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Sample records for seebeck effect

  1. Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Ken-Ichi

    2013-03-01

    The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials. Here, a spin voltage is a potential for electron spins to drive a nonequilibrium spin current; when a conductor is attached to a magnet with a finite spin voltage, it induces a spin injection into the conductor. The SSE is of crucial importance in spintronics and spin caloritronics, since it enables simple and versatile generation of a spin current from heat. The simplest and most straightforward setup of the SSE is the longitudinal configuration, in which a spin current flowing parallel to a temperature gradient is measured via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The longitudinal SSE device consists of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic insulator (FI, e.g. YIG) covered with a paramagnetic metal (PM, e.g. Pt) film. When a temperature gradient is applied perpendicular to the FI/PM interface, an ISHE-induced voltage is generated in the PM layer. In this talk, we report the observation of the longitudinal SSE in various FI/PM systems and provide evidence that the longitudinal SSE is free from thermoelectric artefact, i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect caused by extrinsic magnetic proximity. Then, we discuss the longitudinal SSE from an application point of view. We thank E. Saitoh, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, X.-F. Jin, H. Adachi, D. Hou, D. Tian, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, and M. Ishida for their support and valuable discussions.

  2. Current heating induced spin Seebeck effect

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, Michael Roschewsky, Niklas; Dobler, Erich; Meyer, Sibylle; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf; Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching

    2013-12-09

    A measurement technique for the spin Seebeck effect is presented, wherein the normal metal layer used for its detection is exploited simultaneously as a resistive heater and thermometer. We show how the various contributions to the measured total signal can be disentangled, allowing to extract the voltage signal solely caused by the spin Seebeck effect. To this end, we performed measurements as a function of the external magnetic field strength and its orientation. We find that the effect scales linearly with the induced rise in temperature, as expected for the spin Seebeck effect.

  3. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect.

    PubMed

    Kehlberger, Andreas; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Guo, Er-Jia; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Onbasli, Mehmet C; Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline A; Jungfleisch, Matthias B; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50???m at room temperature and 50 K. Our results reveal a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found. PMID:26371671

  4. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehlberger, Andreas; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Guo, Er-Jia; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline A.; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50 ? m at room temperature and 50 K. Our results reveal a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found.

  5. Exciton Seebeck effect in molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun-An; Cai, Shaohong

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the exciton dynamics under temperature difference with the hierarchical equations of motion. Through a nonperturbative simulation of the transient absorption of a heterogeneous trimer model, we show that the temperature difference causes exciton population redistribution and affects the exciton transfer time. It is found that one can reproduce not only the exciton population redistribution but also the change of the exciton transfer time induced by the temperature difference with a proper tuning of the site energies of the aggregate. In this sense, there exists a site energy shift equivalence for any temperature difference in a broad range. This phenomenon is similar to the Seebeck effect as well as spin Seebeck effect and can be named as exciton Seebeck effect. PMID:25106568

  6. Time resolved spin Seebeck effect experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Roschewsky, Niklas Schreier, Michael; Schade, Felix; Ganzhorn, Kathrin; Meyer, Sibylle; Geprägs, Stephan; Kamra, Akashdeep; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2014-05-19

    In this Letter, we present the results of transient thermopower experiments, performed at room temperature on yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers. Upon application of a time-varying thermal gradient, we observe a characteristic low-pass frequency response of the ensuing thermopower voltage with cutoff frequencies of up to 37 MHz. We interpret our results in terms of the spin Seebeck effect, and argue that small wavevector magnons are of minor importance for the spin Seebeck effect in our thin film hybrid structures.

  7. Seebeck effect at the atomic scale.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui-Sup; Cho, Sanghee; Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-04-01

    The atomic variations of electronic wave functions at the surface and electron scattering near a defect have been detected unprecedentedly by tracing thermoelectric voltages given a temperature bias [Cho et al., Nat. Mater. 12, 913 (2013)]. Because thermoelectricity, or the Seebeck effect, is associated with heat-induced electron diffusion, how the thermoelectric signal is related to the atomic-scale wave functions and what the role of the temperature is at such a length scale remain very unclear. Here we show that coherent electron and heat transport through a pointlike contact produces an atomic Seebeck effect, which is described by the mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient multiplied by an effective temperature drop at the interface. The mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient is approximately proportional to the logarithmic energy derivative of local density of states at the Fermi energy. We deduced that the effective temperature drop at the tip-sample junction could vary at a subangstrom scale depending on atom-to-atom interaction at the interface. A computer-based simulation method of thermoelectric images is proposed, and a point defect in graphene was identified by comparing experiment and the simulation of thermoelectric imaging. PMID:24745445

  8. Simple Demonstration of the Seebeck Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molki, Arman

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple and low-cost experimental set-up through which science educators can demonstrate the Seebeck effect using a thermocouple and an instrumentation amplifier. The experiment can be set up and conducted during a 1-hour laboratory session. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  9. All-oxide spin Seebeck effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhiyong; Hou, Dazhi; Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    We report the observation of longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) in an all-oxide bilayer system comprising an IrO2 film and an Y3Fe5O12 film. Spin currents, which are generated by a temperature gradient across the IrO2/Y3Fe5O12 interface, were detected as a voltage via the inverse spin Hall effect in the conductive IrO2 layer. This voltage is proportional to the magnitude of the temperature gradient; its magnetic field dependence is consistent with the characteristics of LSSEs. This demonstration may lead to the realization of low-cost, stable, transparent spin-current-driven thermoelectric devices.

  10. Surface sensitivity of the spin Seebeck effect

    SciTech Connect

    Aqeel, A.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Wees, B. J. van; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2014-10-21

    We have investigated the influence of the interface quality on the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) of the bilayer system yttrium iron garnet (YIG)–platinum (Pt). The magnitude and shape of the SSE is strongly influenced by mechanical treatment of the YIG single crystal surface. We observe that the saturation magnetic field (H{sub sat}{sup SSE}) for the SSE signal increases from 55.3 mT to 72.8 mT with mechanical treatment. The change in the magnitude of H{sub sat}{sup SSE} can be attributed to the presence of a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to the treatment induced surface strain or shape anisotropy in the Pt/YIG system. Our results show that the SSE is a powerful tool to investigate magnetic anisotropy at the interface.

  11. Large Seebeck effect by charge-mobility engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peijie; Wei, Beipei; Zhang, Jiahao; Tomczak, Jan M.; Strydom, A.M.; Søndergaard, M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Steglich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Seebeck effect describes the generation of an electric potential in a conducting solid exposed to a temperature gradient. In most cases, it is dominated by an energy-dependent electronic density of states at the Fermi level, in line with the prevalent efforts towards superior thermoelectrics through the engineering of electronic structure. Here we demonstrate an alternative source for the Seebeck effect based on charge-carrier relaxation: a charge mobility that changes rapidly with temperature can result in a sizeable addition to the Seebeck coefficient. This new Seebeck source is demonstrated explicitly for Ni-doped CoSb3, where a marked mobility change occurs due to the crossover between two different charge-relaxation regimes. Our findings unveil the origin of pronounced features in the Seebeck coefficient of many other elusive materials characterized by a significant mobility mismatch. When utilized appropriately, this effect can also provide a novel route to the design of improved thermoelectric materials. PMID:26108283

  12. Giant Seebeck effect in pure fullerene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirotaka; Abe, Ryo; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Tomatsu, Yasuyuki; Fujiwara, Fumiya; Matsubara, Ryosuke; Yoshimoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Masakazu

    2015-12-01

    The small thermal conductivity of molecular solids is beneficial for their thermoelectric applications. If Seebeck coefficients were sufficiently large to compensate for the relatively small electrical conductivity, these materials would be promising candidates for thermoelectric devices. In this work, the thermoelectric properties of C60 were studied by in situ measurements under ultrahigh vacuum after the deposition of a pure C60 thin film. An exceptionally large Seebeck coefficient of more than 150 mV/K was observed as a steady-state thermoelectromotive force. Even considering several extreme but realistic conditions, conventional semiclassical thermoelectric theories cannot explain this giant Seebeck effect.

  13. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect contribution in transverse spin Seebeck effect experiments in Pt/YIG and Pt/NFO

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Daniel; Reinhardt, Daniel; van Straaten, Michael; Klewe, Christoph; Althammer, Matthias; Schreier, Michael; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gupta, Arunava; Schmid, Maximilian; Back, Christian H.; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Kuschel, Timo; Reiss, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The spin Seebeck effect, the generation of a spin current by a temperature gradient, has attracted great attention, but the interplay over a millimetre range along a thin ferromagnetic film as well as unintended side effects which hinder an unambiguous detection have evoked controversial discussions. Here, we investigate the inverse spin Hall voltage of a 10?nm thin Pt strip deposited on the magnetic insulators Y3Fe5O12 and NiFe2O4 with a temperature gradient in the film plane. We show characteristics typical of the spin Seebeck effect, although we do not observe the most striking features of the transverse spin Seebeck effect. Instead, we attribute the observed voltages to the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect generated by a contact tip induced parasitic out-of-plane temperature gradient, which depends on material, diameter and temperature of the tip. PMID:26394541

  14. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect contribution in transverse spin Seebeck effect experiments in Pt/YIG and Pt/NFO.

    PubMed

    Meier, Daniel; Reinhardt, Daniel; van Straaten, Michael; Klewe, Christoph; Althammer, Matthias; Schreier, Michael; Goennenwein, Sebastian T B; Gupta, Arunava; Schmid, Maximilian; Back, Christian H; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Kuschel, Timo; Reiss, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The spin Seebeck effect, the generation of a spin current by a temperature gradient, has attracted great attention, but the interplay over a millimetre range along a thin ferromagnetic film as well as unintended side effects which hinder an unambiguous detection have evoked controversial discussions. Here, we investigate the inverse spin Hall voltage of a 10?nm thin Pt strip deposited on the magnetic insulators Y3Fe5O12 and NiFe2O4 with a temperature gradient in the film plane. We show characteristics typical of the spin Seebeck effect, although we do not observe the most striking features of the transverse spin Seebeck effect. Instead, we attribute the observed voltages to the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect generated by a contact tip induced parasitic out-of-plane temperature gradient, which depends on material, diameter and temperature of the tip. PMID:26394541

  15. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect contribution in transverse spin Seebeck effect experiments in Pt/YIG and Pt/NFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Daniel; Reinhardt, Daniel; van Straaten, Michael; Klewe, Christoph; Althammer, Matthias; Schreier, Michael; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gupta, Arunava; Schmid, Maximilian; Back, Christian H.; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Kuschel, Timo; Reiss, Günter

    2015-09-01

    The spin Seebeck effect, the generation of a spin current by a temperature gradient, has attracted great attention, but the interplay over a millimetre range along a thin ferromagnetic film as well as unintended side effects which hinder an unambiguous detection have evoked controversial discussions. Here, we investigate the inverse spin Hall voltage of a 10 nm thin Pt strip deposited on the magnetic insulators Y3Fe5O12 and NiFe2O4 with a temperature gradient in the film plane. We show characteristics typical of the spin Seebeck effect, although we do not observe the most striking features of the transverse spin Seebeck effect. Instead, we attribute the observed voltages to the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect generated by a contact tip induced parasitic out-of-plane temperature gradient, which depends on material, diameter and temperature of the tip.

  16. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect: from fundamentals to applications.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Ishida, M; Kikkawa, T; Kirihara, A; Murakami, T; Saitoh, E

    2014-08-27

    The spin Seebeck effect refers to the generation of spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic materials. When a conductor is attached to a magnet under a temperature gradient, the thermally generated spin voltage in the magnet injects a spin current into the conductor, which in turn produces electric voltage owing to the spin-orbit interaction. The spin Seebeck effect is of increasing importance in spintronics, since it enables direct generation of a spin current from heat and appears in a variety of magnets ranging from metals and semiconductors to insulators. Recent studies on the spin Seebeck effect have been conducted mainly in paramagnetic metal/ferrimagnetic insulator junction systems in the longitudinal configuration in which a spin current flowing parallel to the temperature gradient is measured. This 'longitudinal spin Seebeck effect' (LSSE) has been observed in various sample systems and exclusively established by separating the spin-current contribution from extrinsic artefacts, such as conventional thermoelectric and magnetic proximity effects. The LSSE in insulators also provides a novel and versatile pathway to thermoelectric generation in combination of the inverse spin-Hall effects. In this paper, we review basic experiments on the LSSE and discuss its potential thermoelectric applications with several demonstrations. PMID:25105889

  17. Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Abstract Cement pastes containing short steel fibers, which contribute to electron conduction, exhibit.0% by mass of cement gives a higher value of the absolute thermoelectric power than a content of 0.5% by mass

  18. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, A.; Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck SSSE coefficient of 2.8 × 10 - 7 V K-1.

  19. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, A. Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-07

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck S{sub SSE} coefficient of 2.8×10{sup ?7} V K{sup ?1}.

  20. Charging of heated colloidal particles using the electrolyte Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Majee, Arghya; Würger, Alois

    2012-03-16

    We propose a novel actuation mechanism for colloids, which is based on the Seebeck effect of the electrolyte solution: Laser heating of a nonionic particle accumulates in its vicinity a net charge Q, which is proportional to the excess temperature at the particle surface. The corresponding long-range thermoelectric field E is proportional to 1/r(2) provides a tool for controlled interactions with nearby beads or with additional molecular solutes. An external field E(ext) drags the thermocharged particle at a velocity that depends on its size and absorption properties; the latter point could be particularly relevant for separating carbon nanotubes according to their electronic band structure. PMID:22540514

  1. Spin Seebeck effect in YIG-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Gene; Prestgard, Megan; Teng, Shiang; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the use of magnetic insulators (yttrium iron garnet, YIG) in conjunction with platinum has sparked interest in spintronics research. This is due to the existence of the spin Seebeck effect which could potentially be a source of pure spin current for spintronic devices. Furthermore, these coatings could potentially show the versatility of spintronics by acting as a spin-based thermoelectric generator, thereby providing a new method of transforming heat into power. However, there remain questions regarding the origins and legitimacy of the spin Seebeck effect. Moreover, recent publications claim that the observed effects are a manifestation of magnetic proximity effects in platinum and not a true SSE signal. Because of these concerns, we are providing supporting evidence that the voltages observed in the YIG/Pt films are truly SSE voltages. We are reaffirming claims that magnon transport theory provides an accurate basis for explaining SSE behavior. Finally, we illustrate the advantages of pulsed laser deposition, as these YIG films possess a large SSE voltage compared to those films grown using liquid phase deposition techniques.

  2. Thermal Conductance and Seebeck Effect in Mesoscopic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; El-Gawaad, N. S. Abd

    2015-09-01

    In this work, thermoelectric transport through a saddle-point potential is discussed with an emphasis on the effects of the chemical potential and temperature. In particular, the thermal conductance and the Seebeck coefficient are calculated for two-dimensional systems of a constriction defined by a saddle-point potential. The solution as a function of temperature and chemical potential has been investigated. The Peltier coefficient and thermal transport in a quantum point contact (QPC), under the influence of external fields and different temperatures, are presented. Also, the oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in external fields are obtained. Numerical calculations of the Peltier coefficient are performed at different applied voltages, amplitudes, and temperatures. Moreover, a method is proposed for measuring the sub-band energies and spin-splitting energies in a bottle-neck of the constriction. For weak non-linearities, the charge and entropy currents across a QPC are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. Expansions of the Seebeck voltage in terms of the temperature difference and the Peltier heat in terms of the current are obtained.

  3. Critical suppression of spin Seebeck effect by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Daimon, Shunsuke; Qiu, Zhiyong; Shiomi, Yuki; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in Pt /Y3Fe5O12(YIG ) junction systems has been investigated at various magnetic fields and temperatures. We found that the LSSE voltage in a Pt/YIG-slab system is suppressed by applying high magnetic fields and this suppression is critically enhanced at low temperatures. The field-induced suppression of the LSSE in the Pt/YIG-slab system is too large at around room temperature to be explained simply by considering the effect of the Zeeman gap in magnon excitation. This result requires us to introduce a magnon-frequency-dependent mechanism into the scenario of LSSE; low-frequency magnons dominantly contribute to the LSSE. The magnetic field dependence of the LSSE voltage was observed to change by changing the thickness of YIG, suggesting that the thermospin conversion by the low-frequency magnons is suppressed in thin YIG films due to the long characteristic lengths of such magnons.

  4. Spectral characteristics of time resolved magnonic spin Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesami, S. R.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.

    2015-09-01

    Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) holds promise for new spintronic devices with low-energy consumption. The underlying physics, essential for a further progress, is yet to be fully clarified. This study of the time resolved longitudinal SSE in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet concludes that a substantial contribution to the spin current stems from small wave-vector subthermal exchange magnons. Our finding is in line with the recent experiment by S. R. Boona and J. P. Heremans [Phys. Rev. B 90, 064421 (2014)]. Technically, the spin-current dynamics is treated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation also including magnons back-action on thermal bath, while the formation of the time dependent thermal gradient is described self-consistently via the heat equation coupled to the magnetization dynamics.

  5. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S. Bose, A. Palkar, V. R. Tulapurkar, A. A.; Lam, D. D. Suzuki, Y.; Sharma, H. Tomy, C. V.

    2014-12-15

    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  6. Long-range spin Seebeck effect and acoustic spin pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, K.; Adachi, H.; An, T.; Ota, T.; Toda, M.; Hillebrands, B.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2011-10-01

    Imagine that a metallic wire is attached to a part of a large insulator, which itself exhibits no magnetization. It seems impossible for electrons in the wire to register where the wire is positioned on the insulator. Here we found that, using a Ni81Fe19/Pt bilayer wire on an insulating sapphire plate, electrons in the wire recognize their position on the sapphire. Under a temperature gradient in the sapphire, surprisingly, the voltage generated in the Pt layer is shown to reflect the wire position, although the wire is isolated both electrically and magnetically. This non-local voltage is due to the coupling of spins and phonons: the only possible carrier of information in this system. We demonstrate this coupling by directly injecting sound waves, which realizes the acoustic spin pumping. Our finding provides a persuasive answer to the long-range nature of the spin Seebeck effect, and it opens the door to ‘acoustic spintronics’ in which sound waves are exploited for constructing spin-based devices.

  7. Large spin Seebeck effects in zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Yu-Shen Feng, Jin-Fu; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2014-08-15

    Using the first-principles methods, we investigate the thermospin properties of a two-probe model based on zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs). Compared with the odd-width ZSiNRs, the spin Seebeck coefficient of the even-width ZSiNRs is obviously enhanced at room temperature. This fact is attributed to a nearly perfect symmetry of the linear conductance gap with the different spin index with respect to the Fermi level induced by the different parity of the wave functions. More interestingly, the corresponding charge Seebeck coefficient is near zero. Therefore, when a thermal bias is presented in the even-width ZSiNRs, a nearly pure spin current is achieved. Meanwhile, the spin polarization of the current approaches infinite.

  8. Spin-dependent Seebeck effects in a graphene nanoribbon coupled to two square lattice ferromagnetic leads

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Benhu Zeng, Yangsu; Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Guanghui; Ouyang, Tao

    2015-03-14

    We theoretically investigate spin-dependent Seebeck effects for a system consisting of a narrow graphene nanoribbon (GNR) contacted to square lattice ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes with noncollinear magnetic moments. Both zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) were considered. Compared with our previous work with two-dimensional honeycomb-lattice FM leads, a more realistic model of two-dimensional square-lattice FM electrodes is adopted here. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that both the charge Seebeck coefficient S{sub C} and the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient S{sub S} strongly depend on the geometrical contact between the GNR and the leads. In our previous work, S{sub C} for a semiconducting 15-AGNR system near the Dirac point is two orders of magnitude larger than that of a metallic 17-AGNR system. However, S{sub C} is the same order of magnitude for both metallic 17-AGNR and semiconducting 15-AGNR systems in the present paper because of the lack of a transmission energy gap for the 15-AGNR system. Furthermore, the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient S{sub S} for the systems with 20-ZGNR, 17-AGNR, and 15-AGNR is of the same order of magnitude and its maximum absolute value can reach 8??V/K. The spin-dependent Seebeck effects are not very pronounced because the transmission coefficient weakly depends on spin orientation. Moreover, the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient is further suppressed with increasing angle between the relative alignments of magnetization directions of the two leads. Additionally, the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient can be strongly suppressed for larger disorder strength. The results obtained here may provide valuable theoretical guidance in the experimental design of heat spintronic devices.

  9. Separation of spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect in Co/Cu/YIG

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Chien, C. L.; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-25

    The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and Anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) have been observed in Co/Cu/YIG (yttrium iron garnet) multi-layer structure, where the ferromagnetic insulator YIG acts as the pure spin injector and the ferromagnetic metal Co layer acts as the spin current detector. With the insertion of 5?nm Cu layer, the two ferromagnetic layers are decoupled, thus allowing unambiguous separation of the SSE and ANE contributions under the same experimental conditions in the same sample.

  10. Photo-Seebeck effect in tetragonal PbO single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, P. S.; Okazaki, R.; Taniguchi, H.; Terasaki, I.

    2013-11-07

    We report the observation of photo-Seebeck effect in tetragonal PbO crystals. The photo-induced carriers contribute to the transport phenomena, and consequently the electrical conductivity increases and the Seebeck coefficient decreases with increasing photon flux density. A parallel-circuit model is used to evaluate the actual contributions of photo-excited carriers from the measured transport data. The photo-induced carrier concentration estimated from the Seebeck coefficient increases almost linearly with increasing photon flux density, indicating a successful photo-doping effect on the thermoelectric property. The mobility decreases by illumination but the reduction rate strongly depends on the illuminated photon energy. Possible mechanisms of such photon-energy-dependent mobility are discussed.

  11. Communication Enhancing the Seebeck effect in carbon fiber-reinforced cement by using

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Enhancing the Seebeck effect in carbon fiber-reinforced cement by using intercalated carbon fibers Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New; accepted 13 June 2000 Abstract The absolute thermoelectric power of carbon fiber-reinforced cement paste

  12. Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    .D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400, USA Received 12 June 2003; accepted 24 May 2004 Abstract Moisture in the form of liquid water contributes little, if any, to the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials. Moisture loss

  13. Extracting the effective mass of electrons in transparent conductive oxide thin films using Seebeck coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqin; Zhu, Junhao; Tang, Wu

    2014-05-26

    A method is proposed that combines Seebeck coefficient and carrier concentration to determine the electron effective mass of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin films. Experiments were conducted to test the validity of this approach on the transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering. An evident agreement of the calculated electron effective mass of the films is observed between the proposed approach and the previous studies. Besides, the optical carrier concentration and mobility derived from the calculated electron effective mass and spectroscopic ellipsometry using a complex dielectric function are consistent with those from direct Hall-effect measurement. The agreements suggest that Seebeck coefficient can serve as an alternative tool for extracting the effective mass of electrons in TCO films.

  14. On/off switching of bit readout in bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Alexander; Milnikel, Marius; von der Ehe, Marvin; Franz, Christian; Zbarsky, Vladyslav; Czerner, Michael; Rott, Karsten; Thomas, Andy; Heiliger, Christian; Reiss, Günter; Münzenberg, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects in magnetic tunnel junctions are promising to serve as the basis for logic devices or memories in a "green" information technology. However, up to now the readout contrast achieved with Seebeck effects was magnitudes smaller compared to the well-established tunnel magnetoresistance effect. Here, we resolve this problem by demonstrating that the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (TMS) in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tunnel junctions can be switched on to a logic "1" state and off to "0" by simply changing the magnetic state of the CoFeB electrodes. This new functionality is achieved by combining a thermal gradient and an electric field. Our results show that the signal crosses zero and can be adjusted by tuning a bias voltage that is applied between the electrodes of the junction; hence, the name of the effect is bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (bTMS). Via the spin- and energy-dependent transmission of electrons in the junction, the bTMS effect can be configured using the bias voltage with much higher control than the tunnel magnetoresistance and even completely suppressed for only one magnetic configuration. Moreover, our measurements are a step towards the experimental realization of high TMS ratios without additional bias voltage, which are predicted for specific Co-Fe compositions. PMID:25755010

  15. On/off switching of bit readout in bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, Alexander; Milnikel, Marius; von der Ehe, Marvin; Franz, Christian; Zbarsky, Vladyslav; Czerner, Michael; Rott, Karsten; Thomas, Andy; Heiliger, Christian; Reiss, Günter; Münzenberg, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects in magnetic tunnel junctions are promising to serve as the basis for logic devices or memories in a ”green” information technology. However, up to now the readout contrast achieved with Seebeck effects was magnitudes smaller compared to the well-established tunnel magnetoresistance effect. Here, we resolve this problem by demonstrating that the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (TMS) in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tunnel junctions can be switched on to a logic “1” state and off to “0” by simply changing the magnetic state of the CoFeB electrodes. This new functionality is achieved by combining a thermal gradient and an electric field. Our results show that the signal crosses zero and can be adjusted by tuning a bias voltage that is applied between the electrodes of the junction; hence, the name of the effect is bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (bTMS). Via the spin- and energy-dependent transmission of electrons in the junction, the bTMS effect can be configured using the bias voltage with much higher control than the tunnel magnetoresistance and even completely suppressed for only one magnetic configuration. Moreover, our measurements are a step towards the experimental realization of high TMS ratios without additional bias voltage, which are predicted for specific Co-Fe compositions. PMID:25755010

  16. On/off switching of bit readout in bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, Alexander; Milnikel, Marius; von der Ehe, Marvin; Franz, Christian; Zbarsky, Vladyslav; Czerner, Michael; Rott, Karsten; Thomas, Andy; Heiliger, Christian; Reiss, Günter; Münzenberg, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Thermoelectric effects in magnetic tunnel junctions are promising to serve as the basis for logic devices or memories in a ''green'' information technology. However, up to now the readout contrast achieved with Seebeck effects was magnitudes smaller compared to the well-established tunnel magnetoresistance effect. Here, we resolve this problem by demonstrating that the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (TMS) in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tunnel junctions can be switched on to a logic ``1'' state and off to ``0'' by simply changing the magnetic state of the CoFeB electrodes. This new functionality is achieved by combining a thermal gradient and an electric field. Our results show that the signal crosses zero and can be adjusted by tuning a bias voltage that is applied between the electrodes of the junction; hence, the name of the effect is bias-enhanced tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (bTMS). Via the spin- and energy-dependent transmission of electrons in the junction, the bTMS effect can be configured using the bias voltage with much higher control than the tunnel magnetoresistance and even completely suppressed for only one magnetic configuration. Moreover, our measurements are a step towards the experimental realization of high TMS ratios without additional bias voltage, which are predicted for specific Co-Fe compositions.

  17. Comparison of the magneto-Peltier and magneto-Seebeck effects in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, J.; Dejene, F. K.; Leutenantsmeyer, J. C.; Flipse, J.; Münzenberg, M.; van Wees, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding heat generation and transport processes in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is a significant step towards improving its application in current memory devices. Recent work has experimentally demonstrated the magneto-Seebeck effect in MTJs, where the Seebeck coefficient of the junction varies as the magnetic configuration changes from a parallel (P) to an antiparallel (AP) configuration. Here we report a study on its reciprocal effect, the magneto-Peltier effect, where the heat flow carried by the tunneling electrons is altered by changing the magnetic configuration of the MTJ. The magneto-Peltier signal that reflects the change in the temperature difference across the junction between the P and AP configurations scales linearly with the applied current in the small bias but is greatly enhanced in the large-bias regime, due to higher-order Joule heating mechanisms. By carefully extracting the linear response which reflects the magneto-Peltier effect, and comparing it with the magneto-Seebeck measurements performed on the same device, we observe results consistent with Onsager reciprocity. We estimate a magneto-Peltier coefficient of 13.4 mV in the linear regime using a three-dimensional thermoelectric model. Our result opens up the possibility of programmable thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect in MTJs.

  18. Spin-resolved Fano resonances induced large spin Seebeck effects in graphene-carbon-chain junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu-Shen; Zhang, Xue; Feng, Jin-Fu; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2014-06-16

    We propose a high-efficiency thermospin device constructed by a carbon atomic chain sandwiched between two ferromagnetic (FM) zigzag graphene nanoribbon electrodes. In the low-temperature regime, the magnitude of the spin figure of merit is nearly equal to that of the corresponding charge figure of merit. This is attributed to the appearances of spin-resolved Fano resonances in the linear conductance spectrum resulting from the quantum interference effects between the localized states and the expanded states. The spin-dependent Seebeck effect is obviously enhanced near these Fano resonances with the same spin index; meanwhile, the Seebeck effect of the other spin component has a smaller value due to the smooth changing of the linear conductance with the spin index. Thus, a large spin Seebeck effect is achieved, and the magnitude of the spin figure of merit can reach 1.2 at T?=?25?K. Our results indicate that the FM graphene-carbon-chain junctions can be used to design the high-efficiency thermospin devices.

  19. The Third Way of Thermal-Electric Conversion beyond Seebeck and Pyroelectric Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jie

    2014-02-14

    Thermal-electric conversion is crucial for smart energy control and harvesting, such as thermal sensing and waste heat recovering. So far, people are aware of only two ways of direct thermal-electric conversion, Seebeck and pyroelectric effects, each with distinct working conditions and limitations. Here, we report the third way of thermal-electric conversion beyond Seebeck and pyroelectric effects. In contrast to Seebeck effect that requires spatial temperature difference, the-third-way converts the time-dependent ambient temperature fluctuation into electricity, similar to the behavior of pyroelectricity. However, the-third-way is also distinct from pyroelectric effect in the sense that it does not require polar materials but applies to general conducting systems. We demonstrate that the-third-way results from the temperature-fluctuation-induced dynamical charge redistribution. It is a consequence of the fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamics and has a deep connection to the topological phase in quantum mechanics. Our findings expand our knowledge and provide new means of thermal-electric energy harvesting.

  20. Enhanced Seebeck effect in graphene devices by strain and doping engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M. Chung; Nguyen, V. Hung; Nguyen, Huy-Viet; Saint-Martin, J.; Dollfus, P.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the possibility of enhancing the thermoelectric power (Seebeck coefficient) in graphene devices by strain and doping engineering. While a local strain can result in the misalignment of Dirac cones of different graphene sections in the k-space, doping engineering leads to their displacement in energy. By combining these two effects, we demonstrate that a conduction gap as large as a few hundred meV can be achieved and hence the enhanced Seebeck coefficient can reach a value higher than 1.4 mV/K in graphene doped heterojunctions with a locally strained area. Such hetero-channels appear to be very promising for enlarging the applications of graphene devices as in strain and thermal sensors.

  1. Magneto-Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds: Probing the magnon drag scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglieris, F.; Braggio, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Provino, A.; Pani, M.; Lamura, G.; Jost, A.; Zeitler, U.; Galleani D'Agliano, E.; Manfrinetti, P.; Putti, M.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds as a function of temperature and magnetic field up to 30 T. The Seebeck curves are characterized by a broad negative bump around 50 K, which is sample dependent and strongly enhanced by the application of a magnetic field. A model for the temperature and field dependence of the magnon drag contribution to the Seebeck effect by antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin fluctuation is developed. It accounts for the magnitude and scaling properties of such bump feature in our experimental data in LaFeAsO. This analysis accounts for the apparent inconsistency of literature Seebeck effect data on these compounds and has the potential to extract precious information on the coupling between electrons and AFM spin fluctuations in these parent compound systems, with implications on the pairing mechanism of the related superconducting compounds.

  2. Seebeck coefficient of one electron

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, Zahid A. K.

    2014-03-07

    The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ?T between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ?T are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ?T, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.

  3. Enhanced spin Seebeck effect in a germanene p-n junction

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jun; Chi, Feng; Guo, Yong

    2014-12-28

    Spin Seebeck effect in a germanene p-n junction is studied by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with the tight-binding Hamiltonian. We find that the thermal bias ?T can generate spin thermopower when a local exchange field is applied on one edge of the germanene nano-ribbon. The magnitude of the spin thermopower can be modulated by the potential drop across the two terminals of the p-n junction. When the value of the potential drop is smaller than the spin-orbit interaction strength, the spin thermopower is enhanced by two orders of magnitude larger as compared to the case of zero p-n voltage. Optimal temperature corresponding to maximum spin thermopower is insensitive to the potential drop. In the p-n region, maximum spin thermopower can be obtained at relatively higher temperatures. When the value of the potential drop is larger than that of the spin-orbit interaction, however, the spin Seebeck effect decays rapidly with increasing potential drop or temperature. By optimizing the structure parameters, the magnitude of the spin thermopower can be remarkably enhanced due to the coexistence of the exchange field and the potential drop.

  4. Asymmetric and Negative Differential Thermal Spin Effect at Magnetic Interfaces: Towards Spin Seebeck Diodes and Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2014-03-01

    We study the nonequilibrium thermal-spin transport across metal-magnetic insulator interfaces. The transport is assisted by the exchange interaction between conduction electrons in the metal and localized spins in the magnetic insulator. We predict the rectification and negative differential spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, reversing the temperature bias is able to give asymmetric spin currents and increasing temperature bias could give an anomalously decreasing spin current. We resolve their microscopic mechanism as a consequence of the energy-dependent electronic DOS in the metal. The rectification of spin Peltier effect is also discussed. We then study the asymmetric and negative differential magnon tunneling driven by temperature bias. We show that the many-body magnon interaction that makes the magnonic spectrum temperature-dependent is the crucial factor for the emergence of rectification and negative differential SSEs in magnon tunneling junctions. We show that these asymmetric and negative differential SSEs are relevant for building magnon and spin Seebeck diodes and transistors, which could play important roles in controlling information and energy in functional devices. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the US DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  5. Effect of the magnon dispersion on the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyungyu; Boona, Stephen R.; Yang, Zihao; Myers, Roberto C.; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2015-08-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in an yttrium iron garnet Y3F e5O12 (YIG)/Pt system for samples of different thicknesses. In this system, the thermal spin torque is magnon driven. The LSSE signal peaks at a specific temperature that depends on the YIG sample thickness. We also observe freeze-out of the LSSE signal at high magnetic fields, which we attribute to the opening of an energy gap in the magnon dispersion. We observe partial freeze-out of the LSSE signal even at room temperature, where kBT is much larger than the gap. This suggests that a subset of the magnon population with an energy below kBTC (TC˜40 K ) contributes disproportionately to the LSSE; at temperatures above TC, we label these magnons subthermal magnons. The T dependence of the LSSE at temperatures below the maximum is interpreted in terms of an empirical model that ascribes most of the temperature dependence to that of the thermally driven magnon flux, which is related to the details of the magnon dispersion.

  6. Investigation of the magnetic properties of insulating thin films using the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehlberger, A.; Jakob, G.; Onbasli, M. C.; Kim, D. H.; Ross, C. A.; Kläui, M.

    2014-05-01

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect is used as a detector for the magnetic properties and switching characteristics of magnetic thin insulating films. We use a 300 nm and a 20 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG, Y3Fe5O12) film prepared by pulsed laser deposition and afterwards coated by platinum for the detection of the thermally excited magnons by the inverse spin Hall effect. The inverse spin Hall signals reveal a magnetic uniaxial anisotropy along the direction of the platinum stripe in the thicker film. For the thin film we find a more isotropic behavior, which is complementarily observed using the magnetoresistance occurring at the platinum/YIG interface. We explain our results on the basis of x-ray diffraction data, which reveal a miscut of the substrate and film surface and an expansion of the YIG lattice. Both findings favor a growth-induced magnetic anisotropy that we observe.

  7. Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in cobalt-ferrite epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niizeki, Tomohiko; Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Oka, Mineto; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    The longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in cobalt ferrite (CFO), an exceptionally hard magnetic spinel ferrite. A bilayer of a polycrystalline Pt and an epitaxially-strained CFO(110) exhibiting an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy was prepared by reactive rf sputtering technique. Thermally generated spin voltage in the CFO layer was measured via the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer. External-magnetic-field (H) dependence of the LSSE voltage (VLSSE) in the Pt/CFO(110) sample with H ? [001] was found to exhibit a hysteresis loop with a high squareness ratio and high coercivity, while that with H ? [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] shows a nearly closed loop, reflecting the different anisotropies induced by the epitaxial strain. The magnitude of VLSSE has a linear relationship with the temperature difference (?T), giving the relatively large VLSSE /?T of about 3 ?V/K for CFO(110) which was kept even at zero external field.

  8. Investigation of the magnetic properties of insulating thin films using the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kehlberger, A. Jakob, G.; Kläui, M.; Onbasli, M. C.; Kim, D. H.; Ross, C. A.

    2014-05-07

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect is used as a detector for the magnetic properties and switching characteristics of magnetic thin insulating films. We use a 300 nm and a 20?nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG, Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) film prepared by pulsed laser deposition and afterwards coated by platinum for the detection of the thermally excited magnons by the inverse spin Hall effect. The inverse spin Hall signals reveal a magnetic uniaxial anisotropy along the direction of the platinum stripe in the thicker film. For the thin film we find a more isotropic behavior, which is complementarily observed using the magnetoresistance occurring at the platinum/YIG interface. We explain our results on the basis of x-ray diffraction data, which reveal a miscut of the substrate and film surface and an expansion of the YIG lattice. Both findings favor a growth-induced magnetic anisotropy that we observe.

  9. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ? P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport. PMID:25950746

  10. Robust longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in Bi-YIG thin films

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Gene; Prestgard, Megan Campbell; Teng, Shiang; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the coupling of magnetic insulators (bismuth-doped yttrium iron garnet, Bi-YIG) with platinum has garnered significant interest in spintronics research due to applicability as spin-current-driven thermoelectric coatings. These coatings bridge the gap between spintronics technologies and thermoelectric materials, providing a novel means of transforming waste heat into electricity. However, there remain questions regarding the origins of the spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) as well as claims that observed effects are a manifestation of magnetic proximity effects, which would induce magnetic behavior in platinum. Herewith we provide support that the voltages observed in the Bi-YIG/Pt films are purely SSE voltages. We reaffirm claims that magnon transport theory provides an ample basis for explaining SSE behavior. Finally, we illustrate the advantages of pulsed-laser deposition, as these Bi-YIG films possess large SSE voltages (even in absence of an external magnetic field), as much as twice those of films fabricated via solution-based methods. PMID:24651124

  11. Magnetotransport properties and Seebeck effect in the superconductor FeSe0.5Te0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, J. L., Jr.; Pureur, P.; Avila, M. A.; Ribeiro, R. A.

    2014-04-01

    We carried out measurements of the electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance, Hall resistivity and Seebeck effect in a highly oriented sample of the Fe-based FeSe0.5Te0.5 superconductor. Complementary structural and magnetic characterizations were also performed. Our sample do not show long-range magnetic order down to 4.2 K. Superconductivity occurs with critical temperature Tc ? 15 K. In the normal phase, the resistivity versus temperature behavior mimics that of a Kondo-lattice system. The magnetoresistance, Hall coefficient and Seebeck coefficient show sign reversals. These results are discussed with basis on the combined effects from two-band conduction and weak magnetic fluctuations. Effects from superconducting fluctuations are also observed near Tc.

  12. Unambiguous separation of the inverse spin Hall and anomalous Nernst effects within a ferromagnetic metal using the spin Seebeck effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Stephen M. Hoffman, Jason; Pearson, John E.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2014-09-01

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect is measured on the ferromagnetic insulator Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with the ferromagnetic metal Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.6}B{sub 0.2} (CoFeB) as the spin detector. By using a non-magnetic spacer material between the two materials (Ti), it is possible to decouple the two ferromagnetic materials and directly observe pure spin flow from Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} into CoFeB. It is shown that in a single ferromagnetic metal, the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) can occur simultaneously with opposite polarity. Using this and the large difference in the coercive fields between the two magnets, it is possible to unambiguously separate the contributions of the spin Seebeck effect from the ANE and observe the degree to which each effect contributes to the total response. These experiments show conclusively that the ISHE and ANE in CoFeB are separate phenomena with different origins and can coexist in the same material with opposite response to a thermal gradient.

  13. A novel strongly correlated electronic thin-film laser energy/power meter based on anisotropic Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.-Y.; Zhang, H.; Tan, S.-L.; Zhang, P.-X.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Habermeier, H.-U.; Lin, C.-T.; Singjai, P.

    2014-09-01

    Strongly correlated electronic (SCE) materials including high-temperature superconducting cuprate and colossal magnetoresistance manganite thin films demonstrate tremendous anisotropic Seebeck effect which makes them very promising for developing high-performance laser detectors. In this work, laser-induced thermoelectric voltage (LITV) signals with nanosecond response time have been measured in SCE La1- x Pb x MnO3 thin films based on anisotropic Seebeck effect at room temperature. The magnitude of the LITV signals increases linearly with laser energy/power density in a wide range of laser wavelengths from ultraviolet, visible to infrared based on which a novel SCE thin-film laser energy/power meter has been developed.

  14. Platinum thickness dependence and annealing effect of the spin-Seebeck voltage in platinum/yttrium iron garnet structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiga, Yuta; Mizunuma, Kotaro; Kono, Yasushi; Ryu, Jeong Chun; Ono, Hiroshi; Kohda, Makoto; Okuno, Eiichi

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the substrate annealing effect of thermoelectric voltage induced by the spin-Seebeck effect in Pt/polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) structures with different Pt thicknesses. The thermoelectric voltage is increased by decreasing the Pt thickness to 1.9 nm as well as by annealing. Annealing at 1073 K for 5 h enhances the thermoelectric voltage up to 7.4 µV/K in structures with 1.9 nm Pt thickness.

  15. Spin Seebeck effect and spin Hall magnetoresistance at high temperatures for a Pt/yttrium iron garnet hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuanhu; Zou, Lvkuan; Zhang, Xu; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Shufang; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2015-10-01

    Based on unique experimental setups, the temperature dependences of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) and spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) of the Pt/yttrium iron garnet (Pt/YIG) hybrid structure are determined in a wide temperature range up to the Curie temperature of YIG. From a theoretical analysis of the experimental relationship between the SMR and temperature, the spin mixing conductance of the Pt/YIG interface is deduced as a function of temperature. Adopting the deduced spin mixing conductance, the temperature dependence of the LSSE is well reproduced based on the magnon spin current theory. Our research sheds new light on the controversy about the theoretical models for the LSSE.

  16. Spin-current Seebeck effect in an interacting quantum dot: Atomic approximation for the Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, E.; Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Siqueira, E. C.; Figueira, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    We study the spin-current Seebeck effect through an immersed gate defined quantum dot, employing the U-finite atomic method for the single impurity Anderson model. Our description qualitatively confirms some of the results obtained by an earlier Hartree-Fock work, but as our calculation includes the Kondo effect, some new features will appear in the spin-current Seebeck effect S, which as a function of the gate voltage present an oscillatory shape. At intermediate temperatures, our results show a three zero structure and at low temperatures, our results are governed by the emergence of the Kondo peak in the transmittance, which defines the behavior of the shape of the S coefficient as a function of the parameters of the model. The oscillatory behavior obtained by the Hartree-Fock approximation reproduces the shape obtained by us in a non-interacting system (U=0). The S sign is sensitive to different polarization of the quantum dot, and as a consequence the device could be employed to experimentally detect the polarization states of the system. Our results also confirm that the large increase of S upon increasing U, obtained by the mean field approximation, is correct only for low temperatures. We also discuss the role of the Kondo peak in defining the behavior of the spin thermopower at low temperatures.

  17. Effect of Trivalent Bi Doping on the Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity of Ca3Co4O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jun-Young; Kwon, O.-Jong; Chung, Yong Kwon; Kim, Jin-Sang; Kim, Woo-Seok; Song, Kyu Jeong; Park, Chan

    2015-10-01

    We present the effects of trivalent Bi doping on the microstructure and thermoelectric (TE) properties of Ca3Co4O9 (Ca-349). Specimens were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The lattice parameters of the conducting [CoO2] layer and insulating [Ca2CoO3] layer of Ca-349 were determined using Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Partial substitution of Bi for Ca did not lead to any change in the misfit ratio of the conducting versus insulating layers. XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results show the presence of Bi2O3 phase in the grain-boundary region. The Seebeck coefficient ( S) increased with increasing Bi content due to the decrease in the hole carrier concentration after Bi doping. As the amount of Bi was increased, the electrical resistivity ( ?) initially decreased but then increased with further addition of Bi. Addition of small amount of Bi led to large decrease in electrical resistivity due to the increased amount of Bi2O3 phase in the grain-boundary region. With further increase of Bi addition, the electrical resistivity increased due to the decrease in the hole carrier concentration. Optimum Bi doping not significantly affecting the hole carrier concentration is an effective approach for increasing the Seebeck coefficient and decreasing the electrical resistivity of Ca-349.

  18. Effect of silicide/silicon hetero-junction structure on thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonchul; Park, Young-Sam; Hyun, Younghoon; Zyung, Taehyoung; Kim, Jaehyeon; Kim, Soojung; Jeon, Hyojin; Shin, Mincheol; Jang, Moongyu

    2013-12-01

    We fabricated a thermoelectric device with a silicide/silicon laminated hetero-structure by using RF sputtering and rapid thermal annealing. The device was observed to have Ohmic characteristics by I-V measurement. The temperature differences and Seebeck coefficients of the proposed silicide/silicon laminated and bulk structure were measured. The laminated thermoelectric device shows suppression of heat flow from the hot to cold side. This is supported by the theory that the atomic mass difference between silicide and silicon creates a scattering center for phonons. The major impact of our work is that phonon transmission is suppressed at the interface between silicide and silicon without degrading electrical conductivity. The estimated thermal conductivity of the 3-layer laminated device is 126.2 +/- 3.7 W/m. K. Thus, by using the 3-layer laminated structure, thermal conductivity is reduced by around 16% compared to bulk silicon. However, the Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric device is degraded compared to that of bulk silicon. It is understood that electrical conductivity is improved by using silicide as a scattering center. PMID:24266143

  19. Thermoelectric Signal Enhancement by Reconciling the Spin Seebeck and Anomalous Nernst Effects in Ferromagnet/Non-magnet Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Kim, Dong-Jun; Yeon Lee, Hae; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Ki-Suk; Song, Hyon-Seok; Sohn, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ferromagnetic (FM) materials in thermoelectric devices allows one to have a simpler structure and/or independent control of electric and thermal conductivities, which may further remove obstacles for this technology to be realized. The thermoelectricity in FM/non-magnet (NM) heterostructures using an optical heating source is studied as a function of NM materials and a number of multilayers. It is observed that the overall thermoelectric signal in those structures which is contributed by spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) is enhanced by a proper selection of NM materials with a spin Hall angle that matches to the sign of the ANE. Moreover, by an increase of the number of multilayer, the thermoelectric voltage is enlarged further and the device resistance is reduced, simultaneously. The experimental observation of the improvement of thermoelectric properties may pave the way for the realization of magnetic-(or spin-) based thermoelectric devices. PMID:26020492

  20. Thermoelectric Signal Enhancement by Reconciling the Spin Seebeck and Anomalous Nernst Effects in Ferromagnet/Non-magnet Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Kim, Dong-Jun; Yeon Lee, Hae; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Ki-Suk; Song, Hyon-Seok; Sohn, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ferromagnetic (FM) materials in thermoelectric devices allows one to have a simpler structure and/or independent control of electric and thermal conductivities, which may further remove obstacles for this technology to be realized. The thermoelectricity in FM/non-magnet (NM) heterostructures using an optical heating source is studied as a function of NM materials and a number of multilayers. It is observed that the overall thermoelectric signal in those structures which is contributed by spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) is enhanced by a proper selection of NM materials with a spin Hall angle that matches to the sign of the ANE. Moreover, by an increase of the number of multilayer, the thermoelectric voltage is enlarged further and the device resistance is reduced, simultaneously. The experimental observation of the improvement of thermoelectric properties may pave the way for the realization of magnetic-(or spin-) based thermoelectric devices. PMID:26020492

  1. Generation of pure spin currents via spin Seebeck effect in self-biased hexagonal ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ellsworth, David; Chang, Houchen; Janantha, Praveen; Richardson, Daniel; Phillips, Preston; Vijayasarathy, Tarah; Wu, Mingzhong; Shah, Faisal

    2014-12-15

    Light-induced generation of pure spin currents in a Pt(2.5?nm)/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}(1.2??m)/sapphire(0.5?mm) structure is reported. The BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} film had strong in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and was therefore self-biased. Upon exposure to light, a temperature difference (?T) was established across the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} thickness that gave rise to a pure spin current in the Pt via the spin Seebeck effect. Via the inverse spin Hall effect, the spin current produced an electric voltage across one of the Pt lateral dimensions. The voltage varied with time in the same manner as ?T and flipped its sign when the magnetization in BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was reversed.

  2. Spin Seebeck effect and spin Hall magnetoresistance at high temperatures for a Pt/yttrium iron garnet hybrid structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuanhu; Zou, Lvkuan; Zhang, Xu; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Shufang; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2015-11-14

    Based on unique experimental setups, the temperature dependences of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) and spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) of the Pt/yttrium iron garnet (Pt/YIG) hybrid structure are determined in a wide temperature range up to the Curie temperature of YIG. From a theoretical analysis of the experimental relationship between the SMR and temperature, the spin mixing conductance of the Pt/YIG interface is deduced as a function of temperature. Adopting the deduced spin mixing conductance, the temperature dependence of the LSSE is well reproduced based on the magnon spin current theory. Our research sheds new light on the controversy about the theoretical models for the LSSE. PMID:26455519

  3. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  4. Spin-dependent Seebeck Effect, Thermal Colossal Magnetoresistance and Negative Differential Thermoelectric Resistance in Zigzag Silicene Nanoribbon Heterojunciton

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zu-Quan; Gu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE) is one of hot topics in spin caloritronics, which examine the relationships between spin and heat transport in materials. Meanwhile, it is still a huge challenge to obtain thermally induced spin current nearly without thermal electron current. Here, we construct a hydrogen-terminated zigzag silicene nanoribbon heterojunction, and find that by applying a temperature difference between the source and the drain, spin-up and spin-down currents are generated and flow in opposite directions with nearly equal magnitudes, indicating that the thermal spin current dominates the carrier transport while the thermal electron current is much suppressed. By modulating the temperature, a pure thermal spin current can be achieved. Moreover, a thermoelectric rectifier and a negative differential thermoelectric resistance can be obtained in the thermal electron current. Through the analysis of the spin-dependent transport characteristics, a phase diagram containing various spin caloritronic phenomena is provided. In addition, a thermal magnetoresistance, which can reach infinity, is also obtained. Our results put forward an effective route to obtain a spin caloritronic material which can be applied in future low-power-consumption technology. PMID:26000658

  5. Spin-dependent Seebeck Effect, Thermal Colossal Magnetoresistance and Negative Differential Thermoelectric Resistance in Zigzag Silicene Nanoribbon Heterojunciton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zu-Quan; Gu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE) is one of hot topics in spin caloritronics, which examine the relationships between spin and heat transport in materials. Meanwhile, it is still a huge challenge to obtain thermally induced spin current nearly without thermal electron current. Here, we construct a hydrogen-terminated zigzag silicene nanoribbon heterojunction, and find that by applying a temperature difference between the source and the drain, spin-up and spin-down currents are generated and flow in opposite directions with nearly equal magnitudes, indicating that the thermal spin current dominates the carrier transport while the thermal electron current is much suppressed. By modulating the temperature, a pure thermal spin current can be achieved. Moreover, a thermoelectric rectifier and a negative differential thermoelectric resistance can be obtained in the thermal electron current. Through the analysis of the spin-dependent transport characteristics, a phase diagram containing various spin caloritronic phenomena is provided. In addition, a thermal magnetoresistance, which can reach infinity, is also obtained. Our results put forward an effective route to obtain a spin caloritronic material which can be applied in future low-power-consumption technology.

  6. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  7. ac current generation in chiral magnetic insulators and Skyrmion motion induced by the spin Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D; Reichhardt, Charles; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-05-01

    We show that a temperature gradient induces an ac electric current in multiferroic insulators when the sample is embedded in a circuit. We also show that a thermal gradient can be used to move magnetic Skyrmions in insulating chiral magnets: the induced magnon flow from the hot to the cold region drives the Skyrmions in the opposite direction via a magnonic spin transfer torque. Both results are combined to compute the effect of Skyrmion motion on the ac current generation and demonstrate that Skyrmions in insulators are a promising route for spin caloritronics applications. PMID:24856718

  8. Joule heating-induced coexisted spin Seebeck effect and spin Hall magnetoresistance in the platinum/Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Wang, S. H.; Zou, L. K.; Cai, J. W.; Sun, J. R. E-mail: sun-zg@whut.edu.cn; Sun, Z. G.

    2014-11-03

    Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) are observed simultaneously in the Pt/Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} hybrid structure when thermal gradient is produced by Joule heating. According to their dependences on applied current, these two effects can be separated. Their dependence on heating power and magnetic field is systematically studied. With the increase of heating power, the SSE enhances linearly, whereas the SMR decreases slowly. The origin of the spin currents is further analyzed. The heating power dependences of the spin currents associated with the SSE and the SMR are found to be different.

  9. Skyrmion motion induced by the spin Seebeck effect and ac current generation in chiral magnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Avadh; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian; Reichhardt, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Stable topological excitations such as domain walls, and vortices are ubiquitous in condensed matter systems and are responsible for many emergent phenomena. Recently a new mesoscopic spin texture called skyrmion with radius about 10 ~ 100 nm was discovered experimentally in certain conducting as well as insulating chiral magnets. In the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram, skyrmions form a triangular lattice in the low temperature and intermediate magnetic field regime in thin films. Because of the low dissipation and the existence of magnetoelectric coupling, skyrmions in insulators have attracted considerable interests. In this work, we show that a thermal gradient can be used to move magnetic skyrmions in insulating chiral magnets: the induced magnon flow from the hot to the cold region drives the skyrmions in the opposite direction via a magnonic spin transfer torque. We also show that a temperature gradient induces an ac electric current in multiferroic insulators when the sample is embedded in a circuit. Both results are combined to compute the effect of skyrmion motion on the ac current generation. We demonstrate that skyrmions in insulators are a promising route for spin caloritronics applications.

  10. Nanoscale Spin Seebeck Rectifier: Controlling Thermal Spin Transport across Insulating Magnetic Junctions with Localized Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie; Fransson, Jonas; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2014-06-01

    The spin Seebeck effect is studied across a charge insulating magnetic junction, in which thermal-spin conjugate transport is assisted by the exchange interactions between the localized spin in the center and electrons in metallic leads. We show that, in contrast with bulk spin Seebeck effect, the figure of merit of such nanoscale thermal-spin conversion can be infinite, leading to the ideal Carnot efficiency in the linear response regime. We also find that in the nonlinear spin Seebeck transport regime the device possesses the asymmetric and negative differential spin Seebeck effects. In the last, the situations with leaking electron tunneling are also discussed. This nanoscale thermal spin rectifier, by tuning the junction parameters, can act as a spin Seebeck diode, spin Seebeck transistor, and spin Seebeck switch, which could have substantial implications for flexible thermal and information control in molecular spin caloritronics.

  11. Nanoscale Spin Seebeck Rectifier: Controlling Thermal Spin Transport across Insulating Magnetic Junctions with Localized Spin

    E-print Network

    Jie Ren; Jonas Fransson; Jian-Xin Zhu

    2014-06-20

    The spin Seebeck effect is studied across a charge insulating magnetic junction, in which thermal-spin conjugate transport is assisted by the exchange interactions between the localized spin in the center and electrons in metallic leads. We show that, in contrast with bulk spin Seebeck effect, the figure of merit of such nanoscale thermal-spin conversion can be infinite, leading to the ideal Carnot efficiency in the linear response regime. We also find that in the nonlinear spin Seebeck transport regime, the device possesses the asymmetric and negative differential spin Seebeck effects. In the last, the situations with leaking electron tunneling are also discussed. This nanoscale thermal spin rectifier, by tuning the junction parameters, can act as a spin Seebeck diode, spin Seebeck transistor and spin Seebeck switch, which could have substantial implications for flexible thermal and information control in molecular spin caloritronics.

  12. Seebeck tuning in chalcogenide nanoplate assemblies by nanoscale heterostructuring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rutvik J; Karthik, Chinnathambi; Singh, Binay; Teki, Ranganath; Borca-Tasciuc, Theo; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2010-09-28

    Chalcogenide nanostructures offer promise for obtaining nanomaterials with high electrical conductivity, low thermal conductivity, and high Seebeck coefficient. Here, we demonstrate a new approach of tuning the Seebeck coefficient of nanoplate assemblies of single-crystal pnictogen chalcogenides by heterostructuring the nanoplates with tellurium nanocrystals. We synthesized bismuth telluride and antimony telluride nanoplates decorated with tellurium nanorods and nanofins using a rapid, scalable, microwave-stimulated organic surfactant-directed technique. Heterostructuring permits two- to three-fold factorial tuning of the Seebeck coefficient, and yields a 40% higher value than the highest reported for bulk antimony telluride. Microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the nanostructures suggest that Seebeck tunability arises from carrier-energy filtration effects at the Te-chalcogenide heterointerfaces. Our approach of heterostructuring nanoscale building blocks is attractive for realizing high figure-of-merit thermoelectric nanomaterials. PMID:20812700

  13. Spin Seebeck devices using local on-chip heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Fradin, Frank Y.; Hoffman, Jason; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2015-05-01

    A micro-patterned spin Seebeck device is fabricated using an on-chip heater. Current is driven through a Au heater layer electrically isolated from a bilayer consisting of Fe3O4 (insulating ferrimagnet) and a spin detector layer. It is shown that through this method it is possible to measure the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (SSE) for small area magnetic devices, equivalent to traditional macroscopic SSE experiments. Using a lock-in detection technique, it is possible to more sensitively characterize both the SSE and the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE), as well as the inverse spin Hall effect in various spin detector materials. By using the spin detector layer as a thermometer, we can obtain a value for the temperature gradient across the device. These results are well matched to values obtained through electromagnetic/thermal modeling of the device structure and with large area spin Seebeck measurements.

  14. Uncertainty analysis for common Seebeck and electrical resistivity measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Jon; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2014-08-01

    This work establishes the level of uncertainty for electrical measurements commonly made on thermoelectric samples. The analysis targets measurement systems based on the four probe method. Sources of uncertainty for both electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient were identified and evaluated. Included are reasonable estimates on the magnitude of each source, and cumulative propagation of error. Uncertainty for the Seebeck coefficient includes the cold-finger effect which has been quantified with thermal finite element analysis. The cold-finger effect, which is a result of parasitic heat transfer down the thermocouple probes, leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A silicon germanium thermoelectric sample has been characterized to provide an understanding of the total measurement uncertainty. The electrical resistivity was determined to contain uncertainty of ±7.0% across any measurement temperature. The Seebeck coefficient of the system is +1.0%/-13.1% at high temperature and ±1.0% near room temperature. The power factor has a combined uncertainty of +7.3%/-27.0% at high temperature and ±7.5% near room temperature. These ranges are calculated to be typical values for a general four probe Seebeck and resistivity measurement configuration. PMID:25173324

  15. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-28

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T?=?400?K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  16. Optimum design of a nanoscale spin-Seebeck power device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Tianjun; Lin, Jian; Su, Guozhen; Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical model of a nanoscale spin-Seebeck power device (SSPD) is proposed based on the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in bilayers made of a ferromagnetic insulator and a normal metal. Expressions for the power output and thermal efficiency of the SSPD are derived analytically. The performance characteristics of the nanoscale SSPD are analyzed using numerical simulation. The maximum power output density and efficiency are calculated numerically. The effect of the spin Hall angle on the performance characteristics of the SSPD is analyzed. The choice of materials and the structure of the device are discussed. The optimum criteria of some key parameters of the SSPD, such as the power output density, efficiency, thickness of the normal metal, and the load resistance, are given. The results obtained here could provide a theoretical basis for the optimal design and operation of nanoscale SSPDs.

  17. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5?x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} prepared on gadolinium gallium garnet (001) by metal organic decomposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, H. Kuwahara, A.; Sakata, N.; Ono, T.; Kishimoto, K.; Koyanagi, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Meguro, A.; Hashinaka, T.

    2015-05-07

    Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5?x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} thin films with the Ga composition x?=?0, 0.5, and 1.0 are prepared on (001) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates by a metal organic decomposition method. Only (001) peaks are observed in x-ray diffraction patterns for all the films, suggesting that the highly oriented Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5?x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} thin films were formed. Increasing Ga composition, the saturation magnetization decreases, and the perpendicular easy axis is enhanced due to the decrease of the shape anisotropy. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5?x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} thin films with a Pt layer of 10?nm in thickness were investigated. Magnetic field dependence of the thermoelectric voltage caused by the LSSE in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5?x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} films indicates the hysteresis loop with the small coercivity reflecting the magnetization curve. The decrease of LSSE voltage in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5?x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} is clearly observed with the decrease of Fe composition.

  18. Protocols for the high temperature measurement of the Seebeck coefficient in thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua

    2013-08-01

    In Seebeck coefficient metrology, the present diversity in apparatus design, acquisition methodology and contact geometry has resulted in conflicting materials data that complicate the interlaboratory confirmation of reported high efficiency thermoelectric materials. To elucidate the influence of these factors in the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature and to identify optimal metrology protocols, we measure the Seebeck coefficient as a function of contact geometry under both steady-state and transient thermal conditions of the differential method, using a custom developed apparatus capable of in situ comparative measurement. The thermal gradient formation and data acquisition methodology, under ideal conditions, have little effect on the measured Seebeck coefficient value. However, the off-axis 4-probe contact geometry, as compared to the 2-probe, results in a greater local temperature measurement error that increases with temperature. For surface temperature measurement, the dominant thermal errors arise from a parasitic heat flux that is dependent on the temperature difference between the sample and the external thermal environment, and on the various thermal resistances. Due to higher macroconstriction and contact resistance in the 4-probe arrangement, the measurement of surface temperature for this contact geometry exhibits greater error, thereby overestimating the Seebeck coefficient.

  19. Combination of PVA with Graphene to Improve the Seebeck Coefficient for Thermoelectric Generator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, L.; Abdul Samad, Y.; Alhawari, M.; Mohammad, B.; Liao, K.; Ismail, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasensitive thermoelectric (TE) materials are essential for the next generation of self-powered electronic devices. In this work, a graphene-based TE generator was fabricated. For 50 to 1000 graphene layers the average Seebeck coefficient was 90 ?V/K. We also report improvement of the Seebeck coefficient by use of a hybrid material containing 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and 90% graphene oxide prepared and tested under the same conditions. The results show that the Seebeck coefficient is improved by an average of 30% compared with graphene alone. Because the fabrication process is facile, scalable, and cost effective, it could also be applicable to other fields of science and engineering.

  20. Description of a Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter Used for Cold Fusion Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    A sensitive and stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to determine the heat of formation of PdD. This determination can be used to show that such calorimeters are sufficiently accurate to measure the LENR effect and give support to the claims.

  1. First-Principles Estimation of Seebeck Coefficient of Bismuth Telluride and Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Hamada, Noriaki

    2012-12-01

    The first-principles electronic band structure calculation has been used to examine the relationship between the Bi/Sb composition ratio and the Seebeck coefficient in (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3. The Te/Se ratio dependence in Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 has also been investigated and the results have been compared. Because spin-orbit interaction affects the band structure to a large extent, its inclusion is crucial to a quantitative discussion on the Seebeck coefficient. We have found that the Bi/Sb or Te/Se ratio does not have a large effect on the Seebeck coefficient. However, carrier density largely influences the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. Both the p- and n-type of thermoelectric materials were examined and the results show that their stabilities have the same tendency. The carrier densities in them are largely associated with defects, which suggests that a careful defect control is very important in the production process.

  2. Microchip for the Measurement of Seebeck Coefficients of Single Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völklein, F.; Schmitt, M.; Cornelius, T. W.; Picht, O.; Müller, S.; Neumann, R.

    2009-07-01

    Bismuth nanowires were electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Micromachining and microlithography were employed to realize a newly developed microchip for Seebeck coefficient measurements on individual nanowires. By anisotropic etching of a (100) Si wafer, an 800-nm-thick SiO2/Si3N4 membrane was prepared in the chip center. The low thermal conductivity of the membrane is crucial to obtain the required temperature difference ? T along the nanowire. The wire is electrically contacted to thin metal pads which are patterned by a new method of microscopic exposure of photoresist and a lift-off process. A ? T between the two pairs of contact pads, located on the membrane, is established by a thin-film heater. Applying the known Seebeck coefficient of a reference film, the temperature difference at this gap is determined. Using ? T and the measured Seebeck voltage U of the nanowire, its Seebeck coefficient can be calculated.

  3. System to Measure Thermal Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient for Thermoelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Nagavalli, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at elevated temperatures. This has led to the implementation of nonstandardized practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. The major objective of the procedure described is for the simultaneous measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity within a given temperature range. These thermoelectric measurements must be precise, accurate, and reproducible to ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data. The custom-built thermal characterization system described in this NASA-TM is specifically designed to measure the inplane thermal diffusivity, and the Seebeck coefficient for materials in the ranging from 73 K through 373 K.

  4. Measurement of Seebeck coefficient using a light pulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, D.; Stapfer, G.

    1985-01-01

    A high-temperature (1900 K) Seebeck coefficient apparatus is described in which small thermal gradients are generated in a sample by light pulses transmitted via light pipes. By employing an analog subtraction circuit, the Seebeck coefficient is displayed directly on an X-Y recorder. This technique presents a convenient, accurate, and rapid method for measuring the Seebeck coefficient in highly doped semiconductors as a function of temperature. The nature of the resulting display (X-Y recording) is a valuable tool in determining validity of the data. A straight line results (i.e., a minimum of hysteresis) only if all potential experimental errors are minimized. Under these conditions, the error of measurements of the Seebeck coefficient is estimated to be less than + or - 1 percent.

  5. Calculation of Phonon Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient in Cu-Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Yusuke; Asai, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, thermoelectric materials have been attracting a lot of attention because they are expected to be applied for utilization of waste heat. Many kinds of materials are studied for this purpose; semiconductors, alloys, organic materials, etc. In 2010, a giant Peltier effect was observed in a Cu-Ni/Au junction. It is considered that this giant Peltier effect is caused by nano-scale phase separation formed in the sputtering process. Although this material is a great candidate for a thermoelectric material, we need to find the condition for a large thermoelectric coefficient that requires a large Seebeck coefficient, large electric conductivity, and small phonon conductivity. We calculated phonon conductivity in Cu-Ni alloy by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation and calculated Seebeck coefficients via ab-initio methods.

  6. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics: A Study of the Absolute Seebeck Coefficient of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Sarah J.

    The worlds demand for energy is ever increasing. Likewise, the environmental impact of climate change due generating that energy through combustion of fossil fuels is increasingly alarming. Due to these factors new sources of renewable energies are constantly being sought out. Thermoelectric devices have the ability to generate clean, renewable, energy out of waste heat. However promising that is, their inefficiency severely inhibits applicability and practical use. The usefulness of a thermoelectric material increases with the dimensionless quantity, ZT, which depends on the Seebeck coefficient and electrical and thermal conductivity. These characteristic material parameters have interdependent energy transport contributions that classically prohibit the optimization of one with out the detriment of another. Encouraging advancements of ZT have occurred in the past ten years due to the decoupling of the thermal and electrical conductivity. Further advancements are necessary in order to produce applicable devices. One auspicious way of decoupling or tuning energy transport properties, is through size reduction to the nanoscale. However, with reduced dimensions come complications in measuring material properties. Measurements of properties such as the Seebeck coefficient, S, are primarily contingent upon the measurement apparatus. The Seebeck coefficient is defined as the amount of voltage generated by a thermal gradient. Measuring a thermally generated voltage by traditional methods gives, the voltage measured as a linear function of the Seebeck coefficient of the leads and of the material being tested divided by the applied thermal gradient. If accurate values of the Seebeck coefficients of the leads are available, simple subtraction provides the answer. This is rarely the case in nanoscale measurement devices with leads exclusively made from thin film materials that do not have well known bulk-like thermopower values. We have developed a technique to directly measure, S, as a function of temperature using a micro-machined thermal isolation platform consisting of a suspended, patterned SiN membrane. By measuring a series of thicknesses of metallic films up to the infinitely thin film limit, in which the electrical resistivity is no longer decreasing with increasing film thickness, but still not at bulk values, along with the effective electron mean free path, we are able to show the contribution of the leads needed to measure this property. Having a comprehensive understanding of the background contribution we are able to determine the absolute Seebeck coefficient of a wide variety of thin films. The nature of the design of the SiN membrane also allows the ability to accurately and directly measure thermal and electrical transport of the thin films yielding a comprehensive measurement of the three quantities that characterize a material's efficiency. This can serve to further the development of thermoelectric materials through precise measurements of the material properties that dictate efficiency.

  7. Seebeck Coefficient Metrology: Do Contemporary Protocols Measure Up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Wong-Ng, Winnie; Green, Martin L.

    2015-06-01

    Comparative measurements of the Seebeck coefficient are challenging due to the diversity of instrumentation and measurement protocols. With the implementation of standardized measurement protocols and the use of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs®), for example, the recently certified National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SRM® 3451 ``Low Temperature Seebeck Coefficient Standard (10-390 K)'', researchers can reliably analyze and compare data, both intra- and inter-laboratory, thereby accelerating the development of more efficient thermoelectric materials and devices. We present a comparative overview of commonly adopted Seebeck coefficient measurement practices. First, we examine the influence of asynchronous temporal and spatial measurement of electric potential and temperature. Temporal asynchronicity introduces error in the absolute Seebeck coefficient of the order of ?10%, whereas spatial asynchronicity introduces error of the order of a few percent. Second, we examine the influence of poor thermal contact between the measurement probes and the sample. This is especially critical at high temperature, wherein the prevalent mode of measuring surface temperature is facilitated by pressure contact. Each topic will include the comparison of data measured using different measurement techniques and using different probe arrangements. We demonstrate that the probe arrangement is the primary limit to high accuracy, wherein the Seebeck coefficients measured by the 2-probe arrangement and those measured by the 4-probe arrangement diverge with the increase in temperature, approaching ?14% at 900 K. Using these analyses, we provide recommended measurement protocols to guide members of the thermoelectric materials community in performing more accurate measurements and in evaluating more comprehensive uncertainty limits.

  8. Seebeck coefficient measurements on Li, Sn, Ta, Mo, and W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiflis, P.; Kirsch, L.; Andruczyk, D.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2013-07-01

    The thermopower of W, Mo, Ta, Li and Sn has been measured relative to stainless steel, and the Seebeck coefficient of each of these materials has then been calculated. These are materials that are currently relevant to fusion research and form the backbone for different possible liquid limiter concepts including TEMHD concepts such as LiMIT. For molybdenum the Seebeck coefficient has a linear rise with temperature from SMo = 3.9 ?V K-1 at 30 °C to 7.5 ?V K-1 at 275 °C, while tungsten has a linear rise from SW = 1.0 ?V K-1 at 30 °C to 6.4 ?V K-1 at 275 °C, and tantalum has the lowest Seebeck coefficient of the solid metals studied with STa = -2.4 ?V K-1 at 30 °C to -3.3 ?V K-1 at 275 °C. The two liquid metals, Li and Sn have also been measured. The Seebeck coefficient for Li has been re-measured and agrees with past measurements. As seen with Li there are two distinct phases in Sn also corresponding to the solid and liquid phases of the metal. In its solid phase the SSn-solid = -1.5 ?V K-1 at 30 °C and -2.5 ?V K-1 near the melting temperature of 231 °C. There is a distinct increase in the Seebeck coefficient around the melting temperature as the Sn melts and stays relatively constant over the rest of the measured temperatures, SSn-melt = -1.4 ?V K-1 from 235 °C to 275 °C.

  9. Simultaneous Enhancement of the Electrical Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient of PEDOT-block-PEG/SWCNTs Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qinglin; Liu, Congcong; Zhu, Danhua; Song, Haijun; Xu, Jingkun; Shi, Hui; Mo, Daize; Wang, Zhipeng; Zhu, Zhengyou

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the thermoelectric (TE) performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEDOT-block-PEG), one of the most important poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives, was studied. To improve its TE performance, different mass fractions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were incorporated by physical mixing. Blending with SWCNTs resulted in simultaneous enhancement of the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the PEDOT-block-PEG/SWCNTs nanocomposites. At 300 K, the maximum electrical conductivity was increased from 0.51 to 78.6 S/cm, and the Seebeck coefficient was increased from 5.1 to 46.3 ?V/K. The thermal conductivity of the composite films was low (0.24-0.34 W/m/K). The maximum ZT of PEDOT-block-PEG/SWCNTs nanocomposites was 1.24 × 10-2 when the SWCNTs content was 66.7 wt.%. This study suggests that constructing PEDOT-block-PEG/SWCNTs nanocomposites might be an effective way of improving the TE properties of PEDOT-block-PEG.

  10. Design for a spin-Seebeck diode based on two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Dan-Dan; Gu, Lei; Wu, Menghao; Wu, Ruqian

    2015-07-01

    Studies of the spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) are very important for the development of fundamental science and novel low-power-consumption technologies. The spin-Seebeck diode (SSD), in which the spin current can be driven by a forward temperature gradient but not by a reverse temperature gradient, is a key unit in spin caloritronic devices. Here, we propose a SSD design using two-dimensional (2D) materials such as silicene and phosphorene nanoribbons as the source and drain. Due to their unique band structures and magnetic states, thermally driven spin-up and spin-down currents flow in opposite directions. This mechanism is different from that of the previous one, which uses two permalloy circular disks [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 047203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.047203], and the SSD in our design can be easily integrated with gate voltage control. Since the concept of this design is rather general and applicable to many 2D materials, it is promising for the realization and exploitation of SSDs in nanodevices.

  11. Thermocyclic stability of candidate Seebeck coefficient standard reference materials at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Wong-Ng, Winnie; Caillat, Thierry; Yonenaga, I.; Green, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    The Seebeck coefficient is the most widely measured property specific to thermoelectric materials. There is currently no consensus on measurement protocols, and researchers employ a variety of techniques to measure the Seebeck coefficient. The implementation of standardized measurement protocols and the use of reliable Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Materials (SRMs®) will allow the accurate interlaboratory comparison and validation of materials data, thereby accelerating the development and commercialization of more efficient thermoelectric materials and devices. To enable members of the thermoelectric materials community the means to calibrate Seebeck coefficient measurement equipment, NIST certified SRM® 3451 "Low Temperature Seebeck Coefficient Standard (10 K to 390 K)". Due to different practical requirements in instrumentation, sample contact methodology, and thermal stability, a complementary SRM® is required for the high temperature regime (300 K to 900 K). The principal requirement of a SRM® for the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature is thermocyclic stability. We therefore characterized the thermocyclic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient for a series of candidate materials: constantan, p-type single crystal SiGe, and p-type polycrystalline SiGe, by measuring the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of 10 sequential thermal cycles, between 300 K and 900 K. We employed multiple regression analysis to interpolate and analyze the thermocyclic variability in the measurement curves.

  12. Seebeck rectification enabled by intrinsic thermoelectrical coupling in magnetic tunneling junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Gui, Y S; Fu, L; Fan, X L; Cao, J W; Xue, D S; Freitas, P P; Houssameddine, D; Hemour, S; Wu, K; Hu, C-M

    2012-07-20

    An intrinsic thermoelectric coupling effect in the linear response regime of magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) is reported. In the dc response, it leads to a nonlinear correction to Ohm's law. Dynamically, it enables a novel Seebeck rectification and second harmonic generation, which apply for a broad frequency range and can be magnetically controlled. A phenomenological model on the footing of the Onsager reciprocal relation and the principle of energy conservation explains very well the experimental results obtained from both dc and frequency-dependent transport measurements performed up to GHz frequencies. Our work refines previous understanding of magnetotransport and microwave rectification in MTJs. It forms a new foundation for utilizing spin caloritronics in high-frequency applications. PMID:22861893

  13. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping

    SciTech Connect

    ASELAGE,TERRENCE L.; EMIN,DAVID JACOB; MCCREADY,STEVEN S.

    2000-07-20

    The most conspicuous feature of boron carbides' electronic transport properties is their having both high carrier densities and large Seebeck coefficients. The magnitudes and temperature dependencies of the Seebeck coefficients are consistent with large contributions from softening bipolarons: singlet bipolarons whose stabilization is significantly affected by their softening of local vibrations. Boron carbides' high carrier densities, small activation energies for hopping ({approx} 0.16 eV), and anomalously large Seebeck coefficients combine with their low, glass-like thermal conductivities to make them unexpectedly efficient high-temperature thermoelectrics.

  14. Multifold Seebeck increase in RuO{sub 2} films by quantum-guided lanthanide dilute alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Music, Denis Basse, Felix H.-U.; Schneider, Jochen M.; Han, Liang; Borca-Tasciuc, Theo; Devender; Gengler, Jamie J.; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2014-02-03

    Ab initio predictions indicating that alloying RuO{sub 2} with La, Eu, or Lu can increase the Seebeck coefficient ? manifold due to quantum confinement effects are validated in sputter-deposited La-alloyed RuO{sub 2} films showing fourfold ? increase. Combinatorial screening reveals that ? enhancement correlates with La-induced lattice distortion, which also decreases the thermal conductivity twentyfold, conducive for high thermoelectric figures of merit. These insights should facilitate the rational design of high efficiency oxide-based thermoelectrics through quantum-guided alloying.

  15. Characterization of Lorenz number with Seebeck coefficient measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Sik; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Tang, Yinglu; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    In analyzing zT improvements due to lattice thermal conductivity (?{sub L}) reduction, electrical conductivity (?) and total thermal conductivity (?{sub Total}) are often used to estimate the electronic component of the thermal conductivity (?{sub E}) and in turn ?{sub L} from ?{sub L} = ? ?{sub Total} ? L?T. The Wiedemann-Franz law, ?{sub E} = L?T, where L is Lorenz number, is widely used to estimate ?{sub E} from ? measurements. It is a common practice to treat L as a universal factor with 2.44 × 10{sup ?8} W?K{sup ?2} (degenerate limit). However, significant deviations from the degenerate limit (approximately 40% or more for Kane bands) are known to occur for non-degenerate semiconductors where L converges to 1.5 × 10{sup ?8} W?K{sup ?2} for acoustic phonon scattering. The decrease in L is correlated with an increase in thermopower (absolute value of Seebeck coefficient (S)). Thus, a first order correction to the degenerate limit of L can be based on the measured thermopower, |S|, independent of temperature or doping. We propose the equation: L=1.5+exp[?(|S|)/(116) ] (where L is in 10{sup ?8} W?K{sup ?2} and S in ?V/K) as a satisfactory approximation for L. This equation is accurate within 5% for single parabolic band/acoustic phonon scattering assumption and within 20% for PbSe, PbS, PbTe, Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} where more complexity is introduced, such as non-parabolic Kane bands, multiple bands, and/or alternate scattering mechanisms. The use of this equation for L rather than a constant value (when detailed band structure and scattering mechanism is not known) will significantly improve the estimation of lattice thermal conductivity.

  16. Characterization of Lorenz number with Seebeck coefficient measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Sik; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Tang, Yinglu; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    In analyzing zT improvements due to lattice thermal conductivity (?L) reduction, electrical conductivity (?) and total thermal conductivity (?Total) are often used to estimate the electronic component of the thermal conductivity (?E) and in turn ?L from ?L = ˜ ?Total - L?T. The Wiedemann-Franz law, ?E = L?T, where L is Lorenz number, is widely used to estimate ?E from ? measurements. It is a common practice to treat L as a universal factor with 2.44 × 10-8 W?K-2 (degenerate limit). However, significant deviations from the degenerate limit (approximately 40% or more for Kane bands) are known to occur for non-degenerate semiconductors where L converges to 1.5 × 10-8 W?K-2 for acoustic phonon scattering. The decrease in L is correlated with an increase in thermopower (absolute value of Seebeck coefficient (S)). Thus, a first order correction to the degenerate limit of L can be based on the measured thermopower, |S|, independent of temperature or doping. We propose the equation: L = 1 . 5 + exp [" separators=" - /| S | 116 ] (where L is in 10-8 W?K-2 and S in ?V/K) as a satisfactory approximation for L. This equation is accurate within 5% for single parabolic band/acoustic phonon scattering assumption and within 20% for PbSe, PbS, PbTe, Si0.8Ge0.2 where more complexity is introduced, such as non-parabolic Kane bands, multiple bands, and/or alternate scattering mechanisms. The use of this equation for L rather than a constant value (when detailed band structure and scattering mechanism is not known) will significantly improve the estimation of lattice thermal conductivity.

  17. A Study of the Measurement of Seebeck Coefficient of SiGe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heung, King Yi

    2005-01-01

    In 1821 German Physicist Thomas J. Seebeck discovered that heat could be converted into electricity when a temperature difference was applied across two points on a material. Theoretically, the generated voltage has a directly proportional relationship with the temperature difference. This relationship is the Seebeck coefficient that scientists always referred to when determining the efficiency of a thermoelectricity convention. In our experiments, however, hysteresis loops appeared when we plotted voltage against temperature difference, and the measured Seebeck appeared differently when the measurements were run under vacuum, air, and helium gas. Measurements were done by using a low-frequency AC measuring method. By simulating the experimental setup into a; thermal circuit, we found that the loop and inconsistency in measuring Seebeck coefficient could be explained by studying the behaviors of a RC circuit in a thermal sense. Under vacuum, the gap of the hysteresis loop can be largely eliminated if the time period of the temperature difference increased up to 4800s. The trend of the variations in measuring Seebeck coefficients in different environments can also be predicted by using different thermal circuit models.

  18. Critical evaluation of the colossal Seebeck coefficient of nanostructured rutile MnO2.

    PubMed

    Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M

    2015-03-25

    We have explored the correlation between the Seebeck coefficient and the electronic structure of nanostructured rutile MnO2 using density functional theory to critically appraise the three orders of magnitude scatter in literature data. Our hypothesis is that the microstructure and morphology on the nanoscale is causing this behaviour, which we have tested by comparing the Seebeck coefficient of bulk MnO2 with two low-energy surfaces: MnO2(1?1?0) and MnO2(0?0?1). From these data, it is evident that variations over two orders of magnitude in the Seebeck coefficient can be attained by affecting domain size and texture on the nanoscale. This may be understood by analysing the electronic structure. Surface hybridized Mn d-O p states fill the band gap of MnO2 and thus substantially alter the transport properties. PMID:25730181

  19. The Characteristics of Seebeck Coefficient in Silicon Nanowires Manufactured by CMOS Compatible Process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are patterned down to 30 nm using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process. The electrical conductivities of n-/p-leg nanowires are extracted with the variation of width. Using this structure, Seebeck coefficients are measured. The obtained maximum Seebeck coefficient values are 122 ?V/K for p-leg and ?94 ?V/K for n-leg. The maximum attainable power factor is 0.74 mW/m K2 at room temperature. PMID:21076666

  20. Seebeck and thermal conductivity analysis in amorphous/crystalline {beta}-K{<_2}Bi{<_8}Se{<_13} nanocomposite materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Kyratsi, Th.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Ioannou, M.; Chung, D. Y.; Tsiaoussis, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, ball milling is applied on {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} compounds in order to explore the potential of the process for the fabrication of nano-based material. Polycrystalline {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}, synthesized from melt, was ball milled under inert atmosphere. Powder x-ray diffraction showed a significantly increased disorder with ball milling time. TEM studies confirmed the presence of nanocrystalline material in an amorphous matrix, suggesting the development of crystalline/amorphous {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} nanocomposite material via ball milling process. Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity were analyzed based on the effective medium theory and show a significant contribution of a nanocrystalline phase.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity for bulk thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Ryoei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Terakado, Hiroki; Morita, Hiroyuki; Komine, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    We simultaneously measured the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity of a rectangular parallelepiped bulk thermoelectric material. We used one-dimensional heat conduction equation to show that a periodic heat cycle produces not only the thermoelectromotive force but also a certain phase shift angle between the edge and intermediate points of a sample along the length of the material. Based on the equation of the modified Angström method, an experiment at 300 K was performed using NIST standard material (SRM 3451, Bi2Te3 material) to measure the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. The measured Seebeck coefficient was -231 ± 3 µV/K, which corresponds to the published value. Using the same experimental setup as that for the thermal diffusivity measurement, the dependence of the phase shift angle on frequency was measured from 5 mHz to 10 Hz for the phase shift angle from -8.2 to -450°. The estimated thermal diffusivity was (1.53 ± 0.05) × 10-6 m2/s. We conclude that the modified Angström method can be used to measure the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity simultaneously.

  2. Correlation of Seebeck coefficient and electric conductivity in polyaniline and polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Mateeva, N.; Niculescu, H.; Schlenoff, J.; Testardi, L.R.

    1998-03-01

    We have measured the Seebeck coefficient and electric conductivity in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole at different doping levels. We find, at 300 K, the general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity varies linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping, but with a proportionality substantially in excess of a prediction from simple theory for a single type of mobile carrier. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable in its consequences for thermoelectric applications. A standard model suggests that conduction by carriers of both signs may occur in these doped polymers, which thus leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. We also show that polyacetylene (which is not air stable), does exhibit the correlation with the expected proportionality, and, thus, its properties could be more favorable for thermoelectricity. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Seebeck Enhancement Through Miniband Conduction in III-V Semiconductor Superlattices at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bahk, JH; Sadeghian, RB; Bian, ZX; Shakouri, A

    2012-02-08

    We present theoretically that the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient of InGaAs/InGaAlAs III-V semiconductor superlattices can be significantly enhanced through miniband transport at low temperatures. The miniband dispersion curves are calculated by self-consistently solving the Schrodinger equation with the periodic potential, and the Poisson equation taking into account the charge transfer between the two layers. Boltzmann transport in the relaxation-time approximation is used to calculate the thermoelectric transport properties in the cross-plane direction based on the modified density of states and group velocity. It is found that the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient can be enhanced more than 60% over the bulk values at an equivalent doping level at 80 K when the Fermi level is aligned at an edge of the minibands. Other thermoelectric transport properties are also calculated and discussed to further enhance the thermoelectric power factor.

  4. Uncertainty Analysis of Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a complete description of a materials thermoelectric power factor, in addition to the measured nominal value, an uncertainty interval is required. The uncertainty may contain sources of measurement error including systematic bias error and precision error of a statistical nature. The work focuses specifically on the popular ZEM-3 (Ulvac Technologies) measurement system, but the methods apply to any measurement system. The analysis accounts for sources of systematic error including sample preparation tolerance, measurement probe placement, thermocouple cold-finger effect, and measurement parameters; in addition to including uncertainty of a statistical nature. Complete uncertainty analysis of a measurement system allows for more reliable comparison of measurement data between laboratories.

  5. Economical Route to Produce High Seebeck Coefficient Calcium Cobaltate for Bulk Thermoelectric Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, Jiri; Lin, Sidney; Lin, Hua-Tay; Johnson, D Ray; Wang, Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.

  6. Profiling the Local Seebeck Coefficient of InAs-GaAs Quantum Dots Using Scanning Thermoelectric Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Walrath, Jenna; Huang, Simon; Goldman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices offer a method of recovering waste heat through solid state conversion of heat to electricity. However, the typical efficiencies of TE devices are 5-10% which constitutes a barrier to wide spread use. There have recently been a number of reports of an increase in the bulk thermopower due to nanostructuring. In addition to our recent report of enhanced thermopower for GaAs embedded with indium nanocrystals, a theoretical study by Mahan and Sofo suggested that the best thermoelectric materials have a delta function density of states. Quantum dots fit ideally into such a picture. To date, the influence of nanostructuring on the electronic LDOS and thermopower has been studied using spatially averaged measurements; a nanoscale investigation of the effects of nanostructures on thermopower has yet to be presented. To investigate the link between dimensionality and TE properties, we are examining structures ranging from QDs to bulk-like layers, comparing SThEM measurements of the local Seebeck coefficient, S, with STS measurements of the local density of states (LDOS). STM, STS, and SThEM performed on InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs. SThEM reveals enhanced S-values near the QD edge; STS reveals band-bending at the QD/GaAs interface, suggesting that the S enhancement is due to interfacial charge accumulation.

  7. Laser Synthesis of Nanometric Iron Oxide Films with High Seebeck Coefficient and High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulenko, S. A.; Gorbachuk, N. T.; Stefan, N.

    2014-12-01

    Radiation of a KrF-laser ( ? = 248 nm) was used for the synthesis by reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) of nanometric iron oxide [Fe2O3-X (0?×?1)] films with variable thickness, stoichiometry and electrical properties. Film deposition was carried out on <100>Si at its temperature to have being increased from 293 to 800 K. XRD analysis showed that films deposited on Si substrate had polycrystalline structure. Films demonstrated semiconductor temperature trend with variable band gap Eg about 1.0 eV or less depending on oxygen pressure, the number of laser pulses and substrate temperature. Film thickness (13-60 nm) depended on oxygen pressure, substrate temperature and number of laser pulses. The higher substrate temperature, the more crystallinity of the deposited iron oxides' films was resulting in increasing of thermo electromotive force coefficient (Seebeck coefficient, S). It was found out the optimum oxygen pressure in the reactor, substrate temperature and film thickness when the S coefficient was high as 12-4 mV/K in the range 240-330 K. The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) was high as 1-6 in the range 280-330 K. This makes nanometric Fe2O3-X films, synthesized by UV photons using RPLD method, an exceptionally strong candidate for effective thermo sensors and thermo converters operating at moderate temperature.

  8. Improvement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT/PSS Films by Addition of Gold Nanoparticles: Enhancement of Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshima, Naoki; Jiravanichanun, Nattha

    2013-07-01

    Thermoelectric properties of hybrid films composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with 3-mercaptopropinoic acid (Au-MPA NPs) and 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (Au-MHA NPs) were investigated. Several factors such as the size and content of the AuNPs, and the chain length of the NP stabilizer were found to influence the thermoelectric properties of the hybrid film. The Seebeck coefficient can be raised by varying the size of the Au-MPA NPs or the content of Au-MHA NPs. The enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient is suggested to be a result of reduced carrier concentration due to the increased number of AuNPs. This could be the first report on the fact that AuNPs enhance the Seebeck coefficient in PEDOT/PSS hybrid films.

  9. A computer-controlled apparatus for Seebeck inhomogeneity testing of sheathed thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Bauserman, Willard A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) thermocouple assemblies are used throughout industry and research facilities as a method of temperature measurement where requirements for either harsh environmental conditions exist, or where rigidity of the measurement probe is required. Seebeck inhomogeneity is the abnormal variation of the Seebeck coefficient from point to point in a material. It is not disclosed in conventional calibration. A standardized method of measuring thermoelectric inhomogeneity along the thermocouple probe length is not available. Therefore, calibration for sheathed probes normally does not include testing of probe inhomogeneity. The measurement accuracy would be severely impacted if significant inhomogeneity and a temperature gradient were present in the same region of the probe. A computer-controlled system for determining inhomogeneities was designed, fabricated, and tested. This system provides an accurate method for the identification of the location of inhomogeneity along the length of a sheathed thermocouple and for the quantification of the inhomogeneity. This paper will discuss the apparatus and procedure used to perform these tests and will present data showing tests performed on sheathed thermocouple probes.

  10. Strain effect on electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of orthorhombic SnSe: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuong, Do Duc; Rhim, S. H.; Lee, Joo-Hyong; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2015-11-01

    Strain effect on thermoelectricity of orthorhombic SnSe is studied using density function theory. The Seebeck coefficients are obtained by solving Boltzmann Transport equation (BTE) with interpolated band energies. As expected from the crystal structure, calculated Seebeck coefficients are highly anisotropic, and agree well with experiment. Changes in the Seebeck coefficients are presented, when strain is applied along b and c direction with strength from -3% to +3%, where influence by band gaps and band dispersions are significant. Moreover, for compressive strains, the sign change of Seebeck coefficients at particular direction suggests that the bipolar transport is possible for SnSe.

  11. Decoupling the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the RE2SbO2 compounds through local structural perturbations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng L; Kolodiazhnyi, Taras; Yao, Jinlei; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2012-01-25

    Compromise between the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient limits the efficiency of chemical doping in the thermoelectric research. An alternative strategy, involving the control of a local crystal structure, is demonstrated to improve the thermoelectric performance in the RE(2)SbO(2) system. The RE(2)SbO(2) phases, adopting a disordered anti-ThCr(2)Si(2)-type structure (I4/mmm), were prepared for RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Ho, and Er. By traversing the rare earth series, the lattice parameters of the RE(2)SbO(2) phases are gradually reduced, thus increasing chemical pressure on the Sb environment. As the Sb displacements are perturbed, different charge carrier activation mechanisms dominate the transport properties of these compounds. As a result, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are improved simultaneously, while the number of charge carriers in the series remains constant. PMID:22235898

  12. Evaluation of Seebeck coefficients in n- and p-type silicon nanowires fabricated by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Younghoon; Park, Youngsam; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Jaehyeon; Zyung, Taehyoung; Jang, Moongyu

    2012-10-01

    Silicon-based thermoelectric nanowires were fabricated by using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. 50 nm width n- and p-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were manufactured using a conventional photolithography method on 8 inch silicon wafer. For the evaluation of the Seebeck coefficients of the silicon nanowires, heater and temperature sensor embedded test patterns were fabricated. Moreover, for the elimination of electrical and thermal contact resistance issues, the SiNWs, heater and temperature sensors were fabricated monolithically using a CMOS process. For validation of the temperature measurement by an electrical method, scanning thermal microscopy analysis was carried out. The highest Seebeck coefficients were - 169.97 ?V K-1 and 152.82 ?V K-1 and the highest power factors were 2.77 mW m-1 K-2 and 0.65 mW m-1 K-2 for n- and p-type SiNWs, respectively, in the temperature range from 200 to 300 K. The larger power factor value for n-type SiNW was due to the higher electrical conductivity. The total Seebeck coefficient and total power factor for the n- and p-leg unit device were 157.66 ?V K-1 and 9.30 mW m-1 K-2 at 300 K, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of Seebeck coefficients in n- and p-type silicon nanowires fabricated by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Younghoon; Park, Youngsam; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Jaehyeon; Zyung, Taehyoung; Jang, Moongyu

    2012-10-12

    Silicon-based thermoelectric nanowires were fabricated by using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. 50 nm width n- and p-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were manufactured using a conventional photolithography method on 8 inch silicon wafer. For the evaluation of the Seebeck coefficients of the silicon nanowires, heater and temperature sensor embedded test patterns were fabricated. Moreover, for the elimination of electrical and thermal contact resistance issues, the SiNWs, heater and temperature sensors were fabricated monolithically using a CMOS process. For validation of the temperature measurement by an electrical method, scanning thermal microscopy analysis was carried out. The highest Seebeck coefficients were - 169.97 ?V K(-1) and 152.82 ?V K(-1) and the highest power factors were 2.77 mW m(-1) K(-2) and 0.65 mW m(-1) K(-2) for n- and p-type SiNWs, respectively, in the temperature range from 200 to 300 K. The larger power factor value for n-type SiNW was due to the higher electrical conductivity. The total Seebeck coefficient and total power factor for the n- and p-leg unit device were 157.66 ?V K(-1) and 9.30 mW m(-1) K(-2) at 300 K, respectively. PMID:22995969

  14. The Seebeck Coefficient in Oxygen Enriched La2NiO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Paul; Leboran, Victor; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Oxide-based devices show promise for themoelectric applications due to their chemical stability and straightforward fabrication. The La2NiO4+? system has been predicted to show an increased thermopower coupled with an increased electrical conductivity around ? = 0 . 05 [Pardo et al. PRB 86, 165114 (2012)] that could lead to a large thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). We investigate the suitability of lanthanum nickelate as a candidate material for high-ZT devices through a systematic study of oxygenated thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. We report the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and structural morphology of La2NiO4 grown in a range of oxidizing atmospheres and discuss their implications for controlled engineering of thermoelectric properties. We have explored the possibility of gate-tuning these systems in order to fabricate single-oxide based devices. This work was supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (Spain), grant MAT2010-16157, and the European Research Council, grant ERC-2010-StG 259082 2D THERMS.

  15. Thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of icosahedral boron arsenide films on silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Y.; Kuball, M.; Zhang, Y.; Dudley, M.; Zhang, Y.; Edgar, J. H.; Heard, P. J.

    2010-10-15

    The thermal conductivity of icosahedral boron arsenide (B{sub 12}As{sub 2}) films grown on (0001) 6H-SiC substrates by chemical vapor deposition was studied by the 3{omega} technique. The room temperature thermal conductivity decreased from 27.0 to 15.3 W/m K as the growth temperature was decreased from 1450 to 1275 deg. C. This is mainly attributed to the differences in the impurity concentration and microstructure, determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Callaway's theory was applied to calculate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Seebeck coefficients were determined as 107 {mu}V/K and 136 {mu}V/K for samples grown at 1350 deg. C with AsH{sub 3}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow ratio equals to 1:1 and 3:5, respectively.

  16. Spin Seebeck Effect and Thermal Colossal Magnetoresistance in Graphene Nanoribbon Heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yun; Yao, Kailun; Fu, Huahua; Gao, Guoying; Zhu, Sicong; Wang, Shuling

    2013-01-01

    Spin caloritronics devices are very important for future development of low-power-consumption technology. We propose a new spin caloritronics device based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR), which is a heterojunction consisting of single-hydrogen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-H) and double-hydrogen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-H2). We predict that spin-up and spin-down currents flowing in opposite directions can be induced by temperature difference instead of external electrical bias. The thermal spin-up current is considerably large and greatly improved compared with previous work in graphene. Moreover, the thermal colossal magnetoresistance is obtained in our research, which could be used to fabricate highly-efficient spin caloritronics MR devices. PMID:23459307

  17. Spin seebeck effect and thermal colossal magnetoresistance in graphene nanoribbon heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yun; Yao, Kailun; Fu, Huahua; Gao, Guoying; Zhu, Sicong; Wang, Shuling

    2013-01-01

    Spin caloritronics devices are very important for future development of low-power-consumption technology. We propose a new spin caloritronics device based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR), which is a heterojunction consisting of single-hydrogen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-H) and double-hydrogen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-H2). We predict that spin-up and spin-down currents flowing in opposite directions can be induced by temperature difference instead of external electrical bias. The thermal spin-up current is considerably large and greatly improved compared with previous work in graphene. Moreover, the thermal colossal magnetoresistance is obtained in our research, which could be used to fabricate highly-efficient spin caloritronics MR devices. PMID:23459307

  18. A Thermoelectric Investigation of Selected Lead Salts and the Spin-Seebeck Effect in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Christopher M.

    The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, is used to characterize the conversion efficiency of thermoelectric materials. In this dissertation, we include experimental results on new p-type semiconducting alloys based on lead telluride that have higher zT values than historical materials. Through alloying PbTe:Tl with sulfur, we demonstrate an increase in zT over the parent material PbTe:Tl. Next, we remove the toxic element T1 from the PbTe/PbS alloy and retain the high efficiency via doping heavy valence band in PbTe, a separate mechanism than the high-zT resonant level doping achieved by the impurity Tl. We present experimental evidence relevant to the valence band structure of PbTe alloys at elevated temperature and demonstrate that these alloys remain direct gap semiconductors at temperatures relevant to automotive thermoelectric waste heat recovery (<850K).

  19. Thermoelectricity at the molecular scale: a large Seebeck effect in endohedral metallofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, See Kei; Buerkle, Marius; Yamada, Ryo; Asai, Yoshihiro; Tada, Hirokazu

    2015-12-28

    Single molecule devices provide a unique system to study the thermoelectric energy conversion at an atomistic level and can provide valuable information for the design of organic thermoelectric materials. Here we present a comprehensive study of the thermoelectric transport properties of molecular junctions based on C82, Gd@C82, and Ce@C82. We combine precise scanning tunneling microscope break-junction measurements of the thermopower and conductance with quantitatively accurate self-energy-corrected first-principles transport calculations. We find that all three fullerene derivatives give rise to a negative thermopower (n-conducting). The absolute value, however, is much larger for the Gd@C82 and Ce@C82 junctions. The conductance, on the other hand, remains comparable for all three systems. The power factor determined for the Gd@C82 based junction is so far the highest obtained for a single-molecule device. Although the encapsulated metal atom does not directly contribute to the transport, we show that the observed enhancement of the thermopower for Gd@C82 and Ce@C82 is elucidated by the substantial changes in the electronic- and geometrical structure of the fullerene molecule induced by the encapsulated metal atom. PMID:26583505

  20. High temperature setup for measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of thin films using inductive heating.

    PubMed

    Adnane, L; Williams, N; Silva, H; Gokirmak, A

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ?(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ?650 °C. S and ? are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ?(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented. PMID:26520996

  1. High temperature setup for measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of thin films using inductive heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnane, L.; Williams, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ?(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ˜650 °C. S and ? are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ?(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented.

  2. Seebeck and figure of merit enhancement in nanostructured antimony telluride by antisite defect suppression through sulfur doping.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rutvik J; Zhang, Yanliang; Zhu, Hong; Parker, David S; Belley, Matthew; Singh, David J; Ramprasad, Ramamurthy; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2012-09-12

    Antimony telluride has a low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT < ?0.3) because of a low Seebeck coefficient ? arising from high degenerate hole concentrations generated by antimony antisite defects. Here, we mitigate this key problem by suppressing antisite defect formation using subatomic percent sulfur doping. The resultant 10-25% higher ? in bulk nanocrystalline antimony telluride leads to ZT ? 0.95 at 423 K, which is superior to the best non-nanostructured antimony telluride alloys. Density functional theory calculations indicate that sulfur increases the antisite formation activation energy and presage further improvements leading to ZT ? 2 through optimized doping. Our findings are promising for designing novel thermoelectric materials for refrigeration, waste heat recovery, and solar thermal applications. PMID:22891784

  3. Fabrication of a simple apparatus for the Seebeck coefficient measurement in the temperature range of 300-620 K

    E-print Network

    Singh, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    A simple apparatus for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient ({\\alpha}) in the temperature range 300-620 K has been fabricated. Our design is appropriate for the characterization of samples with different geometries like disk and rod shaped. The sample holder assembly of the apparatus has been designed in such a way that, single heater used for sample heating purpose is enough to provide a self maintain temperature gradient (1-10 K) across the sample. The value of $\\alpha$ is obtained without explicit measurement of temperature gradient. The whole apparatus is fabricated from the materials, which are commonly available, so that any part can be replaced in case of any damage. Commercially available standard Nickel (Ni) metal sample has been used as a reference material for calibration of the instrument. The experimentally observed value of {\\alpha} by our apparatus gives the similar temperature dependent behavior as reported in the literature.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3 from first principles and Seebeck local probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemal, Sébastien; Nguyen, Ngoc; de Boor, Johannes; Ghosez, Philippe; Varignon, Julien; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Verstraete, Matthieu J.

    2015-11-01

    Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid functional approach for exchange correlation. The ground state is determined to be antiferromagnetic with an atomic magnetic moment of 1.6 ?B/Fe . The Néel temperature TN is estimated at 6 K, in agreement with experiments which found a paramagnetic state down to 10 K. The ground state is semiconducting, with a small electronic gap of 33 meV , also consistent with previous experiments on films. Charge carrier concentrations are estimated from Hall resistance measurements. The Seebeck coefficient is measured and mapped using a scanning probe at room temperature that yields an average value of 38.6 ? V K-1 , slightly lower than the theoretical result. The theoretical conductivity is analyzed as a function of temperature and concentration of charge carriers.

  5. Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laliberte, Francis

    2010-06-01

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Des resultats obtenus recemment au Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses a Grenoble sur La1.7Eu0.2Sr0.1 CuO4, La1.675Eu0.2Sr0.125CuO 4, La1.64Eu0.2Sr0.16CuO4, La1.74Eu0.1Sr0.16CuO4 et La 1.4Nd0.4Sr0.2CuO4 sont analyses. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee. La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail. Enfin, un chapitre est dedie a l'explication et l'interpretation des resultats de transport thermoelectrique sur YBa2Cu3O6+delta publies au cours de l'hiver 2010 dans les revues Nature et Physical Review Letters. Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1.8-x,Eu0.2SrxCuO 4, ou un changement de signe est observe, permettent de conclure a la presence d'une poche d'electrons dans la surface de Fermi qui domine le transport a basse temperature dans la region sous-dopee du diagramme de phase. Cette conclusion est similaire a celle obtenue par des mesures d'effet Hall dans YBa 2Cu3O6+delta et elle cadre bien dans un scenario de reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique.

  6. Observations of Co4+ in a Higher Spin State and the Increase in the Seebeck Coefficient of Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9

    SciTech Connect

    Klie, Robert F; Qiao, Q.; Paulauskas, T.; Gulec, A.; Rebola, A.; Ogut, Serdar; Prange, Micah P; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Kolesnik, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Ozdemir, M.; Boyraz, C.; Mazumdar, Dipanjan; Gupta, Dr. Arunava

    2012-01-01

    Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications.

  7. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics—An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Böttner, Harald; König, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolet, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Patricia; Sharp, Jeff W.; Lo, Jason; Kleinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Recent research and development of high-temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential for converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air-conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, still needs to be improved from the current value of 1.0 to 1.5 to above 2.0 to be competitive with other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods, and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as a key component for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the Implementing Agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main foci in part I are the measurement of two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  8. Size effects on thermoelectric behavior of ultrathin Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Brinks, Peter; Rijnders, Guus; Huijben, Mark

    2014-11-10

    Size effects in thermoelectric Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} thin films are studied, focusing on the electrical resisitivity and Seebeck coefficient. For very thin films below 10?nm, we have observed an increase in resistivity, which is in agreement with theoretical models. In contrast to a predicted simultaneous suppression of the Seebeck coefficient for ultrathin films, we observe a constant Seebeck coefficient as a function of layer thickness due to changes in the structural properties as well as the presence of strong electron correlations. This preserved high Seebeck coefficient opens up new directions for Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} ultrathin films as basic building blocks in thermoelectric superlattices with enhanced phonon scattering.

  9. Thin film thermoelectric metal-organic framework with high Seebeck coefficient and low thermal conductivity (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Kristopher J.; Leonard, Francois; Stavila, Vitalie N.; Foster, Michael E.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Jones, Reese; Foley, Brian; Hopkins, Patrick; Allendorf, Mark D.; Talin, A. Alec

    2015-08-01

    Inorganic, low bandgap semiconductors such as Bi2Te3 have adequate efficiency for some thermoelectric energy conversion applications, but have not been more widely adopted because they are difficult to deposit over complex and/or high surface area structures, are not eco-friendly, and are too expensive. As an alternative, conducting polymers have recently attracted much attention for thermoelectric applications motivated by their low material cost, ease of processability, non-toxicity, and low thermal conductivity. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are extended, crystalline compounds consisting of metal ions interconnected by organic ligands, share many of the advantages of all-organic polymers including solution processability and low thermal conductivity. Additionally, MOFs and Guest@MOF materials offer higher thermal stability (up to ~300 °C in some cases) and have long-range crystalline order which should improve charge mobility. A potential advantage of MOFs and Guest@MOF materials over all-organic polymers is the opportunity for tuning the electronic structure through appropriate choice of metal and ligand, which could solve the long-standing challenge of finding stable, high ZT n-type organic semiconductors. In our presentation, we report on thermoelectric measurements of electrically conducting TCNQ@Cu3(BTC)2 thin films deposited using a room-temperature, solution-based method, which reveal a large, positive Seebeck coefficient. Furthermore, we use time-dependent thermoreflectance (TDTR) to measure the thermal conductivity of the films, which is found to have a low value due to the presence of disorder, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to establishing the thermoelectric figure of merit, the thermoelectric measurements reveal for the first time that holes are the majority carriers in TCNQ@Cu3(BTC)2.

  10. Seebeck coefficient characterization of highly doped n- and p-type silicon nanowires for thermoelectric device applications fabricated with top-down approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehyeon; Hyun, Younghoon; Park, Youngsam; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Soojung; Jeon, Hyojin; Zyung, Taehyeong; Jang, Moongyu

    2013-09-01

    A silicon nanowire one-dimensional thermoelectric device is presented as a solution to enhance thermoelectric performance. A top-down process is adopted for the definition of 50 nm silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and the fabrication of the nano-structured thermoelectric devices on silicon on insulator (SOl) wafer. To measure the Seebeck coefficients of 50 nm width n- and p-type SiNWs, a thermoelectric test structure, containing SiNWs, micro-heaters and temperature sensors is fabricated. Doping concentration is 1.0 x 10(20) cm(-3) for both for n- and p-type SiNWs. To determine the temperature gradient, a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) analysis is done and the extracted TCR value is 1750-1800 PPM x K(-1). The measured Seebeck coefficients are -127.583 microV x K(-1) and 141.758 microV x K(-1) for n- and p-type SiNWs, respectively, at room temperature. Consequently, power factor values are 1.46 mW x m(-1) x K(-2) and 1.66 mW x m(-1) x K(-2) for n- and p-type SiNWs, respectively. Our results indicate that SiNWs based thermoelectric devices have a great potential for applications in future energy conversion systems. PMID:24205673

  11. Control of thermal gradient using thermoelectric coolers for study of thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gifford, J. A.; Zhao, G. J.; Kim, D. R.; Snider, C. N.; Vargas, N.; Chen, T. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoelectric coolers based on the Peltier effect have been utilized to control temperature gradient to study thermal effects in both bulk and thin film samples. The temperature gradient is controlled by two coolers and the polarity of the thermal gradient can be reversed by reversing an electric driven voltage. With appropriate controlled thermal gradient using this technique, the Nernst and the Seebeck effects can be measured in both bulk and thin film samples free of spurious contributions. In an arbitrary direction of thermal gradient, the Seebeck and the Nernst components can be decomposed from the measured signal based on the symmetry of the effects in a magnetic field.

  12. Thermoelastic-strain-induced thermoelectric effect in n-Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musaev, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A new physical mechanism responsible for the appearance of anomalous thermo-emf in n-Ge, the sign of which is opposite to that of the Seebeck thermo-emf, is considered. It is shown that the anomalous thermoelectric effect is related to the redistribution of charge carriers in the energy extrema of bands during thermoelastic deformation of the crystal.

  13. Thermoelectric Effect across the Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in VO2

    E-print Network

    Wu, Junqiao

    Thermoelectric Effect across the Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in VO2 Microbeams J. Cao,,, W. Fan-performance thermoelectric materials are currently one of the focuses in materials research for energy conversion technologies.1-4 A good thermoelectric material should have a relatively high thermopower (Seebeck coefficient

  14. Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors

    E-print Network

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak

    2014-07-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5 6 Contents 2.7.1 Substrate cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.7.2 Optional layer of polyimide for TIPS-pentacene devices . . . . . . . . . . 55 2.7.3 Photolithography... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 A.2.1 Design and Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 A.3 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 A.4 Film Microstructure...

  15. Magnon-driven longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in F | N and N | F | N structures: Role of asymmetric in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotorlishvili, L.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Etesami, S. R.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barna?, J.; Berakdar, J.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of an asymmetric in-plane magnetic anisotropy Kx ?Ky on the thermally activated spin current is studied theoretically for two different systems: (i) the F | N system consisting of a ferromagnetic insulator (F) in a direct contact with a nonmagnetic metal (N) and (ii) the sandwich structure N | F | N consisting of a ferromagnetic insulating part sandwiched between two nonmagnetic metals. It is shown that when the difference between the temperatures of the two nonmagnetic metals in a N | F | N structure is not large, the spin pumping currents from the magnetic part to the nonmagnetic ones are equal in amplitude and have opposite directions, so only the spin torque current contributes to the total spin current. The spin current flows then from the nonmagnetic metal with the higher temperature to the nonmagnetic metal having a lower temperature. Its amplitude varies linearly with the difference in temperatures. In addition, we have found that if the magnetic anisotropy is in the layer plane, then the spin current increases with the magnon temperature, while in the case of an out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy the spin current decreases when the magnon temperature enhances. Enlarging the difference between the temperatures of the nonmagnetic metals, the linear response becomes important, as confirmed by analytical expressions inferred from the Fokker-Planck approach and by the results obtained upon a full numerical integration of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.

  16. Effect of aluminum on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured PbTe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinyong; Yang, Siqi; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Weishu; Wang, Hui; Tian, Zhiting; Broido, David; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2013-08-30

    In the present work, the effect of aluminum (Al) on the thermoelectric properties of PbTe is studied. Aluminum doped PbTe samples, fabricated by a ball milling and hot pressing, have Seebeck coefficients between -100 and -200 ?V K-1 and electrical conductivities of (3.6-18) × 104 S m-1 at room temperature, which means that Al is an effective donor in PbTe. The first principle calculations clearly show an increase of the density of states close to the Fermi level in the conduction band due to Al doping, which averages up the energy and effective mass of electrons, resulting in enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. The maximum figure-of-merit ZT of 1.2 is reached at 770 K in the Al0.03PbTe sample. PMID:23912680

  17. Dependence of the resultant Seebeck coefficient on the thickness of Bi0.88Sb0.12 alloy in welded M/Bi-Sb/M (M = Cu and Ni) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Osamu; Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro; Shigeto, Jun-Ichi

    2009-10-01

    The local Seebeck coefficient ? L and the resultant Seebeck coefficient ? R of M/Bi0.88Sb0.12/M (M = Cu and Ni) composites with different thicknesses t Bi-Sb of Bi-Sb alloy were measured as functions of z and T, where T is the absolute temperature, z is the distance from a center of Bi-Sb alloy to the middle point of two probes and ? L and ? R were measured using two probes separated by s=1.0 mm and s= t Bi-Sb+0.1 mm, respectively. As a result, ? L was enhanced extremely at the position of 0.2-0.3 mm away from the interfaces, while the local temperature along a composite varies linearly with changes in z within Bi-Sb alloy. The local maximum of ? R at 344 K appeared at t Bi-Sb?0.9 mm, so that it is expected to increase up to -167 ?V/K at t Bi-Sb=0.87 mm from the expression fitted well to the experimental data, which is 2.1 times as large as the intrinsic ? at 344 K of Bi-Sb alloy. Such a local enhancement in ? L would probably be caused by a temperature gradient across the depletion layer formed at the interface. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of a composite with an optimum t Bi-Sb of 0.87 mm is expected to reach the large value of 0.98 at 344 K, which corresponds to 4.5 times as high a value as ZT=0.22 at 344 K of Bi-Sb alloy. It is thus considered that the increase in ? L at the interface is available as a useful mean of further increase in ZT of thermoelectric devices.

  18. Analysis of Residual Acceleration Effects on Transport and Segregation During Directional Solidification of Tin-Bismuth in the MEPHISTO Furnace Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander J. Iwan D. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work is to approach the problem of determining the transport conditions (and effects of residual acceleration) during the plane-front directional solidification of a tin-bismuth alloy under low gravity conditions. The work involves using a combination of 2- and 3-D numerical models, scaling analyses, ID models and the results of ground-based and low-gravity experiments. The latter are to be conducted during the MEPHISTO experiment scheduled for USMP-3 in early 1996. The models will be used to predict the response of the transport conditions and consequent solute segregation in directionally solidifying tin-bismuth melt. Real-time Seebeck voltage variations across a Sn-Bi melt during directional solidification in MEPHISTO on USMP-1 show a distinct variation which can be correlated with thruster firings. The Seebeck voltage measurement is related to the response of the instantaneous average melt composition at the melt-solid interface. This allows a direct comparison of numerical simulations with the Seebeck signals obtained on USMP-1. The effects of such accelerations on composition for a directionally solidifying Sn-Bi alloy have been simulated numerically. USMP-1 acceleration data was used to assist in our choice of acceleration magnitude and orientation. The results show good agreement with experimental observations. The USMP-3 experiments took place earlier this year (February 22 through March 6). There were several differences between the USMP-3 experiments as compared to USMP-1. Firstly a more concentrated alloy was solidified and, secondly, Primary Reaction Control System thruster burns were requested at particular times during four separate growth runs. This allowed us to monitor the response Seebeck response under well-characterized growth conditions. In addition, we carried out simulations during the experiment in order to interpret the Seebeck signal. Preliminary results are described here.

  19. Thermoelectric effects in graphene nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dollfus, Philippe; Hung Nguyen, Viet; Saint-Martin, Jérôme

    2015-04-10

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene and graphene nanostructures have recently attracted significant attention from the physics and engineering communities. In fundamental physics, the analysis of Seebeck and Nernst effects is very useful in elucidating some details of the electronic band structure of graphene that cannot be probed by conductance measurements alone, due in particular to the ambipolar nature of this gapless material. For applications in thermoelectric energy conversion, graphene has two major disadvantages. It is gapless, which leads to a small Seebeck coefficient due to the opposite contributions of electrons and holes, and it is an excellent thermal conductor. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of a two-dimensional (2D) graphene sheet is thus very limited. However, many works have demonstrated recently that appropriate nanostructuring and bandgap engineering of graphene can concomitantly strongly reduce the lattice thermal conductance and enhance the Seebeck coefficient without dramatically degrading the electronic conductance. Hence, in various graphene nanostructures, ZT has been predicted to be high enough to make them attractive for energy conversion. In this article, we review the main results obtained experimentally and theoretically on the thermoelectric properties of graphene and its nanostructures, emphasizing the physical effects that govern these properties. Beyond pure graphene structures, we discuss also the thermoelectric properties of some hybrid graphene structures, as graphane, layered carbon allotropes such as graphynes and graphdiynes, and graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures which offer new opportunities. Finally, we briefly review the recent activities on other atomically thin 2D semiconductors with finite bandgap, i.e. dichalcogenides and phosphorene, which have attracted great attention for various kinds of applications, including thermoelectrics. PMID:25779989

  20. On the Quantum Hall Effect in mono(bi)-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisin, M. V.

    2014-11-01

    Based on a thermodynamic approach, we have calculated the specific resistivity of mono(bi)-layer graphene assumed dissipationless in quantizing magnetic field. The resistivity arises from combination of Peltier and Seebeck effects. The current I causes heating (cooling) at the first (second) sample contacts, due to the Peltier effect. The voltage measured across the sample is equal to the Seebeck thermoemf, and thus provides finite resistivity as I?0. The resistivity is a universal function of the magnetic field, e-h plasma density and temperature, expressed in fundamental units h/e2. At fixed magnetic field the magneto-transport problem is resolved in the vicinity of the Dirac point taking into account the splitting of zeroth Landau level. For mono(bi)- layer graphene the B-dependent splitting of zeroth Landau level is recovered from experimental data.

  1. Effective material properties of thermoelectric composites with elliptical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ze

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, the effective material properties of thermoelectric composites with elliptical fibers are studied. Explicit solutions are derived by the conformal mapping function and Mori-Tanaka method. Numerical simulations are performed to present the behaviors of normalized effective material constants. From the results, it can be observed that both the effective electric and thermal conductivities can be reduced by increasing the filling ratio and a/ b. Such influences can also be found for the effective thermoelectric figure of merit. But they are different from those on the effective Seebeck and Peltier coefficients.

  2. Doping effects on thermoelectric properties of the off-stoichiometric Heusler compounds Fe{sub 2?x}V{sub 1+x}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Y. Tamada, Y.

    2014-03-28

    The thermoelectric properties of Heusler-type Fe{sub 2?x}V{sub 1+x}Al{sub 1?y}Si{sub y} and Fe{sub 2?x}V{sub 1+x?y}Ti{sub y}Al alloys have been investigated to clarify which off-stoichiometric alloy, i.e., V-rich (x?>?0) or V-poor (x?effective in enhancing the Seebeck coefficient when doped by Si and Ti, while retaining a low electrical resistivity. Large Seebeck coefficients of ?182??V/K and 110??V/K at 300?K are obtained for n-type Fe{sub 1.95}V{sub 1.05}Al{sub 0.97}Si{sub 0.03} and p-type Fe{sub 2.04}V{sub 0.93}Ti{sub 0.03}Al, respectively. When the Seebeck coefficient is plotted as a function of valence electron concentration (VEC), the VEC dependence for the doped off-stoichiometric alloys falls on characteristic curves depending on the off-stoichiometric composition x. It is concluded that a larger Seebeck coefficient with a negative sign can be obtained for the V-rich alloys rather than the V-poor alloys, whilst good p-type materials are always derived from the V-poor alloys. Substantial enhancements in the Seebeck coefficient for the off-stoichiometric alloys could be achieved by a favorable modification in the electronic structure around the Fermi level through the antisite V or Fe defect formation.

  3. Enhancement of thermospin effect in germanene based normal/ferromagnetic stub/normal junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Chi, Feng; Guo, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Spin thermoelectric effects in ferromagnetic (FM) germanene are theoretically investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the spin Seebeck effect can be generated by temperature bias ? T when a FM germanene is considered in the central region. However, the obtained spin resolved Seebeck coefficients is quite low with maximum value of S ? ? 700 ? V / K . The spin Seebeck effect is shown to increase enormously in different energy states with the assistance of electric field or stub structure. By modulating the geometric parameters of stub, the spin thermopower Ss has distinct peak values in the bulk states. Moreover, varying the Fermi energy within the bulk gap by the gate, Ss can be significantly enhanced by increasing the strength of electric field. The spin thermopower obtained by each method is predicted to be 2500 ? V / K , which is more than 300% larger relative to the case without electric field or stub. In addition, the magnitude and sign of spin thermopower can be manipulated by adjusting the Fermi energy. The results show that such FM germanene stub device exhibits much better thermoelectric performance and may be used as a wide energy range tunable spin thermoelectric generator.

  4. Synthetic conditions and their doping effect on {Beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}.

    SciTech Connect

    Kyratsi, Th.; Kika, I.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Chrissafis, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    In this work the synthetic conditions for K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} and their effect on its thermoelectric properties were investigated. K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} was prepared as a single phase using K{sub 2}Se and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} as starting materials in a furnace or via a reaction using direct flame, followed by remelting or annealing. Seebeck coefficient measurements showed that the doping level in the material is sensitive to the synthetic conditions. Higher synthesis temperatures as well as the flame reaction technique followed by annealing gave more homogenous samples with higher Seebeck coefficient. IR optical spectroscopic measurements showed a wide range of doping level achieved among the different synthetic conditions. These findings suggest that synthetic conditions can act as a useful tool for the optimization of the thermoelectric properties of these materials.

  5. Ab initio optimization of phonon drag effect for lower-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liao, Bolin; Qiu, Bo; Huberman, Samuel; Esfarjani, Keivan; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Although the thermoelectric figure of merit zT above 300 K has seen significant improvement recently, the progress at lower temperatures has been slow, mainly limited by the relatively low Seebeck coefficient and high thermal conductivity. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, success in first-principles computation of the phonon drag effect-a coupling phenomenon between electrons and nonequilibrium phonons-in heavily doped region and its optimization to enhance the Seebeck coefficient while reducing the phonon thermal conductivity by nanostructuring. Our simulation quantitatively identifies the major phonons contributing to the phonon drag, which are spectrally distinct from those carrying heat, and further reveals that although the phonon drag is reduced in heavily doped samples, a significant contribution to Seebeck coefficient still exists. An ideal phonon filter is proposed to enhance zT of silicon at room temperature by a factor of 20 to ?0.25, and the enhancement can reach 70 times at 100 K. This work opens up a new venue toward better thermoelectrics by harnessing nonequilibrium phonons. PMID:26627231

  6. Anomalous effect of vanadium boride seeding on thermoelectric properties of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N

    SciTech Connect

    Prytuliak, A.; Maruyama, S.; Mori, T.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We doped YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N; the long awaited n-type counterpart to p-type boron carbide. ? VB{sub 2} seeding of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N showed striking results. ? Thermal treatment effects led to VB{sub 2} being intrinsically doped. ? Large increase of both Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity was obtained. - Abstract: Vanadium boride seeded YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N were synthesized and the thermoelectric properties investigated. YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N is representative of the series of rare earth borocarbonitrides which is the potential long awaited n-type counterpart to p-type boron carbide. VB{sub 2} seeded samples of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N were prepared using VB{sub 2} directly as an initial additive and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} which also results in formation of vanadium diboride in the final product. The resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of samples were measured in the temperature range of 323 K to 1073 K. A dramatic effect of thermal treatment on the Seebeck coefficient of VB{sub 2} seeded samples was observed, and it is indicated that there is possible partial intrinsic doping of vanadium into YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N. VB{sub 2} is revealed to be a promising additive to improve the thermoelectric properties of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N. An enhancement of more than 220% of the maximum absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient was obtained while the resistivity was also reduced considerably.

  7. Effect of Deposition Conditions on the Microstructure and the Thermoelectric Properties of Galvanostatically Electrodeposited Bi2Te3 Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Mohammad Mamunur; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2013-10-01

    Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) films were deposited by a simple and cost-effective galvanostatic electrodeposition process from a solution containing bismuth tri-nitrate penta-hydrate and tellurium dioxide of different concentration ratios in 1 M nitric acid onto gold sputtered silicon substrate at various current densities. The effect of distinct current densities, electrolyte concentrations and electrodes distances on the microstructure and the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 films were investigated. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis ensured a high density, homogenous and near stoichiometric film. The surface morphology, crystalline structure and grain size were correlated with the applied current density. A prominent orientation (110) was observed for all the films and the grain size was acquired from 21 to 45 nm. The Seebeck measurement affirmed n-type semiconductor behavior of the deposited films. Enhancement in carrier mobility without significant change of the carrier concentration and Seebeck coefficient was achieved by tuning the electrodes distance. The thermoelectric film has a maximum measured Seebeck coefficient of -61.215 ?V/K and a very high electrical conductivity of 2.13 × 103 ?-1 ? cmn-1. The maximum calculated power factor was 8.2 ?W?K-2 ? cm-1.

  8. A systematic study on the effect of electron beam irradiation on structural, electrical, thermo-electric power and magnetic property of LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, Christopher J.; Rao, Ashok; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Okram, G. S.; Babu, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, the effect of electron beam irradiation on the structural, electrical, thermo-electric power and magnetic properties of LaCoO3 cobaltites have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of XRD data reveals that all samples are single phased with rhombohedral structure. Increase in electrical resistivity data is observed with increase in dosage of electron beam irradiation. Analysis of the measured electrical resistivity data indicates that the small polaron hopping model is operative in the high temperature regime for all samples. The Seebeck coefficient (S) of the pristine and the irradiated samples exhibits a crossover from positive to negative values, and a colossal value of Seebeck coefficient (32.65 mV/K) is obtained for pristine sample, however, the value of S decreases with increase in dosage of irradiation. The analysis of Seebeck coefficient data confirms that the small polaron hopping model is operative in the high temperature region. The magnetization results give clear evidence of increase in effective magnetic moment due to increase in dosage of electron beam irradiation.

  9. Effect of crystal size distribution on thermoelectric performance for Lanthanum-doped strontium titanate bulk material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Jun; Yaer, Xinba; Huo, Zhenzhen; Wu, Yin; Li, Yan; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Zou, Tao; Ma, Wen

    2015-07-01

    Effect of crystal size distribution on thermoelectric performance of Lanthanum-doped strontium titanate (La-SrTiO3) ceramics are investigated in this study. Thermoelectric performance measurement, coupled with microstructure studies, shows that the electrical conductivity strongly depends on the crystal size, potential barrier on the grain boundary and porosity. Meantime, because the average potential barriers height are increased along with the reduction of crystal size, the Seebeck coefficients are increased by energy filtering effect at the large number of grain boundaries. As a result, by controlling of crystal size distribution, ZT value of La-SrTiO3 is improved.

  10. Effect of Sb deficiency on the thermoelectric properties of Zn4Sb3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchela, Anup V.; Tomy, C. V.; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of Sb-deficiency on the thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) of Zn4Sb3 prepared by solid state reaction route. At high temperatures, the Seebeck coefficient (S) and electrical conductivity (?) increases with increase in Sb deficiency whereas the thermal conductivity (?) decreases giving rise to an increase in the overall zT value. The observations suggest that creation of vacancies could be an effective route in improving the thermoelectric properties of Zn4Sb3 system.

  11. Galvanomagnetic effects in Gd and Zn-substituted Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1{minus}x}Gd{sub x}(Cu{sub 1{minus}y}Zn{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Ilonca, G.; Pop, A.V.; Tarta, G.; Jurcut, T.; Deltour, R.

    1999-09-10

    The authors had performed a study on magnetoresistivity Hall, Nernst and Seebeck effects in the mixed and normal state for Bi2212 bulk with Gd (0 {le} x {le} 0.50) and Zn (0 {le} y {le} 0.03) prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method in magnetic fields between 0 and 5 T and in the temperature range 5--300 K. The critical temperatures, the Hall concentration, the Nernst and Seebeck coefficients depend strongly on the Zn and Gd contents in the samples. Also, they have found an anomalous suppression of superconductivity at x = 0.30--0.35 and y = 0.025--0.030, when the hole concentration per Cu is p {approximately} 1/8 and the transport properties exhibit less metallic behavior than usual. There is a possibility that a kind of order of holes and/or spins is stabilized owing to pinning by Zn, as in the La-based cuprate.

  12. Effective Mass of Thermoelectric Materials with Non-Parabolic Kane Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Effective mass is a concept commonly used to describe electronic transport in semiconductors using a classical analogy to the kinetic theory of gasses. We describe many important electronic transport parameters explicitly with an electronic band mass including: Density of states, charge carrier concentration, mobility, and in particular for thermoelectrics, the Seebeck coefficient. For systems with known electronic band structures these properties can be calculated leading to subtly different definitions of effective mass. In the free electron or parabolic band model the effective masses are the same and we use the term effective mass interchangably. However the differences between these defintions or uses of effective mass become apparent in non-parabolic band structures where it is desirable to describe the transport in terms of a effective mass that changes with energy (or Fermi Level). For example Kane bands, which become more linear and less parabolic at higher energy, have an increased density of states and therefore higher DOS effective mass than a parabolic band. While it is often assumed that also results in a higher thermopower (Seebeck coefficient), calculations of thermopower and Hall carrier concentration from the Kane model show the thermpower is actually reduced. Examples in thermoelectric materials will be discussed.

  13. Spin-dependent thermoelectric effects in graphene-based spin valves.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Minggang; Huang, Wen; Liang, Gengchiau

    2013-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF), we investigate spin-dependent thermoelectric effects in a spin valve which consists of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) electrodes with different magnetic configurations. We find that electron transport properties in the ZGNR-based spin valve are strongly dependent on the magnetic configurations. As a result, with a temperature bias, thermally-induced currents can be controlled by switching the magnetic configurations, indicating a thermal magnetoresistance (MR) effect. Moreover, based on the linear response assumption, our study shows that the remarkably different Seebeck coefficients in the various magnetic configurations lead to a very large and controllable magneto Seebeck ratio. In addition, we evaluate thermoelectric properties, such as the power factor, electron thermal conductance and figure of merit (ZT), of the ZGNR-based spin valve. Our results indicate that the power factor and the electron thermal conductance are strongly related to the transmission gap and electron-hole symmetry of the transmission spectrum. Moreover, the value of ZT can reach 0.15 at room temperature without considering phonon scattering. In addition, we investigate the thermally-controlled magnetic distributions in the ZGNR-based spin valve and find that the magnetic distribution, especially the local magnetic moment around the Ni atom, is strongly related to the thermal bias. The very large, multi-valued and controllable thermal magnetoresistance and Seebeck effects indicate the strong potential of ZGNR-based spin valves for extremely low-power consuming spin caloritronics applications. The thermally-controlled magnetic moment in the ZGNR-based spin valve indicates its possible applications for information storage. PMID:23151965

  14. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-07

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO{sub 3} thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W{sup 5+} ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (?) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO{sub 3} could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, ? increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO{sub 3} after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, ?{sub photo}) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO{sub 3} thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, ?{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W{sup 5+} state) to the conduction band of WO{sub 3}. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO{sub 3} thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  15. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO3) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO3 as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO3 thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W5+ ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (?) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO3 could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, ? increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO3 after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, ?photo) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, Sphoto)) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO3 thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, ?photo and the absolute value of Sphoto increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W5+ state) to the conduction band of WO3. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO3 thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  16. Observation of the Spin Peltier Effect for Magnetic Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flipse, J.; Dejene, F. K.; Wagenaar, D.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Youssef, J. Ben; van Wees, B. J.

    2014-07-01

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin current in the Pt into a magnon current in the YIG. Via magnon-phonon interactions the magnetic fluctuations modulate the phonon temperature that is detected by a thermopile close to the interface. By finite-element modeling we verify the reciprocity between the spin Peltier and spin Seebeck effect. The observed strong coupling between thermal magnons and phonons in YIG is attractive for nanoscale cooling techniques.

  17. Giant spin-dependent thermoelectric effect in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiwei; Hehn, Michel; Chaput, Laurent; Negulescu, Béatrice; Andrieu, Stéphane; Montaigne, François; Mangin, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures and the so-called spin caloritronics are attracting much interest. Indeed it provides a new way to control and manipulate spin currents, which are key elements of spin-based electronics. Here we report on a giant magnetothermoelectric effect in a magnetic tunnel junction. The thermovoltage in this geometry can reach 1 mV. Moreover a magnetothermovoltage effect could be measured with ratio similar to the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio. The Seebeck coefficient can then be tuned by changing the relative magnetization orientation of the two magnetic layers in the tunnel junction. Therefore, our experiments extend the range of spintronic devices application to thermoelectricity and provide a crucial piece of information for understanding the physics of thermal spin transport. PMID:22434187

  18. Observation of the spin Peltier effect for magnetic insulators.

    PubMed

    Flipse, J; Dejene, F K; Wagenaar, D; Bauer, G E W; Ben Youssef, J; van Wees, B J

    2014-07-11

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin current in the Pt into a magnon current in the YIG. Via magnon-phonon interactions the magnetic fluctuations modulate the phonon temperature that is detected by a thermopile close to the interface. By finite-element modeling we verify the reciprocity between the spin Peltier and spin Seebeck effect. The observed strong coupling between thermal magnons and phonons in YIG is attractive for nanoscale cooling techniques. PMID:25062233

  19. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in DNA-like systems induced by Fano and Dicke effects.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Gu, Lei; Wu, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zu-Quan

    2015-04-28

    We report a theoretical study highlighting the thermoelectric properties of biological and synthetic DNA molecules. Based on an effective tight-binding model of duplex DNA and by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, the thermal conductance, electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric figure of merit in the system are numerically calculated by varying the asymmetries of energies and electronic hoppings in the backbone sites to simulate the environmental complications and fluctuations. We find that due to the multiple transport paths in the DNA molecule, the Fano antiresonance occurs, and enhances the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit. When the energy difference is produced in every opposite backbone site, the Dicke effect appears. This effect gives rise to a semiconducting-metallic transition, and enhances the thermoelectric efficiency of the DNA molecule remarkably. Moreover, as the Fano antiresonance point is close to the Dicke resonance one, a giant enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit in the DNA molecule has been found. These results provide a scenario to obtain effective routes to enhance the thermoelectric efficiency in the DNA molecules, and suggest perspectives for future experiments intending to control the thermoelectric transport in DNA-like nanodevices. PMID:25826287

  20. Ion beam irradiation effect on thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Gaosheng; Zuo, Lei; Lian, Jie; Wang, Yongqiang; Chen, Jie; Longtin, Jon; Xiao, Zhigang

    2015-09-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a very promising application in nuclear power plants for self-maintained wireless sensors. However, the effects of intensive radiation on the performance of thermoelectric materials under relevant reactor environments such as energetic neutrons are not fully understood. In this work, radiation effects of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) thermoelectric thin film samples prepared by E-beam evaporation are investigated using Ne2+ ion irradiations at different fluences of 5 × 1014, 1015, 5 × 1015 and 1016 ions/cm2 with the focus on the transport and structural properties. Electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficients and power factors are characterized as ion fluence changes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the samples are obtained to assess how phase and microstructure influence the transport properties. Carrier concentration and Hall mobility are obtained from Hall effect measurements, which provide further insight into the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient mechanisms. Positive effects of ion irradiations from Ne2+ on thermoelectric material property are observed to increase the power factor to 208% for Bi2Te3 and 337% for Sb2Te3 materials between fluence of 1 and 5 × 1015 cm2, due to the increasing of the electrical conductivity as a result of ionization radiation-enhanced crystallinity. However, under a higher fluence, 5 × 1015 cm2 in this case, the power factor starts to decrease accordingly, limiting the enhancements of thermoelectric materials properties under intensive radiation environment.

  1. Thermal Cycling Effects on the Thermoelectric Properties of n-Type In, Ce based Skutterudite Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Krishnendu; Subramanian, Mas A.; Good, Morris S.; Roberts, Kamandi C.; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-06-14

    N-type In-filled CoSb3 are known skutterudite compounds that have shown promising thermoelectric (TE) properties resulting in high dimensionless figure of merit values at elevated temperatures. Their use in various waste heat recovery applications will require that they survive and operate after exposure to harsh thermal cycling environments. This research focused on uncovering the thermal cycling effects on thermoelectric properties of n-type In0.2Co4Sb12 and In0.2Ce0.15Co4Sb12 skutterudite compositions as well as quantifying their temperature-dependent structural properties (elastic modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio). It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity increased only slightly in the double-filled In,Ce skutterudite materials upon thermal cycling. In the In-filled skutterudites the Seebeck coefficient remained approximately the same on thermal cycling, while electrical resistivity increased significantly after thermal cycling. Results also show that thermal conductivity marginally decreases in the case of In-filled skutterudites, whereas the reduction is more pronounced in In, Ce-based skutterudite compounds. The possible reason for this kind of reduction can be attributed to grain pinning effects due to formation of nano inclusions. High temperature structural property measurements (i.e., Young's modulus and shear modulus) are also reported and the results show that these structural properties decrease slowly as temperature increases and the compounds are structurally stable after numerous thermal cycles.

  2. Influence of Thallium on the Shubnikov - de Haas effect and Thermoelectric Properties of Sb2Te3 and Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Kudryashov, A. A.; Kytin, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    Influence of Tl-doping on the Shubnikov de Haas effect (SdH) at T=4.2 K in magnetic field up to 38 T of p-Sb2-xTlxTe3 (x=0; 0.005; 0.015; 0.05) and n-Bi2-xTlxSe3 (x=0, 0.01; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06) single crystals has been investigated. By increasing the Tl content, the frequency of the SdH effect and hence the extremal cross-sections of the Fermi-surface decreases in both materials. The hole concentration decreases in Sb2-xTlxTe3 due to a donor effect of Tl and the electron concentration decreases in n-Bi2-xTlxSe3 due to an acceptor effect of Tl. Temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient S, electrical conductivity ?, thermal conductivity k and the figure of merit ZT single crystals were measured in the temperature range 77 K - 300 K. The values of k and ? decrease due to Tl doping in Sb2-xTlxTe3 and n-Bi2-xTlxSe3 and the Seebeck coefficient S for all compositions increases in the whole temperature range. The figure of merit ZT increases in both materials. The preferential scattering mechanism in Tl-doped samples changes from the acoustic phonon scattering to the ionized impurity scattering.

  3. Competing spin pumping effects in magnetic hybrid structures

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, A. Alves Santos, O.; Fonseca Guerra, G. A.; Cunha, R. O.; Rezende, S. M.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R.

    2014-02-03

    Pure spin current can be detected by its conversion into charge current in nanometer thick nonmagnetic metal layer with large spin-orbit coupling by means of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). Recently, it has been shown that the metallic ferromagnet Permalloy (Py) can also be used as spin current detector in experiments in which an ISHE voltage is created in a Py layer in contact with the insulating ferromagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG) under a thermal gradient in the longitudinal spin Seebeck configuration. Here, we report experiments with microwave driven spin pumping in heterostructures made with single crystal YIG film and a nanometer thick Py or Pt layer that show that Py behaves differently than nonmagnetic metals as a spin current detector. The results are attributed to the competition between the spin currents generated by the dynamics of the magnetizations in YIG and in Py, which are exchange coupled at the interface.

  4. Reciprocal spin Hall effects in conductors with strong spin-orbit coupling: a review.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Yasuhiro; Otani, YoshiChika

    2015-12-01

    Spin Hall effect and its inverse provide essential means to convert charge to spin currents and vice versa, which serve as a primary function for spintronic phenomena such as the spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance and the spin Seebeck effect. These effects can oscillate magnetization or detect a thermally generated spin splitting in the chemical potential. Importantly this conversion process occurs via the spin-orbit interaction, and requires neither magnetic materials nor external magnetic fields. However, the spin Hall angle, i.e. the conversion yield between the charge and spin currents, depends severely on the experimental methods. Here we discuss the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length for a variety of materials including pure metals such as Pt and Ta, alloys and oxides determined by the spin absorption method in a lateral spin valve structure. PMID:26513299

  5. Reciprocal spin Hall effects in conductors with strong spin–orbit coupling: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Yasuhiro; Otani, YoshiChika

    2015-12-01

    Spin Hall effect and its inverse provide essential means to convert charge to spin currents and vice versa, which serve as a primary function for spintronic phenomena such as the spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance and the spin Seebeck effect. These effects can oscillate magnetization or detect a thermally generated spin splitting in the chemical potential. Importantly this conversion process occurs via the spin–orbit interaction, and requires neither magnetic materials nor external magnetic fields. However, the spin Hall angle, i.e. the conversion yield between the charge and spin currents, depends severely on the experimental methods. Here we discuss the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length for a variety of materials including pure metals such as Pt and Ta, alloys and oxides determined by the spin absorption method in a lateral spin valve structure.

  6. Quantum interference and structure-dependent orbital-filling effects on the thermoelectric properties of quantum dot molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Kuo, David M T; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-07-15

    The quantum interference and orbital filling effects on the thermoelectric (TE) properties of quantum dot (QD) molecules with high figure of merit are illustrated via the full solution to the Hubbard-Anderson model in the Coulomb blockade regime. It is found that under certain conditions in the triangular QD molecule (TQDM), destructive quantum interference (QI) can occur, which leads to vanishingly small electrical conductance, while the Seebeck coefficient is modified dramatically. When the TQDM is in the charge localization state due to QI, the Seebeck coefficient is seriously suppressed at low temperature, but is highly enhanced at high temperature. Meanwhile, the behavior of the Lorenz number reveals that it is easier to block charge transport via destructive QI than the electron heat transport at high temperatures. The maximum power factor (PF) in the TQDM occurs under full-filling conditions. Nevertheless, low-filling conditions are preferred for getting the maximum PF in serially coupled triple QDs in general. In double QDs, the maximum PF can be achieved either with orbital-depletion or orbital-filling as a result of electron-hole symmetry. Our theoretical work provides a useful guideline for the advancement of the nanoscale TE technology. PMID:26144845

  7. Effect of suppression of local distortion on the magnetic, electrical, and thermal transport properties of the Cr-substituted bilayer manganite LaSr2 Mn2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Chiba, M.; Kikuchi, E.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Apostu, M.; Nimori, S.; Sugimoto, K.; Kobayashi, N.

    2005-12-01

    We have investigated magnetic, electrical, and thermal transport properties (Seebeck effect and thermal conductivity) of LaSr2Mn2-yCryO7 polycrystalline samples ( y=0.1 , 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6). The Cr3+ substitution for Mn3+ sites causes a removal of dx2-y2 orbital of eg electron, resulting in a volume shrinkage of the lattice. Magnetic measurements reveal the appearance of a glassy behavior for Cr-doped samples, accompanied by both a collapse of the A-type antiferromagnetic structure and the growth of ferromagnetic clusters. Cr-doping effect on electrical transport strongly enhances an insulating behavior over a wide range of temperatures, while it suppresses a local minimum of thermoelectric power at lower temperatures. For all polycrystalline samples with Cr substitution, the variable-range-hopping conduction model gives a reasonable fit to both resistivities and Seebeck coefficients. The phonon thermal conduction gradually rises with increasing Cr content, which is in contrast to a typical impurity effect on thermal conductivity. We attribute this to a suppression of local lattice distortion through the introduction of Jahn-Teller inactive ions of Cr3+ .

  8. Observation of pure inverse spin Hall effect in ferromagnetic metals via ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic exchange-bias structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Wan, C. H.; Yuan, Z. H.; Zhang, X.; Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q. T.; Wen, Z. C.; Han, X. F.

    2015-08-01

    We report that the spin current generated by the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) can be detected by a ferromagnetic metal (NiFe). By using the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AFM) exchange bias structure (NiFe/IrMn), the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) and planar Nernst effect (PNE) of NiFe can be unambiguously separated, allowing us to observe a pure ISHE signal. After eliminating the in-plane temperature gradient in NiFe, we can even observe a pure ISHE signal without PNE from NiFe itself. It is worth noting that a large spin Hall angle (0.098) of NiFe is obtained, which is comparable with Pt. This work provides a kind of FM/AFM exchange bias structure to detect the spin current by charge signals, and highlights that ISHE in ferromagnetic metals can be used in spintronic research and applications.

  9. Effect of Heat Treatment in Air on Thermoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline Type-I Silicon-Based Clathrate: Ba8Al15Si31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, Hiroaki; Shirataki, Ritsuko

    2015-06-01

    The effect of heat treatment in air on the thermoelectric properties was investigated for polycrystalline Ba8Al15Si31, where the Al content is almost at the maximum in the Ba8Al x Si46- x system, to evaluate the thermal stability in air at high temperatures, which is indispensable for practical use in thermoelectric applications. Samples were prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering techniques. Heat treatments were performed in air at 873 K for 10 days and 20 days. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity were measured before and after the heat treatments. The microstructure and chemical composition were also analyzed before and after the heat treatments, using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Although an oxidation layer was formed on the surface by the heat treatment in air, the chemical composition of the interior of Ba8Al15Si31 was found to be stable in air at 873 K for 10 days and 20 days. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity were found to be almost unchanged after the heat treatment, indicating that Ba8Al15Si31 clathrate is promising as a thermoelectric material with high thermal stability for use in air at 873 K.

  10. Effects of interdot hopping and Coulomb blockade on the thermoelectric properties of serially coupled quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the thermoelectric properties of serially coupled quantum dots (SCQDs) embedded in an insulator connected to metallic electrodes. In the framework of Keldysh Green’s function technique, the Landauer formula of transmission factor is obtained using the equation of motion method. Based on such analytical expressions of charge and heat currents, we calculate the electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient, electron thermal conductance, and figure of merit (ZT) of SCQDs in the linear response regime. The effects of interdot hopping and electron Coulomb interactions on ZT are analyzed. We demonstrate that ZT is not a monotonic increasing function of interdot electron hopping strength (tc). We also show that in the absence of phonon thermal conductance, SCQD can reach the Carnot efficiency as tcapproaches zero. PMID:22591807

  11. Spin Hall magnetoresistance at Pt/CoFe2O4 interfaces and texture effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isasa, Miren; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Vélez, Saül; Golmar, Federico; Sánchez, Florencio; Hueso, Luis E.; Fontcuberta, Josep; Casanova, Fèlix

    2014-10-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on thin Pt bars grown on epitaxial (001) and (111) CoFe2O4 (CFO) ferrimagnetic insulating films. The results can be described in terms of the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). The magnitude of the SMR depends on the interface preparation conditions, being optimal when the Pt/CFO samples are prepared in situ, in a single process. The spin-mixing interface conductance, the key parameter governing SMR and other relevant spin-dependent phenomena, such as spin pumping or spin Seebeck effect, is found to be different depending on the crystallographic orientation of CFO, highlighting the role of the composition and density of magnetic ions at the interface on spin mixing.

  12. Effect of Bismuth Nanotubes on the Thermoelectric Properties of BiSb Alloy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güne?, Ekrem; Landschreiber, Bernadette; Hartung, David; Elm, Matthias T.; Rohner, Christian; Klar, Peter J.; Schlecht, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    Bismuth nanotubes have been synthesized and successfully included in Bi1- x Sb x nanoalloys to form composite structures. The nanotubes were synthesized by transformation of a ?-BiI precursor with n-BuLi solution leading to tubular bismuth structures. The Bi1- x Sb x nanoalloys were produced by ball milling. Three series of composite structures were synthesized by including different fractions (0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%) of nanotubes in nanoalloys of different composition x. Investigation of thermoelectric and structural properties revealed a decrease of the thermal conductivity of up to 40% for the composites in comparison with alloys without nanotube inclusions. This effect can be attributed to enhanced phonon scattering. Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities were both slightly enhanced in the composite series with 3 wt.% nanotube inclusions, leading to enhancement of throughout the series compared with the nanoalloy series without nanotube inclusions.

  13. The effect of the precursor nanopowder size on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi-Sb-Te bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Weili; Cheng, Chunxia; Ren, Zhongming; Zhong, Yunbo

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the effect of precursor powder size on the thermoelectric properties of sintered nanostructured bulk materials. The transport properties of the nanostructured bulk show a dramatic size effect. There are a lower thermal and electrical conductivity for the bulk with smaller nanopowders. The dimensionless figure-of merit values ( ZT) of almost all the samples are much lower than those of the list reported data in the paper because the decrease in the thermal conductivity is counteracted by the reduction in the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient. The combination route of hydro/solvothermal synthesis and spark-plasma-sintering method provide a well controlled way to significantly reduce the thermal conductivity.

  14. Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Kun; Jin Kuijuan; Huang Yanhong; Zhao Songqing; Lu Huibin; He Meng; Chen Zhenghao; Zhou Yueliang; Yang Guozhen

    2006-10-23

    Ultraviolet photoelectricity based on the vicinal cut as-supplied SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals has been experimentally studied in the absence of an applied bias at room temperature. An open-circuit photovoltage of 130 ps rise time and 230 ps full width at half maximum was observed under the irradiation of a 355 nm pulsed laser of 25 ps in duration. The dependence of the photoelectric effect on the tilting angles was studied, and the optimum angle is 20.9 deg. . Seebeck effect is proposed to elucidate the tilting angle dependence of laser-induced photovoltage. This work demonstrates the potential of SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals in ultraviolet detection.

  15. Al insertion and additive effects on the thermoelectric properties of yttrium boride

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Satofumi; Prytuliak, Anastasiia; Miyazaki, Yuzuru; Hayashi, Kei; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Takao

    2014-03-28

    The aluminoboride Y{sub x}Al{sub y}B{sub 14} (x???0.57, 0.41 ? y ? 0.63) has been found to show striking p-n control of the thermoelectric properties through variations of the y occupancy of the Al site. The effect of Al was investigated in further extremes. Polycrystalline samples of Al-free Y{sub x}B{sub 14}(x???0.55; “YB{sub 25}”) were successfully synthesized in sufficient amounts for bulk spark plasma sintering (SPS) samples and their thermoelectric properties were investigated. Y{sub 0.56}Al{sub 0.57}B{sub 14} was also prepared in comparison, and further Al was added to the samples through SPS treatment. We observed that Y{sub 0.55}B{sub 14} exhibits large positive Seebeck coefficients, ?1000??V K{sup ?1}, around room temperature and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient largely decreases with increase of temperature while that of Y{sub 0.56}Al{sub 0.57}B{sub 14} is proportional to T{sup ?1/2}, indicating a strong effect of Al on the electronic structure around the Fermi level. Y{sub 0.55}B{sub 14} was found to be strongly disordered with a relatively low thermal conductivity and short localization length of 0.65?Å which is close to that previously determined for the disordered and thermally glass-like compound YB{sub 66}. Occupancy of Al could not be increased further for the Al-rich sample, although Al was discovered to act as a sintering aid to enhance density and ZT could be significantly improved by 50%.

  16. Inserting Tin or Antimony Atoms into Mg2Si: Effect on the Electronic and Thermoelectric Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balout, H.; Boulet, P.; Record, M.-C.

    2015-11-01

    Density functional and Boltzmann transport theories have been used to investigate the effect of constraints generated by substituting tin for silicon atoms or by inserting antimony atoms into Mg2Si on the electronic and thermoelectric properties of this compound. The investigated hypothetical structures are Mg2Si1- x Sn x with x equal to 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.625, 0.75, and 0.875, and Mg8Si4Sb, Mg8Si4Sb3, and Mg2SiSb. The transport properties are presented with respect to the energy at three predefined temperatures and with respect to temperature for low and high electron and hole dopings. The effects of Sn-for-Si substitution are very similar to those observed for Mg2Si subjected to uniaxial and biaxial tensile strains. Overall, the power factor decreases as the doping level or tensile strain increases. In contrast, the maximum of the power factor increases with temperature. Irrespective of the temperature and electron or hole doping levels, the electrical conductivity ? of the Sb-inserted Mg2Si structures is far higher than that of Mg2Si. In the Fermi level energy region, the Seebeck coefficient S of the Sb-inserted Mg2Si structures is lower than that of Mg2Si. For Mg8Si4Sb3 and Mg2SiSb, the opposite is observed in the region where the electron density is very small (about 2 eV below the Fermi level). As a consequence, the power factor follows the same trends as the Seebeck coefficient.

  17. Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of hydrogen electrodes related to the

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    combustion engine so that our towns can be safer place to live in now and in the future. My decision Engineering and Biotechnology Supervisor: Signe Kjelstrup, IKJ Co-supervisor: Odne Burheim, IKJ Kaushik about, because its research field is growing and it is the most promising competitor to internal

  18. Spin Hall magnetoresistance at Pt/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} interfaces and texture effects

    SciTech Connect

    Isasa, Miren; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Vélez, Saül; Golmar, Federico; Sánchez, Florencio; Fontcuberta, Josep; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix

    2014-10-06

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on thin Pt bars grown on epitaxial (001) and (111) CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) ferrimagnetic insulating films. The results can be described in terms of the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). The magnitude of the SMR depends on the interface preparation conditions, being optimal when the Pt/CFO samples are prepared in situ, in a single process. The spin-mixing interface conductance, the key parameter governing SMR and other relevant spin-dependent phenomena, such as spin pumping or spin Seebeck effect, is found to be different depending on the crystallographic orientation of CFO, highlighting the role of the composition and density of magnetic ions at the interface on spin mixing.

  19. Transverse thermoelectric effect in La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}|SrRuO{sub 3} superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Shiomi, Y.; Handa, Y.; Kikkawa, T.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-06-08

    Transverse thermoelectric effects in response to an out-of-plane heat current have been studied in an external magnetic field for ferromagnetic superlattices consisting of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} and SrRuO{sub 3} layers. The superlattices were fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. We found that the sign of the transverse thermoelectric voltage for the superlattices is opposite to that for La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} and SrRuO{sub 3} single layers at 200?K, implying an important role of spin Seebeck effects inside the superlattices. At 10?K, the magnetothermoelectric curves shift from the zero field due to an antiferromagnetic coupling between layers in the superlattices.

  20. Transport Magnetic Proximity Effects in Platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ssu-Yen

    2013-03-01

    Platinum (Pt) metal, being non-magnetic and having a strong spin-orbit coupling interaction, has been central in detecting pure spin current and establishing most of the recent spin-based phenomena. Thus, it is important to ascertain the transport and magnetic characteristics of thin Pt films in contact with a ferromagnet. In this work, we use both electric and thermal means to conclusively show the transport magnetic proximity effects (MPE) of thin Pt film in contact with ferromagnetic insulator YIG. At thicknesses comparable to, and less than, the spin diffusion length, the strong ferromagnetic characteristics in Pt films on YIG are indistinguishable from those of ferromagnetic permalloy on YIG. The MPE occurs at the interface and decreases exponentially away from the interface, concentrating in only a few monolayers. As a result, the pure spin current detected by a thin Pt is tainted with a spin polarized current. The pure spin current phenomena, such as the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Seebeck effect, have been contaminated with the anomalous Hall effect and the anomalous Nernst effect respectively. These results raise serious questions about the suitability, and the validity, of using Pt in establishing pure spin current phenomena; on the other hand, a much stronger spin-based effect can be induced by the MPE at the interface. This research is in collaboration with X. Fin, Y. P. Chen, J. Wu, and J. Q. Xiao (University of Delaware), T. Y. Chen (Arizona State University) and D. Qu, W. G. Wang, and C. L. Chien (The Johns Hopkins University).

  1. Effects of Mn substitution on the thermoelectric properties of the electron-doped perovskite Sr1-xLaxTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, T.; Hata, H.; Eto, T.; Nishina, K.; Kuwahara, H.; Nakamura, M.; Kajimoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    We have tried to improve the n-type thermoelectric properties of the electron- doped Perovskite Sr1-xLaxTiO3 by a Mn substitution. The 1 ~ 2 % Mn substitution enhances the Seebeck coefficient (S) and reduces the thermal conductivity (?) by about 50 % at room temperature (RT) without largely increasing the resistivity for the 5 % electron-doped SrTiO3. Consequently, the power factor at RT keeps a large value comparable to that of Bi2Te3 and the dimensionless figure-of-merits at RT increases twofold by the slight Mn substitution. Such a large reduction of ? at RT is perhaps due to the effect of Jahn-Teller active Mn3+ ions, around which dynamical local lattice distortion may occur.

  2. Giant spin thermoelectric effects in all-carbon nanojunctions.

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Wang, H L; Chen, Y S; Kuang, Y W; Hong, X K; Liu, Y S; Feng, J F; Wang, X F

    2015-09-21

    We examine the thermospin properties of an all-carbon nanojunction constructed by a graphene nanoflake (GNF) and zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs), bridged by the carbon atomic chains. The first-principles calculations show that the phonon thermal conductance is much weaker than the electron thermal conductance at the Fermi level, and even the former is a few percent of the latter in the low-temperature regime. In the meantime, the carbon-based device possesses an excellent spin transport property at the Fermi level due to the appearance of half-metallic property. Furthermore, the single-spin Seebeck coefficient has a larger value at the Fermi level. These facts ultimately result in a significant enhancement of spin thermoelectric figure of merit (FOM) ZST. By controlling the carbon-chain lengths and the temperature, the maximal value of ZST can reach 30. Moreover, we also find that the room temperature ZST displays an odd-even effect with the carbon-chain lengths, and it is always larger than the charge thermoelectric FOM ZCT. PMID:26264191

  3. Giant Nernst effect in CeCoIn5.

    PubMed

    Bel, R; Behnia, K; Nakajima, Y; Izawa, K; Matsuda, Y; Shishido, H; Settai, R; Onuki, Y

    2004-05-28

    We present a study of Nernst and Seebeck coefficients of the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5. Below 18 K, concomitant with a field-dependent Seebeck coefficient, a large sublinear Nernst signal emerges with a magnitude drastically exceeding what is expected for a multiband Fermi-liquid metal. In the mixed state, in contrast with all other superconductors studied before, this signal overwhelms the one associated with the motion of superconducting vortices. The results point to a hitherto unknown source of transverse thermoelectricity in strongly interacting electrons. PMID:15245310

  4. Spin transport and spin-caloric effects in (Cr,Zn)Te half-metallic nanostructures: Effect of spin disorder at elevated temperatures from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ková?ik, Roman; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Blügel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    An important contribution to the thermoelectric and spin-caloric transport properties in magnetic materials at elevated temperatures is the formation of a spin-disordered state due to local moment fluctuations. This effect has not been largely investigated so far. We focus on various magnetic nanostructures of CrTe in the form of thin layers or nanowires embedded in ZnTe matrix, motivated by the miniaturization of spintronics devices and by recent suggestions that magnetic nanostructures can lead to extraordinary thermoelectric effects due to quantum confinement. The electronic structure of the studied systems is calculated within the multiple scattering screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function (KKR-GF) framework. The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the magnetization in the temperature induced spin disorder. The transport properties are evaluated from the transmission probability obtained using the Baranger-Stone approach within the KKR-GF framework. We find qualitative and quantitative changes in the thermoelectric and spin-caloric coefficients when spin disorder is included in the calculation. Furthermore, we show that substitutional impurities in CrTe nanowires could considerably enhance the Seebeck coefficient and the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  5. Effect of Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of Delafossite-Type Oxide CuCrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kei; Sato, Ken-ichi; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of doping on the high-temperature thermoelectric properties of the delafossite-type oxide CuCrO2. The single or double doping of divalent cations for Cr3+ ions was carried out to introduce hole carriers. For the first step, we measured the electrical conductivity ? and Seebeck coefficient S of single-doped samples, and calculated the power factor P=?S2. Mg-, Zn-, Ca-, Ni-, and Co-doped samples showed a higher power factor than CuCrO2, while the Fe-, V-, and Mn-doped samples exhibited a lower power factor. The maximum power factor P=2.36×10-4 W/mK2 at 1100 K was obtained with the Mg-doped sample. The above tendencies of the power factor are well explained by the valence states and ionic radii of the dopants. For the next step, Mg and M (M = Zn, Ca, Ni, or Co) double-doped samples were prepared. Since there was no impurity phase in the Mg+Ni cases, we have elucidated the structure and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of CuCr0.97-xMg0.03NixO2 (0Seebeck coefficient of the double-doped samples was higher than that of the Mg-doped sample, in which the total number of hole carriers (i.e., the sum of the hole carriers in the Cu and Cr sites) is decreasing. The Seebeck coefficient of the double-doped samples was higher than 225 µV/K from 300 to 1100 K. The thermal conductivity of the double-doped samples (?>6 W/mK) was higher than that of the Mg-doped sample. As a result, the maximum dimensionless figure of merit ZT=?S2T/?=0.10 was realized with the sample of x=0.04 at 1100 K, which was twice as high as that of the Mg-doped sample.

  6. Photothermoelectric and photovoltaic effects both present in MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youwei; Li, Hui; Wang, Lu; Wang, Haomin; Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Shi-Li; Liu, Ran; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    As a finite-energy-bandgap alternative to graphene, semiconducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted extensive interest for energy and sensor applications. In particular for broad-spectral photodetectors, multilayer MoS2 is more appealing than its monolayer counterpart. However, little is understood regarding the physics underlying the photoresponse of multilayer MoS2. Here, we employ scanning photocurrent microscopy to identify the nature of photocurrent generated in multilayer MoS2 transistors. The generation and transport of photocurrent in multilayer MoS2 are found to differ from those in other low-dimensional materials that only contribute with either photovoltaic effect (PVE) or photothermoelectric effect (PTE). In multilayer MoS2, the PVE at the MoS2-metal interface dominates in the accumulation regime whereas the hot-carrier-assisted PTE prevails in the depletion regime. Besides, the anomalously large Seebeck coefficient observed in multilayer MoS2, which has also been reported by others, is caused by hot photo-excited carriers that are not in thermal equilibrium with the MoS2 lattice.

  7. Photothermoelectric and photovoltaic effects both present in MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youwei; Li, Hui; Wang, Lu; Wang, Haomin; Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Shi-Li; Liu, Ran; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    As a finite-energy-bandgap alternative to graphene, semiconducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted extensive interest for energy and sensor applications. In particular for broad-spectral photodetectors, multilayer MoS2 is more appealing than its monolayer counterpart. However, little is understood regarding the physics underlying the photoresponse of multilayer MoS2. Here, we employ scanning photocurrent microscopy to identify the nature of photocurrent generated in multilayer MoS2 transistors. The generation and transport of photocurrent in multilayer MoS2 are found to differ from those in other low-dimensional materials that only contribute with either photovoltaic effect (PVE) or photothermoelectric effect (PTE). In multilayer MoS2, the PVE at the MoS2-metal interface dominates in the accumulation regime whereas the hot-carrier-assisted PTE prevails in the depletion regime. Besides, the anomalously large Seebeck coefficient observed in multilayer MoS2, which has also been reported by others, is caused by hot photo-excited carriers that are not in thermal equilibrium with the MoS2 lattice. PMID:25605348

  8. Effects of doping on transport properties in Cu-Bi-Se-based thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Mun, Hyeon A; Kim, Sang Il; Lee, Ki Moon; Kim, Jungeun; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Kim, Sung Wng

    2014-12-15

    The thermoelectric properties of Zn-, In-, and I-doped Cu1.7Bi4.7Se8 pavonite homologues were investigated in the temperature range from 300 to 560 K. On the basis of the comprehensive structural analysis using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation diffraction for Cu(x+y)Bi(5-y)Se8 compounds with the inherently disordered crystallographic sites, we demonstrate a doping strategy that provides a simultaneous control for enhanced electronic transport properties by the optimization of carrier concentration and exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivity by the formation of point defects. Substituted Zn or In ions on Cu site was found to be an effective phonon scattering center as well as an electron donor, while doping on Bi site showed a moderate effect for phonon scattering. In addition, we achieved largely enhanced power factor in small amount of In doping on Cu site by increased electrical conductivity and moderately decreased Seebeck coefficient. Coupled with a low lattice thermal conductivity originated from intensified point defect phonon scattering by substituted In ions with host Cu ions, a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 0.24 at 560 K for Cu1.6915In0.0085Bi4.7Se8 was achieved, yielding 30% enhancement compared with that of a pristine Cu1.7Bi4.7Se8 at the same temperature. PMID:25402498

  9. Thermoelectric effect of silicon films prepared by aluminum-induced crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qing-run; Gu, Bing-fu; Chen, Yi-bao; He, Yuan-jin

    2012-10-01

    Aluminum-induced crystallized silicon films were prepared on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. Aluminum was added in the silicon films intermittently by the regular pulse sputtering of an aluminum target. The amount of aluminum in the silicon films can be controlled by regulating the aluminum sputtering power and the sputtering time of the undoped silicon layer; thus, the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of the polycrystalline silicon films can be adjusted. It is found that, when the sputtering power ratio of aluminum to silicon is 16%, both the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical resistivity decrease with the increasing amount of aluminum as expected; the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical resistivity at room temperature are 0.185-0.285 mV/K and 0.30-2.4 ?·cm, respectively. By reducing the sputtering power ratio to 7%, however, the Seebeck coefficient does not change much, though the electrical resistivity still decreases with the amount of aluminum increasing; the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at room temperature are 0.219-0.263 mV/K and 0.26-0.80 ?·cm, respectively.

  10. Unravelling Doping Effects on PEDOT at the Molecular Level: From Geometry to Thermoelectric Transport Properties.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen; Zhao, Tianqi; Xi, Jinyang; Wang, Dong; Shuai, Zhigang

    2015-10-14

    Tuning carrier concentration via chemical doping is the most successful strategy to optimize the thermoelectric figure of merit. Nevertheless, how the dopants affect charge transport is not completely understood. Here we unravel the doping effects by explicitly including the scattering of charge carriers with dopants on thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, which is a p-type thermoelectric material with the highest figure of merit reported. We corroborate that the PEDOT exhibits a distinct transition from the aromatic to quinoid-like structure of backbone, and a semiconductor-to-metal transition with an increase in the level of doping. We identify a close-to-unity charge transfer from PEDOT to the dopant, and find that the ionized impurity scattering dominates over the acoustic phonon scattering in the doped PEDOT. By incorporating both scattering mechanisms, the doped PEDOT exhibits mobility, Seebeck coefficient and power factors in very good agreement with the experimental data, and the lightly doped PEDOT exhibits thermoelectric properties superior to the heavily doped one. We reveal that the thermoelectric transport is highly anisotropic in ordered crystals, and suggest to utilize large power factors in the direction of polymer backbone and low lattice thermal conductivity in the stacking and lamellar directions, which is viable in chain-oriented amorphous nanofibers. PMID:26406937

  11. Pyro-paraelectricity: a new effect in hetergeneous material architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Huai-An; Mao, Sheng; Visweswaran, Bhadrinarayana L.; Ohemeng, Kwaku K.; Wagner, Sigurd; Purohit, Prashant K.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    The electrical responses of materials and devices subjected to thermal inputs, such as the Seebeck effect and pyroelectricity, are of great interest in thermal-electric energy conversion applications. Of particular interest are phenomena which exploit heterogeneities in the mechanics of heterostructured materials for novel and unexplored mechanisms in thermal-electric conversion. Here we introduce a new and universal mechanism for converting thermal stimuli into electricity via structural heterogeneities, which we term "pyro-paraelectricity." Specifically, when a paraelectric material is grown on a substrate with a different lattice constant, the paraelectric layer experiences an inhomogeneous strain due to the lattice mismatch, establishing a strain gradient along the axis of the layer thickness. This induced strain gradient can be multiple orders of magnitude higher than strain gradients in bulk materials imparted by mechanical bending (0.1 m-1). Consequently, charge separation is induced in the paraelectric layer via flexoelectricity, leading to a polarization in proportion to the dielectric constant. The dielectric constant, and thus the polarization, changes with temperature. Therefore, when a strained metal-insulator-metal (MIM) heterostructure is subjected to a thermal input, changes in the permittivity generate an electrical response. We demonstrate this mechanism by employing a MIM heterostructure with a high permittivity sputtered barium strontium titanate (BST) film as the insulating layer in a platinum sandwich. The resulting strain gradient of more than 104 m-1, an enhancement of five orders of magnitude due to the structural heterogeneity, was verified by an X-ray diffraction scan. With an applied thermal input, the strained MIM heterostructure generated current which was highly correlated to the thermal input. A theoretical model was found to be consistent with the experimental data. These results demonstrate the existence of "pyro-paraelectricity," a flexoelectricity-mediated mechanism for thermal-electrical conversion.

  12. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of Sb doped Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, E. M. M.; Abdel Hakeem, A. M.; Adam, A. M. M.; Shokr, E. Kh

    2015-04-01

    Polycrystalline samples of (Bi0.95Sb0.05)2Se3 were prepared using the conventional melting technique at 1273 K, followed by annealing at different temperatures (423, 473, 523 and 573 K) for different time intervals (4, 8, 12 and 16 h). The samples were crystallized in a single phase of Bi2Se3 and no other phases or impurities were observed. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were studied by measuring the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient as functions of temperature in the range 100-400 K. The results exhibited a metal-n-type semiconductor transition for all samples. The power factor (Pf) was calculated to determine the effect of the annealing treatment on the performance of the prepared material as a thermoelectric power generator. The highest room temperature value of the Pf was 6.9 ?WK-2cm-1 and was recorded for the sample annealed at 573 K for 16 h. The results confirm the feasibility of using the annealing process to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials.

  14. Effect of Off-Stoichiometry on the Thermoelectric Properties of Heusler-Type Fe2VAl Sintered Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, M.; Inukai, M.; Miyazaki, H.; Nishino, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Heusler-type Fe2V1-x Al1+x sintered alloys with micrometer-sized grains were fabricated by the powder metallurgical process using mechanical alloying and pulse-current sintering. Both positive (˜90 ?V/K) and negative (˜-140 ?V/K) Seebeck coefficients were obtained for the composition ranges of x > 0 and x < 0, respectively, resulting from a Fermi level shift caused by the change in the valence electron concentration. The electrical resistivity was reduced by the carrier doping effect, especially at lower temperatures, resulting in an increased thermoelectric power factor of 2.8 mW/m-K2 for the p-type alloy with x = 0.06 and 5.0 mW/m-K2 for the n-type alloy with x = -0.06. In addition, the lattice thermal conductivity decreased with |x| because of phonon scattering at crystal lattice defects induced by the off-stoichiometry. Consequently, the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, was enhanced and reached 0.07 for p-type alloys with 0.06 < x < 0.15 and 0.18 for n-type alloys with -0.15 < x < -0.10 around 500 K. The ZT value was especially enhanced at higher temperatures by the off-stoichiometric composition control, which could extend the range of heat source temperatures for thermoelectric power generation applications using this alloy.

  15. Effect of Sn Doping on the Thermoelectric Properties of n-type Bi2(Te,Se)3 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Uk; Lee, Deuk-Hee; Kwon, Beomjin; Hyun, Dow-Bin; Nahm, Sahn; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, 0.01-0.05wt.% Sn-doped Bi2(Te0.9Se0.1)3 alloys were prepared by mechanical deformation followed by hot pressing, and their thermoelectric properties were studied. We observed that the Sn element is a very effective dopant as an acceptor to control the carrier concentration in the n-type Bi2(Te0.9Se0.1)3 alloys to optimize their thermoelectric property. The n-type carrier concentration can be controlled from 4.2 × 1019/cm3 to 2.4 × 1019/cm3 by 0.05wt.% Sn-doping. While the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical resistivity are both increased with doping, the power factor remains the same. Therefore, we found that the thermoelectric figure-of-merit becomes maximized at 0.75 when the thermal conductivity has a minimum value for the 0.03wt.% Sn-doped sample.

  16. Effects of indium-filling and synthesis pressure on the thermoelectric properties of CoSb3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Le; Wang, Li Bin; Qin, Jie Ming; Zheng, Tao; Jia, Xiao Peng; Ma, Hong An

    2014-06-01

    InxCo4Sb12 skutterudite compounds have been prepared successfully at different synthesis pressures by high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) method, the processing time has been reduced from a few days to half an hour. In addition, the effect of synthesis pressure on the thermoelectric properties of In0.4Co4Sb12 compounds has been investigated in this paper. The structure of In0.4Co4Sb12 samples was evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were all measured in the temperature range of room temperature to 673 K. The sample synthesized at 2.0 GPa showed the highest power factor of 29.3 ?Wcm-1K-2 at 373 K. A dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.51 at 673 K was achieved for n-type In0.4Co4Sb12 prepared at 1.3 GPa, which was significantly enhanced in comparison with pure CoSb3.

  17. Effects of spin entropy and lattice strain from mixed-trivalent Fe3+/Cr3+ on the electronic, thermoelectric and optical properties of delafossite CuFe1?x Cr x O2 (x??=??0.25, 0.5, 0.75)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttanapun, Chesta; Maensiri, Santi

    2015-12-01

    Mixed-trivalent Fe3+/Cr3+ content CuFe1?x Cr x O2 (x??=??0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) compounds were synthesized to investigate the effects of spin entropy, and lattice strain on their electronic, thermoelectric and optical properties. The XPS results showed the existence of mixed Cu1+/Cu2+, Fe3+/Fe4+ and Cr2+/Cr3+ ion states in the structures. The mixed Fe3+/Cr3+ions caused a strong correlation to occur between the spin and the orbitals of the carriers in the octahedral layer of the sample, affecting the carrier degeneracy Seebeck coefficient behaviour, and the Cu2+ and Fe4+ ions caused an effect of enhancing the electric conductivity. These effects meant that CuFe0.75Cr0.25O2 had the highest electrical conductivity, an enhanced Seebeck coefficient compared to that of CuFeO2-based compounds, and the highest thermopower value. The lowest thermal conductivity was that of CuFe0.5Cr0.5O2, which was a result of the mismatched atomic radii of the mixed trivalent Fe3+(0.645 Å)/Cr3+(0.615 Å), which caused the lattice strain to occur in the structure and thus affected the point defect scattering of the phonon thermal conductivity. The lowest total thermal conductivity was that of CuFe0.5Cr0.5O2, because it had the maximum lattice strain. Overall, the effect of the mixed trivalent elements caused CuFe0.75Cr0.25O2 to have the highest value of the dimensionless figure of merit ZT, with a value that was four times that of CuFeO2-based compounds and six times that of CuCrO2-based compounds. With regard to optical properties, the lattice strain causes the indirect optical gap to increase with increasing x content, but has no effect on the direct optical gap. These results verified that the mixed-trivalent Fe3+/Cr3+ content of CuFe1?x Cr x O2 (x??=??0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) affected the electronic, thermoelectric and optical properties of the structure by causing spin entropy and lattice strain to occur.

  18. Effects of Pd substitution on the thermoelectric and electronic properties of delafossite Cu{sub 1?x}Pd{sub x}FeO{sub 2} (x=0.01, 0.03 and 0.05)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttanapun, Chesta

    2014-07-01

    Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} (x=0.01, 0.03 and 005) delafossite was prepared by solid state reactions and was calcined/sintered at 1050 °C. The effect of Pd{sup 2+} substitution for the Cu{sup 1+} sites on the thermoelectric and electronic properties of Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} were investigated. The crystal structure, oxygen decomposition, thermoelectric and electronic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity measurements. The characterization showed that Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} formed a hexagonal delafossite structure with R3?m symmetry. The existence of Pd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 1+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 4+} and O was revealed from the XPS results. Confirmation of Pd{sup 2+} substitution for the Cu{sup 1+} sites occurred by increasing the c-axis in the lattice parameter with a Pd content. The O content intercalated at the center of the triangular Cu acted as a support to produce Cu{sup 2+} ions and was reduced with an increasing Pd content. The mixed valencies of Cu{sup 1+}/Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 1+}/Pd{sup 2+} in the Cu layer changed the electrical conductivity and the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 4+} mixed valencies in the FeO{sub 6} layer caused the Seebeck coefficient to increase. Both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient for Pd contents of x=0.01 and 0.03 were higher than that of non-doped CuFeO{sub 2}. The low thermal conductivity of Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} resulted from the substitution of Pd, which has a large atomic mass, into structure. The Jonker plot indicated that the electronic properties displayed a degenerate density of states and that Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} was a semiconductor. A high ZT value of 0.055 was obtained for a Pd content of 0.03 at 950 K. The Pd{sup 2+} substitution for the Cu{sup 1+} sites influenced the thermoelectric and electronic properties of the delafossite Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} samples. - Graphical abstract: Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} (x=0.01, 0.03 and 005) delafossite was prepared by solid state reactions. The characterization showed that Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} formed a hexagonal delafossite structure with R3?m symmetry. The existence of Pd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 1+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 4+} and O was revealed from the XPS results. The O content intercalated at the center of the triangular Cu acted as a support to produce Cu{sup 2+} ions and was reduced with an increasing Pd content. The mixed valencies of Cu{sup 1+}/Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 1+}/Pd{sup 2+} in the Cu layer changed the electrical conductivity and the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 4+} mixed valencies in the FeO{sub 6} layer caused the Seebeck coefficient to increase. Both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient for Pd contents of x=0.01 and 0.03 were higher than that of non-doped CuFeO{sub 2}. The low thermal conductivity of Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} resulted from the substitution of Pd, which has a large atomic mass, into structure. A high ZT value of 0.055 was obtained for a Pd content of 0.03 at 950 K. The Pd{sup 2+} substitution for the Cu{sup 1+} sites influenced the thermoelectric and electronic properties of the delafossite Cu{sub (1?x)}Pd{sub (x)}FeO{sub 2} samples. - Highlights: • New compound of Cu{sub 1?x}Pd{sub x}FeO{sub 2} (x=0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) forms phase of delafossite. • The compound displays p-type thermoelectric materials. • The Pd-substituted for Cu{sup 1+} sites forms Pd{sup 2+}. • Mixed valencies of Cu{sup +}/Cu{sup 2+}, Cu{sup +}/Pd{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 4+} appear in the compound. • Large atomic mass of Pd-substituted causes low thermal conductivity.

  19. Nano-scale effects in bulk nanostructured thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyala, Nikhil

    The technique of energy harvesting via thermoelectric (TE) materials is one of the favorable directions towards manifesting sustainable energy resources. The ability of TE materials to directly convert heat energy to electricity facilitates the reduction in consumption of natural resources for power generation. The requirements of high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient while maintaining a low thermal conductivity for attaining higher TE performance introduced newer material processing techniques. Several efficient techniques for nano-scale structural modifications such as alloying, point defects, nanostructuring etc. were implemented for improvement in the figure-of-merit. Quantum confinement techniques based on nanostructuring of compounds gained prominence due to the resulting reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity. In this dissertation, various aspects of theoretical and experimental techniques pertaining to the nano-scale effects in TE materials were investigated. As a first step, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of nanostructuring, TE characteristics of silicide based materials such as Mg2Si and Si1-xGex were theoretically modeled. A comprehensive comparison of effects of nanostructuring in both the materials was deduced. The fact that nanostructuring may not always be beneficial was highlighted through estimation of phonon mean free path in nanostructured compounds. In the second phase of this dissertation, a novel technique through mixing of a conductive glass-frit for improving the mechanical stability of Mg2Si was successfully developed. The studies were followed up by investigations on the benefits of combinatorial effects of nano-inclusions, nanostructuring and long duration annealing based on Bi2Te 3. In the final phase of this dissertation work, the technique of rapid decrystallization of single crystal silicon by high energy microwaves was introduced and the beneficial effects of rapid decrystallization were experimentally deduced. It was shown that a significant reduction in room temperature thermal conductivity of single crystal silicon could be achieved by means of grain size reduction via microwave energy. The advantages of nanostructuring in thermoelectric materials combined with techniques such as nano-inclusions, long duration annealing and rapid decrystallization have been explored comprehensively in this dissertation work. Such combinatorial techniques could be beneficially used to further enhance the efficiencies of thermoelectric materials.

  20. Oxide based thermoelectric materials for large scale power generation

    E-print Network

    Song, Yang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The thermoelectric (TE) devices are based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects, which describe the conversion between temperature gradient and electricity. The effectiveness of the material performance can be described by ...

  1. Thermoelectric probe for Fermi surface topology in the three-dimensional Rashba semiconductor BiTeI

    E-print Network

    Ideue, T.

    We have investigated thermoelectric properties of a three-dimensional Rashba system BiTeI. Magnetic-field dependences of the Seebeck effect and Nernst effect show qualitative changes with the Fermi level passing through ...

  2. Effect of Nano-ZrW2O8 on the Thermoelectric Properties of Bi85Sb15/ZrW2O8 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Zhen; Chu, Xinxin; Li, Laifeng

    2012-06-01

    In this study, Bi85Sb15/ x wt.% ZrW2O8 ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1) thermoelectric nanocomposites were prepared successfully by ball milling and spark plasma sintering. The effect of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles on the thermoelectric properties of the Bi85Sb15/ZrW2O8 composite was investigated. Thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical conductivity were measured between 77 K and 300 K. x-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were adopted for microstructure characterization of the composites. The electrical transport properties are mainly discussed with regard to the microstructures. The results show that nanoinclusions did not grow during sintering. It is found that the thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of a small amount of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles, which serve as additional phonon-scattering centers. The obtained thermal conductivity is 0.5 W/m K for the Bi85Sb15/1 wt.% ZrW2O8 composite at 80 K, which is just half of the value for the Bi85Sb15 matrix. However, the electrical transport properties are degraded with increasing content of ZrW2O8. The calculated ZT is also degraded due to the poor electrical properties.

  3. Spray pyrolysis of tin selenide thin-film semiconductors: the effect of selenium concentration on the properties of the thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadavieslam, M. R.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M. M.

    2013-08-01

    Thin films of tin selenide (SnxSey) with an atomic ratio of , 1 and 1.5 were prepared on a glass substrate at T = 470°C using a spray pyrolysis technique. The initial materials for the preparation of the thin films were an alcoholic solution consisting of tin chloride (SnCl4· 5H2O) and selenide acide (H2SeO3). The prepared thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning helium ion microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photoconductivity and thermoelectric effects of the SnxSey thin films were then studied. The SnxSey thin films had a polycrystalline structure with an almost uniform surface and cluster type growth. The increasing atomic ratio of r in the films, the optical gap, photosensitivity and Seebeck coefficient were changed from 1.6 to 1.37 eV, 0.01 to 0.31 and -26.2 to -42.7 mV/K (at T = 350 K), respectively. In addition, the XRD patterns indicated intensity peaks in r = 1 that corresponded to the increase in the SnSe and SnSe2 phases.

  4. Large transverse thermoelectric effects in single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional metal Li0.9Mo6O17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshfeghyeganeh, Saeed; Cohn, Joshua; Dos Santos, Carlos A. M.; Neumeier, John J.

    2014-03-01

    We present measurements of transverse thermoelectric (TE) effects in the temperature range 300-500 K for single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) metal Li0.9Mo6O17 (lithium purple bronze). Prior work demonstrates a highly anisotropic Seebeck coefficient (S), with metallic n-type behavior along the q1D chains (crystallographic b axis), p-type semiconductor behavior in the perpendicular, inter-chain direction (c axis), and a difference ?S ~= 200 ? V/K near T = 450 K. Significant transverse TE voltages, induced by applied temperature differences, and Peltier cooling, induced by applied currents, in specimens with body axes misaligned with the b and c axes will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences (DE-FG02-12ER46888, Univ. Miami), the National Science Foundation (DMR-0907036, Mont. St. Univ.), and in Lorena by the CNPq (301334/2007-2) and FAPESP (2009/14524-6).

  5. Effect of Bi Substitution on Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline [Ca2CoO3] pCoO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Masashi; Ando, Naoko; Guilmeau, Emmanuel; Funahashi, Ryoji

    2006-05-01

    Partially Bi-substituted [Ca2CoO3] pCoO2 ceramics were synthesized using a hot-forging technique. Then, the effects of Bi-substitution on microstructure and thermoelectric properties were evaluated. The average grain size of the precursor powder prepared by a solid-state reaction increased concomitant with the increase in Bi content. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity (?) of the hot-forged sample was decreased accordingly. Seebeck coefficient (S) was increased slightly by Bi-substitution and was less affected by grain size. Therefore, power factor (\\mathit{PF}=S2/?) was improved. On the other hand, the ? of the hot-forged sample was reduced using a large-grained precursor powder prepared by a solution growth method. Different from the case of the former samples made from as-sintered powder, the ? of the sample made from large-grained powder was increased slightly with the increase in Bi content. These results indicate that the main advantage of Bi-substitution for the decrease in the ? of the hot-forged sample is the enhanced grain growth during the heat treatment processes.

  6. Optical and electrical properties and phonon drag effect in low temperature TEP measurements of AgSbSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namitha Asokan, T.; Urmila, K. S.; Jacob, Rajani; Reena Philip, Rachel; Okram, G. S.; Ganesan, V.; Pradeep, B.

    2014-05-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver antimony selenide have been deposited using a reactive evaporation technique onto an ultrasonically cleaned glass substrate at a vacuum of 10-5 torr. The preparative parameters, like substrate temperature and incident fluxes, have been properly controlled in order to get stoichiometric, good quality and reproducible thin film samples. The samples are characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and a UV—vis—NIR spectrophotometer. The prepared sample is found to be polycrystalline in nature. From the XRD pattern, the average particle size and lattice constant are calculated. The dislocation density, strain and number of crystallites per unit area are evaluated using the average particle size. The dependence of the electrical conductivity on the temperature has also been studied and the prepared AgSbSe2 samples are semiconducting in nature. The AgSbSe2 thin films exhibited an indirect allowed optical transition with a band gap of 0.64 eV. The compound exhibits promising thermoelectric properties, a large Seebeck coefficient of 30 mV/K at 48 K due to strong phonon electron interaction. It shows a strong temperature dependence on thermoelectric properties, including the inversion of a dominant carrier type from p to n over a low temperature range 9-300 K, which is explained on the basis of a phonon drag effect.

  7. Field effect controlled ferromagnetism in transition metal doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, E.; Pellegrino, L.; Biasotti, M.; Pallecchi, I.; Canu, G.; Gerbi, A.; Vignolo, M.; Siri, A. S.; Marré, D.; Rusponi, S.; Lehnert, A.; Nolting, F.

    2008-02-01

    The ability to externally control the properties of magnetic materials would be highly desirable both from fundamental and technological point of views. In this respect, dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS), in which a fraction of atoms of the nonmagnetic semiconductor host is replaced by magnetic ions, have recently attracted broad interest for their potential application in spintronics. In this work, we focused on transition metal (TM) (Co, Mn and Cu) doped Zinc oxide (ZnO) because room temperature ferromagnetism was both theoretically predicted and experimentally observed. However, the origin of such ferromagnetism, in particular whether it is a signature of a true DMS behaviour (long range magnetic interaction between the doping ions) or it arises from the formation of secondary phases, segregation or clustering is still under debate. Measuring the dependence of the magnetic properties on the carrier concentration can clarify the underlying physics. The samples were characterized by resistivity, Hall effect, magnetoresistance, Seebeck effect, synchrotron X-ray adsorption spectra (XAS) and magnetic dichroism (XMD) while modulating the carrier density by electric field. The insulating-gate field-effect transistor structures are realized in ZnO/Strontium Titanate (SrTiO 3) heterostructures by pulsed laser deposition. These devices offers the capability to modulate the carrier density of a probe accessible (light, AFM tip, ...) channel, by more than 5 orders of magnitude (from ~10 15 to ~10 20 e -/cm 3, estimated by Hall effect measurements under FE). The Co and Mn films measured by DC SQUID magnetometer result ferromagnetic and anomalous Hall effect was observed at low temperature but nor ferromagnetic nor antiferromagnetic signal was detectable in the XMD spectra. Cu doped films are insulating and nonmagnetic. Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (x-PEEM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) showed that the sample are homogeneus and no clustering of TM were detected. A large effect of the magnetic ions, strongly dependent on the carrier concentration, was observed on the transport properties and this effect according can be explained by a giant s-d exchange leading to spin splitting of the s-type conduction band. Since the filling of such band can be modified by field effect a electric field control of the spin polarization can be achieved.

  8. Microwave-induced spin currents in ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal bilayer system

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Milan; Serga, Alexander A.; Lauer, Viktor; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.

    2014-09-01

    A microwave technique is employed to simultaneously examine the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effect processes in a YIG|Pt bilayer system. The experimental results show that for these two processes, the spin current flows in opposite directions. The temporal dynamics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect exhibits that the effect depends on the diffusion of bulk thermal-magnons in the thermal gradient in the ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal system.

  9. Improving efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion devices is a major

    E-print Network

    Walker, D. Greg

    Abstract · Improving efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion devices is a major challenge dominates over increase in Seebeck coefficient leading to poor device performance. Thermoelectric figure effects such as confinement can be easily included while predicting thermoelectric properties of nanofilms

  10. Modeling of solar thermal selective surfaces and thermoelectric generators

    E-print Network

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that converts a heat flux into electrical power via the Seebeck effect. When a thermoelectric generator is inserted between a solar-absorbing surface and a heat sink, a ...

  11. Solar thermoelectrics for small scale power generation

    E-print Network

    Amatya, Reja

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a surge in the research of new thermoelectric (TE) materials, driven party by the need for clean and sustainable power generation technology. Utilizing the Seebeck effect, the ...

  12. A study of transport properties in Cu and P doped ZnSb

    SciTech Connect

    Valset, K.; Song, X.; Finstad, T. G.

    2015-01-28

    ZnSb samples have been doped with copper and phosphorus and sintered at 798?K. Electronic transport properties are interpreted as being influenced by an impurity band close to the valence band. At low Cu dopant concentrations, this impurity band degrades the thermoelectric properties as the Seebeck coefficient and effective mass are reduced. At carrier concentrations above 1?×?10{sup 19?}cm{sup ?3}, the Seebeck coefficient in Cu doped samples can be described by a single parabolic band.

  13. Effect of ruthenium substitution in layered sodium cobaltate Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}: Synthesis, structural and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, Pierre; Muguerra, Herve; Hebert, Sylvie; Pachoud, Elise; Colin, Claire; Julien, Marc-Henri

    2009-07-15

    Solid-state synthesis of Na{sub 0.71}Co{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}O{sub 2} compositions shows that ruthenium can be substituted for cobalt in the hexagonal Na{sub 0.71}CoO{sub 2} phase up to x=0.5. The cell expands continuously with increasing ruthenium content. All mixed Co-Ru phases show a Curie-Weiss behaviour with no evidence of magnetic ordering down to 2 K. Unlike the parent phase Na{sub 0.71}CoO{sub 2}, ruthenium-substituted phases are all semiconducting. They exhibit high thermoelectric power, with a maximum of 165 muV/K at 300 K for x=0.3. The Curie constant C and Seebeck coefficient S show a non-monotonic evolution as a function of ruthenium content, demonstrating a remarkable interplay between magnetic properties and thermoelectricity. The presence of ruthenium has a detrimental effect on water intercalation and superconductivity in this system. Applying to Ru-substituted phases the oxidative intercalation of water known to lead to superconductivity in the Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} system yields a 2-water layer hydrate only for x=0.1, and this phase is not superconducting down to 2 K. - Graphical Abstract: Effect of ruthenium substitution on thermoelectric power in Na{sub 0.71}Co{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}O{sub 2} (left) and on low-temperature ac susceptibility in hydrated derivative (right).

  14. Effects of surface band bending and scattering on thermoelectric transport in suspended bismuth telluride nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Pettes, Michael Thompson; Maassen, Jesse; Jo, Insun; Lundstrom, Mark S; Shi, Li

    2013-11-13

    A microdevice was used to measure the in-plane thermoelectric properties of suspended bismuth telluride nanoplates from 9 to 25 nm thick. The results reveal a suppressed Seebeck coefficient together with a general trend of decreasing electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity with decreasing thickness. While the electrical conductivity of the nanoplates is still within the range reported for bulk Bi2Te3, the total thermal conductivity for nanoplates less than 20 nm thick is well below the reported bulk range. These results are explained by the presence of surface band bending and diffuse surface scattering of electrons and phonons in the nanoplates, where pronounced n-type surface band bending can yield suppressed and even negative Seebeck coefficient in unintentionally p-type doped nanoplates. PMID:24164564

  15. Effect of rare earth substitution on the structural and electrical properties of Cu-Mg ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ateia, E.; Ahmed, M. A.; Ghouniem, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    The samples of Cu0.9Mg0.1RyFe2-yO4, where y = 0.01 and R = Sm, Dy, Ho and Hf, were prepared by standard ceramic method. All investigated samples were sintered at 1150°C with a heating rate of 4°C/min and sintering time of 8 h. X-ray diffraction study of the compositions revealed the formation of cubic spinel structure with the appearance of small peaks indicating the presence of secondary phases. Seebeck coefficient was obtained from thermo-electromotive force (emf) measurements. The alternation of the Seebeck coefficient sign between (+)ve and (-)ve means that the two conduction mechanisms take place simultaneously. The dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, quality factor were determined as a function of temperature and at different frequencies. The decrease in Fe3+ ions on the octahedral site decreased the polarization of the system, through the dielectric transition point.

  16. Temperature Gradient Measurements by Using Thermoelectric Effect in CNTs-Silicone Adhesive Composite

    PubMed Central

    Chani, Muhammad Tariq Saeed; Karimov, Kh. S.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Ahmed, Nisar; Bashir, Muhammad Mehran; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rub, Malik Abdul; Azum, Naved

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the fabrication and investigation of thermoelectric cells based on composite of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicone adhesive. The composite contains CNT and silicon adhesive 1?1 by weight. The current-voltage characteristics and dependences of voltage, current and Seebeck coefficient on the temperature gradient of cell were studied. It was observed that with increase in temperature gradient the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and the Seebeck coefficient of the cells increase. Approximately 7 times increase in temperature gradient increases the open circuit voltage and short circuit current up to 40 and 5 times, respectively. The simulation of experimental results is also carried out; the simulated results are well matched with experimental results. PMID:24748375

  17. Effects of Se substitution on the thermoelectric performance of n-type Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 11.3}Te{sub 0.7?x}Se{sub x} skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Bo; Zhai, Pengcheng; Liu, Lisheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ? The simple solid state reaction technique was employed to prepare Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 11.3}Te{sub 0.7?x}Se{sub x} skutterudites. ? The thermal conductivity decreases gradually with the increasing Se content. ? Doping with moderate Se is an effective way to enhance the thermoelectric performance of Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 11.3}Te{sub 0.7?x}Se{sub x}. ? The highest ZT of 1.11 at 800 K is obtained for the Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 11.3}Te{sub 0.58}Se{sub 0.12} sample. -- Abstract: A series of double-substituted Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 11.3}Te{sub 0.7?x}Se{sub x} skutterudites have been fabricated by combining the solid state reaction and the spark plasma sintering method, and the effects of Se substitution on the thermoelectric properties are characterized by measurements of the electrical conductivity, the Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300–800 K. Doping Se into the Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 11.3}Te{sub 0.7?x}Se{sub x} matrix suppresses the carrier concentration, and the electrical conductivity actually decreases with the Se content. However, moderate Se doping is effective in enhancing the thermoelectric performance of the n-type Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 11.3}Te{sub 0.7?x}Se{sub x}, because of the resulted dramatically decreased thermal conductivity. Analyses indicate that the heightened point-defect scattering induced by Se doping together with the electron–phonon scattering induced by Te doping is responsible for the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity of these compounds.

  18. Effects of (Al,Ge) double doping on the thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Salta, Daniel; Zhang, Libin; Weathers, Annie; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.; Shi, Li

    2013-11-07

    Experiments and analysis have been carried out to investigate the effects of Al and (Al,Ge) doping on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples, which were prepared by solid-state reaction, ball milling, and followed by spark plasma sintering. It has been found that Al doping effectively increases the hole concentration, which leads to an increase in the electrical conductivity and power factor. By introducing the second dopant Ge into Al-doped HMS, the electrical conductivity is increased, and the Seebeck coefficient is decreased as a result of further increased hole concentration. The peak power factor is found to occur at a hole concentration between 1.8?×?10{sup 21} and 2.2?×?10{sup 21}?cm{sup ?3} measured at room temperature. The (Al,Ge)-doped HMS samples show lower power factors owing to their higher hole concentrations. The mobility of Mn(Al{sub 0.0035}Ge{sub y}Si{sub 0.9965-y}){sub 1.8} with y?=?0.035 varies approximately as T{sup ?3/2} above 200?K, suggesting acoustic phonon scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism. The thermal conductivity of HMS does not change appreciably by Al or (Al,Ge) doping. The maximum ZT of (Al,Ge)-doped HMS is 0.57 at 823?K, which is similar to the highest value found in the Al-doped HMS samples. The ZT values were reduced in the Mn(Al{sub 0.0035}Ge{sub y}Si{sub 0.9965-y}){sub 1.8} samples with high Ge concentration of y?=?0.025 and 0.035, because of reduced power factor. In addition, a two-band model was employed to show that the hole contribution to the thermal conductivity dominates the bipolar and electron contributions for all samples from 300 to 823?K and accounts for about 12% of the total thermal conductivity at about 800?K.

  19. Effects of ppm-Level Imperfection on the Transport Properties of FeSb2 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hidefumi; Yasui, Yukio; Terasaki, Ichiro; Sato, Masatoshi

    2011-05-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivities, Hall coefficients, and Seebeck coefficients have been measured for single crystals of a narrow-gap semiconductor of FeSb2 prepared using Sb metals of different purities. Below 40 K, carriers supplied from impurities of the Sb metal used as the raw material determine the transport quantities, making them very sensitive even to a ppm-level impurity concentration. The Seebeck coefficients observed here is as large as ˜{-1400} ?V/K at 20 K for crystals prepared using Sb of 99.9999% purity. We have not observed, however, the colossal value of ˜{-45} mV/K reported by other group, even for the samples having almost equal impurity concentrations to those used in their work. Only the concentration dependence of S has been found to be similar to that of the previous data.

  20. High-temperature characteristics of Seebeck coefficients for AlInN alloys grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    . Related Articles Structure and chemistry of the Si(111)/AlN interface Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 011910 (2012­22 transistors,23 and solar cells.24,25 The use of active solid state cooling tech- nology26,27 is of great

  1. High temperature experimental characterization of microscale thermoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaloro, Tela

    Thermoelectric devices have been employed for many years as a reliable energy conversion technology for applications ranging from the cooling of sensors or charge coupled devices to the direct conversion of heat into electricity for remote power generation. However, its relatively low conversion efficiency has limited the implementation of thermoelectric materials for large scale cooling and waste heat recovery applications. Recent advances in semiconductor growth technology have enabled the precise and selective engineering of material properties to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit and thus the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Accurate characterization at the intended operational temperature of novel thermoelectric materials is a crucial component of the optimization process in order to fundamentally understand material behavior and evaluate performance. The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary to characterize high efficiency bulk and thin-film materials for thermoelectric energy conversion. The techniques developed here are not bound to specific material or devices, but can be generalized to any material system. Thermoreflectance imaging microscopy has proven to be invaluable for device thermometry owing to its high spatial and temporal resolutions. It has been utilized in this work to create two-dimensional temperature profiles of thermoelectric devices during operation used for performance analysis of novel materials, identification of defects, and visualization of high speed transients in a high-temperature imaging thermostat. We report the development of a high temperature imaging thermostat capable of high speed transient thermoelectric characterization. In addition, we present a noninvasive method for thermoreflectance coefficient calibration ideally suited for vacuum and thus high temperature employment. This is the first analysis of the thermoreflectance coefficient of commonly used metals at high-temperatures. High temperature vacuum thermostats are designed and fabricated with optical imaging capability and interchangeable measurement stages for various electrical and thermoelectric characterizations. We demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of in-plane electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of thin-film or bulk thermoelectric materials. Furthermore, we utilize high-speed circuitry to implement the transient Harman technique and directly determine the cross-plane figure of merit of thin film thermoelectric materials at high temperatures. Transient measurements on thin film devices are subject to complications from the growth substrate, non-ideal contacts and other detrimental thermal and electrical effects. A strategy is presented for optimizing device geometry to mitigate the impact of these parasitics. This design enabled us to determine the cross-plane thermoelectric material properties in a single high temperature measurement of a 25mum InGaAs thin film with embedded ErAs (0.2%) nanoparticles using the bipolar transient Harman technique in conjunction with thermoreflectance thermal imaging. This approach eliminates discrepancies and potential device degradation from the multiple measurements necessary to obtain individual material parameters. Finite element method simulations are used to analyze non-uniform current and temperature distributions over the device area and determine the three dimensional current path for accurate extraction of material properties from the thermal images. Results match with independent measurements of thermoelectric material properties for the same material composition, validating this approach. We apply high magnification thermoreflectance imaging to create temperature maps of vanadium dioxide nanobeams and examine electro-thermal energy conversion along the nanobeam length. The metal to insulator transition of strongly correlated materials is subject to strong lattice coupling which brings about the unique one-dimensional alignment of metal-insulator domains along nanobeams. Many studies have investigated the effects of stress o

  2. Effective Schools and Effective Principals: Effective Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Greenwood, Scott C.

    1987-01-01

    This article cautions that prescriptive announcements for school improvement currently in vogue are not all clearly justified by research on school effectiveness. An overview of the strong principal factor is used as an example. (MT)

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Thermoelectric Properties of Bismuth-Antimony-Telluride Prepared by Mechanical Deformation and Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deuk-Hee; Lee, Jae-Uk; Jung, Sung-Jin; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Kim, Ju-Heon; Kim, Dong-Ik; Hyun, Dow-Bin; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, p-type 20%Bi2Te3-80%Sb2Te3 bulk thermoelectric (TE) materials were prepared by mechanical deformation (MD) of pre-melted ingot and by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental Bi, Sb, and Te granules followed by cold-pressing. The dependence on annealing time of changes of microstructure and TE properties of the prepared samples, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and figure-of-merit, was investigated. For both samples, saturation of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity were observed after annealing for 1 h at 380°C. It is suggested that energy stored in samples prepared by both MA and MD facilitated their recrystallization within short annealing times. The 20%Bi2Te3-80%Sb2Te3 sample prepared by MA followed by heat treatment had higher a Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity than specimens fabricated by MD. Maximum figures-of-merit of 3.00 × 10-3/K and 2.85 × 10-3/K were achieved for samples prepared by MA and MD, respectively.

  4. "Further Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  5. Gauging Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foord, Kathleen A.; Haar, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Books by education experts and speakers at national professional conferences have inspired many school leaders to initiate professional learning communities (PLCs). Sustaining them effectively to raise student achievement is another matter. How can one know whether a PLC is moving toward a desired outcome? Measuring effectiveness requires an…

  6. Thermal Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Sylvia S.; Coutant, Charles C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effect of temperature on the biosphere water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes the effects of temperature on growth, production, and embryonic and larval development. A list of 401 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Nathan S.

    1959-01-01

    Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

  8. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis of the ZEM-3 Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are critical to the investigation of all thermoelectric systems. Therefore, it stands that the measurement uncertainty must be well understood to report ZT values which are accurate and trustworthy. A detailed uncertainty analysis of the ZEM-3 measurement system has been performed. The uncertainty analysis calculates error in the electrical resistivity measurement as a result of sample geometry tolerance, probe geometry tolerance, statistical error, and multi-meter uncertainty. The uncertainty on Seebeck coefficient includes probe wire correction factors, statistical error, multi-meter uncertainty, and most importantly the cold-finger effect. The cold-finger effect plagues all potentiometric (four-probe) Seebeck measurement systems, as heat parasitically transfers through thermocouple probes. The effect leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A thermal finite element analysis allows for quantification of the phenomenon, and provides an estimate on the uncertainty of the Seebeck coefficient. The thermoelectric power factor has been found to have an uncertainty of +9-14 at high temperature and 9 near room temperature.

  9. Effect of Nickel Substitution on Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties, and Dimensional Stability of Calcium-Doped Yttrium Chromite

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-06-30

    The effect of nickel substitution on defect chemistry, electrical properties, and dimensional stability of calcium-doped yttrium chromite was studied for use as an interconnect material in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The compositions of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr1-xNixO3±? (x=0-0.15), prepared using the glycine nitrate process, showed single phase orthorhombic perovskite structures over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures (10^-17 atm ? pO2 ? 0.21 atm). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that most of the nickel ions replacing chromium ions are divalent and act as acceptor dopants, leading to a substantial increase in conductivity. In particular, the conductivity at 900 degree C in air increased from 10 S/cm to 34 S/cm with 15% nickel substitution, and an increase in charge carrier density was confirmed by Seebeck measurements. A point defect model was derived, and the relationship between electrical conductivity and oxygen partial pressure was successfully fitted into the proposed model. The defect modeling results indicated that nickel substitution improves the stability of calcium-doped yttrium chromite toward reduction and suppresses the oxygen vacancy formation, which results in significantly increased electrical conductivity in reducing environment. The electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Ni0.15O3±? at 900 degree C in reducing atmosphere (pO2=10^-17 atm) was 5.8 S/cm, which was more than an order of magnitude higher than that of Y0.8Ca0.2CrO3±? (0.2 S/cm). Improved stability in reducing atmosphere was further confirmed by dilatometry measurements showing reduced isothermal "chemical" expansion, and the isothermal expansion in reducing atmosphere (pO2=10^-17 atm) at 900 degree C decreased from 0.07% for Y0.8Ca0.2CrO3±? to 0.03% for Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Ni0.15O3±?. Based on these results, enhanced electrical performance and mechanical integrity is expected with nickel substitution on calcium-doped yttrium chromite in SOFC operating conditions.

  10. Health Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... globalchange.gov/engage/activities-products/NCA3/technical-inputs . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  11. Placebo Effect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doing it. Similar effects of changes in brain chemistry have been found in studies of pain and ... experience benefit with placebo treatment. Why should brain chemistry change when pa- tients are convinced they are ...

  12. Low effective mass and carrier concentration optimization for high performance p-type Mg2(1-x)Li2xSi0.3Sn0.7 solid solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Long; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Yun; Su, Xianli; Chi, Hang; Liu, Huijun; Yan, Yonggao; Tang, Xinfeng; Uher, Ctirad

    2014-11-21

    Mg2Si1-xSnx solid solutions are promising thermoelectric materials for power generation applications in the 500-800 K range. Outstanding n-type forms of these solid solutions have been developed in the past few years with the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT as high as 1.4. Unfortunately, no comparable performance has been achieved so far with p-type forms of the structure. In this work, we use Li doping on Mg sites in an attempt to enhance and control the concentration of hole carriers. We show that Li as well as Ga is a far more effective p-type dopant in comparison to Na or K. With the increasing content of Li, the electrical conductivity rises rapidly on account of a significantly enhanced density of holes. While the Seebeck coefficient decreases concomitantly, the power factor retains robust values supported by a rather high mobility of holes. Theoretical calculations indicate that Mg2Si0.3Sn0.7 intrinsically possesses the almost convergent double valence band structure (the light and heavy band), and Li doping retains a low density of states (DOS) on the top of the valence band, contrary to the Ga doping at the sites of Si/Sn. Low temperature specific heat capacity studies attest to a low DOS effective mass in Li-doped samples and consequently their larger hole mobility. The overall effect is a large power factor of Li-doped solid solutions. Although the thermal conductivity increases as more Li is incorporated in the structure, the enhanced carrier density effectively shifts the onset of intrinsic excitations (bipolar effect) to higher temperatures, and the beneficial role of phonon Umklapp processes as the primary limiting factor to the lattice thermal conductivity is thus extended. The final outcome is the figure of merit ZT ? 0.5 at 750 K for x = 0.07. This represents a 30% improvement in the figure of merit of p-type Mg2Si1-xSnx solid solutions over the literature values. Hence, designing low DOS near Fermi level EF for given carrier pockets can serve as an effective approach to optimize the PF and thus ZT value. PMID:25178356

  13. Measuring effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the effectiveness of medical interventions faces three epistemological challenges: the choice of good measuring instruments, the use of appropriate analytic measures, and the use of a reliable method of extrapolating measures from an experimental context to a more general context. In practice each of these challenges contributes to overestimating the effectiveness of medical interventions. These challenges suggest the need for corrective normative principles. The instruments employed in clinical research should measure patient-relevant and disease-specific parameters, and should not be sensitive to parameters that are only indirectly relevant. Effectiveness always should be measured and reported in absolute terms (using measures such as 'absolute risk reduction'), and only sometimes should effectiveness also be measured and reported in relative terms (using measures such as 'relative risk reduction')-employment of relative measures promotes an informal fallacy akin to the base-rate fallacy, which can be exploited to exaggerate claims of effectiveness. Finally, extrapolating from research settings to clinical settings should more rigorously take into account possible ways in which the intervention in question can fail to be effective in a target population. PMID:26199055

  14. Effects and Effectiveness of Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Jim; Kaehny, Margaret M.; Sandberg, Elliot J.; Schlenker, Robert E.; Shaughnessy, Peter W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of telemedicine has recently undergone rapid growth and proliferation. Although the feasibility of many applications has been tested for nearly 30 years, data concerning the costs, effects, and effectiveness of telemedicine are limited. Consequently, the development of a strategy for coverage, payment, and utilization policy has been hindered. Telemedicine continues to expand, and pressure for policy development increases in the context of Federal budget cuts and major changes in health service financing. This article reviews the literature on the effects and medical effectiveness of telemedicine. It concludes with several recommendations for research, followed by a discussion of several specific questions, the answers to which might have a bearing on policy development. PMID:10153466

  15. Ballistic thermoelectric transport in structured nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Ronggui; Li, Baowen

    2014-06-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices are solid-state energy converters that can be used for power generation through the Seebeck effect and TE cooling through the Peltier effect. Nanostructures give great opportunities to engineer TE energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we investigate TE transport properties in structured nanowires (NWs) in the ballistic transport regime, where the NWs are bent, kinked, stubbed and segmented like a superlattice nanowire using the Green’s function method and the Landauer-Büttiker formula. A large Seebeck coefficient is found when the transmission gap appears due to the quantum interference effect of electrons. The sign of the Seebeck coefficient can be controlled by the geometries of these structured NWs. This finding is helpful for the design of nanoscale TE devices, such as thermocouple, with the same type of material doping rather than those comprised of n-type and p-type materials.

  16. Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of RuO{sub 2} nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Music, Denis; Basse, Felix H.-U.; Schneider, Jochen M.; Hassdorf, Ralf

    2010-07-15

    We have explored the effect of the O/Ru ratio on the morphology and the Seebeck coefficient of RuO{sub 2} nanorods (space group P4{sub 2}/mnm) synthesized by reactive sputtering. At an O/Ru ratio of 1.69, a faceted surface is observed, while nanorod formation occurs at O/Ru ratios of 2.03 and 2.24. Using classical molecular dynamics with the potential parameters derived in this work, we show that volatile species enable nanorod formation. Based on ab initio calculations, two effects of the nanorod formation on the Seebeck coefficient are observed: (i) increase due to additional states in the vicinity of the Fermi level and (ii) decrease due to oxygen point defects (volatile species). These two competing effects give rise to a moderate increase in the Seebeck coefficient upon nanorod formation.

  17. Measurement of Inhomogeneities in MIMS Thermocouples Using a Linear-Gradient Furnace and Dual Heat-Pipe Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, E. S.; White, D. R.; Edgar, H.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a linear-gradient furnace and a thermocouple homogeneity scanner that, together, measure changes in the Seebeck coefficient as a function of time and temperature. The furnace first exposes the test thermocouple to all temperatures in the range spanned by the furnace gradient. The homogeneity scanner then measures the Seebeck coefficient along the length of the thermocouple. By correlating the position on the thermocouple with the temperature in the furnace, changes in the Seebeck coefficient can be correlated with the temperature to which that part of the thermocouple was exposed. Repeat exposures for different durations allow the rapid accumulation of data describing drift versus temperature and time. The known profile of the furnace combined with the high resolution of the dual heat-pipe scanner enable the detection of Seebeck coefficient changes of less than 0.02 % over sub-millimeter distances. The high resolution of the scanner also minimizes the underestimation of short-range changes in the Seebeck coefficient. With the addition of other treatment processes, such as annealing, quenching, and cold work, the system can assess the full variety of reversible and irreversible effects in thermocouples. Preliminary experiments on base-metal thermocouples confirm much of the known long-term behavior. However, the system has also exposed the rapid onset of some of these effects at low temperatures, the large amount and variability of cold work in new thermocouples, and large variations between different thermocouples of the same type.

  18. Plasma Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radio communication with space probes requires sending signals through the Earth's ionosphere and usually the solar wind. During planetary flybys, the signal may also pass through the ionosphere of another planet. These ionized media can perturb the radio signal in a variety of ways. Examples of these perturbations are variations in the electrical length between the spacecraft and the ground station, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized signals, amplitude and phase scintillations, and spectral and angular broadening. These plasma effects can have undesirable influences on telemetry performance and thus need to be understood from a communications engineering viewpoint. The plasma effects are, however, useful from a scientific viewpoint, since the effects on the communications link can often be inverted to estimate the physical conditions in the plasma.

  19. Sleeper Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Daphne; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.

    2007-01-01

    Early experience preserves and refines many capabilities that emerge prenatally. Here we describe another role that it plays--establishing the neural substrate for capabilities that emerge at a much later point in development. The evidence comes from sleeper effects: permanent deficits when early experience was absent in capabilities that normally…

  20. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of Yb-filled CoSb3 skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwan-Ho; Seo, Won-Seon; Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho

    2014-08-01

    Yb-filled skutterudites Yb z Co4Sb12 (z = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. The filling effects of Yb on the transport and the thermoelectric properties of the skutterudites were examined. In the case of z ? 0.3, a secondary phase (YbSb2) was formed, indicating that the filling fraction limit of Yb was z = 0.2 - 0.3. The intrinsic CoSb3 had a high positive Seebeck coefficient, but Yb-filled CoSb3 exhibited a negative Seebeck coefficient. In the case of z ? 0.1, the maximum absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient was | -231| ?VK-1, and in the case of z ? 0.2, the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient increased with increasing temperature. The electrical conductivity increased and the Seebeck coefficient decreased with increasing Yb filling content due to the increased carrier concentration. The thermal conductivity was reduced significantly by Yb filling, mainly due to a decrease in the lattice thermal conductivity. Also, the lattice thermal conductivity decreased with increasing Yb filling content, indicating that the phonon scattering was caused by the rattling of Yb fillers in the voids of the skutterudite structure. Yb0.2Co4Sb12 showed the highest figure of merit of 1.0 at 823 K.

  2. Infrared and thermoelectric power generation in thin atomic layer deposited Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Harkirat S.; Lang, Brian N.; Schwab, Yosyp; Scarel, Giovanna; Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-15

    Infrared radiation is used to radiatively transfer heat to a nanometric power generator (NPG) device with a thermoelectric Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the active element, onto a borosilicate glass substrate. The linear rise of the produced voltage with respect to the temperature difference between the “hot” and “cold” junctions, typical of the Seebeck effect, is missing. The discovery of the violation of the Seebeck effect in NPG devices combined with the ability of ALD to tune thermoelectric thin film properties could be exploited to increase the efficiency of these devices for energy harvesting purposes.

  3. Blazhko Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teays, Terry

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the Blazhko effect, the long-term modulation of the light and radial velocity curves of some RR Lyr stars, is still not understood. The observational characteristics of the Blazhko effect are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented from two recent campaigns to observe RR Lyr, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer along with ground-based spectroscopy and photometry, throughout a pulsation cycle, at a variety of Blazhko phases. A set of ultraviolet light curves have been generated from low dispersion IUE spectra. In addition, the (visual) light curves from IUE's Fine Error Sensor are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The values of the parameters Psi(sub 21) and R(sub 21) at different Blazhko phases of RR Lyr span the range of values found for non-Blazhko variables of similar period.

  4. Erosion Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  5. Photo-transport properties of Pb{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, P. S.; Okazaki, R. Taniguchi, H.; Terasaki, I.

    2014-11-21

    We report photo-thermoelectric transport phenomena in Pb{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} single crystals. Without illumination, this material exhibits an insulating behavior characterized by an activation-type temperature variation of the electrical conductivity. The Seebeck coefficient contrastingly shows a crossover from high-temperature insulating to low-temperature metallic behavior, which is attributed to degenerate carriers in a donor level. We have found that under illumination, both the conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient increase in magnitude with increasing photon flux density in the degenerate-conduction regime. This result is difficult to understand within a simple photo-doping effect, which usually leads to a decrease in the Seebeck coefficient under illumination. The observed phenomenon is discussed in terms of a two-carrier contribution to the transport properties.

  6. Modern Thermocouple Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, K. N.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a thermocouple circuit used to measure Joule heating as well as Peltier heating and cooling for a copper-Constantan metallic junction. Shows how the Seebeck effect from a thermocouple can monitor the temperature condition of a junction with regard to input power and Peltier effect. (Author/GA)

  7. Thermoelectric conversion efficiency in IV-VI semiconductors with reduced thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Akihiro; Thao, Hoang Thi Xuan; Yamamoto, Hidenari; Kinoshita, Yohei; Ishikiriyama, Mamoru

    2015-10-01

    Mid-temperature thermoelectric conversion efficiencies of the IV-VI materials were calculated under the Boltzmann transport theory of carriers, taking the Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects into account. The conversion efficiency was discussed with respect to the lattice thermal conductivity, keeping other parameters such as Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity to the same values. If room temperature lattice thermal conductivity is decreased up to 0.5W/mK, the conversion efficiency of a PbS based material becomes as high as 15% with the temperature difference of 500K between 800K and 300K.

  8. High thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocrystalline polyaniline at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, Ashok E-mail: okram@csr.res.in; Kuo, Yung-Kang; Okram, Gunadhor Singh E-mail: okram@csr.res.in

    2014-09-29

    Thermoelectric coolers with figure of merit (ZT) close to unity at low temperatures are the need of the hour with new advances in high temperature superconductors, superconducting microelectronic circuits, quantum computers, and photonics. Here, we demonstrate that the conducting polymer polyaniline (Pani) doped with camphor sulfonic acid synthesized in semi-crystalline nanostructures, possesses a giant Seebeck effect at low temperatures. The resulting enormously large Seebeck coefficient (up to 0.6?V/K) combined with an intrinsically low electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity give rise to a ZT?=?0.77 at 45?K and ZT?=?2.17 at 17?K.

  9. On the magnetotransport of 3D systems in quantizing magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisin, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The resistivity components of 3D electron gas placed in quantizing magnetic field are calculated taking into account the correction caused by combined action of the Peltier and Seebeck thermoelectric effects. The longitudinal, transverse and the Hall magnetoresistivities exhibit familiar 1/B-period oscillations being universal functions of magnetic field and temperature.

  10. Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering

    E-print Network

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering Bradford that meters using the same thermoelectric generator with which it powers itself. In short, the rate at which be harvested with a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to power a sensor node. TEGs utilize the Seebeck effect

  11. Accurate Electrothermal Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Accurate Electrothermal Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators Mohammad Javad Dousti1 , Antonio Janeiro, Brazil 1 {dousti,pedram}@usc.edu and 2 antonio@pads.ufrj.br Abstract--Thermoelectric generators of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). TEGs work based on the Seebeck effect, which converts a temperature gradient

  12. Cement and Concrete Research 29 (1999) 19891993 0008-8846/99/$ see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The Seebeck effect in carbon fiber-reinforced cement paste was found to involve electrons from et al. [1,2]. The observation was made on cement paste rein- forced with short carbon fibers in carbon fiber-reinforced cement. These admixtures are known to en- hance the mechanical

  13. Adequacy for Algebraic Effects 

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Gordon; Power, John

    2002-01-01

    Moggi proposed a monadic account of computational effects. He also presented the computational lamda-calculus, c, a core call-by-value functional programming language for effects; the effects are obtained by adding ...

  14. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction ... side effects of docetaxel as used to treat prostate cancer are VERY different and less severe than the ...

  15. Communicating Effectively PDF

    Cancer.gov

    Effective communication is essential for the delivery of quality cancer palliative care. And yet, healthcare providers often lack the skills to communicate effectively with their patients and families.

  16. On Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  17. Characteristics of Effective Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    THe confusing and often contradictory literature on organizational effectiveness is reviewed briefly, followed by a discussion of the leading models of effectiveness, their relative applicability to colleges and universities, questions for guiding the design of a specific study of organizational effectiveness, and guidelines for effective

  18. Effects of Synthesis Temperature on the Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Te-Se Codoped Skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shijie; Duan, Bo; Xu, Chenglong; Li, Yao; Liu, Lisheng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-06-01

    Skutterudite compounds Co4Sb11.3Te0.5Se0.2 were synthesized by solid-state reaction at different temperatures (853 K, 903 K, 953 K, and 1003 K) with subsequent spark plasma sintering. x-Ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis were utilized to analyze the phase structure, microstructure, and actual compositions of the samples. The results showed that the actual composition and the grain size vary with the synthesis temperature. The thermoelectric properties of all samples were measured in the temperature range of 300 K to 800 K. As the synthesis temperature increases, the electrical conductivity increases rapidly, the absolute Seebeck coefficient falls, and the thermal conductivity first decreases and then increases. The highest dimensionless figure of merit ZT was achieved for the sample synthesized at 953 K, exceeding 1.0 at high temperature.

  19. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Hernández, Wilfredo; Verstraete, Matthieu J.; Raty, Jean-Yves

    2014-12-01

    We use first-principles calculations to understand the behavior of the Seebeck coefficient (S ) in Bi2Te3 as a function of isotropic pressure. We perform calculations up to 5 GPa using density functional theory and with thermoelectric properties extracted using Boltzmann transport equations. We find that with the increase in pressure the system becomes more metallic, in agreement with previous calculations on Sb2Te3 . For p -type doping the overall behavior is a decrease in S with an increase in pressure. At small values of hole doping (p =1.8 ×1018cm-3 ), we obtain an anomalous variation of S under 2 GPa, which is an indication of the electronic topological transition. For n -type doping, S slightly increases with pressure.

  20. Effects of High Magnetic Fields on Microstructures and Thermoelectric Properties of Zn-Sb Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yi; Mao, Jun; Liu, Tie; Tahashi, Masahiro; Wang, Qiang; He, Jicheng

    2015-07-01

    Several samples of Zn-Sb alloys, composed with ?-Zn4Sb3 and Zn phases, were prepared by solidification under high magnetic fields (HMFs). The microstructure evolution and thermoelectric (TE) properties of the alloys were then investigated. Zn phase precipitated as strip and presented reticulation structure in the samples without HMFs. When the HMFs were imposed, Zn became disperse and the strip of Zn became thinner and shorter. In addition, the c-axis of Zn crystals showed a tendency to orientate toward the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. The samples prepared under HMFs had higher resistivity and Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivity. When compared to the solidified samples without HMFs, the application of 8.8 T of HMF increased the maximum figure of merit 3.7 times. In addition, the relationship between microstructure and TE properties was also analyzed.

  1. Quenched phonon drag in silicon nanowires reveals significant effect in the bulk at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Jyothi; Tian, Hongxiang; Ma, Jun; Azeredo, Bruno; Kim, Junhwan; Balasundaram, Karthik; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiuling; Ferreira, P M; Sinha, S

    2015-05-13

    Existing theory and data cannot quantify the contribution of phonon drag to the Seebeck coefficient (S) in semiconductors at room temperature. We show that this is possible through comparative measurements between nanowires and the bulk. Phonon boundary scattering completely quenches phonon drag in silicon nanowires enabling quantification of its contribution to S in bulk silicon in the range 25-500 K. The contribution is surprisingly large (?34%) at 300 K even at doping of ?3 × 10(19) cm(-3). Our results contradict the notion that phonon drag is negligible in degenerate semiconductors at temperatures relevant for thermoelectric energy conversion. A revised theory of electron-phonon momentum exchange that accounts for a phonon mean free path spectrum agrees well with the data. PMID:25831487

  2. Effect of Zn doping on improving crystal quality and thermoelectric properties of borosilicides.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takao; Berthebaud, David; Nishimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Akiko; Shishido, Toetsu; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2010-01-28

    Transition-metal (Mo, Mn, Fe, Rh, Ti, Cu, Zn) doping was carried out on the borosilicide compound REB(44)Si(2) (RE = rare earth). REB(44)Si(2) compounds exhibit Seebeck coefficients greater than 200 microV K(-1) at high temperatures and unlike most compounds, the figure of merit shows a steep increase at T > 1000 K making them promising high-temperature thermoelectric materials. Although zinc itself does not remain in the final product, zinc doping was found to improve the crystal quality, which has been a long-standing problem for the borosilicides. As a result, a significant increase of the thermoelectric power factor by more than 30% was achieved. PMID:20066187

  3. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 ?V/K) and the largest value of ZeT is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  4. Development of Flexible Micro-Thermo-electrochemical Generators Based on Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Stefanie; Laux, Edith; Journot, Tony; Jeandupeux, Laure; Charmet, Jérôme; Keppner, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    The unfavourable relationship between electrical and thermal conductivity limits the choice of solid-state materials for thermoelectric generators (TEG). Among ionic liquids (IOL), it appears that a large variety of thermoelectric (TE) materials with promising high Seebeck coefficients have potential for development. Furthermore, the novel solid-on-liquid deposition technology (SOLID) allows the encapsulation of liquid TE materials to create new, highly integrated TEG devices. Following this vision, this paper studies a large number of IOLs looking at TE-relevant parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and temperature-dependent viscosity. We show that positive and negative Seebeck coefficients can be obtained, depending on the molecular structure and the viscosity of the IOL. The properties of single-junction TEGs are presented in terms of I- V characteristics correlated with the IOL properties. We prove that the limiting effect of conversion efficiency is the current density that can be extracted from a device rather than the Seebeck coefficient.

  5. Effective College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, James E.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)

  6. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  7. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified the effectiveness of Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the e...

  8. Factors hampering program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J F; Zablan, Z C

    1976-01-01

    Findings of the University of the Philippines evaluation research of family planning programs in the Philippines identify 4 major problems which limit effectiveness: 1) acceptance is leveling off; 2) greater proportions of acceptors are choosing the less effective methods; 3) women who switch methods tend to choose a less effective method than the first used and 4) continuation rates for the effective methods are declining. The authors suggest causes and possible remedies for the problems. PMID:12307748

  9. Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel U.; Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    Research studies that have focused on identifying the characteristics or correlates of elementary and secondary schools that are unusually effective are reviewed, concentrating on the "effective schools" movement. Research on effective schools supports the conclusion that they rank high on certain characteristics frequently referred to as…

  10. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  11. The effects of Sb on the thermoelectric properties of Mg2Si1-xGex prepared by using solid-state synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Sin-Wook; Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho

    2014-05-01

    Sb-doped Mg2Si1-xGex solid solutions were successfully prepared by using a solid-state reaction and hot pressing. In the case of the undoped Mg2Si1-xGex specimens, the electrical conduction changed from n-type to p-type at room temperature for x ? 0.7 due to the intrinsic properties of Mg2Ge. The electrical conductivity rapidly increased with increasing temperature, indicating a non-degenerate semiconducting behavior, and decreased with increasing Ge content. However, the Sb-doped Mg2Si1-xGex specimens showed n-type conduction, and the carrier concentration was increased from 4.0 × 1017 to 3.2 × 1021 cm-3 by doping with Sb atoms, which acted as donors. The absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient increased with increasing temperature, and the Seebeck coefficient ranged from -131 to -259 ?V/K for the Sb-doped specimens. Sb doping reduced the thermal conductivities of the Mg2Si1-xGex solid solutions at temperatures above 723 K. Mg2Si0.5Ge0.5:Sb0.02 exhibited a maximum dimensionless figure-of-merit of 0.56 at 823 K.

  12. Effects of Thermal Annealing on the Thermoelectric and Optical Properties of SiO2/SiO2+Cu Nanolayer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budak, S.; Baker, M.; Lassiter, J.; Smith, C.; Muntele, C.; Johnson, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    We have prepared multi-nanolayer superlattice thin-film systems comprising 36 alternating layers of SiO2 and SiO2+Cu nanolayers, of total thickness approximately 300 nm, by magnetron direct current-radio frequency sputtering. To modify their thermoelectric and optical properties, the films were placed in a furnace for annealing at temperatures between 500°C and 700°C, in air, for 1 h, to form quantum nano-dots and/or quantum clusters. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the surface of the thin-film systems. The thermoelectric and optical properties of the systems were characterized by study of ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy, and by measurement of Seebeck coefficients. Seebeck coefficients increased from -70 ?V/K to -100 ?V/K when the temperature was increased from 0°C to 700°C. Optical absorption spectra showed that formation of nano-dots and/or nano-clustering also occurred as the temperature was increased. Thermal annealing affected the optical and thermal properties of the multi-nanolayer thermoelectric thin-film systems in the positive direction.

  13. Effects of Thermal Annealing on the Thermoelectric and Optical Properties of SiO2/SiO2+Cu Nanolayer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budak, S.; Baker, M.; Lassiter, J.; Smith, C.; Muntele, C.; Johnson, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    We have prepared multi-nanolayer superlattice thin-film systems comprising 36 alternating layers of SiO2 and SiO2+Cu nanolayers, of total thickness approximately 300 nm, by magnetron direct current-radio frequency sputtering. To modify their thermoelectric and optical properties, the films were placed in a furnace for annealing at temperatures between 500°C and 700°C, in air, for 1 h, to form quantum nano-dots and/or quantum clusters. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the surface of the thin-film systems. The thermoelectric and optical properties of the systems were characterized by study of ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy, and by measurement of Seebeck coefficients. Seebeck coefficients increased from -70 ?V/K to -100 ?V/K when the temperature was increased from 0°C to 700°C. Optical absorption spectra showed that formation of nano-dots and/or nano-clustering also occurred as the temperature was increased. Thermal annealing affected the optical and thermal properties of the multi-nanolayer thermoelectric thin-film systems in the positive direction.

  14. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  15. Thermally Driven Josephson Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A concept is proposed of the thermally driven Josephson effect in superfluid helium. Heretofore, the Josephson effect in a superfluid has been recognized as an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady pressure difference between two superfluid reservoirs separated by an array of submicron-sized orifices, which act in unison as a single Josephson junction. Analogously, the thermally driven Josephson effect is an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady temperature difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect is partly a consequence of a quantum- mechanical effect known as the fountain effect, in which a temperature difference in a superfluid is accompanied by a pressure difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect may have significance for the development of a high-resolution gyroscope based on the Josephson effect in a superfluid: If the pressure-driven Josephson effect were used, then the fluid on the high-pressure side would become depleted, necessitating periodic interruption of operation to reverse the pressure difference. If the thermally driven Josephson effect were used, there would be no net flow and so the oscillatory flow could be maintained indefinitely by maintaining the required slightly different temperatures on both sides of the junction.

  16. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  17. Dynamic ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

  18. Atomic lighthouse effect.

    PubMed

    Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency. PMID:25401364

  19. The Hubble effective potential

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T.; Woodard, R.P. E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  20. Volcanic effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

  1. Effect of Addition of Ag, In or Pb on the Structure and Thermoelectric Performance of ?-Zn4Sb3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. S.; Pan, L. C.; Ao, W. Q.; He, L. P.; Li, X. X.; Li, H. T.; Li, J. Q.

    2012-08-01

    Zn4Sb3 bulk alloys with addition of Ag, Pb or In were prepared by high- frequency induction melting and post-annealing. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that the lattice of the compound was distorted by the additions. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed that the phase transition from ? to ? or ? to ?' was suppressed by the addition of In or Ag. A high carrier concentration and high thermal conductivity were found in the sample with Ag or In additions. However, lower electric resistivity, nearly the same Seebeck coefficient, and low thermal conductivity, as compared with the undoped sample, were found in the sample with Pb addition, leading to good thermoelectric performance. The highest ZT value of 1.12 at 605 K was achieved for the Pb0.02Zn4Sb3 sample in this work, which is about 30% larger than that for the undoped ?-Zn4Sb3.

  2. Effective Presentations Organization

    E-print Network

    Shull, David H.

    1 Pericles Effective Presentations · Content · Organization · Delivery · Visual aids and graphics.anu.edu.au/BoZo/Scott/SharonTalks.html · http://online.anu.edu.au/BoZo/Scott/Talks.html · http://perl.plover.com/yak/presentation/ · http://www.aresearchguide.com/3tips.html · http://www.toastmasters.org/tips.asp Grading your presentation Pericles Effective

  3. The polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  4. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  5. Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Cancer.gov

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.

  6. The Chelate Effect Redefined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, J. J. R. Frausto

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ambiguities of the accepted definition of the chelate effect, suggesting that it be defined in terms of experimental observation rather than mathematical abstraction. Indicates that the effect depends on free energy change in reaction, ligand basicity, pH of medium, type of chelates formed, and concentration of ligands in solution. (JN)

  7. The Kaye Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid…

  8. Correlational effect size benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. PMID:25314367

  9. The Pygmalion Effect Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Briefly reviewing his own research, and that of critics of the Pygmalion Effect, the author proposes a four-factor "theory" of the influences that produce the effect: the relationship of teachers to special students differs in climate, input, feedback, and output. (JM)

  10. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Concerning Hertz' photoelectric effect

    E-print Network

    S. L. Vesely; A. A. Vesely

    2002-02-23

    Experimental evidence of the photoelectric effect goes back to H. Hertz. It occurred during the famous confirmation experiments of the Maxwellian theory. It is commonly held however that it cannot be explained in the framework of that theory. We are calling attention to some aspects linked with the interpretation of that effect on which, in our opinion, it is worthwhile reflecting.

  12. [Providing Effective Behavior Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAIL: Technical Assistance Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue addresses the provision of behavioral support for students with behavior disorders. The first article, "Providing Effective Behavior Support to All Students: Procedures and Processes" (George Sugai), summarizes the literature on the effectiveness of various interventions and offers several models for examining the teaching of…

  13. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  14. Primacy Effects in Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Francis T.

    Previous research has suggested the existence of a primacy effect in the attribution of ability. To test if the primacy effect occurs in situations where specific cues about the person and nature of the test materials are lacking or greatly reduced, college students corrected a multiple-choice test in which a phantom stimulus person correctly…

  15. Rashba Effect at Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruga, Tetsuya; Hatta, Shinichiro

    Recent studies on the Rashba effect on surfaces are reviewed. The Rashba effect refers to the k-dependent spin splitting of valence bands due to spin-orbit coupling in two-dimensional systems under out-of-plane electric field. After the physical mechanism of the Rashba effect is briefed, experimental and theoretical studies since the surface Rashba effect was first demonstrated for Au(111) in 1996 are surveyed with an emphasis placed on the microscopic origin of the giant Rashba spin splitting on surfaces covered with monolayer films of heavier elements. Most recently, giant Rashba spin splitting was realized on the surface of semiconductors, which serves a possibility of spintronic application of the surface Rashba effect.

  16. Nocebo effect in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Sidharth; Sahaya, Kinshuk; Arora, Rahul; Singal, Archana; Srivastava, Ankur; Wadhawan, Ritu; Zartab, Hamed; Gupta, Kripa Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Nocebo effect, originally denoting the negative counterpart of the placebo phenomenon, is now better defined as the occurrence of adverse effects to a therapeutic intervention because the patient expects them to develop. More commonly encountered in patients with a past negative experience, this effect stems from highly active processes in the central nervous system, mediated by specific neurotransmitters and modulated by psychological mechanisms such as expectation and conditioning. The magnitude of nocebo effect in clinical medicine is being increasingly appreciated and its relevance encompasses clinical trials as well as clinical practice. Although there is hardly any reference to the term nocebo in dermatology articles, the phenomenon is encountered routinely by dermatologists. Dermatology patients are more susceptible to nocebo responses owing to the psychological concern from visibility of skin lesions and the chronicity, unpredictable course, lack of 'permanent cure' and frequent relapses of skin disorders. While finasteride remains the prototypical drug that displays a prominent nocebo effect in dermatologic therapeutics, other drugs such as isotretinoin are also likely inducers. This peculiar phenomenon has recently been appreciated in the modulation of itch perception and in controlled drug provocation tests in patients with a history of adverse drug reactions. Considering the conflict between patients' right to information about treatment related adverse effects and the likelihood of nocebo effect stemming from information disclosure, the prospect of ethically minimizing nocebo effect remains daunting. In this article, we review the concept of nocebo effect, its postulated mechanism, relevance in clinical dermatology and techniques to prevent it from becoming a barrier to effective patient management. PMID:25900939

  17. Dimensional Analysis of Thermoelectric Modules Under Constant Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Ito, Keita O.; Meng, Xiangning; Sui, Hong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is examined in the case of radiative heating. A constant heat flux is assumed in addition to consideration of the Seebeck effect, Peltier effect, and Joule heating with temperature-dependent material properties. Numerical evaluations are conducted using a combination of the finite-volume method and an original simultaneous solver for the heat transfer, thermoelectric, and electric transportation phenomena. Comparison with experimental results shows that the new solver could work well in the numerical calculations. The calculations predict that the Seebeck effect becomes larger for longer thermoelectric elements because of the larger temperature difference. The heat transfer to the cold surface is critical to determine the junction temperatures under a constant heat flux from the hot surface. The negative contribution from Peltier cooling and heating can be minimized when the current is smaller for longer elements. Therefore, a thicker TE module can generate more electric power even under a constant heat flux.

  18. Bustling argon: biological effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583

  19. Finite Temperature Effective Actions

    E-print Network

    Ashok Das; J. Frenkel

    2009-08-27

    We present, from first principles, a direct method for evaluating the exact fermion propagator in the presence of a general background field at finite temperature, which can be used to determine the finite temperature effective action for the system. As applications, we determine the complete one loop finite temperature effective actions for 0+1 dimensional QED as well as the Schwinger model. These effective actions, which are derived in the real time (closed time path) formalism, generate systematically all the Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory and also show that the retarded (advanced) amplitudes vanish in these theories.

  20. [Genetic effects of radiation].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

  1. HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of assays to evaluate and assist in predicting potentially adverse human health effects associated with exposure to pollutants in water (that is, municipal wastewater, sewage sludge, ambient water, and drinking water) is the focus of this review.

  2. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

  3. Creating effective character animation 

    E-print Network

    Gerwig, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Several stages are involved in the creation of an graphics. effective, three-dimensional character animation. Before starting any work at the computer, the animator should consider what his characters will look like and ...

  4. Effective 4-H Meetings 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    As a 4-H volunteer, you will have different functions. An especially important task is to prepare interesting and effective meetings where youth can obtain the greatest educational benefit while having fun. This publication ...

  5. Systems effectiveness evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicely, H. P., Jr.; Givens, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Eight integrated computer programs provide needed capability to reduce man-hours needed to perform routine monitoring and assessment of effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability of large electronic equipment systems.

  6. Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates

    SciTech Connect

    Jemison, E.W.; Brown, K.; Rivers, B.; Knight, R.

    1984-01-01

    PHA-stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes were used as a model system for assessing the in vitro effects of calcium cyclamate. Techniques of autoradiography, cytological staining, cell counting, liquid scintillation and karyotyping were used to study the cytogenetic damage and biochemical effects of calcium cyclamate when assayed in 24 hour intervals for 96 hours. The cells were exposed to 10(-2) and 10(-3) molar concentrations of calcium cyclamate in TC 199 medium with fetal calf serum and antibiotics. It was noted that the addition of cyclamate increased mitotic rate of lymphocyte cells in cultures. It was determined that calcium cyclamate impaired the synthesis of deoxribonunucleic acid (as depicted by decreased incorporation of tritiated thymidine), reduced grain counts in autoradiographs and increased chromosome aberrations in cyclamate treated PHA stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Morphological changes and growth rates showed significant effects. These studies indicate that calcium cyclamate has variable significant effects on leucocytes growth and chromosome morphology.

  7. Centrifugal effects in Skyrmeons

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, E.

    1984-01-01

    We give a qualitative discussion of centrifugal effects in the Skyrme model and methods for treating these effects. We show that there may be states in the spectrum which would not appear in a semiclassical expansion about the static soliton solution. We consider semiclassical expansions about static solutions and about uniformly-rotating solutions, and discuss the validity and limitations of both approaches. 11 references.

  8. High Burnup Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin

    PubMed Central

    Davignon, Jean

    2012-01-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are established first line treatments for hypercholesterolaemia. In addition to the direct effects of statins in reducing concentrations of atherogenic low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), several studies have indicated that the beneficial effects of statins may be due to some of their cholesterol-independent, multiple (pleiotropic) effects which may differ between different members of the class. Pitavastatin is a novel synthetic lipophilic statin that has a number of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties distinct from those of other statins, which may underlie its potential pleiotropic benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. This review examines the principal pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin on endothelial function, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and thrombosis. The article is based on a systematic literature search carried out in December 2010, together with more recent relevant publications where appropriate. The available data from clinical trials and in vitro and animal studies suggest that pitavastatin is not only effective in reducing LDL-C and triglycerides, but also has a range of other effects. These include increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreasing markers of platelet activation, improving cardiac, renal and endothelial function, and reducing endothelial stress, lipoprotein oxidation and, ultimately, improving the signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. It is concluded that the diverse pleiotropic actions of pitavastatin may contribute to reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality beyond that achieved through LDL-C reduction. PMID:22053916

  10. Anomalous Skin Effect Igor Kaganovich

    E-print Network

    Kaganovich, Igor

    Anomalous Skin Effect Revisited Igor Kaganovich Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12 to explain "simply" anomalous skin effect without abusing physics. #12;3 Outline Skin effect (Inductively Coupled Plasmas/ Lasers) ­ Normal skin effect ­ Concept of phase-mixing and scale ­ Anomalous skin effect

  11. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical point of view, focusing on well-established and accepted physics. In such a young field, there remains much to be understood and explored, hence some of the future challenges and opportunities of this rapidly evolving area of spintronics are outlined.

  12. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  13. Pleiotropic effects of statins.

    PubMed

    Kavalipati, Narasaraju; Shah, Jay; Ramakrishan, Ananthraman; Vasnawala, Hardik

    2015-01-01

    Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe. PMID:26425463

  14. Modeling thermoelectric transport in organic materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Shi, Wen; Chen, Jianming; Xi, Jinyang; Shuai, Zhigang

    2012-12-28

    Thermoelectric energy converters can directly convert heat to electricity using semiconducting materials via the Seebeck effect and electricity to heat via the Peltier effect. Their efficiency depends on the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit of the material, which is defined as zT = S(2)?T/? with S, ?, ?, and T being the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and absolute temperature respectively. Organic materials for thermoelectric applications have attracted great attention. In this review, we present our recent progress made in developing theories and computational schemes to predict the thermoelectric figure of merit at the first-principles level. The methods have been applied to model thermoelectric transport in closely-packed molecular crystals and one-dimensional conducting polymer chains. The physical insight gained in these studies will help in the design of efficient organic thermoelectric materials. PMID:23086525

  15. Heat transport between antiferromagnetic insulators and normal metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brataas, Arne; Skarsvâg, Hans; Tveten, Erlend G.; Løhaugen Fjærbu, Eirik

    2015-11-01

    Antiferromagnetic insulators can become active spintronics components by controlling and detecting their dynamics via spin currents in adjacent metals. This cross talk occurs via spin transfer and spin pumping, phenomena that have been predicted to be as strong in antiferromagnets as in ferromagnets. Here, we demonstrate that a temperature gradient drives a significant heat flow from magnons in antiferromagnetic insulators to electrons in adjacent normal metals. The same coefficients as in the spin-transfer and spin-pumping processes also determine the thermal conductance. However, in contrast to ferromagnets, the heat is not transferred via a spin Seebeck effect which is absent in antiferromagnetic insulator-normal metal systems. Instead, the heat is proportional to a large staggered spin Seebeck effect.

  16. Spin current generation from sputtered Y3Fe5O12 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustikova, J.; Shiomi, Y.; Qiu, Z.; Kikkawa, T.; Iguchi, R.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2014-10-01

    Spin current injection from sputtered yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films into an adjacent platinum layer has been investigated by means of the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effects. Films with a thickness of 83 and 96 nanometers were fabricated by on-axis magnetron rf sputtering at room temperature and subsequent post-annealing. From the frequency dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, the damping constant has been estimated to be (7.0 ± 1.0) × 10-4. Magnitudes of the spin current generated by the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effect are of the same order as values for YIG films prepared by liquid phase epitaxy. The efficient spin current injection can be ascribed to a good YIG|Pt interface, which is confirmed by the large spin-mixing conductance (2.0 ± 0.2) × 1018 m-2.

  17. Spin current generation from sputtered Y?Fe?O?? films

    SciTech Connect

    Lustikova, J. Shiomi, Y.; Kikkawa, T.; Iguchi, R.; Qiu, Z.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2014-10-21

    Spin current injection from sputtered yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films into an adjacent platinum layer has been investigated by means of the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effects. Films with a thickness of 83 and 96 nanometers were fabricated by on-axis magnetron rf sputtering at room temperature and subsequent post-annealing. From the frequency dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, the damping constant has been estimated to be (7.0?±?1.0)?×?10??. Magnitudes of the spin current generated by the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effect are of the same order as values for YIG films prepared by liquid phase epitaxy. The efficient spin current injection can be ascribed to a good YIG|Pt interface, which is confirmed by the large spin-mixing conductance (2.0?±?0.2)?×?10¹?m?².

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Phonon Conductivity in Cu-Ni Binary Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Yusuke; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Sato, Kazunori; Asai, Yoshihiro; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    In 2010, a giant Peltier effect was observed in a Cu-Ni/Au junction. It is considered that this giant Peltier effect is caused by nano-scale phase separation formed in the sputtering process. The giant Peltier coefficient in the Cu-Ni/Au junction indicates the great Seebeck coefficient in Cu-Ni alloy. Although this alloy is a prospective thermoelectric material because of its great Seebeck coefficient, the low phonon thermal conductivity is also necessary for a large thermoelectric coefficient ZT. In order to find conditions for the low phonon conductivity, we calculate the thermal conductivity in Cu-Ni Alloy in various shapes with or without nanostructures by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. In this simulation, we use a semi-empirical potential and the reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method.

  19. Quantum Hamlet Effect

    E-print Network

    Pankovi?, Vladan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, by use of a formalism similar to formalism of the quantum Zeno effect (decrease of the decay probability of an unstable quantum system by frequent measurements) and quantum anti-Zeno effect (increase of the decay probability of an unstable quantum system by frequent measurements), we introduce so-called quantum Hamlet effect. It represents a complete destruction of the quantum predictions on the decay probability of an unstable quantum system by frequent measurement. Precisely, by means of some especial, correctly defined, frequent measurements, decay probability of an unstable quantum system can behave as a divergent series without any definite value. In this way there is quantum mechanically completely unsolvable ``Hamlet dilemma'', to decay or not to decay.

  20. Transgenerational genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Vicki R; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2012-01-01

    Since Mendel, studies of phenotypic variation and disease risk have emphasized associations between genotype and phenotype among affected individuals in families and populations. Although this paradigm has led to important insights into the molecular basis for many traits and diseases, most of the genetic variants that control the inheritance of these conditions continue to elude detection. Recent studies suggest an alternative mode of inheritance where genetic variants that are present in one generation affect phenotypes in subsequent generations, thereby decoupling the conventional relations between genotype and phenotype, and perhaps, contributing to ‘missing heritability’. Under some conditions, these transgenerational genetic effects can be as frequent and strong as conventional inheritance, and can persist for multiple generations. Growing evidence suggests that RNA mediates these heritable epigenetic changes. The primary challenge now is to identify the molecular basis for these effects, characterize mechanisms and determine whether transgenerational genetic effects occur in humans. PMID:22122083

  1. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Effective Documentation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

  3. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  4. The Mozart Effect.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2001-10-01

    This review deals with the Mozart Effect, an improvement of performance while listening to Mozart music. Previous studies have shown improved spatial temporal reasoning and improved IQ test results and neurophysiological changes, mainly increased coherence among different groups of subjects. This review emphasizes the effect on epileptiform patterns, both generalized and focal; provides an example of a chronic effect over a period of 1-2 days; addresses the distinctive aspects of the music to account for this phenomenon and shows that long-term periodicity in the power of the music is a special quality; and deals with the melodic line and shows that Mozart repeats the melodic line much more frequently than other well-known composers. It is likely that the superorganization of the cerebral cortex resonates with great organization found in Mozart music. PMID:12609277

  5. Giving effective presentations.

    PubMed

    Englehart, Nadine

    2004-03-01

    Apprehension about oral communication, or public speaking is rated as the number one fear among most individuals. Developing skill in, and comfort with, public speaking is important whether we are presenting oral reports and proposals, responding to questions, or training co-workers. Effective speakers are able to communicate information in a way that stimulates interest, helps the audience to understand and remember, and influences attitudes and behaviours. Many of us think that effective speakers are born rather than made. In truth most successful speakers work hard and invest a great deal of time and effort in to improving their speaking capabilities. Effective public speaking is a learned skill and activity that requires lots of practice. Like other learned skills, having a strategy with clear action steps can help you achieve your goal. PMID:15116467

  6. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

  7. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  8. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  9. Contamination effects study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.

  10. Equivalence of effective superpotentials

    SciTech Connect

    Argurio, Riccardo

    2004-09-01

    We show that the low-energy effective superpotential of an N=1 U(N) gauge theory with matter in the adjoint and arbitrary even tree-level superpotential has, in the classically unbroken case, the same functional form as the effective superpotential of a U(N) gauge theory with matter in the fundamental and the same tree-level interactions, up to some rescalings of the couplings. We also argue that the same kind of reasoning can be applied to other cases as well.

  11. Effective Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Robert N.

    Beginning with the observation that educators are faced with rising public expectations, declining resources, and increased public criticism, this paper describes a six-fold model for determining how staff development is operating and how it can be made to operate more effectively, in a self-renewing manner. The six dimensions consist of the…

  12. Cost effective technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. C.

    1989-09-01

    With relation to advanced technology for gas turbines, the overall process of product definition and development, concentrating particularly on the integration of activities between engineering design and manufacturing, is surveyed. The development of new philosophies in each of these spheres of activity is concluded to be cost effective technology and to make a highly significant contribution to the competitiveness and profitability of the industry.

  13. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is i...

  14. Pleiotropic effects of incretins

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia) and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia). The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the “glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones” of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-17-37 and GLP17-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine), central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius) and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health. PMID:22701844

  15. Radiation: Doses, Effects, Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lean, Geoffrey, Ed.

    Few scientific issues arouse as much public controversy as the effects of radiation. This booklet is an attempt to summarize what is known about radiation and provide a basis for further discussion and debate. The first four chapters of the booklet are based on the most recent reports to the United Nations' General Assembly by the United Nations…

  16. Teacher Effectiveness: A Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle

    1969-01-01

    This document summarizes the highlights of research on teacher effectiveness and concludes with recommendations based on a synthesis of this past work. The various methodologies that have been used are discussed, from rating scales to objective observation techniques, such as OScAR and the ecological studies. The major problems in teacher…

  17. Building Effective Afterschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and…

  18. Creating an Effective Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Griffis, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Newsletters are an important resource or form of media. They offer a cost-effective way to keep people informed, as well as to promote events and programs. Production of a newsletter makes an excellent project, relevant to real-world communication, for technology students. This article presents an activity on how to create a short newsletter. The…

  19. The offline production effect.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Randall K; Spear, Jackie

    2014-03-01

    People remember words they say aloud better than ones they do not, a result called the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and thus memorable at test. Whereas it is now clear that motoric production benefits remembering over nonproduction, and that more intense motoric production benefits remembering to a greater extent than less intense motoric production, there has been no comparison of the memorial benefit conferred by motoric versus imagined production. One reason for the gap is that the standard production-by-vocalization procedure confounds the analysis. To make the comparison, we used a production-by-typing procedure and tested memory for words that people typed, imagined typing, and did not type. Whereas participants remembered the words that they typed and imagined typing better than words that they did not, they remembered the words they typed better than the ones they imagined typing; an advantage that was consistent over tests of recognition memory and source discrimination. We conclude that motoric production is a sufficient and facilitative (but not a necessary) condition to observe the production effect. We explain our results by a sensory feedback account of the production effect and sketch a computational framework to implement that approach. PMID:24364810

  20. Biasing Effects of Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Explains the types of effects, usually unintentional, that psychologists can have upon the results of their research; describes the "Pygmalion Experiment," in which teachers' expectations for children's behavior proved to be self-fulfilling prophecies; and points to research needs in the area of interpersonal expectations. (GT)

  1. Measuring Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomb County Community Coll., Warren, MI.

    The measurement of institutional effectiveness involves a systematic comparison of organizational purpose and performance. For community colleges, organizational purpose can be defined in terms of providing access to education, realizing student achievement, promoting student development, or addressing social needs. If all four purposes are…

  2. Enhancing Community Board Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Daniel J.; Santos, Alan

    The effectiveness of the community board in the mental health system specifically and in human service systems generally depends, to a large extent, on how the board's role and scope are defined and how its organizational structure and staffing procedures are developed. The development of community boards should be based upon the premises that (1)…

  3. EFFECTS ON SALTWATER ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the e...

  4. Case 26: Somogyi effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This individual has a classic manifestation of the Somogyi effect, which is fasting morning hyperglycemia in response to hypoglycemia in the early morning and late night hours. The danger is that if night-time blood glucose levels are not measured, the physician may interpret the patient as having h...

  5. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  6. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

  7. Desert Storm environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, E. W.

    It is noted that after more than six months of operation of the Patriot launch station in the Saudi Arabian desert no problems that were attributed to high temperature occurred. The environmental anomalies that did occur were cosmetic in nature and related to dust and salt fog. It was concluded that the Desert Storm environmental effects were typical of worldwide hot, dry climates.

  8. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

  9. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  10. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  11. Creating Effective Multimedia Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Gregory C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents information on several critical themes related to multimedia instruction for those involved in the design, development, or use of computer delivered instruction. Addresses software product life cycle; systematic approach to design; multimedia design and development teams; production values; critical components of effective multimedia;…

  12. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  13. CREATING EFFECTIVE RESEARCH POSTERS

    E-print Network

    planning than paper · Printing · Can take up to 7 days, even on campus/in town · To avoid major stressCREATING EFFECTIVE RESEARCH POSTERS A crash course in planning, design, development, and presentation Rebecca Miller Virginia Tech March 28, 2012 #12;Overview · What is a research poster? · Planning

  14. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  15. Continuous electrowetting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beni, G.; Hackwood, S.; Jackel, J. L.

    1982-05-01

    We introduce a new electrowetting effect, continuous electrowetting (CEW), and show its advantages for applications to displays and other electro-optic devices. We demonstrate experimentally, by using CEW, fast and reversible electrowetting flow on the theoretically predicted scale of ˜10 cm/s for ˜1-V driving voltage.

  16. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

  17. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  18. Spincaloric properties of epitaxial Co2MnSi /MgO /Co2MnSi magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Benjamin; Kratzer, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The electronic transport and spincaloric properties of epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions with half-metallic Co2MnSi Heusler electrodes, MgO tunneling barriers, and different interface terminations are investigated by using first-principles calculations. An approach to spincaloric properties is presented that circumvents the linear response approximation inherent in the Seebeck coefficient and compared to the method of Sivan and Imry. This approach supports two different temperatures in the two electrodes and provides the exact current and/or voltage response of the system. Moreover, it accounts for temperature-dependent chemical potentials in the electrodes and finite-bias effects. We find that especially the former are important for obtaining qualitatively correct results, even if the variations of the chemical potentials are small. It is shown how the spincaloric properties can be tailored by the choice of the growth conditions. We find a large effective and spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient of -65 ? V /K at room temperature for the purely Co-terminated interface. We suggest to use such interfaces in thermally operated magnetoresistive random access memory modules, which exploit the magneto-Seebeck effect, to maximize the thermally induced readout voltage.

  19. [Renal effects of endothelins].

    PubMed

    Brillet, G; Deray, G; Habib, A M; Martinez, F; Jacobs, C

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of endothelin in 1988, numerous studies have been undertaken to evaluate their physiopathologic role. There is three types of endothelin ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3, which probably play an essential role in renal and cardiovascular homeostasis. Their principal actions consist in an increase of the arterial pressure, a negative inotrope and chronotrope effect, a coronary vasoconstriction, a decrease in cardiac output and a fall in the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. An elevation of endothelin level has been reported in numerous clinical conditions. However the interest of these descriptions remains unclear. Indeed the absence of pharmacological inhibitors of the synthesis or effect of endothelin prevent the understanding of the interest of these abnormalities. Furthermore the endothelins should not be considered as a hormone but as a paracrine substance. PMID:8367003

  20. Ground Effect in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanida, Yoshimichi

    The present paper aims to analyze the propulsion of birds and fishes undergoing the ground effect as well as the lift of high-speed ground vehicle. Applying the analytical method which was developed for flutter of a soft plate placed at an arbitrary position in subsonic channel flows, calculations are carried out first for non-oscillatory case in compressible flow and then for oscillating cases of birds and fishes in incompressible flow. The results obtained show that the ground effect acts to increase not only the lift in steady flight but also the thrust and propulsive efficiency in oscillating modes. This method holds not only in the case of very close proximity to the ground but also in compressible flow case, so it would be applicable to the flutter analysis of high-speed ground vehicle with wings.

  1. The Uniform Rugosity Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnivard, Matthieu; Bucur, Dorin

    2012-06-01

    Relying on the effect of microscopic asperities, one can mathematically justify that viscous fluids adhere completely on the boundary of an impermeable domain. The rugosity effect accounts asymptotically for the transformation of complete slip boundary conditions on a rough surface in total adherence boundary conditions, as the amplitude of the rugosities vanishes. The decreasing rate (average velocity divided by the amplitude of the rugosities) computed on close flat layers is definitely influenced by the geometry. Recent results prove that this ratio has a uniform upper bound for certain geometries, like periodical and "almost Lipschitz" boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to prove that such a result holds for arbitrary (non-periodical) crystalline boundaries and general (non-smooth) periodical boundaries.

  2. Latent effects decision analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J. Arlin (Albuquerque, NM); Werner, Paul W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-08-24

    Latent effects on a system are broken down into components ranging from those far removed in time from the system under study (latent) to those which closely effect changes in the system. Each component is provided with weighted inputs either by a user or from outputs of other components. A non-linear mathematical process known as `soft aggregation` is performed on the inputs to each component to provide information relating to the component. This information is combined in decreasing order of latency to the system to provide a quantifiable measure of an attribute of a system (e.g., safety) or to test hypotheses (e.g., for forensic deduction or decisions about various system design options).

  3. Developmental effects of dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, L S

    1995-01-01

    The potent developmental toxicity of dioxin in multiple species has been known for a number of years. However, recent studies have indicated that dioxin also induces functional developmental defects, many of which are delayed. Subtle structural deficits, not detectable at birth, have also been described in multiple species and in both sexes. Certain defects have been reported not only in animals but also in children prenatally exposed to complex mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. None of the effects can be attributed to modulation of any one endocrine system. For example, dioxin does not bind to the estrogen receptor, but it can cause effects that are both estrogenic and antiestrogenic. However, viewing dioxin and related compounds as endocrine disruptors that may alter multiple pathways sheds some light on the complexities of this potent class of growth dysregulators. PMID:8593882

  4. Effectiveness of medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. PMID:26209171

  5. Being an effective speaker.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Cosgray, R

    1991-08-01

    Communication in a group is an essential quality for success in nursing. Despite this, many nurses who must have communication skills to advance have little training in public speaking. Some nurses seek to correct such deficiencies in their education by taking courses in the evenings or on weekends to improve their understanding of the elements of effective speaking. Other nurses learn by self-reflection, study, and ongoing practice. This article has presented guidelines for speaking in a group that can offer assistance in mastering this important nursing skill. Elements of nonverbal communication are crucial for effective communication. However, despite the importance of non-verbal communication to the message, language is what makes communication possible. It is language that allows people to communicate new ideas and thoughts and to solve problems. PMID:1877075

  6. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be. PMID:10312197

  7. Nonequilibrium effects and baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Charng, Y.-Y.; Ng, K.-W.; Lee, D.-S.; Leung, C.N.

    2005-12-15

    Possible effects due to nonequilibrium dynamics in the Affleck-Dine mechanism of baryogenesis are examined. Using the closed-time-path formalism, the quantum fluctuation and the backreaction of the Affleck-Dine scalar field are incorporated self-consistently into the dynamical equations of the system by invoking a nonperturbative Hartree approximation. It is found that such nonequilibrium effects can significantly affect the amount of baryon asymmetry that can be generated. In particular, it is possible to generate the observed baryon asymmetry with suitable initial conditions. The methodology described in this paper as well as some of the results obtained are quite general, and can be applied to any complex scalar field in a cosmological background.

  8. Effective Vaccination Policies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, L.; Spears, W.; Billings, L.; Maxim, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This “importance factor” was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years. PMID:21057602

  9. Fuel Vaporization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

  10. Spin Hall effect devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Jörg; Olejník, Kamil

    2012-05-01

    The spin Hall effect is a relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomenon that can be used to electrically generate or detect spin currents in non-magnetic systems. Here we review the experimental results that, since the first experimental observation of the spin Hall effect less than 10 years ago, have established the basic physical understanding of the phenomenon, and the role that several of the spin Hall devices have had in the demonstration of spintronic functionalities and physical phenomena. We have attempted to organize the experiments in a chronological order, while simultaneously dividing the Review into sections on semiconductor or metal spin Hall devices, and on optical or electrical spin Hall experiments. The spin Hall device studies are placed in a broader context of the field of spin injection, manipulation, and detection in non-magnetic conductors.

  11. Spin Hall effect devices.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Jörg; Olejník, Kamil

    2012-05-01

    The spin Hall effect is a relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomenon that can be used to electrically generate or detect spin currents in non-magnetic systems. Here we review the experimental results that, since the first experimental observation of the spin Hall effect less than 10 years ago, have established the basic physical understanding of the phenomenon, and the role that several of the spin Hall devices have had in the demonstration of spintronic functionalities and physical phenomena. We have attempted to organize the experiments in a chronological order, while simultaneously dividing the Review into sections on semiconductor or metal spin Hall devices, and on optical or electrical spin Hall experiments. The spin Hall device studies are placed in a broader context of the field of spin injection, manipulation, and detection in non-magnetic conductors. PMID:22522638

  12. Transgenerational effects of NMs.

    PubMed

    Poma, Anna; Colafarina, Sabrina; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are present in a number of commercially available products but there are uncertainties as to whether the unique properties that support their commercial use may also pose potential health risks. Information is missing concerning the influence of nanomaterials on the overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects in animals and plants. To obtain this information, long-term studies would be required using animal models phylogenetically close to humans and exposure conditions that reflect realistic scenarios with regard to dosages and admission. The nanoreprotoxicology literature published to date is largely descriptive in nature regarding the effects of nanoparticles. The mechanisms, which determine particle reproduction compatibility, are mostly elusive at the moment. Thus, it is recommended that future research explore the interactions between nanomaterials and transgenerational matter on a molecular level. It would, for instance, be of major importance to understand the behaviour of nanoparticles inside the cells but also their genotoxic and epigenetic effects. Recent studies have shown that intravenous and/or intra-abdominal administration of nanoparticles to mice results in their accumulation in the cells of many tissues, including the brain and the testis, suggesting that they easily pass through the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers. In parallel embryo development after exposure to nanoparticles should be comparatively investigated. The majority of studies on embryo toxicology have concentrated on piscine embryos, mostly derived from zebrafish. Plants for human food as an important component of the ecosystem need also to be taken into account when evaluating transgenerational effects of engineered nanomaterials in crops. PMID:24683035

  13. Ocular effects of adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Kawase, K; Gu, Z B; Kimura, M; Okano, Y; Kawakami, H; Tsuji, A; Kitazawa, Y

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and effects of adrenomedullin (AM), a novel vasodilator peptide, in the eye. Expression of AM mRNA was examined in the rat iris-ciliary body using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In rabbits, intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured periodically after intravitreal injection (20 microl) of AM (10(-7)-10(-4)m) into one eye. In separate groups of rabbits, 30 min after intravitreal injection of either AM-(22-52) (10(-3)m), a specific AM receptor antagonist, or CGRP-(8-37) (10(-3)m), a CGRP1 receptor antagonist, into one eye, AM (10(-6)m) was injected into both eyes, and IOP was measured. Using different rabbits, aqueous protein and cAMP concentrations were determined 6 hr after injection of AM. Expression of AM mRNA was detected in the rat iris-ciliary body. In rabbits, intravitreally administered AM (10(-6)-10(-4)m) profoundly lowered IOP, and the maximum effect was observed at 4-8 h. The ocular hypotensive effect of AM was dose-dependent (10(-7)-10(-4)m). Pretreatment with CGRP-(8-37) did not significantly inhibit the ocular hypotensive effect of AM (10(-6)m), whereas pretreatment with AM-(22-52) completely abolished it. AM (10(-6)m) did not significantly affect aqueous protein concentration. The higher dose of AM (10(-5)m) induced a significant increase in aqueous protein, which was not associated with an increase in the aqueous cAMP content and was significantly inhibited by AM-(22-52) and CGRP-(8-37). These results demonstrate that AM is expressed in the iris-ciliary body and decreases IOP mainly via specific AM receptors, and suggest that AM may play a role in controlling IOP. PMID:10548466

  14. Dynamical Casimir effect instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Y. N.; Widom, A.; Ganesh, M. Pradeep; Sivasubramanian, S.

    2006-09-15

    The dynamic Casimir effect, which concerns two photon radiation processes due to time dependent frequency modulations, is computed in the one photon loop approximation. An instability is signaled by the production of an unphysically large number of photons. We show how it is tamed and a saturation in the number of photons reached through higher order processes. Explicit results are obtained for a recently proposed experiment.

  15. The effect of temperature on thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi2Te3 nanowire/graphene layer-by-layer hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyun; Kim, Jooheon

    2015-07-14

    The thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 nanowire/graphene composites prepared at different sintering temperatures have been investigated. The as-synthesized ultrathin Bi2Te3 nanowires are uniformly distributed between the graphene layers, leading to the formation of Bi2Te3 nanowire/graphene layer-by-layer hybrid structures. The electrical conductivity of the as-sintered composites increases dramatically with the sintering temperature, as the relative density and grain size increase and the interface density decreases. This in turn lowers the Seebeck coefficient due to the reduction of the potential barrier for carriers and their scattering at the interface. The fabricated n-type Bi2Te3 nanowire/graphene composites exhibit an enhanced figure of merit of 0.25 at an optimal sintering temperature of 623 K. PMID:26050633

  16. Ivabradine: cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Rognoni, Andrea; Bertolazzi, Marzia; Macciò, Sergio; Rognoni, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Ivabradine (a compound of the benzocyclobutane) is a highly selective I(f) current inhibitor acting directly on the sino-atrial node, induces a rapid, sustained and dose-dependent reduction of heart rate at rest and during exercise without a significant effect on atrio-ventricular conduction, left ventricular contraction/relaxation or vascular tissues. These properties associated with an improvement in left ventricular loading related to bradycardia resulted in an increase in stroke volume and preservation in cardiac output even during exercise. Various experimental and clinical studies showed the efficacy of ivabradine in patients with chronic stable angina, on heart rate reduction, on ventricular remodelling after acute myocardial infarction and on coronary blood flow. The safety of ivabradine has been documented in several studies and clinical trials, in contrast to beta-blockers, no significant side effects were expressed in the literature. The aim of our review is to describe ivabradine and its cardiovascular effects and outline some recent patents and the results of the most important trials. PMID:19149708

  17. Generalized Effective Radiance Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z.

    2015-10-01

    Radiance temperature is one of the most important and widely used concepts in radiation thermometry. The usual definition of radiance temperature does not strictly apply for complex situations, such as when surrounding radiation is non-negligible or when corrections are applied to measurements made using an inappropriate emissivity setting. A novel concept, generalized effective radiance temperature (GERT), that adopts a graybody as the reference radiator is proposed in this study to express and explain the actual measurands that exist extensively in practical radiation thermometry applications; for example, a measurement result by a spectral-band radiation thermometer whose instrumental emissivity setting is less than 1. An effective wavelength approach has been developed to elucidate the relationship between a thermometer-dependent temperature (reading from an actual spectral-band radiation thermometer) and the object-side parameter GERT. The characteristics of GERT and the effective wavelength of a GERT measurement are discussed. Choosing an arbitrary emissivity setting to correct for the emissivity of a real target is equivalent to using this value as the emissivity of the reference graybody of the GERT. The GERT can be used in calibrations of both sources and thermometers.

  18. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  19. Structural and Thermoelectric Properties of Nanocrystalline Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Under Compressive and Tensile Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagaya, K.; Hagino, H.; Tanaka, S.; Miyazaki, K.; Takashiri, M.

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of strain on bismuth telluride films, we applied different compressive and tensile strains to thin films by changing the bending radius of a flexible substrate so the strain ranged from -0.3% (compressive) to +0.3% (tensile). The structural properties of the strained thin films, composed of nanosized grains, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. For all samples the main peak was the (015) diffraction peak; crystal orientation along the (015) growth direction was slightly enhanced by application of compressive strain. The thermoelectric properties of strained bismuth telluride thin films were evaluated by measurement of electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor. The magnitude and direction of the applied strain did not significantly affect the power factor, because when the strain changed from compressive to tensile the electrical conductivity increased and the absolute Seebeck coefficient decreased.

  20. Thermoelectricity of Nanocomposites Containing TiO2–CoO Coaxial Nanocables

    SciTech Connect

    Su, L.; Zhang, L.; Gana, Y.X.

    2011-04-01

    TiO{sub 2}-CoO coaxial nanocables were deposited into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous templates to form nanocomposite materials. Electron microscopic analysis was conducted to reveal their structures. Seebeck coefficients of the composites were measured. The highest absolute value of Seebeck coefficient is 393 {micro}V K{sup -1} for the TiO{sub 2} nanotube-filled AAO. The TiO{sub 2}-CoO coaxial nanocable-filled AAO has a lower absolute value of 300 {micro}V K{sup -1}. Both composites showed n-type behavior. The effect of Ag nanoparticles addition on the thermoelectric behavior was also examined.

  1. Influence of substituting Sn for Sb on the thermoelectric transport properties of CoSb3-based skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Si; Nielsen, Michele D.; Homer, Mark R.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Tobola, Janusz; Salvador, James R.; Heremans, Joseph P.; Pipe, Kevin P.; Uher, Ctirad

    2014-03-01

    Band structure calculations that incorporate impurity effects suggest that a band resonant state may be formed in p-type CoSb3-based skutterudites by replacing Sb atoms with Sn dopant atoms. Such resonant states have the potential to greatly improve thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by increasing the density of states variation near the Fermi level, thereby increasing the Seebeck coefficient at a given carrier concentration. Through transport measurements of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Hall coefficient, we show that a practical band resonant state is not achieved by Sn doping. Compared to undoped CoSb3, the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) in Sn-doped CoSb3 is enhanced slightly at high temperatures to a value of 0.2, mostly due to a reduction in thermal conductivity. The Fermi level is calculated not to reach the band resonant state induced by Sn impurity atoms within the range of Sn concentrations examined here.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of 50-nm-wide n- and p- type silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. J.; Choi, W. C.; Zyung, T. H.; Jang, M. G.

    2015-07-01

    For the evaluation of thermoelectric properties in silicon nanowires (SiNWs), thermoelectric test structures are manufactured, including 50-nm-wide n- and p-type SiNWs, micro-heater and temperature sensors using a conventional lithography method on 8 in. silicon wafer. For the optimization of thermoelectric properties in SiNWs, we have evaluated Seebeck coefficients and power factors of n- and p-type SiNWs by varying the nanowire length 10, 40 ?m and temperature (from 310 to 450 K). The results show that the maximum Seebeck coefficients and power factors are and for long p-type and long n-type SiNWs, respectively. The contribution of phonon-drag effect to thermoelectric power is discussed in the highly doped SiNWs.

  3. Alloys Fabricated by Gas Atomization and Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madavali, Babu; Kim, Hyo-Seob; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2014-06-01

    In this research, n-type (Bi2Te3)1- x (Bi2Se3) x -based thermoelectric (TE) materials were produced through a gas atomization process, and subsequently hot extruded with an extrusion ratio of 10:1 at 400 °C. The effect of chemical composition on TE properties was investigated. The microstructure of all extruded bars showed a homogeneous and fine distribution of grains due to the dynamic recrystallization during the hot extrusion process. With increasing Bi2Te3 content, from 0.85 to 0.90, both electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient values were increased. The maximum figure of merit ( ZT) 0.673 was obtained at room temperature for (Bi2Te3)0.90(Bi2Se3)0.10 alloys due to them exhibiting higher seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivity than other compositions.

  4. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Hole-Doped Lu1- x Pb x BaCo4O7 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. B.; Cao, X. L.; Ma, R. X.; Gao, F.; Hu, X.; Song, H. Z.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Pb doping on the thermoelectric properties of Lu1- x Pb x BaCo4O7 ( x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10) ceramic samples prepared by the solid-state reaction method were investigated from 390 K to 973 K. The results show that Pb doping can reduce the electrical resistivity remarkably, increasing the Seebeck coefficient at lower temperatures and decreasing it at higher temperatures. As an overall result, Pb doping results in an enhancement of the power factor because the decrease in magnitude of the electrical resistivity is far greater than that of the Seebeck coefficient. The optimum Pb doping content is x = 0.08, reaching a power factor and ZT value of 85 ?W m-1 K-2 and 0.18, respectively, at 973 K.

  5. Preparation and characterization of MOCVD bismuth telluride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulouz, A.; Giani, A.; Pascal-Delannoy, F.; Boulouz, M.; Foucaran, A.; Boyer, A.

    1998-01-01

    The thermoelectric, electric and structural properties of Bi 2Te 3 thin films grown by MOCVD have been investigated. The Seebeck coefficient shows that all the samples were n-type conductors decreasing from 213 to 129 ?V/K when the carrier concentration increases from 9×10 19 to 3×10 20 cm -3. For high substrate temperature, good orientation of crystallites has been observed which can be directly related to the best values of Seebeck coefficient found. Hall effect has been studied in the temperature range from 110 to 450 K. The temperature dependence of the Hall mobility is found to be T-1 indicating lattice scattering. The good quality of Bi 2Te 3 thin films growth by MOCVD observed allow to confirm the high potential of these deposition method which can be turned to be suitable for growing thin films for thermoelectrical material production.

  6. Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

    2013-01-01

    Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed to the patient’s expectation. Biomedical research will benefit from abandoning the term placebo effect and focusing instead on a deeper understanding of the expectation variable, including its causes, effects, and effect modifiers. This avenue of research should be pursued by observational cohorts that are nested within clinical trials. PMID:24101881

  7. 'The Kesterson effect'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, T.S.

    1994-01-01

    Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the 'Kesterson effect.' At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California, in California, selenium as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

  8. Quantum Effects in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Man?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  9. The effective equation method

    E-print Network

    Sergei Kuksin; Alberto Maiocchi

    2015-01-17

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behaviour of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behaviour of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three-- and four--wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. In the case of the NLS equation we use next some heuristic approximation from the arsenal of wave turbulence to show that under the iterated limit "the volume goes to infinity", taken after the limit "the amplitude of oscillations goes to zero", the energy spectrum of solutions for the effective equation is described by a Zakharov-type kinetic equation. Evoking the Zakharov ansatz we show that stationary in time and homogeneous in space solutions for the latter equation have a power law form. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanology.

  10. Assessments of astronaut effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

  11. Nutritional effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Falck-Ytter, Y; McCullough, A J

    2000-08-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently used drug worldwide and remains a socially acceptable hepatotoxin. Although the toxic effects of alcohol on various organs (liver, pancreas, heart, and intestine) are well recognized, the role of alcohol in overall energy and protein metabolism is less well understood. In particular, the efficiency of alcohol as a source of calories and as a substrate for energy production appears to be influenced by the amount of both alcohol and fat consumption as well as by gender. The relationship between alcohol intake and body weight is complex, but it is a clinical dilemma with important nutritional implications for weight management in addition to specific organ toxicity. PMID:10981033

  12. Generalized Sagnac Effect

    E-print Network

    Ruyong Wang; Yi Zheng; Aiping Yao

    2006-09-26

    Experiments were conducted to study light propagation in a light waveguide loop consisting of linearly and circularly moving segments. We found that any segment of the loop contributes to the total phase difference between two counterpropagating light beams in the loop. The contribution is proportional to a product of the moving velocity v and the projection of the segment length Deltal on the moving direction, Deltaphi=4pivDeltal/clambda. It is independent of the type of motion and the refractive index of waveguides. The finding includes the Sagnac effect of rotation as a special case and suggests a new fiber optic sensor for measuring linear motion with nanoscale sensitivity.

  13. Vibration by relativistic effects

    E-print Network

    Enrique Oradaz Romay

    2005-12-27

    Relativity, time reversal invariance in mechanics and principle of causality can be in the bases of a type of vibration of the extensive objects. It is because, the detailed analysis of the relativistic movement of an extensive body entail that all the objects must have inherent a vibratory movement to their own size. Such effect does not happen when it works with point particles thus is not stranger who happens unnoticed in the traditional studies. Also we can find relation between the form of vibration of the extensive objects and the energy that calculates by quantum considerations.

  14. Environmental Effects of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  15. Effect of thermal cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen F.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this effort is to evaluate the stability of low expansion Zerodur, developmental Zerodur, ULE, and Cer-Vit as possible substrate materials for high energy laser mirrors. This effort will determine whether there is instability in developmental Zerodur, ULE and Cer-Vit over operating temperatures and coating temperatures (300 to 475 K). Zerodur has already been shown to exhibit instability. Thermal cycling will be investigated as a possible approach to eliminate or reduce hysteresis. The effect of polishing on hysteresis will also be investigated.

  16. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

  17. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  18. Preparation of Bi2Te3/Nano-SiC Composite Thermoelectric Films by Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yilin; Zhang, Jingyi; Shen, Zhengwu; Yang, Mengqian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Bi2Te3/nano-SiC composite thermoelectric films were prepared by electrodeposition in a nitric acid bath. The effects of SiC concentration and annealing treatment on the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of the films were investigated. The morphology, composition, and structure of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that SiC nano-particles in electrodeposited Bi2Te3/nano-SiC composite films have readily apparent effects on the crystal orientation of the Bi2Te3 matrix and the morphology of the electrodeposited composite films. For nano-SiC particle concentrations <2 g/L the Seebeck coefficients of as-deposited films decrease with increasing nano-SiC particle concentration and decrease further after annealing treatment. Improvement in electrical conductivity compensated for the decrease in Seebeck coefficient and resulted in an enhanced power factor. Addition of nano-SiC particles to the composite films introduces more interfaces, which endows the composite films with lower electrical resistivity.

  19. JPL Test Effectiveness Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreck, Stephanie; Sharratt, Stephen; Smith, Joseph F.; Strong, Edward

    2008-01-01

    1) The pilot study provided meaningful conclusions that are generally consistent with the earlier Test Effectiveness work done between 1992 and 1994: a) Analysis of pre-launch problem/failure reports is consistent with earlier work. b) Analysis of post-launch early mission anomaly reports indicates that there are more software issues in newer missions, and the no-test category for identification of post-launch failures is more significant than in the earlier analysis. 2) Future work includes understanding how differences in Missions effect these analyses: a) There are large variations in the number of problem reports and issues that are documented by the different Projects/Missions. b) Some missions do not have any reported environmental test anomalies, even though environmental tests were performed. 3) Each project/mission has different standards and conventions for filling out the PFR forms, the industry may wish to address this issue: a) Existing problem reporting forms are to document and track problems, failures, and issues (etc.) for the projects, to ensure high quality. b) Existing problem reporting forms are not intended for data mining.

  20. Effects of acoustic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenster, James A.; Jones, Michael G.

    1987-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acoustics on the laminar flow on the side of a nacelle. A flight test was designed to meet this goal and a brief review of the purpose is given. A nacelle with a significant length of laminar flow was mounted on the wing of NASA OV-1. Two noise sources are also mounted on the wing: one in the center body of the nacelle; the second in a wing mounted pod outboard of the nacelle. These two noise sources allow for a limited study of the effect of source direction in addition to control of the acoustic level and frequency. To determine the range of Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies, a stability analysis using the pressure coefficient distribution along the side of the nacelle was performed. Then by applying these frequencies and varying the acoustic level, a study of the receptivity of the boundary layer to the acoustic signal, as determined by the shortening of the length of laminar flow, was conducted. Results are briefly discussed.

  1. The Effective Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  2. The effective MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Talia, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    We suggest an effective field theory framework to discuss deviations from the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) which is based on an alternative arrangement of the gauge-Higgs sector. In this effective MSSM (EffMSSM) nonlinearly realised SU (2) × U (1) gauge sector is described by an SU (2) × U (1)-valued massive vector superfield, which contains a neutral CP-even and charged Higgs fields, while another neutral CP-even Higgs and the neutral CP-odd Higgs fields are residing in an SU (2) × U (1)-singlet chiral superfield. Although the new theory contains the same particle content as the conventional MSSM, the unconventional representation of superfields allows for new type of interactions, which may lead to a significant modification of the phenomenology. As an illustrative example we consider EffMSSM with modified Higgs and electroweak gauge sector augmented by gaugino soft supersymmetry breaking masses, Mi (i = 1, 2, 3) and the Standard Higgs soft-breaking masses, mHu =mHd and B?, and point out distinct features in the Higgs and gaugino sectors as compared to MSSM. In particular, we show that the lightest neutral CP-even Higgs boson with mass ? 125GeV can be easily accommodated within EffMSSM.

  3. Behavioral effects of microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microwaves can produce sensations of warmth and sound in humans. In other species, they also can serve as cues, they may be avoided, and they can disrupt ongoing behavior. These actions appear to be due to heat produced by energy absorption. The rate of absorption depends on the microwave parameters and the electrical and geometric properties of the subject. We therefore, cannot predict the human response to microwaves based on data from other animals without appropriate scaling considerations. At low levels of exposure, microwaves can produce changes in behavior without large, or even measureable, changes in body temperature. Thermoregulatory behavior may respond to those low levels of heat, and thereby affect other behavior occurring concurrently. There are no data that demonstrate that behavioral effects of microwaves depend on any mechanism other than reactions to heat. Our interpretation of whether a reported behavioral effect indicates that microwaves may be hazardous depends on our having a complete description of the experiment and on our criteria of behavioral toxicity.

  4. An effective Z'

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Liu, Jia; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2011-12-06

    We describe a method to couple Z' gauge bosons to the standard model (SM), without charging the SM fields under the U(1)', but instead through effective higher-dimension operators. This method allows complete control over the tree-level couplings of the Z' and does not require altering the structure of any of the SM couplings, nor does it contain anomalies or require introduction of fields in nonstandard SM representations. Moreover, such interactions arise from simple renormalizable extensions of the SM—the addition of vectorlike matter that mixes with SM fermions when the U(1)' is broken. We apply effective Z' models as explanations of various recent anomalies: the D0 same-sign dimuon asymmetry, the CDF W+di-jet excess and the CDF top forward-backward asymmetry. In the case of the W+di-jet excess we also discuss several complementary analyses that may shed light on the nature of the discrepancy. We consider the possibility of non-Abelian groups, and discuss implications for the phenomenology of dark matter as well.

  5. Lake Effect Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. An effective Z'

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fox, Patrick J.; Liu, Jia; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2011-12-06

    We describe a method to couple Z' gauge bosons to the standard model (SM), without charging the SM fields under the U(1)', but instead through effective higher-dimension operators. This method allows complete control over the tree-level couplings of the Z' and does not require altering the structure of any of the SM couplings, nor does it contain anomalies or require introduction of fields in nonstandard SM representations. Moreover, such interactions arise from simple renormalizable extensions of the SM—the addition of vectorlike matter that mixes with SM fermions when the U(1)' is broken. We apply effective Z' models as explanations ofmore »various recent anomalies: the D0 same-sign dimuon asymmetry, the CDF W+di-jet excess and the CDF top forward-backward asymmetry. In the case of the W+di-jet excess we also discuss several complementary analyses that may shed light on the nature of the discrepancy. We consider the possibility of non-Abelian groups, and discuss implications for the phenomenology of dark matter as well.« less

  7. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  8. Topological phase effects

    E-print Network

    J. M. Robbins

    2010-09-10

    Quantum eigenstates undergoing cyclic changes acquire a phase factor of geometric origin. This phase, known as the Berry phase, or the geometric phase, has found applications in a wide range of disciplines throughout physics, including atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, optics, and classical dynamics. In this article, the basic theory of the geometric phase is presented along with a number of representative applications. The article begins with an account of the geometric phase for cyclic adiabatic evolutions. An elementary derivation is given along with a worked example for two-state systems. The implications of time-reversal are explained, as is the fundamental connection between the geometric phase and energy level degeneracies. We also discuss methods of experimental observation. A brief account is given of geometric magnetism; this is a Lorenz-like force of geometric origin which appears in the dynamics of slow systems coupled to fast ones. A number of theoretical developments of the geometric phase are presented. These include an informal discussion of fibre bundles, and generalizations of the geometric phase to degenerate eigenstates (the nonabelian case) and to nonadiabatic evolution. There follows an account of applications. Manifestations in classical physics include the Hannay angle and kinematic geometric phases. Applications in optics concern polarization dynamics, including the theory and observation of Pancharatnam's phase. Applications in molecular physics include the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. In condensed matter physics, we discuss the role of the geometric phase in the theory of the quantum Hall effect.

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anD human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain “I was worried about getting ... need help to pay for pain medicine. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. ...

  10. IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

  11. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chestnutt, D. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  12. Hall Effect in a Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)

  13. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with ... are common short-term side effects from HIV medicines? When starting an HIV medicine for the first ...

  14. Side Effects and Their Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Care and Treatment Newly Diagnosed Continuum of Care Brain Tumor Treatments Treatment Side Effects & their Management Fatigue Memory & Cognitive Changes Depression & Mood Changes Fertility Options Late Effects Seizures Diet & ...

  15. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Health Effects of UV Radiation Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure ... natural protection from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This Web page provides an overview of the ...

  16. Assessing and Improving Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    Information to promote assessment of organizational effectiveness in colleges and universities is presented, along with an exercise to rank the effectiveness of 10 institutions. The exercise uses three types of criteria to indicate effectiveness: subjective ratings, data about students and activities, and institutional capacity and financial…

  17. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  18. The rugosity effect Dorin Bucur

    E-print Network

    Bucur, Dorin

    The rugosity effect Dorin Bucur Abstract This paper surveys the series of lectures given-Murat, Babuska's paradox, the Courant-Hilbert example and the rugosity effect in fluid dynamics. Some classical conditions are presented. In particular we describe different ways to deal with the rugosity effect in fluid

  19. Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux

    E-print Network

    A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus

    2011-12-19

    Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  20. Effective Programs for Latino Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E., Ed.; Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents the current state of research on effective instructional programs for Hispanic American students. The 10 chapters are: (1) "Effective Programs for Latino Students in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Olatokunbo S. Fashola, Robert E. Slavin, Margarita Calderon, and Richard Duran); (2) "Effective Dropout Prevention…

  1. PEPNet Effective Practices Criteria Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Kate, Ed.

    Designed for youth programs, funders, policymakers, and researchers, this workbook is a tool and a resource on effective practices for youth employment and development. It is a product of the Promising and Effective Practices Network (PEPNet), which offers a knowledge base of effective strategies and approaches, opportunities for professional…

  2. Effective Management of Contract Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Donald L.

    Securing funds to support a project does not necessarily guarantee its success. For any venture to be successful it must be undergirded by an effective management system. Discussed are four basic questions on the topic of effective project management. (1) When should project management start? (2) Who is responsible for the effective management…

  3. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  4. Radiation Effects in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for a solid moderator are reviewed and the reasons that graphite has become the solid moderator of choice discussed. The manufacture and properties of some currently available near-isotropic and isotropic grades are described. The major features of a graphite moderated reactors are briefly outlined. Displacement damage and the induced structural and dimensional changes in graphite are described. Recent characterization work on nano-carbons and oriented pyrolytic graphites that have shed new light on graphite defect structures are reviewed, and the effect of irradiation temperature on the defect structures is highlighted. Changes in the physical properties of nuclear graphite caused by neutron irradiation are reported. Finally, the importance of irradiation induced creep is presented, along with current models and their deficiencies.

  5. Radiation Effects In Space

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2011-06-01

    Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

  6. Psychologic effects of residency.

    PubMed

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process. PMID:6828903

  7. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  8. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  9. THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1980-12-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  10. Hot chocolate effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  11. Acid rain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The IAHS held trip Acid Rain in the Appalachian Mountains, on May 13, focused on monitoring and analysis of the potential effects of acid rain in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. At Luray, Va., the tour intercepted the Skyline Drive and proceeded south along the top of the mountains, with views of the Shenandoah Valley to the west and the Piedmont to the east.The research sites were a meteorological station where cloud and fog chemistry is being investigated and an instrumented small watershed where the fate of acid inputs is being studied. The research project combines micrometeorology, climatology, environmental chemistry, hydrology, and biology to describe and predict the response of a mature deciduous forest to its environment. Through this integrated approach, the complex atmospheric processes, biological processes, and biogeochemical cycling in an ecosystem can be understood.

  12. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  13. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  14. Aluminum toxicity. Hematological effects.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; del Carmen Contini, M; Gonzalez, M; Millen, N; Elias, M M

    2000-01-01

    Sequential effects of intoxication with aluminum hydroxide (Al) (80 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., three times a week), were studied on rats from weaning and up to 28 weeks. The study was carried out on hematological and iron metabolism-related parameters on peripheral blood, at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th months of exposure. As it was described that hematotoxic effects of Al are mainly seen together with high levels of uremia, renal function was measured at the same periods. The animals treated developed a microcytosis and was accompanied by a decrease in mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC million/microl) were found in rats treated during the 1st month. These values matched those obtained for control rats during the 2nd month. From the 3rd month onwards, a significant increase was observed as compared to control groups, and the following values were obtained by the 6th month: (T) 10.0 +/- 0.3 versus (C) 8.7 +/- 0.2 (million/microl). Both MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were found to be significantly lower in groups treated from the 2nd month. At the end of the 6th month the following values were found: MCH (T) 13.3 +/- 0.1 versus (C) 16.9 +/- 0.3 (pg); MCV (T) 42.1 +/- 0.7 versus (C) 51.8 +/- 0.9 (fl). Al was found responsible for lower serum iron concentration levels and in the percentage of transferrin saturation. Thus, although microcytic anemia constitutes an evidence of chronic aluminum exposure, prolonged exposure could lead to a recovery of hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration values with an increase in red cell number. Nevertheless, both microcytosis and the decrease of MCH would persist. These modifications took place without changes being observed in the renal function during the observation period. PMID:10643868

  15. Effects of double filling of La and Ce on thermoelectric properties of Ce{sub m}La{sub n}Fe{sub 1.0}Co{sub 3.0}Sb{sub 12} compounds by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q.M.; Zhang, J.X.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.Q.; Liu, D.M.; Zhou, M.L.

    2005-11-15

    Double-filled skutterudite compounds Ce{sub m}La{sub n}FeCo{sub 3}Sb{sub 12} with (m+n)=0.2-0.4 were synthesized by spark plasma sintering using powders of Co, Sb, Fe, and rare-earth Ce and La as starting materials, and the thermoelectric properties were studied in detail. The dominant phases of all the samples are the skutterudite with small amount of Sb as an impurity phase, and the amount of Sb decreases in double-filled compound. The lattice constant is enhanced linearly up to (m+n)=0.30 with increasing filling fraction and then unchanged. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of double-filled compounds are generally higher than single-filled samples whatever the filling fraction is. Among all the samples, Ce{sub 0.1}La{sub 0.2}FeCo{sub 3}Sb{sub 12} shows the highest Seebeck coefficient of 150 {mu}V K{sup -1} at 773 K and the lowest thermal conductivity of 1.81 W/mK at 673 K, and the maximum ZT value reaches 0.60 at 773 K due to its lower thermal conductivity.

  16. Transport and thermoelectric properties of La1- z Ce z Fe4- x Ni x Sb12 skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Bong-Jun; Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho

    2015-06-01

    La/Ce-double-filled skutterudites were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing, and the double-filling effects on the transport and the thermoelectric properties were examined. The electrical conductivity decreased with increasing temperature, indicating that the La1- z Ce z Fe4- x Ni x Sb12 skutterudites were degenerate semiconductors. All specimens showed positive Seebeck coefficients and Hall coefficients, confirming p-type conduction. The Seebeck coefficient increased with increasing temperature and Ni content, with the highest value being observed at temperatures ranging from 723 K to 823 K. The maximum power factor was obtained for La0.25Ce0.75Fe3.75Ni0.25Sb12, with a peak value of 2.9 mWm -1K -2 at 723 K. The Seebeck coefficient decreased and the thermal conductivity increased due to bipolar conduction in the case of x = 0.25 for substitution of Ni at temperatures above 623 K and in the case of x = 0.5 for substitution of Ni at temperatures above 723 K. The lattice thermal conductivity decreased with increasing Ce content, regardless of Ni content. The electronic thermal conductivity decreased with increasing Ni content, resulting from the decrease in the carrier concentration. The dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) showed peak values at 723 K due to the decrease in the Seebeck coefficient (or the power factor) and the increase in the thermal conductivity at high temperatures. The maximum ZT of 0.76 was achieved at 723 K for La0.25Ce0.75Fe3.75Ni0.25Sb12.

  17. Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, Benjamin M.; Bowers, John E.

    2014-04-14

    The thermoelectric properties of gate-all-around silicon nanowires (Si NWs) are calculated to determine the potential for significant power factor enhancement. The Boltzmann transport equation and relaxation time approximation are employed to develop an electron transport model used to determine the field-effect mobility, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor for Si NWs with cross-sectional areas between 4?nm?×?4?nm and 12?nm?×?12?nm and a range of gate biases. Electrical conductivity for the gated Si NWs was much higher than that of doped Si due to the lack of ionized impurities and correspondingly greater carrier mobility. A significant increase in electrical conductivity with decreasing Si NW cross-sectional area was also observed due to a large increase in the average carrier density. For all Si NWs, the Seebeck coefficient was lower than that of doped bulk Si due to the different energy dependence between ionized impurity and phonon-mediated scattering processes. This decrease was also confirmed with Seebeck coefficient measurements of multigated Si NWs and n-type Si thin-films. Quantum confinement was also found to increase the Seebeck coefficient for <8?nm?×?8?nm Si NWs and also at high charge densities. A maximum power factor of 6.8?×?10{sup ?3}?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} was calculated for the 6?nm?×?6?nm Si NWs with typical Si/SiO{sub 2} interface roughness, which is 2–3?×?those obtained experimentally for bulk Si. The power factor was also found to greatly depend on surface roughness, with a root-mean-square roughness of <0.8?nm necessary for power factor enhancement. An increase in ZT may also be possible if a low thermal conductivity can be obtained with minimal surface roughness.

  18. Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity

    E-print Network

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2014-01-10

    Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, second, the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler's third law.

  19. Thermoelectric Properties of Double-Filled p-Type La1- z Yb z Fe4- x Co x Sb12 Skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Gyeong-Seok; Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho

    2015-06-01

    La and Yb double-filled p-type skutterudites (La1- z Yb z Fe4- x Co x Sb12; 0.25 ? z ? 0.75 and 0.5 ? x ? 1) were synthesized by encapsulated melting and homogenized by use of heat treatment. It was apparent from the positive signs of the Seebeck coefficient and the Hall coefficient that all specimens had p-type characteristics. The carrier concentration decreased with charge compensation. The thermal conductivity and the electrical conductivity decreased and the Seebeck coefficient increased with increasing substitution of Co for Fe. However, the carrier concentration was increased by increasing the Yb filling ratio. Electrical conductivity increased and the Seebeck coefficient decreased with increasing Yb filling, because the electron valence of Yb2+ was lower than that of La3+. The thermal conductivity decreased with charge compensation, and the lattice thermal conductivity decreased with increasing Yb filling. Yb was more effective than La at reducing lattice thermal conductivity. The power factor ( PF) and dimensionless figure of merit ( ZT) increased with increasing temperature up to a specific temperature. The maximum PF = 2.81 mW/mK2 at 823 K was obtained for La0.75Yb0.25Fe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and the maximum ZT = 0.74 at 723 K was achieved for La0.5Yb0.5Fe3CoSb12.

  20. The Fragility of Thermoelectric Power Factor in Cross-Plane Superlattices in the Presence of Nonidealities: A Quantum Transport Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesberg, M.; Pourfath, M.; Neophytou, N.; Kosina, H.

    2015-11-01

    Energy filtering has been put forth as a promising method for achieving large thermoelectric power factors in thermoelectric materials through Seebeck coefficient improvement. Materials with embedded potential barriers, such as cross-plane superlattices, provide energy filtering, in addition to low thermal conductivity, and could potentially achieve high figure of merit. Although there exist many theoretical works demonstrating Seebeck coefficient and power factor gains in idealized structures, experimental support has been scant. In most cases, the electrical conductivity is drastically reduced due to the presence of barriers. In this work, using quantum-mechanical simulations based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we show that, although power factor improvements can theoretically be observed in optimized superlattices (as pointed out in previous studies), different types of deviations from the ideal potential profiles of the barriers degrade the performance, some nonidealities being so significant as to negate all power factor gains. Specifically, the effect of tunneling due to thin barriers could be especially detrimental to the Seebeck coefficient and power factor. Our results could partially explain why significant power factor improvements in superlattices and other energy-filtering nanostructures mainly fail to be realized, despite theoretical predictions.

  1. Thermoelectric Properties of Double-Filled p-Type La1-z Yb z Fe4-x Co x Sb12 Skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Gyeong-Seok; Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho

    2014-09-01

    La and Yb double-filled p-type skutterudites (La1-z Yb z Fe4-x Co x Sb12; 0.25 ? z ? 0.75 and 0.5 ? x ? 1) were synthesized by encapsulated melting and homogenized by use of heat treatment. It was apparent from the positive signs of the Seebeck coefficient and the Hall coefficient that all specimens had p-type characteristics. The carrier concentration decreased with charge compensation. The thermal conductivity and the electrical conductivity decreased and the Seebeck coefficient increased with increasing substitution of Co for Fe. However, the carrier concentration was increased by increasing the Yb filling ratio. Electrical conductivity increased and the Seebeck coefficient decreased with increasing Yb filling, because the electron valence of Yb2+ was lower than that of La3+. The thermal conductivity decreased with charge compensation, and the lattice thermal conductivity decreased with increasing Yb filling. Yb was more effective than La at reducing lattice thermal conductivity. The power factor (PF) and dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) increased with increasing temperature up to a specific temperature. The maximum PF = 2.81 mW/mK2 at 823 K was obtained for La0.75Yb0.25Fe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and the maximum ZT = 0.74 at 723 K was achieved for La0.5Yb0.5Fe3CoSb12.

  2. New type of thermoelectric conversion of energy by semiconducting liquid anisotropic media

    E-print Network

    Sergey I. Trashkeev; Alexey N. Kudryavtsev

    2013-08-01

    The paper describes preliminary investigations of a new effect in conducting anisotropic liquids, which leads to thermoelectric conversion of energy. Nematic liquid crystals with semiconducting dopes are used. A thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 0.2 is obtained in experiments. The effect can be explained by assuming that the thermocurrent in semiconducting nematics, in contrast to the Seebeck effect, is a nonlinear function of the temperature gradient and of the temperature itself. Though the discovered effect has to be further investigated, the data obtained suggest that it can be effectively used in alternative energy engineering.

  3. Anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a tentative global view of the AHE is proposed which summarizes the roles played by intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in the disorder strength versus temperature plane. Finally outstanding issues and avenues for future investigation are discussed.

  4. Melatonin anticancer effects: review.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

  5. Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

  6. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  7. Effective Physics Study Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  8. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy (XXXX). Results of five experiments show that perceptual sensitivity is strikingly and significantly reduced in the RB condition relative to both baseline control conditions. The data show RB can be obtained under conditions in which memory problems are minimal and where perceptual sensitivity is assessed independently of biases.

  9. Harmful effects of nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Aseem; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Datta, Sourav; Sinukumar, Snita; Joshi, Poonam; Garg, Apurva

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel. PMID:25810571

  10. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  11. The photorefractive effect

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.M. ); Kukhtarev, N.V. )

    1990-10-01

    When Arthur Ashkin and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories first noticed the photorefractive effect some 25 years ago, they considered the phenomenon a curiosity at best and a complete nuisance at worst. Today photorefractive materials are being shaped into components for a new generation of computers that exploit light instead of electricity. During the past 25 years investigators have discovered a wide variety of photorefractive materials, including insulators, semiconductors and organic compounds. Photorefractive materials, like film emulsions, change rapidly when exposed to bright light, respond slowly when subjected to dim light and capture sharp detail when struck by some intricate pattern of light. Unlike film, photorefractive materials are erasable: images can be stored or obliterated at whim or by design. By virtue of their sensitivity, robustness, and unique optical properties, photorefractive materials have the potential to be fashioned into data-processing elements for optical computers. In theory, these devices would allow optical computers to process information at much faster rates than their electronic counterparts. Employing photorefractive materials, workers have already developed the optical analogue to the transistor: if two laser beams interact within a photorefractive material, one beam can control, switch or amplify the second beam. Photorefractive materials also lie at the heart of devices that trace the edges of images, that connect networks of lasers and that store three-dimensional images.

  12. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  13. Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions 

    E-print Network

    Soares, Denise

    2012-02-14

    -1 EFFECT SIZE AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

  14. Hydrogen impurity effects. A

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Escamilla, E. Alejandro; Corbett, John D.

    2001-06-01

    All of the binary systems Ca, Sr, Ba, or Eu (A) with Tt (tetrel) = Si or Ge as well as Sr-Sn form both binary Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3} phases and the corresponding ternary hydrides with stuffed Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}- (Ca{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}F-) type structures. All of those tested, Ca-Si, Ba-Si, Ca-Ge, also yield the isotypic A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}F{sub x} phases. The tetragonal structures of Ca{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, Ca{sub 5}Si{sub 3}F{sub 0.42}, Sr{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, Eu{sub 5}Si{sub 3}H{sub x}, Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}H{sub x}, Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}F{sub 0.66} (I4/mcm, No. 140) and of Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 3}F{sub 0.16} (P4/ncc, Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) were refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The interstitial H, F atoms are bound in a constricted tetrahedral (A{sup 2+}){sub 4} cavity in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type heavy atom structure, which can be described ideally as (A{sup 2+}){sub 5}(Tt{sub 2}){sup 6{minus}}(Tt){sup 4{minus}}. Many of 14 previous reports of the phases reported here were apparently hydrides according to lattice constant differences or, for Sr{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, the fractional coordinates of Sr2 about the tetrahedral site. An articulated model is developed that allows description of the relationship between the dimensions of the tetrahedral interstitial site and the cation cavity about Tt{sub 2} and for some matrix effects in this structure type. The model suggests limitations on the stability of these binary A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3} compounds for the heavier tetrels, as observed. The resistivities of Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} and Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}H{sub x} are both characteristic of poor metals, and Pauli-like magnetic susceptibilities are exhibited by Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}H{sub x}, Ca{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}F{sub 0.66}, Sr{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, and Sr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}. The characteristic ideal Tt{sub 2}{sup 6{minus}} dimers are evidently not realistic descriptions for these phases; rather, at least some of the {pi}*{sup 4} electrons in the dimers are delocalized in a conduction band. This effect appears to be greater in two europium salts. Bond lengths of dimers in the Ca-Si and Ca-Ge families appear to shorten slightly in three instances of their oxidation to form the hydride or the fluoride, as might be expected.

  15. Neuroendocrine effects of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Russel J.

    1991-09-01

    The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

  16. Electron Effective Mass in Graphene

    E-print Network

    Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan

    2012-08-12

    The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

  17. The Thirring-Lense Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embacher, Franz

    The Thirring-Lense effect is the phenomenon that an observer near a rotating mass, being in a state which is non-rotating with respect to the rest of the universe, experiences extra inertial forces, i.e. becomes dizzy. The first anticipation of the effect goes back to Ernst Mach; its first quantitative prediction on the basis of general relativity was given by Hans Thirring and Joseph Lense. Almost ninety years later, the effect seems to be experimentally verified.

  18. (Theory of relative biological effectiveness)

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, R.

    1992-06-15

    Research continued on relative biological effectiveness, in the following areas: radial distribution of dose about the path of an energetic heavy ion; the response of E. Coli mutants to ionizing radiations; the application of a fragmentation model to to the calculation of cell survival and mutation with heavy ion beams; biological radiation effects from gamma radiation and heavy ion beams on organisms; cancer induction in the Harderian Gland by HZE particles; and effects of low dose radiations. (CBS)

  19. Anxiety Disorders and Effective Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cart JOIN APA About APA Topics Publications & Databases Psychology Help Center News & Events Science Education Careers Membership Home // Psychology Help Center // Anxiety disorders and effective... EMAIL PRINT ...

  20. Modelling of the YORP effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubov, O.

    2015-10-01

    In the talk I will review the recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the YORP effect. I describe the standard mathematical formalism used for the YORP effect, with the special focus on the limitations of the standard theory and its possible genaralizations. I discuss the sensitivity of the YORP effect to small-scale structures and the novel concept of the tangential YORP, a torque that alters even the rotation of symmetric asteroids due to uneven heat conductivity in small stones composing the surface. Finally, I consider the overall evolution of an asteroid experiencing the YORP effect.

  1. SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER

    E-print Network

    Bargh, John A.

    SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should be associated with the approach system, and lacking power with the avoidance system. However

  2. The Worked Example Effect, the Generation Effect, and Element Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ouhao; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The worked example effect indicates that examples providing full guidance on how to solve a problem result in better test performance than a problem-solving condition with no guidance. The generation effect occurs when learners generating responses demonstrate better test performance than learners in a presentation condition that provides an…

  3. Costs of antibiotic resistance – separating trait effects and selective effects

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alex R; Angst, Daniel C; Schiessl, Konstanze T; Ackermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can impair bacterial growth or competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics, frequently referred to as a ‘cost’ of resistance. Theory and experiments emphasize the importance of such effects for the distribution of resistance in pathogenic populations. However, recent work shows that costs of resistance are highly variable depending on environmental factors such as nutrient supply and population structure, as well as genetic factors including the mechanism of resistance and genetic background. Here, we suggest that such variation can be better understood by distinguishing between the effects of resistance mechanisms on individual traits such as growth rate or yield (‘trait effects’) and effects on genotype frequencies over time (‘selective effects’). We first give a brief overview of the biological basis of costs of resistance and how trait effects may translate to selective effects in different environmental conditions. We then review empirical evidence of genetic and environmental variation of both types of effects and how such variation may be understood by combining molecular microbiological information with concepts from evolution and ecology. Ultimately, disentangling different types of costs may permit the identification of interventions that maximize the cost of resistance and therefore accelerate its decline. PMID:25861384

  4. TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSIS AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS
    Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division,
    919-966-6242, benignus.vernon@epa.gov
    Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division
    919-541-...

  5. Effects beyond Effectiveness: Teaching as a Performative Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2013-01-01

    This article develops the familiar metaphor of teaching as performance towards a definition of "teaching as performative act," where words and actions aim to effect cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes in learners. To what extent, however, are the consequences of pedagogical actions commensurate with their intended effects? Can a science…

  6. Geologic effects of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coch, Nicholas K.

    1994-08-01

    Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems of tropical origin. Hurricane damage results from storm surge, wind, and inland flooding from heavy rainfall. Field observations and remote sensing of recent major hurricanes such as Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992) and Iniki (1992) are providing new insights into the mechanisms producing damage in these major storms. Velocities associated with hurricanes include the counterclockwise vortex winds flowing around the eye and the much slower regional winds that steer hurricane and move it forward. Vectorial addition of theseof these two winds on the higher effective wind speed than on the left side. Coast-parallel hurricane tracks keep the weaker left side of the storm against the coast, whereas coast-normal tracks produce a wide swath of destruction as the more powerful right side of the storm cuts a swath of destruction hundreds of kilometers inland. Storm surge is a function of the wind speed, central pressure, shelf slope, shoreline configuration, and anthropogenic alterations to the shoreline. Maximum surge heights are not under the eye of the hurricane, where the pressure is lowest, but on the right side of the eye at the radius of maximum winds, where the winds are strongest. Flood surge occurs as the hurricane approaches land and drives coastal waters, and superimposed waves, across the shore. Ebb surge occurs when impounded surface water flows seaward as the storm moves inland. Flood and ebb surge damage have been greatly increased in recent hurricanes as a result of anthropogenic changes along the shoreline. Hurricane wind damage occurs on three scales — megascale, mesoscale and microscale. Local wind damage is a function of wind speed, exposure and structural resistance to velocity pressure, wind drag and flying debris. Localized extreme damage is caused by gusts that can locally exceed sustained winds by a factor of two in areas where there is strong convective activity. Geologic changes occuring in hurricanes include beach erosion, dune erosion, inlet formation from flood and ebb surge, landscape changes through tree destruction by wind and nearshore channeling and sedimentation resulting from ebb surge. Multi-decadal wet and dry cycles in West Africa seem to be associated with increases (wet periods) and decreases (dry periods) in the frequency of Atlantic Coast landfalling hurricanes. Coastalzone population and development has increased markedly in a time of low hurricane frequency in the 24 year dry cycle from1970 to the present. However, no previous climatic cycle in this century has exceeded 26 years. We may entering a multi-decadal cycle of greater hurricane activity, placing these highly urbanized shorelines in considerable danger.

  7. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

  8. The wow effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Pagnotta, Paola; Trentini, Gabriella; Cirotti, Tiziana; Parrettini, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Teaching science at elementary school is a hard work for scientists since we usually use to talk to colleagues by using technical and specific words not understandable by general public and school students. Finding plain language for explaining what is the research and for describing scientific topics was the objective of this work. In collaboration with the school teachers, I organized a series of meetings describing the same subject with different approaches and, at the end of the test-period, we did a survey within the 60 students (10-11 years old) for understanding which was the most attractive approach for them. The survey asked to the students the 3 topics (which could be a sentence, an activity or simply a picture) that they remember at most from all the meetings. Later on we asked why they have chosen those topics. The common topic was atmospheric and space science and it was approached by using, books, videos, frontal lectures with the support of pictures and other material, and with direct hands-on lab such as 3D puzzles for building a satellite. Nobody highlights having read a book. The majority of the students (male and female) really appreciated having built their own satellite (wow, I have done it!) and how's the life into the International Space Station (wow, everything flies there and they drink the pee!). Many female students were fascinated by the stars and by the Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti (wow, an Italian woman is there!) while many boys were attracted by the technology evolution (wow, how a mobile phone could be that big?!). Surprisingly 3 students remember a quick (showed for just a few seconds) and blurred picture showing the glory effect by aircraft (wow, a circular rainbow!). The survey shows how the students mostly appreciate the hands-on labs and being active and creative, their attention decreases but it is still active with frontal lectures or videos showing them real examples or something impacting their day-life.

  9. Strongly nonlinear thermovoltage and heat dissipation in interacting quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Miguel A.; Sánchez, David

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the nonlinear regime of charge and energy transport through Coulomb-blockaded quantum dots. We discuss crossed effects that arise when electrons move in response to thermal gradients (Seebeck effect) or energy flows in reaction to voltage differences (Peltier effect). We find that the differential thermoelectric conductance shows a characteristic Coulomb butterfly structure due to charging effects. Importantly, we show that experimentally observed thermovoltage zeros are caused by the activation of Coulomb resonances at large thermal shifts. Furthermore, the power dissipation asymmetry between the two attached electrodes can be manipulated with the applied voltage, which has implications for the efficient design of nanoscale coolers.

  10. Thermoelectric probe for Fermi surface topology in the three-dimensional Rashba semiconductor BiTeI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideue, T.; Ye, L.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Murakawa, H.; Kaneko, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated thermoelectric properties of a three-dimensional Rashba system BiTeI. Magnetic-field dependences of the Seebeck effect and Nernst effect show qualitative changes with the Fermi level passing through the bulk Dirac point, indicating that thermoelectric effects can be a good experimental probe for the Fermi surface topology. The quantum oscillations are observed in the thermoelectric effect of BiTeI under a magnetic field, which are also dependent on the Fermi-level positions and consistent with the energy derivative of the three-dimensional density of states in the Rashba system.

  11. School Effectiveness and Principal Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Janet; Brown, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Measuring the school administrator's productivity based on the existence of effective school characteristics can be misguided. There are no magic bullets or answers to linking effective schools to leadership productivity, but the "smoke and mirrors" assessment approach is easier to achieve than seeking the real truth. No single assessment…

  12. Effective Vocal Production in Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert G.

    If speech instructors are to teach students to recreate for an audience an author's intellectual and emotional meanings, they must teach them to use human voice effectively. Seven essential elements of effective vocal production that often pose problems for oral interpretation students should be central to any speech training program: (1)…

  13. How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed too…

  14. Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

  15. Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective rangeland management requires careful consideration of the possible cumulative effects of different management options prior to making major management decisions. State-and-transition (S/T) models, based on ecological sites, capture our understanding ecosystem functioning and can be used t...

  16. Evaluations of the Overjustification Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Kerri P.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of reinforcement-based procedures has been well established in the behavior analysis literature and is commonly used in educational settings. However, the overjustification effect is one commonly cited criticism of programs that use tangible items as reinforcers. In the current studies, we evaluated the effects of tangible rewards…

  17. Effects of Ritalin on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, Robert B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes the use of "Ritalin" to calm overactive children. The drug's side effects are reported, and research on the effect of "Ritalin" on reading performance in the classroom is reviewed. It is concluded that use of stimulant drugs to help reading underachievers is not supported by research. (Author/JDD)

  18. Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Tommy M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

  19. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  20. Effect Size in Clinical Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

  1. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  2. [Iatrogenic effects of orthodontic therapy].

    PubMed

    Kiekens, R M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2000-04-01

    Iatrogenic effects of orthodontic treatment are root resorption, pulpal changes, decalcifications and white spots, gingival and periodontal changes, enamel surface changes, temporomandibular dysfunction, immunological reactions, pain and discomfort, and accidents. The authors discuss these items and give, if possible, tips to prevent or reduce these effects. PMID:11382975

  3. Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

  4. Teaching the Photoelectric Effect Inductively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that students have difficulty understanding the underlying process of the photoelectric effect. Thus, this study sought to utilize an inductively situated lesson for teaching the photoelectric effect, hypothesizing that this type of enquiry would help learners delve deeper into the principles of the phenomenon and provide a…

  5. The Effects of Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    In this paper, selected evidence on the effects of Japanese schools is presented. The author believes that Japan is one modern society where the schools have fostered individual and social development. The primary focus is on the effects for individuals in the area of cognitive skills, motivation, educational and occupational attainments, and…

  6. Effective Scientific Posters Quick Reference

    E-print Network

    Movileanu, Liviu

    Effective Scientific Posters Quick Reference George R. Hess An effective poster will help you. A poster is a visual communication tool. Posters serve as ... » a source of information » a conversation starter » a summary of your work » an advertisement of your work Resources for Poster Presenters George

  7. Correlation effects and bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2012-11-15

    Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

  8. Octupole correlation effects in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

  9. Octupole correlation effects in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1992-08-01

    Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

  10. [Between Werther and Papageno effects].

    PubMed

    Scherr, S; Steinleitner, A

    2015-05-01

    Research on the impact of suicide depictions in the media is traditionally focussed on two possible outcomes: on the one hand, there is ample evidence for additional copycat effects after media coverage of suicides referred to as the Werther effect but on the other hand, suicide rates decrease after appropriate media depictions of suicides referred to as the Papageno effect. It is still uncertain what exactly qualifies studies that only limitedly support an imitative or preventive media effect, i.e. studies with ambiguous findings, as they are often disregarded. The present literature review focuses on equivocal studies (n?=?25) on copycat suicides that were systematically analyzed based on theoretically derived criteria. The results of the systematic analysis of all identified studies imply that media effects on suicidality are better understood and discussed as a continuum between the two extremes that were introduced as either a damaging Werther effect or a beneficial Papageno effect. Future studies must clarify what factors contribute to a shift from ambiguous findings to harmful media effects on individual suicidality. PMID:25700723

  11. Effect Sizes in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    The American Psychological Association Task Force recommended that researchers always report and interpret effect sizes for quantitative data. However, no such recommendation was made for qualitative data. The first objective of this paper is to provide a rationale for reporting and interpreting effect sizes in qualitative research. Arguments are…

  12. Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

  13. Cost-Effective National Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacson, Jose D.

    Facilities and schemes for training and retraining vocational education teachers are needed in developed and developing countries, but such training must be cost-effective. Some characteristics of cost-effective schemes include the following: adaptability, coordination between various providers, good planning, and adequate financial support.…

  14. DMBC: After Effects Animation (Continued)

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    DMBC: After Effects Animation (Continued) Adding Animation Timeline Layers Property Layers Icon) Creating Tween Animations Motion Blurs Keyframe Assistant o Ease In o Ease Out o Easy Ease Stylize o Etc. #12;3D Animation 3D Layers Adding solid layers (Layer > New > Solid) Layer Effects New

  15. Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1995-01-01

    Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

  16. Downloaded 07 Feb 2012 to 128.180.65.141. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various In-contents Jing Zhang,a) Hua Tong, Guangyu Liu November 2010; accepted 8 January 2011; published online 9 March 2011) Thermoelectric properties of Al.34% were characterized and analyzed at room temperature. The thermoelectric figure of merit (Z*T) values

  17. Effective doses, guidelines & regulations.

    PubMed

    Burch, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have developed regulations or guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria in drinking water, and in some cases in water used for recreational activity and agriculture. The main focus internationally has been upon microcystin toxins, produced predominantly by Microcystis aeruginosa. This is because microcystins are widely regarded as the most significant potential source of human injury from cyanobacteria on a world-wide scale. Many international guidelines have taken their lead from the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional guideline of 1 microg L(-1) for microcystin-LR in drinking-water released in 1998 (WHO 2004). The WHO guideline value is stated as being 'provisional', because it covers only microcystin-LR, for reasons that the toxicology is limited and new data for toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins are being generated. The derivation of this guideline is based upon data that there is reported human injury related to consumption of drinking water containing cyanobacteria, or from limited work with experimental animals. It was also recognised that at present the human evidence for microcystin tumor promotion is inadequate and animal evidence is limited. As a result the guideline is based upon the model of deriving a Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) from an animal study No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), with the application of appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. The resultant WHO guideline by definition is the concentration of a toxin that does not result in any significant risk to health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption. Following the release of this WHO provisional guideline many countries have either adopted it directly (e.g., Czech Republic, France, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Brazil and Spain), or have adopted the same animal studies, TDI and derivation convention to arrive at slight variants based upon local requirements (e.g., Australia, Canada). Brazil currently has the most comprehensive federal legislation which includes a mandatory standard of 1 microg L-(1) for microcystins, and also recommendations for saxitoxins (3 microg L(-1)) and for cylindrospermopsin (15 microg L(-1)). Although guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacterial cell numbers for recreational waters are in place in a number of countries, it is consid ered that there is currently insufficient information to derive sound guidelines for the use of water contaminated by cyanobacteria or toxins for agricultural production, fisheries and ecosystem protection. In relation to the need for specific regulations for toxins for the US, the surveys that have been carried out to date would indicate that the priority compounds for regulation, based upon their incidence and distribution, are microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a. Additional research is required to support guideline development, including whole-of-life animal studies with each of the known cyanotoxins. In view of the animal studies that indicate that microcystins may act as tumor promoters, and also some evidence of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for cylindrospermopsin, it may be appropriate to carry out whole-of-life animal studies with both toxicity and carcinogenicity as end-points. In relation to microcystins, it is known that there a large number of congeners, and the toxico-dynamics and kinetics of these variants are not well understood. Further research is needed to consider the approach to take in formulating health advisories or regulations for toxin mixtures, i.e. multiple microcystins, or mixtures of toxin types. An important requirement for regulation is the availability of robust monitoring and analytical protocols for toxins. Currently rapid and economical screening or quantitative analytical methods are not available to the water industry or natural resource managers, and this is a priority before the release of guidelines and regulations. There is insufficient information available in a range of the categories usually required to satisfy comprehensive risk assessment process for the major tox

  18. Georgia Preparation Program Effectiveness Measures Framework

    E-print Network

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    Georgia Preparation Program Effectiveness Measures Framework July 2012 Georgia Professional Page Preparation Program Effectiveness Measures Task Force 3 Introduction 5 TPPEM Recommendations 6 Effectiveness Measure Graphic 15 Appendix B: Leader Preparation Program Effectiveness Measure Graphic 17 #12

  19. 40 CFR 1508.8 - Effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...reasonably foreseeable. Indirect effects may include growth inducing effects and other effects related to induced changes in the pattern of land use, population density or growth rate, and related effects on air and water...

  20. 40 CFR 1508.8 - Effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...reasonably foreseeable. Indirect effects may include growth inducing effects and other effects related to induced changes in the pattern of land use, population density or growth rate, and related effects on air and water...