar provenientes de medidas realizadas in situ pelas sondas IMP-8, ICE e PVO, que mediram a variao da velocidade do vento solar, da densidade e da presso dinmica durante o intervalo analisado. Os dados destas sondas espaciais em conjunto com os da sonda Vega 1 foram usados para determinar o tempo das passagens do lenol de corrente. Com base nos dados das sondas foram calculadas as coordenadas heliogrficas retroativas do lenol de corrente na "superfcie fonte" dos mapas sinticos do campo magntico de Hoeksema, 1989. O clculo retroativo feito atravs de um modelo simples de expresso do vento solar com velocidade uniforme, sendo considerada a co-rotao da magnetosfera com o Sol. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados desta comparao e a anlise cinemtica da origem dos DEs, determinada sob a hiptese que o plasma desconectado de um dado DE afasta-se com velocidade constante do ncleo cometrio (Voelzke & Matsuura, 1998) e compara esta anlise com outras que determinam o tempo de desconexo a partir de um movimento linear constantemente acelerado (Yi et al., 1994). A velocidade de um DE para outro varia enormemente. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Rahe, J., (1992) The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (printed by: Johnson Printing Co., Boulder, CO), University of Colorado-Boulder. - Celnik, W.E., Koczet, P., Schlosser, W., Schulz, R., Svejda, P. and Weissbauer, K., (1988) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 72, 89. - Delva, M., Schwingenschuh, K., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Gringauz, K.I., (1991) Planet. Space Sci. 39, Number 5, 697. - Hoeksema, J.T., (1989) Adv. Space Res. 9, 141. - Jockers, K., (1985) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 62, 791. - Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Brandt, J.C., (1979) Astrophys. J. 234, 723. - Voelzke, M.R. and Matsuura, O.T., (1988) Planet. Space Sci. 46, 835. - Yi, Y., Caputo, M.F. and Brandt, J.C., (1994) Planet. Space Sci. 42, Number 9, 705.

  3. Caracterizacin espectroscpica de hielos de inters atmosfrico y astrofsico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, R.

    En aos recientes se ha incrementado el estudio de procesos fsicos y qumicos que tienen lugar en la superficie o el interior de hielos, tanto en medios astrofsicos como en la atmsfera terrestre y en otros cuerpos del sistema solar. Se ha comprobado que las partculas heladas actan como catalizadores de reacciones qumicas, que no ocurriran en su ausencia. En la atmsfera terrestre, es bien conocida la importancia de partculas de hidratos de cido ntrico, formando las llamadas nubes estratosfricas polares, en los procesos de destruccin de ozono estratosfrico. En hielos astrofsicos, tomos como H, C, N y O pueden adherirse o introducirse en la estructura cristalina o amorfa del hielo, y dar lugar a reacciones de formacin de molculas evitando su barrera de activacin. Existen partculas heladas en el medio interestelar formando parte de las llamadas nubes moleculares densas y fras, con valores del orden de 106 tomos de H por cm3 y temperaturas entre 3 y 90 K. Alrededor de protoestrellas, pueden formarse hielos de distinta composicin, polares o apolares, en las zonas de alejamiento y temperatura decreciente a partir del ncleo caliente. Por su parte, los cometas estn formados por un ncleo de hielo y rocas, sobre el que se encuentran adheridas molculas gaseosas, y una cola, formada por los gases liberados por efecto del calentamiento debido a la radiacin solar incidente. En nuestro sistema solar, los polos de La Tierra y de Marte estn cubiertos de hielo, as como la mayora de los cuerpos externos. Los satlites de Jpiter han sido estudiados detalladamente, y se han encontrado en ellos, y en Tritn (satlite de Neptuno), hielos de molculas como SON2, CO2, N2, CH4 y otros. Para la caracterizacin espectroscpica de estos hielos se precisan medidas en el laboratorio, an conociendo la imposibilidad intrnseca de reproducir exactamente las condiciones en que se formaron y se encuentran en los medios astrofsicos. El montaje experimental requiere un sistema que permita alcanzar bajas presiones y temperaturas, formado usualmente por una cmara en cuyo interior se forman pelculas de hielo de la composicin deseada, depositadas sobre un sustrato inerte. Las pelculas pueden ser a continuacin tratadas por diversas tcnicas, tales como irradiacin UV, bombardeo con electrones o iones, calentamiento y enfriamiento, etc. Habitualmente todos los procesos se controlan por espectroscopa de infrarrojo. La radiacin proveniente de un espectrmetro se hace incidir sobre la muestra y se extrae de la cmara mediante ventanas, y se enfoca posteriormente sobre el detector. En el laboratorio de Fsica Molecular del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia disponemos de un montaje experimental diseado para el estudio de partculas de hielo similares a las formadas en las nubes estratosfricas polares de nuestra atmsfera. El montaje es similar al descrito anteriormente, excepto en lo que se refiere a las condiciones de presin y temperatura, que son menos estrictas en nuestros experimentos. La extensin de estas condiciones de trabajo a las requeridas en medios astrofsicos es una posibilidad a discutir. Por otra parte, disponemos de un mtodo de clculo de estructuras peridicas, basado en el programa SIESTA (acrnimo de Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations of Thousands of Atoms), que ha proporcionado excelentes resultados en lo relativo a la determinacin de estructuras cristalinas y prediccin de su espectro infrarrojo, en los sistemas estudiados hasta la fecha, es decir, los hidratos de cido ntrico de inters atmosfricos. Su aplicacin para el estudio de hielos de relevancia astrofsica podra ser del mximo inters.

  4. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Ao: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnmon ao Longo de um Ano: Observaes Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estaes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paran. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educacin bsica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por ms cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educacin en astronoma. El trabajo que aqu se presenta propone la presentacin de los resultados de la observacin del movimiento aparente del sol a travs de la marcacin de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una divisin de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paran. El proyecto en s se llev a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo, al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Adems, se dictaron clases tericas en la sala de aula. Estos mtodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesin de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplic una evaluacin cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripcin del movimiento solar aparente y la aparicin de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronmicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepes alternativas so reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educao bsica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretaes. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abboda celeste uma tarefa necessria ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta prope a apresentao dos resultados da observao do movimento aparente do Sol por intermdio da marcao da sombra de um gnmon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paran. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas prximas do equincio de maro, do solstcio de junho, do equincio de setembro e do solstcio de dezembro. Alm disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas tericas em sala de aula. Tais mtodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentao aparente do Sol e da alternncia das estaes do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliao e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; descrio do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrncia das estaes do ano e sua alternncia a partir de observaes astronmicas a olho nu.