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Sample records for seed increases oil

  1. Increasing the flow of carbon into seed oil.

    PubMed

    Weselake, Randall J; Taylor, David C; Rahman, M Habibur; Shah, Saleh; Laroche, André; McVetty, Peter B E; Harwood, John L

    2009-01-01

    The demand for vegetable oils for food, fuel (bio-diesel) and bio-product applications is increasing rapidly. In Canada alone, it is estimated that a 50 to 75% increase in canola oil production will be required to meet the demand for seed oil in the next 7-10years. Plant breeding and genetics have demonstrated that seed oil content is a quantitative trait based on a number of contributing factors including embryo genetic effects, cytoplasmic effects, maternal genetic effects, and genotype-environment interactions. Despite the involvement of numerous quantitative trait loci in determining seed oil content, genetic engineering to over-express/repress specific genes encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in the flow of carbon into seed oil has led to the development of transgenic lines with significant increases in seed oil content. Proteins encoded by these genes include enzymes catalyzing the production of building blocks for oil assembly, enzymes involved in oil assembly, enzymes regulating metabolic carbon partitioning between oil, carbohydrate and secondary metabolite fractions, and transcription factors which orchestrate metabolism at a more general level. PMID:19625012

  2. Expression of Umbelopsis ramanniana DGAT2A in Seed Increases Oil in Soybean1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Lardizabal, Kathryn; Effertz, Roger; Levering, Charlene; Mai, Jennifer; Pedroso, M.C.; Jury, Tom; Aasen, Eric; Gruys, Ken; Bennett, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Oilseeds are the main source of lipids used in both food and biofuels. The growing demand for vegetable oil has focused research toward increasing the amount of this valuable component in oilseed crops. Globally, soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important oilseed crops grown, contributing about 30% of the vegetable oil used for food, feed, and industrial applications. Breeding efforts in soy have shown that multiple loci contribute to the final content of oil and protein stored in seeds. Genetically, the levels of these two storage products appear to be inversely correlated with an increase in oil coming at the expense of protein and vice versa. One way to overcome the linkage between oil and protein is to introduce a transgene that can specifically modulate one pathway without disrupting the other. We describe the first, to our knowledge, transgenic soy crop with increased oil that shows no major impact on protein content or yield. This was achieved by expressing a codon-optimized version of a diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2A from the soil fungus Umbelopsis (formerly Mortierella) ramanniana in soybean seed during development, resulting in an absolute increase in oil of 1.5% (by weight) in the mature seed. PMID:18633120

  3. Overexpression of patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ altered plant growth and increased seed oil content in camelina.

    PubMed

    Li, Maoyin; Wei, Fang; Tawfall, Amanda; Tang, Michelle; Saettele, Allison; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-08-01

    Camelina sativa is a Brassicaceae oilseed species being explored as a biofuel and industrial oil crop. A growing number of studies have indicated that the turnover of phosphatidylcholine plays an important role in the synthesis and modification of triacylglycerols. This study manipulated the expression of a patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ (pPLAIIIδ) in camelina to determine its effect on seed oil content and plant growth. Constitutive overexpression of pPLAIIIδ under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter resulted in a significant increase in seed oil content and a decrease in cellulose content. In addition, the content of major membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, in 35S::pPLAIIIδ plants was increased. However, these changes in 35S::pPLAIIIδ camelina were associated with shorter cell length, leaves, stems, and seed pods and a decrease in overall seed production. When pPLAIIIδ was expressed under the control of the seed specific, β-conglycinin promoter, the seed oil content was increased without compromising plant growth. The results suggest that pPLAIIIδ alters the carbon partitioning by decreasing cellulose content and increasing oil content in camelina. PMID:25557877

  4. The Ectopic Expression of the Wheat Puroindoline Genes Increase Germ Size and Seed Oil Content in Transgenic Corn

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinrui; Martin, John M.; Beecher, Brian; Lu, Chaofu; Hannah, L. Curtis; Wall, Michael L.; Altosaar, Illimar; Giroux, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant oil content and composition improvement is a major goal of plant breeding and biotechnology. The Puroindoline a and b (PINA and PINB) proteins together control whether wheat seeds are soft or hard textured and share a similar structure to that of plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins. Here we transformed corn (Zea mays L.) with the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) to assess their effects upon seed oil content and quality. Pina and Pinb coding sequences were introduced into corn under the control of a corn Ubiquitin promoter. Three Pina/Pinb expression positive transgenic events were evaluated over two growing seasons. The results showed that Pin expression increased germ size significantly without negatively impacting seed size. Germ yield increased 33.8% while total seed oil content was increased by 25.23%. Seed oil content increases were primarily the result of increased germ size. This work indicates that higher oil content corn hybrids having increased food or feed value could be produced via puroindoline expression. PMID:20725765

  5. Over-expression of JcDGAT1 from Jatropha curcas increases seed oil levels and alters oil quality in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Vidhu A

    2013-12-01

    The increasing consumption of fossil fuels and petroleum products is leading to their rapid depletion and is a matter of concern around the globe. Substitutes of fossil fuels are required to sustain the pace of economic development. In this context, oil from the non food crops (biofuel) has shown potential to substitute fossil fuels. Jatropha curcas is an excellent shrub spread and naturalized across the globe. Its oil contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (about 78-84% of total fatty acid content) making the oil suitable for biodiesel production. Despite its high oil content, it has been poorly studied in terms of important enzymes/genes responsible for oil biosynthesis. Here, we describe the isolation of the full length cDNA clone of JcDGAT1, a key enzyme involved in oil biosynthesis, from J. curcas seeds and manipulation of oil content and composition in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by its expression. Transcript analysis of JcDGAT1 reveals a gradual increase from early seed development to its maturation. Homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing JcDGAT1 both under CaMV35S promoter and a seed specific promoter show an enhanced level of total oil content (up by 30-41%) in seeds but do not show any phenotypic differences. In addition, our studies also show alterations in the oil composition through JcDGAT1 expression. While the levels of saturated FAs such as palmitate and stearate in the oil do not change, there is significant reproducible decrease in the levels of oleic acid and a concomitant increase in levels of linolenic acid both under the CaMV35S promoter as well as the seed specific promoter. Our studies thus confirm that DGAT is involved in flux control in oil biosynthesis and show that JcDGAT1 could be used specifically to manipulate and improve oil content and composition in plants. PMID:24125179

  6. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. PMID:26351151

  7. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  8. The ectopic expression of the wheat puroindoline genes increase germ size and seed oil content in transgenic corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oil content and composition improvement is a major goal of plant breeding and biotechnology. The Puroindoline a and b (PINA and PINB) proteins together control whether wheat seeds are soft or hard textured and share a similar structure to that of plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins. Her...

  9. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil - results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil. PMID:26793308

  10. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production. PMID:25998013

  11. Patatin-Related Phospholipase pPLAIIIδ Increases Seed Oil Content with Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoyin; Bahn, Sung Chul; Fan, Chuchuan; Li, Jia; Phan, Tien; Ortiz, Michael; Roth, Mary R.; Welti, Ruth; Jaworski, Jan; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various metabolic and physiological processes, but in many cases, the enzymes involved and their functions in plants remain unclear. Patatin-related phospholipase As (pPLAs) constitute a major family of acyl-hydrolyzing enzymes in plants. Here, we show that pPLAIIIδ promotes the production of triacylglycerols with 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Of the four pPLAIIIs (α, β, γ, δ), only pPLAIIIδ gene knockout results in a decrease in seed oil content, and pPLAIIIδ is most highly expressed in developing embryos. The overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases the content of triacylglycerol and 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in seeds with a corresponding decrease in 18-carbon fatty acids. Several genes in the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathways are up-regulated in pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing siliques. pPLAIIIδ hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine and also acyl-coenzyme A to release fatty acids. pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing plants have a lower level, whereas pPLAIIIδ knockout plants have a higher level, of acyl-coenzyme A than the wild type. Whereas seed yield decreases in transgenic plants that ubiquitously overexpress pPLAIIIδ, seed-specific overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content without any detrimental effect on overall seed yield. These results indicate that pPLAIIIδ-mediated phospholipid turnover plays a role in fatty acid remodeling and glycerolipid production. PMID:23542150

  12. Constitutive or seed-specific overexpression of Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) results in increased seed and oil production and improved stress tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Riesselman, Adam J; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits play an integral role in mediating multiple signalling pathways in plants. A novel, recently identified plant-specific Gγ protein, AGG3, has been proposed to be an important regulator of organ size and mediator of stress responses in Arabidopsis, whereas its potential homologs in rice are major quantitative trait loci for seed size and panicle branching. To evaluate the role of AGG3 towards seed and oil yield improvement, the gene was overexpressed in Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop of the Brassicaceae family. Analysis of multiple homozygous T4 transgenic Camelina lines showed that constitutive overexpression of AGG3 resulted in faster vegetative as well as reproductive growth accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, when expressed constitutively or specifically in seed tissue, AGG3 was found to increase seed size, seed mass and seed number per plant by 15%-40%, effectively resulting in significantly higher oil yield per plant. AGG3 overexpressing Camelina plants also exhibited improved stress tolerance. These observations draw a strong link between the roles of AGG3 in regulating two critical yield parameters, seed traits and plant stress responses, and reveal an effective biotechnological tool to dramatically increase yield in agricultural crops. PMID:24102738

  13. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element. PMID:25139230

  14. Altered xylem-phloem transfer of amino acids affects metabolism and leads to increased seed yield and oil content in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhi; Tan, Qiumin; Lee, Raymond; Trethewy, Alexander; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2010-11-01

    Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport and metabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic and metabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. PMID:21075769

  15. Extension of oil biosynthesis during the mid-phase of seed development enhances oil content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Kondo, Maki; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-05-01

    Regulation of oil biosynthesis in plant seeds has been extensively studied, and biotechnological approaches have been designed to increase seed oil content. Oil and protein synthesis is negatively correlated in seeds, but the mechanisms controlling interactions between these two pathways are unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism controlling oil and protein content in seeds. We utilized transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a master transcription factor regulating seed oil biosynthesis, and knockout mutants of major seed storage proteins. Oil and protein biosynthesis in wild-type plants was sequentially activated during early and late seed development, respectively. The negative correlation between oil and protein contents in seeds arises from competition between the pathways. Extension of WRI1 expression during mid-phase of seed development significantly enhanced seed oil content. This study demonstrates that temporal activation of genes involved in oil or storage protein biosynthesis determines the oil/protein ratio in Arabidopsis seeds. These results provide novel insights into potential breeding strategies to generate crops with high oil contents in seeds. PMID:26503031

  16. Frying stability of Moringa stenopetala seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John

    2006-06-01

    The frying performance of Moringa stenopetala seed oil (extracted with cold press or n-hexane) was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 degrees C for 5 consecutive days (5 fryings per day). The chemical changes occurring in oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine value, smoke point, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol content decreased. The effect of the oil on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods and the theoretical number of frying operations possible before having to discard the oil was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold press produced oil. PMID:16810562

  17. Oil Seed Brassica's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseed Brassicas, also known by the trade name of rapeseed-mustard, comprise Brassica napus, B. juncea, B. carinata and three ecotypes of B. rapa. Their current global production exceeds 54 million tons, making them the second-most valuable source of vegetable oil in the world. Besides its pre-emin...

  18. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  19. Seed Structure Characteristics to Form Ultrahigh Oil Content in Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Deng, Lin-Bin; Wang, Xin-Fa; Liu, Gui-Hua; Hao, Wan-Jun; Wang, Han-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding. PMID:23637973

  20. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  1. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  2. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  3. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  4. MATERNAL EFFECTS FOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOYBEAN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) oil accounts for nearly half of the edible vegetable oil production worldwide. The fatty acid composition of soybean seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. In recent years, there has been an increasing demand to produce soy...

  5. Full-press oil extraction of Cuphea (PSR23) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. Recent seed increases in Cuphea had provided sufficient amounts of seeds to pursue an oil extraction study and, at the same time, produce m...

  6. Determination of oil in sunflower seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kochlar, S.P.; Rossell, J.B.

    1987-06-01

    Oil content measurement in sunflower seeds on an ''as is'' basis by current official methods is often associated with poor reproducibility. This study shows that the main factor contributing to this poor agreement is the particle size to which seeds are ground. This invariably influences the homogeneity of the bulk ground sample from which subsequent subsamples are taken. It is therefore suggested that oil content determinations on sunflower seeds should be carried out on seed samples that have been evenly and finely ground, to a particle size not greater than 2.0 mm, in a mechanical mill such as the Ultra-Centrifugal mill. Other factors investigated were seed composition (free husk, empty husk, crude fiber and seed meats) and structural differences in the seeds by light microscopy. (Refs. 16).

  7. Compression ignition performance using sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, C.M.; LePori, W.A.; Engler, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil subjected to various levels of processing and blends with diesel fuel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. Results from short duration performance tests and longer duration load tests are reported. 8 refs.

  8. Amended safety assessment of Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, hydrogenated sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and sodium sesameseedate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil and related cosmetic ingredients are derived from Sesamum indicum. Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and hydrogenated sesame seed oil function as conditioning agents. Sodium sesameseedate functions as a cleansing agent, emulsifying agent, and a nonaqueous viscosity increasing agent. These ingredients are neither skin irritants, sensitizers, teratogens, nor carcinogens at exposures that would result from cosmetic use. Both animal and human data relevant to the cosmetic use of these ingredients were reviewed. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment. PMID:21772026

  9. Engineering salt-tolerant Brassica plants: Characterization of yield and seed oil quality in transgenic plants with increased vacuolar sodium accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Hodson, Joanna N.; Williams, John P.; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport from Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to grow, flower, and produce seeds in the presence of 200 mM sodium chloride. Although the transgenic plants grown in high salinity accumulated sodium up to 6% of their dry weight, growth of the these plants was only marginally affected by the high salt concentration. Moreover, seed yields and the seed oil quality were not affected by the high salinity of the soil. Our results demonstrate the potential use of these transgenic plants for agricultural use in saline soils. Our findings, showing that the modification of a single trait significantly improved the salinity tolerance of this crop plant, suggest that with a combination of breeding and transgenic plants it could be possible to produce salt-tolerant crops with far fewer target traits than had been anticipated. PMID:11606781

  10. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Oil Bodies from Seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentally, oil bodies are discrete storage organelles found in oilseeds, comprising a hydrophobic triacylglycerol core surrounded by a half-unit phospholipid membrane and an outer shell of specialized proteins known as oleosins. Oil bodies possess a number of attributes that were exploited by SemBioSys Genetics to isolate highly enriched fractions of oil bodies through liquid-liquid phase separation for a number of commercial applications. The current chapter provides a general guide for the isolation of oil bodies from Arabidopsis and/or safflower seed, from which protocols can be refined for different oilseed sources. For SemBioSys Genetic's recombinant technology, therapeutic proteins were covalently attached to oleosins or fused in-frame with ligands which bound oil bodies, facilitating their recovery to high levels of purity during "upstream processing" of transformed seed. Core to this technology was oil body isolation consisting of simple manipulation including homogenization of seeds to free the oil bodies, followed by the removal of insoluble fractions, and phase separation to recover the oil bodies. During oil body enrichment (an increase in oil body content concomitant with removal of impurities), a number of options and tips are provided to aid researchers in the manipulation and monitoring of these robust organelles. PMID:26614290

  11. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  12. Nonsymbiotic hemoglobin-2 leads to an elevated energy state and to a combined increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and total oil content when overexpressed in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Vigeolas, Helene; Hühn, Daniela; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins are ubiquitously expressed in plants and divided into two different classes based on gene expression pattern and oxygen-binding properties. Most of the published research has been on the function of class 1 hemoglobins. To investigate the role of class 2 hemoglobins, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were generated overexpressing Arabidopsis hemoglobin-2 (AHb2) under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Overexpression of AHb2 led to a 40% increase in the total fatty acid content of developing and mature seeds in three subsequent generations. This was mainly due to an increase in the polyunsaturated C18:2 (ω-6) linoleic and C18:3 (ω-3) α-linolenic acids. Moreover, AHb2 overexpression led to an increase in the C18:2/C18:1 and C18:3/C18:2 ratios as well as in the C18:3 content in mol % of total fatty acids and in the unsaturation/saturation index of total seed lipids. The increase in fatty acid content was mainly due to a stimulation of the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis, which was attributable to a 3-fold higher energy state and a 2-fold higher sucrose content of the seeds. Under low external oxygen, AHb2 overexpression maintained an up to 5-fold higher energy state and prevented fermentation. This is consistent with AHb2 overexpression results in improved oxygen availability within developing seeds. In contrast to this, overexpression of class 1 hemoglobin did not lead to any significant increase in the metabolic performance of the seeds. These results provide evidence for a specific function of class 2 hemoglobin in seed oil production and in promoting the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by facilitating oxygen supply in developing seeds. PMID:21205621

  13. Biochemical pathways in seed oil synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Philip D; Stymne, Sten; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-06-01

    Oil produced in plant seeds is utilized as a major source of calories for human nutrition, as feedstocks for non-food uses such as soaps and polymers, and can serve as a high-energy biofuel. The biochemical pathways leading to oil (triacylglycerol) synthesis in seeds involve multiple subcellular organelles, requiring extensive lipid trafficking. Phosphatidylcholine plays a central role in these pathways as a substrate for acyl modifications and likely as a carrier for the trafficking of acyl groups between organelles and membrane subdomains. Although much has been clarified regarding the enzymes and pathways responsible for acyl-group flux, there are still major gaps in our understanding. These include the identity of several key enzymes, how flux between alternative pathways is controlled and the specialized cell biology leading to biogenesis of oil bodies that store up to 80% of carbon in seeds. PMID:23529069

  14. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO. PMID:22082068

  15. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:27396207

  16. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  17. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  18. Three new tetranortriterpenoids from neem seed oil.

    PubMed

    Hallur, Gurulingappa; Sivramakrishnan, Apoorba; Bhat, Sujata V

    2002-08-01

    Three new tetranortriterpenoids, 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-17beta-hydroxyazadiradione (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxynimolicinol (2), and 7-deacetylnimolicinol (3), have been isolated from a methanol extract of neem oil (Azadirachta indica, seed oil) along with the known compounds epoxyazadiradione, 17beta-hydroxyazadiradione, gedunin, nimbin, and nimolicinol (4). Spectral studies and chemical transformations were used to establish the structure of compounds 1-3. The characterization of the epoxides 1 and 2 in neem oil is of biogenetic significance, as they may be considered as intermediates between A-ring enones and 1,3-diols among the A. indica tetranortriterpenoids. PMID:12193026

  19. Ameliorating Effects of Exogenously Applied Proline on Seed Composition, Seed Oil Quality and Oil Antioxidant Activity of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Qasim; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saari, Nazamid; Perveen, Rashida

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to appraise whether or not the exogenous application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, could ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on maize seed and seed oil composition, as well as oil antioxidant activity. Water stress reduced the kernel sugar, oil, protein and moisture contents and most of the seed macro- and micro-elements analyzed in both maize cultivars but it increased the contents of seed fiber and ash. Water stress increased the oil oleic acid content with a subsequent decrease in the amount of linoleic acid, resulting in an increased oil oleic/linoleic ratio for both maize cultivars. However, no variation was observed in oil stearic and palmitic acids content due to water stress. A considerable drought induced an increase in seed oil α-, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols and flavonoids were observed in both maize cultivars. However, oil phenolic and carotenoid content as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity decreased. Foliar-applied proline significantly increased the content of seed sugar, oil, protein, moisture, fiber and ash in both maize cultivars under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. Furthermore, exogenous application of proline increased the oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds namely phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and tocopherols estimated in the seed oil increased due to foliar-applied proline under water deficit conditions that was positively correlated with the enhanced oil DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, the increase in the contents of these antioxidant compounds and oil antioxidant activity due to the foliar application of proline was noted to be more pronounced under water deficit conditions. PMID:23344043

  20. Seed oil of Joannesia princeps improves cutaneous wound closure in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Donato-Trancoso, Aline; Gonçalves, Lenicio; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; da Silva, Francisco de Assis; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2014-09-01

    Joannesia princeps (Cotieira) is a well known medicinal plant in Brazil, however, the therapeutic effects of oil obtained from its seeds have still not been demonstrated. The beneficial effects of J. princeps seed oil on cutaneous wound healing on the back of experimental mice were investigated. An excisional lesion in male Swiss mice (n=20 per group) was topically treated with mineral oil or J. princeps seed oil once a day beginning on the day of lesion until the third day after wounding. Animals were killed and lesions collected after 14 days. Murine skin fibroblast cultures were treated with J. princeps seed oil and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo assay, J. princeps seed oil increased wound contraction and migratory tongue length, but reduced neutrophil and macrophage number when compared with the control group. Blood vessel number, collagen deposition, and VEGF levels were increased in treated lesions when compared with control lesions. However, J. princeps seed oil reduced myofibroblast density and carbonyl protein levels when compared with the control group. In the in vitro assay, treatment with J. princeps seed oil increased fibroblast migration and proliferation, but reduced myofibroblastic differentiation in vitro. In conclusion, J. princeps seed oil accelerates wound closure increasing angiogenesis, keratinocyte migration, and fibroblast activity while reducing inflammatory response and oxidative damage. PMID:25053454

  1. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  2. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  3. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  4. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L.; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14–0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7–10.3% range), γ-cymene (5–7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8–7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50–66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8–16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12–20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5–60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240–600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0–5 and at 5–7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved

  5. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  6. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides. PMID:27099712

  7. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  8. Multigene Engineering of Triacylglycerol Metabolism Boosts Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Kelly, Amélie A.; Menard, Guillaume; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the yield of oilseed crops is an important objective for biotechnologists. A number of individual genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism have previously been reported to enhance the oil content of seeds when their expression is altered. However, it has yet to be established whether specific combinations of these genes can be used to achieve an additive effect and whether this leads to enhanced yield. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as an experimental system, we show that seed-specific overexpression of WRINKLED1 (a transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis) and DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (a triacylglycerol biosynthetic enzyme) combined with suppression of the triacylglycerol lipase SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 results in a higher percentage seed oil content and greater seed mass than manipulation of each gene individually. Analysis of total seed yield per plant suggests that, despite a reduction in seed number, the total yield of oil is also increased. PMID:24696520

  9. Composition of essential oils from seeds of Abies koreana.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnik, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczak, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    The essential oils from seeds of nine Abies koreana specimens have been studied using GC-MS-FID and NMR methods, leading to the determination of 96 volatiles, which constituted over 99% of the oils. The hydrodistilled oils of fresh, resinous scent were isolated with yields in the range of 3.8-8.5%. The results showed that the essential oil of Korean fir seeds contained 70-95% monoterpenes and 1-20% oxygenated monoterpenes as the dominant groups. The numerous sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives constituted only 2-8% of the oil. The major component of the seed essential oil was limonene (41-72 g/100g); the laevorotary form of this terpene predominated. A. koreana seeds seem to be a rich source of both essential oil and (-)-limonene, whose average enantiomeric excess was above 95%. PMID:23513736

  10. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  11. Biodiesel from Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to seek non-conventional seed oil sources for biodiesel production due to issues such as supply and availability, as well as food versus fuel. In this context, Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil was investigated for the first time as a potential non-conventional feedstock for the ...

  12. Biological Networks Underlying Soybean Seed Oil Composition and Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is the most important oil crop in the United States. Production of soybean seed oil requires coordinated expression of many biological components and pathways, which is further regulated by seed development and phyto-hormones. A new research project is initiated in my laboratory to delineat...

  13. Continuous hydrolysis of Cuphea seed oil in subcritical water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a source of medium chain fatty acids for use in chemical manufacturing, including detergents, shampoos and lubricants. Cuphea seed oil is high in decanoic acid and this fatty acid is especially useful in the preparation of estolide biobased lubricants, which have excellent ...

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  15. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  16. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  17. Maternal Effects on Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. The success of developing soybean lines with genetically altered seed oil is greatly determined by the rate of genetic gain through selection. Maternal effec...

  18. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  19. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  20. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage. PMID:27212219

  1. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:16822218

  2. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial. PMID:25204067

  3. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future. PMID:25004746

  4. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents. PMID:27162385

  5. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  6. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Passiflora Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Shinagawa, Fernanda Branco; Araujo, Elias da Silva; Costa, Ana Maria; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The seed oils of different varieties of 4 Passiflora species cultivated in Brazil were analyzed and compared regarding their physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and the presence of minor components, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of the oil extracts were determined using the 2,2'azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. The results revealed that all studied Passiflora seed oils possessed similar physicochemical characteristics, except for color, and predominantly contained polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of linolenic acid (68.75% to 71.54%). Other than the total phytosterol content, the extracted oil from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seeds had higher quantities (% times higher than the average of all samples), of carotenoids (44%), phenolic compounds (282%) and vitamin E (215%, 56%, 398%, and 100% for the α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol isomers, respectively). The methanolic extracts from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seed oil also showed higher antioxidant activity, which was positively correlated with the total phenolic, δ-tocopherol, and vitamin E contents. For the first time, these results indicate that Passiflora species have strong potential regarding the use of their seeds for oil extraction. Due to their interesting composition, the seed oils may be used as a raw material in manufacturing industries in addition to other widely used vegetable oils. PMID:26512548

  8. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils. PMID:26604391

  9. Decreased seed oil production in FUSCA3 Brassica napus mutant plants.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) oil is extensively utilized for human consumption and industrial applications. Among the genes regulating seed development and participating in oil accumulation is FUSCA3 (FUS3), a member of the plant-specific B3-domain family of transcription factors. To evaluate the role of this gene during seed storage deposition, three BnFUSCA3 (BnFUS3) TILLING mutants were generated. Mutations occurring downstream of the B3 domain reduced silique number and repressed seed oil level resulting in increased protein content in developing seeds. BnFUS3 mutant seeds also had increased levels of linoleic acid, possibly due to the reduced expression of ω-3 FA DESATURASE (FAD3). These observed phenotypic alterations were accompanied by the decreased expression of genes encoding transcription factors stimulating fatty acid (FA) synthesis: LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 (LEC1 and 2) ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3 (BnABI3) and WRINKLED1 (WRI1). Additionally, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA modifications were down-regulated in developing seeds of the mutant plants. Collectively, these transcriptional changes support altered sucrose metabolism and reduced glycolytic activity, diminishing the carbon pool available for the synthesis of FA and ultimately seed oil production. Based on these observations, it is suggested that targeted manipulations of BnFUS3 can be used as a tool to influence oil accumulation in the economically important species B. napus. PMID:26302483

  10. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  11. Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed.

    PubMed

    Aviara, N A; Musa, W B; Owolarafe, O K; Ogunsina, B S; Oluwole, F A

    2015-07-01

    Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed were moisture content (4.78, 6.00, 8.00 and 10.00 % wet basis), heating temperature (50, 70, 85 and 100 °C) and heating time (15, 20, 25 and 30 min). Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1.1239 MPa was obtained at the processing conditions of 10.00 % moisture content, 50 °C heating temperature and 15 min heating time. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0.3164 MPa and it occurred at the moisture content of 4.78 %, heating temperature of 100 °C and heating time of 30 min. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that all the processing variables and their interactions had significant effect on the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed at 1 % level of significance. This was further demonstrated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Tukey's test and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis successfully separated the means and a multiple regression equation was used to express the relationship existing between the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed and its moisture content, processing temperature, heating time and their interactions. The model yielded coefficients that enabled the oil point pressure of the seed to be predicted with very high coefficient of determination. PMID:26139917

  12. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  13. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Poppy Seed Oil on Quality of Turkish Sucuk.

    PubMed

    Gök, Vel

    2015-01-01

    Sucuk is the most popular dry-fermented meat product. Sucuk has a relatively high fat. Poppy seed oil as animal fat replacer was used in Turkish sucuk and effects of its use on sucuk quality were investigated. There was a significant (p<0.5) treatment × ripening time interaction for moisture, pH (p<0.05) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values (p<0.01). Increasing poppy seed oil level decreased (p<0.05) TBARS values. Addition of poppy seed oil to the sucuks had a significant effect (p<0.01) on hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness values. Cholesterol content of sucuks decreased (p<0.05) with poppy seed oil addition. Using pre-emulsified poppy seed oil as partial fat replacer in Turkish sucuk decreased cholesterol and saturated fatty acid content, but increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poppy seed oil as partial animal fat replacer in Turkish sucuk may have significant health benefits. PMID:26761834

  14. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated...

  15. Oil content and seed yield improvements of Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement in seed oil content and seed yield of Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats. (Brassicaceae) could have a large impact on attracting new markets for commercialization of this new oilseed crop. There have been several previous germplasm releases for public use with improvements of these traits....

  16. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  17. Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

  18. Physical and chemical analysis of Passiflora seeds and seed oil from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shucheng; Yang, Feng; Li, Jiali; Zhang, Chaohua; Ji, Hongwu; Hong, Pengzhi

    2008-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of seeds and seed oil from 'Tainung No. 1' passion fruit in China have been analyzed in order to evaluate their nutritional value. Proximate analysis shows that the seeds have a high amount of protein (10.8 +/- 0.60%) and are rich in oil (23.40 +/- 2.50%). The seeds are found to be a good source of minerals. They contain considerable amounts of sodium (2.980 +/- 0.002 mg/g), magnesium (1.540 +/- 0.001 mg/g), potassium (0.850 +/- 0.001 mg/g), and calcium (0.540 +/- 0.002 mg/g). The passion fruit seeds contain the 17 amino acids that are found naturally in plant protein (tryptophan is not analyzed). The essential amino acids account for 34% of the 17 amino acids. The amino acid score of passion fruit seeds protein is 74 and the first limiting amino acid is methionine and cystine. The oil extracted by solvent and supercritical dioxide carbon is liquid at room temperature and the color is golden-orange. The specific gravity of the oil is about 0.917. Comparing the chemical properties of the oil extracted by solvent with that by supercritical dioxide carbon, the latter may be suitable as edible oil directly, while the former will be edible after it must be refined to improve on clarity. Fatty acid composition of the seed oil indicates that the oil contains two essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and linolenic acid), but the content of linoleic acid (72.69 +/- 0.32%) is by far greater than that of linolenic acid (0.26 +/- 0.00%). The present analytical results show the passion fruit seed to be a potentially valuable non-conventional source for high-quality oil. PMID:18608550

  19. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. PMID:27542495

  20. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

    PubMed

    Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

    2000-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

  1. Effects of the heating process of soybean oil and seeds on fatty acid biohydrogenation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Puaut, S; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2014-09-01

    Heating fat is an efficient way to alter ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and milk fat quality. Nevertheless, results are variable among studies and this could be due to various heating conditions differently affecting BH. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of type and duration of heating of soybean oil or seeds on BH in vitro. Ruminal content cultures were incubated to first investigate the effects of roasting duration (no heating, and 0.5- and 6-h roasting) at 125°C and its interaction with fat source (soybean seeds vs. soybean oil), focusing on linoleic acid BH and its intermediates: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-C18:1. Additionally, we compared the effects of seed extrusion with the 6 combinations of unheated and roasted oils and seeds. None of the treatments was efficient to protect linoleic acid from BH. Soybean oil resulted in higher trans-11 isomer production than seeds: 5.7 and 1.2 times higher for cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1, respectively. A 125°C, 0.5-h roasting increased trans-11 isomer production by 11% compared with no heating and 6-h roasted fat. Extrusion of seeds was more efficient to increase trans-11 C18:1 production than seed roasting, leading to values similar to oils. For other fatty acids, including cis-9,trans-11 CLA, extrusion resulted in similar balances to seeds (mainly 0.5-h-roasted seeds). Extruded oilseeds would be more efficient than roasted seeds to produce trans-11 C18:1; nevertheless, effects of conditions of extrusion need to be explored. PMID:24996268

  2. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils. PMID:23122069

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of citrus seed oils from kerman, iran.

    PubMed

    Reazai, Mohammad; Mohammadpourfard, Issa; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Jahanbakhsh, Mahdi; Shiri, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province) and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil. PMID:25136460

  4. Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition.

    PubMed

    Shiwakoti, Santosh; Poudyal, Shital; Saleh, Osama; Astatkie, Tess; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2016-06-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant; its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and they contain essential oils. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0 - 2, 2 - 7, 7 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45, 45 - 75, 75 - 105, and 105 - 135 min). Additionally, a non-stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non-stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77 - 19% of the total oil) and carvone (20 - 79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72 - 0.16%), trans-carveol (0.07 - 0.39%), and β-caryophyllene (0.07 - 0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil. PMID:27119969

  5. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  6. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed. PMID:25119487

  7. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  8. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  9. Characterization of oils and chemical analyses of the seeds of wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Akintoye, A O; Komolafe, T O

    1994-12-01

    The Chemical compositions of the seeds of some wild plants have been investigated. The seeds of Hematostaphis berteri, Balanites aegytiaca and Ximenia americana contain high levels of oils with values in the range, 38.2-54.5% (w/w). The iodine values of the oils were determined and, for Ximenia americana, the value was high, i.e., 149.8 mg/100 g. The storage properties of the oil of Hematostaphis berteri were examined over a period of fifty six days by exposure to light at ambient temperature. The peroxide value of the oil over the period increased by 12-fold of its initial value of 27.5 mEq/kg, suggesting light susceptibility to photo-oxidative degradation. The proximate protein contents were low but the concentrations of mineral elements in the seeds examined were generally high, exceeding the values for the corresponding mesocarps by several orders of magnitude. PMID:7716119

  10. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment. PMID:26589321

  11. Analysis of Peanut Seed Oil by NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid. The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an...

  12. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

  13. Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tsaknis, J; Lalas, S; Gergis, V; Dourtoglou, V; Spiliotis, V

    1999-11-01

    The oil from Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seeds from Kenya was extracted using three different procedures including cold press (CP), extraction with n-hexane (H), and extraction with a mixture of chloroform/methanol (50:50) (CM). The oil concentration ranged from 25.8% (CP) to 31.2% (CM). The density, refractive index, color, smoke point, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters, sterols, tocopherols (by HPLC), peroxide value, and at 232 and 270 nm and the susceptibility to oxidation measured with the Rancimat method were determined. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 75.39%). The dominant saturated acids were behenic (up to 6. 73%) and palmitic (up to 6.04%). The oil was also found to contain high levels of beta-sitosterol (up to 50.07%), stigmasterol (up to 17.27%), and campesterol (up to 15.13%). alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols were detected up to levels of 105.0, 39.54, and 77. 60 mg/kg of oil, respectively. The induction period (at 120 degrees C) of M. oleifera seed oil was reduced from 44.6 to 64.3% after degumming. The M. oleifera seed oil showed high stability to oxidative rancidity. The results of all the above determinations were compared with those of a commercial virgin olive oil. PMID:10552840

  14. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia).

    PubMed

    Pazos, Diana C; Jiménez, Fabiola E; Garduño, Leticia; López, V Eric; Cruz, M Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil (NSO) on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice. We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented. PMID:21834246

  15. Comparison of conventional and in situ methods of transesterification of seed oil from a series of sunflower cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, K.J.; D'Arcy-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    The cost of vegetable oil monoesters represents one of the major restrictions on their use as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. This cost can be reduced by increasing the yield of esters produced from a given quantity of oil stive fuel for diesel engines. This cost can be reduced by increasing the yield of esters produced from a given quantity of oil seed. Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ with acidified methanol has been shown to produce fatty acid methyl esters in yields significantly greater than those obtained from conventional reaction with pre-extracted seed oil. Yield improvements of over 20% were achieved and could be related to the moisture content of the seed. Fatty ester compositions and cloud points of the products from the in situ reactions were virtually identical to those of esters produced using conventional techniques.

  16. Densities of mixtures containing n-alkanes with sunflower seed oil at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; Resa, J.M.; Ruiz, A.; Gutierrez, J.I.

    1996-07-01

    Densities for mixtures containing sunflower seed oil with pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane have been determined at various temperatures between 298.15 K and 313.15 K using a vibrating tube densimeter. The derived excess volumes have been correlated by the Redlich-Kister equation. All the systems showed negative deviations from ideality. The excess volumes increased with an increase in temperature.

  17. Diversity of Sterol Composition in Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Mezni, Faten; Labidi, Arbia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Martine, Lucy; Berdeaux, Olivier; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2016-05-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. seed oil is used in some Mediterranean forest area for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, we aim to examine, for the first time, the effect of growing area on sterol content of Pistacia lentiscus seed oil. Fruits were harvested from 13 different sites located in northern and central Tunisia. Gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to quantify sterols and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify them. The major sterol identified was β-sitosterol with a value ranging from 854.12 to 1224.09 mg/kg of oil, thus making up more than 54% of the total sterols. The other two main sterols were cycloartenol (11%) and 24-methylene-cycloartenol (5%). Statistical results revealed that growing location significantly (P < 0.001) affected phytosterol levels in these oils. PMID:27060921

  18. The physico-chemical properties of some citrus seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad A L; Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Ghafoor, Kashif

    2016-03-01

    The chemical properties, mineral contents, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of seed and seed oils of some citrus genus provided from several locations in Turkey and Saudi Arabia were determined. While Ca contents of seeds were between 5018 mg/kg (Kütdiken lemon) and 7619 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin), K contents of seeds varied between 7007 mg/kg (Orlando orange) and 10334 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin). Glucose and fructose contents of citrus seed samples varied between 3.75 g/kg and 5.75 g/kg, and 4.09 g/kg and 6.03 g/kg. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were established as dominant fatty acids. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid contents of citrus seed oils varied between 19.6% (Kütdiken lemon) and 26.2% (pineapple orange), 21.3% (kinnow mandarin) and 31.4% (Kütdiken lemon) and 32.3% (Kütdiken lemon) and 43.7% (kinnow mandarin), respectively. The total amount of tocopherols of Turkish citrus oil varied between 0.5 mg/100 g (Fremont mandarin) and 18.8 mg/100 g (bitter orange). PMID:27023319

  19. Characteristics, composition and oxidative stability of Lannea microcarpa seed and seed oil.

    PubMed

    Bazongo, Patrice; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Nielsen, Søren; Hilou, Adama; Dicko, Mamoudou Hama; Shukla, Vijai K S

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%), crude oil (64.90%), protein (21.14%), total carbohydrate (10.85%) and moisture (3.24%). Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%), palmitic (34.45%), linoleic (11.20%) and stearic (8.35%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN) 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively). The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO) (21.23%), followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP) (16.47%), palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO) (12.03%), dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP) (10.85%) and dioleoyl linolein (LOO) (9.30%). The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g-1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm). These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry. PMID:24566330

  20. Seed-specific overexpression of phytoene synthase: increase in carotenoids and other metabolic effects

    PubMed

    Shewmaker; Sheehy; Daley; Colburn; Ke

    1999-11-01

    A bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB) gene was overexpressed in a seed-specific manner and the protein product targeted to the plastid in Brassica napus (canola). The resultant embryos from these transgenic plants were visibly orange and the mature seed contained up to a 50-fold increase in carotenoids. The predominant carotenoids accumulating in the seeds of the transgenic plants were alpha and beta-carotene. Other precursors such as phytoene were also detected. Lutein, the predominant carotenoid in control seeds, was not substantially increased in the transgenics. The total amount of carotenoids in these seeds is now equivalent to or greater than those seen in the mesocarp of oil palm. Other metabolites in the isoprenoid pathway were examined in these seeds. Sterol levels remained essentially the same, while tocopherol levels decreased significantly as compared to non-transgenic controls. Chlorophyll levels were also reduced in developing transgenic seed. Additionally, the fatty acyl composition was altered with the transgenic seeds having a relatively higher percentage of the 18 : 1 (oleic acid) component and a decreased percentage of the 18 : 2 (linoleic acid) and 18 : 3 (linolenic acid) components. This dramatic increase in flux through the carotenoid pathway and the other metabolic effects are discussed. PMID:10607293

  1. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  2. Wound healing activity of Sesamum indicum L seed and oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Kotade; Asad, Mohammed

    2008-11-01

    The seeds of S. indicum L (Pedaliaceae) are used traditionally in the folklore for the treatment of various kinds of wounds. The present study was undertaken to verify the effect of S. indicum seeds and its oil on experimentally induced excision wound, incision wound, burn wound and dead space wound models in rats. Aloe vera was used as standard wound healing agent. A formulation of seeds and oil was prepared in carbopol at 2.5% and 5% concentrations and applied to the wounds. In the excision and burn wound models, the so treated animals showed significant reduction in period of epithelization and wound contraction (50%). In the incision wound model a significant increase in the breaking strength was observed. Seeds and oil treatment (250 mg and 500 mg/kg; po) in dead space wound model, produced a significant increase in the breaking strength, dry weight and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue. The results suggest that S. indicum seeds and oil applied topically or administered orally possesses wound healing activity. PMID:19090349

  3. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  4. Seed oil development of pennycress under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress (Thlaspi sp) has been targeted as a potential oilseed for the biofuels industry. Its seeds contain ~36% oil, where erucic acid is the major fatty acid presented with 38.1%. Additionally, the physical proprieties of the methyl esters are in the range to satisfy the needs of the biodiesel m...

  5. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  6. Biotransformation of constituents of essential oils by germinating wheat seed.

    PubMed

    Dudai, N; Larkov, O; Putievsky, E; Lerner, H R; Ravid, U; Lewinsohn, E; Mayer, A M

    2000-11-01

    Wheat seeds, when exposed to essential oils, are able to metabolise certain monoterpenes. The actual amounts of the compounds and their derivatives in the endosperm and embryo of wheat seeds, after exposure to the monoterpenes were determined. Neral and geranial, which are the constituents of citral, are reduced and oxidised to the corresponding alcohols and acids. Similarly citronellal, pulegone and carvacrol are converted partly to the corresponding reduction and oxidation products. The aromatic compound vanillin is partly reduced to vanillyl alcohol or oxidised to vanillic acid. In all cases it seems that part of the compounds applied are degraded, as indicated by the inability to account for all the compounds, which were supplied to the germinated seeds. In most cases the derivatives of the essential oil applied were less toxic than the parent compound. The possible role of non-specific enzymes by which the compounds are oxidised or reduced is discussed. PMID:11140596

  7. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  8. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  9. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage. PMID:25500616

  10. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    PubMed

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  11. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  12. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  13. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  14. OIL AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL IN TWELVE CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve pumpkin cultivars (Cucurbita maxima D.), cultivated in Iowa, were studied for their seed oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content. Oil content ranged from 11 to 31%. Total unsaturated fatty acid content ranged from 73.1-80.5%. The predominant fatty acids present were linol...

  15. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  16. Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and γ-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856

  17. Flavoromics approach in monitoring changes in volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil caused by seed roasting.

    PubMed

    Gracka, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Two varieties of rapeseed (one high oleic - containing 76% of oleic acid, and the other - containing 62% of oleic acid) were used to produce virgin (pressed) oil. The rapeseeds were roasted at different temperature/time combinations (at 140-180°C, and for 5-15min); subsequently, oil was pressed from the roasted seeds. The roasting improved the flavour and contributed to a substantial increase in the amount of a potent antioxidant-canolol. The changes in volatile compounds related to roasting conditions were monitored using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS), and the key odorants for the non-roasted and roasted seeds oils were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The most important compounds determining the flavour of oils obtained from the roasted seeds were dimethyl sulphide, dimethyltrisulfide, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2,3-butenedione, octanal, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and phenylacetaldehyde. For the oils obtained from the non-roasted seeds, the dominant compounds were dimethylsulfide, hexanal and octanal. Based on GC×GC-ToFMS and principal component analysis (PCA) of the data, several compounds were identified that were associated with roasting at the highest temperatures regardless of the rapeseed variety: these were, among others, methyl ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2-octanone). PMID:26592559

  18. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  19. Analysis of oil content of Jatropha curcas seeds under storage condition.

    PubMed

    Sushma

    2014-05-01

    Jatropha curcas has been recognized as an ideal plant for biodiesel. There are unlimited reasons to consider Jatropha curcas a better tree borne oilseed plants than any other as it grows well on arid soils and entail minimal investment. The present study evaluates the effect of seed storage on quality and quantity of oil content such that it can be used for oil extraction and ensures availability of biodiesel throughout the year. The seeds were collected and stored at four temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C, 5 °C and room temperature (open air condition) for 15 months of storage durations and evaluated at every three months interval. There was a significant decrease in oil content and oil quality with increase in storage duration. Although, the seed stored at temperature 5 °C gave the highest quality and quantity attributes at all durations. The first 3 months of storage account for the least decline as in the initial oil content in Kernel weight basis (54.61%) and seed weight basis (36.12%), there was a only decrease of 4.67% and 4.97% respectively at 5 °C whereas in other temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C and room temperature (open air condition), there was a decline of 18.11, 14.48 and 9.06% in kernel weight basis and 18.36, 15.14 and 9.30% in seed weight basis respectively which accelerated with duration. Similarly, quality parameters viz. moisture content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index (30 °C), relative viscosity and specific gravity were initially as 7.59%, 1.42 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 108.61 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 189.37 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.466, 21.30 and 0.911 respectively which change to 13.71%, 1.74 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 107.95 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 191.48 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.470, 23.45 and 0.918, respectively after 3 months of storage. Hence, change in quality and quantity parameters indicated the importance of proper seed storage on availability of bio-diesel throughout the year and economics in its processing i e

  20. Biodiesel from Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Yu, Haiyan

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oil was investigated for the first time as a promising non-conventional feedstock for preparation of biodiesel. Siberian apricot seed kernel has high oil content (50.18 ± 3.92%), and the oil has low acid value (0.46 mg g(-1)) and low water content (0.17%). The fatty acid composition of the Siberian apricot seed kernel oil includes a high percentage of oleic acid (65.23 ± 4.97%) and linoleic acid (28.92 ± 4.62%). The measured fuel properties of the Siberian apricot biodiesel, except cetane number and oxidative stability, were conformed to EN 14214-08, ASTM D6751-10 and GB/T 20828-07 standards, especially the cold flow properties were excellent (Cold filter plugging point -14°C). The addition of 500 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) resulted in a higher induction period (7.7h) compliant with all the three biodiesel standards. PMID:22440572

  1. Chemical composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity of oil extracted from roasted seeds of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Paredes, Daniel; Arana, Adrian; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The effect of roasting of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds on the oxidative stability and composition of its oil was investigated. The seeds were subjected to light, medium and high roasting intensities. Oil samples were subjected to high-temperature storage at 60 °C for 30 days and evaluated for oxidation (peroxide value and p-anisidine), antioxidant activity (total phenols and DPPH assay), and composition (tocopherol content and fatty acid profile). Results showed that roasting partially increased oil oxidation and its antioxidant capacity, slightly decreased tocopherol content, and did not affect the fatty acid profile. During storage, oxidation increased for all oil samples, but at a slower rate for oils from roasted seeds, likely due to its higher antioxidant capacity. Also, tocopherol content decreased significantly, and a slight modification of the fatty acid profile suggested that α-linolenic acid oxidized more readily than other fatty acids present. PMID:24823227

  2. Antimycotic effect of fixed oils treated with herbal seeds on the growth of fungi causing otomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Agarwal, S C; Malaiya, S

    1993-07-01

    Invitro antimycotic effect of the coconut, mustard, groundnut & soyabeen oils and the seeds of trigonella, ajwoin, mustard and garlic bulbs were mixed in the above oil samples to determine their effect on the spore germination of five pathogenic fungi i.e., Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, Absidia corymbifera, Penicilium nigricans and Candida albicans, isolated from otitic fungal infection of external ear (tympanic membrane) of human beings of different places. Growth of these fungi was completely inhibited by the oil of mustard when mixed seeds of trigonella, ajwoin, mustard and garlic bulbs, while coconut oil with ajwoin seeds was found to be less funitoxic. In addition to these other oils and different plant parts were also found to have fungitoxicity against test pathogens and increase pf 50 - 100 percent inhibition was noted in these cases. Present study indicated the possible role of test oils and different plant parts in control of otomycosis in human being after further experimental in-vivo condition. PMID:22556643

  3. Reducing Isozyme Competition Increases Target Fatty Acid Accumulation in Seed Triacylglycerols of Transgenic Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Shockey, Jay; Zhang, Meng; Adhikari, Neil D.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) and conjugated polyenoic FAs (α-eleostearic acids [ESAs]) using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model. These FAs are found naturally in seed oils of castor (Ricinus communis) and tung tree (Vernicia fordii), respectively, and used for the production of lubricants, nylon, and paints. Transgenic oils typically contain less target FA than that produced in the source species. We hypothesized that competition between endogenous and transgenic isozymes for substrates limits accumulation of unique FAs in Arabidopsis seeds. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a mutation in Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (AtDGAT1) in a line expressing castor FA hydroxylase and acyl-Coenzyme A:RcDGAT2 in its seeds. This led to a 17% increase in the proportion of HFA in seed oil. Expression of castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1A in this line increased the proportion of HFA by an additional 12%. To determine if our observations are more widely applicable, we investigated if isozyme competition influenced production of ESA. Expression of tung tree FA conjugase/desaturase in Arabidopsis produced approximately 7.5% ESA in seed lipids. Coexpression of VfDGAT2 increased ESA levels to approximately 11%. Overexpression of VfDGAT2 combined with suppression of AtDGAT1 increased ESA accumulation to 14% to 15%. Our results indicate that isozyme competition is a limiting factor in the engineering of unusual FAs in heterologous plant systems and that reduction of competition through mutation and RNA suppression may be a useful component of seed metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:25739701

  4. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-01-01

    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Muğla-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazarı (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements. PMID:23925865

  5. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  6. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  7. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF PROTEIN FROM LESQUERELLA FENDLERI SEED AND PRESS CAKE FROM OIL PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation determined the functional properties of protein in Lesquerella fendleri seed and in press cake from oil processing. Lesquerella seeds were cooked at 82 deg C (180 deg F) for 120 minutes in the seed conditioner, and then screw-pressed to extract the oil. Unprocessed ground, defat...

  8. PROTEIN AND OIL CONCENTRATION RESPONSE TO GLUTAMINE IN SOYBEAN SEEDS CULTURED IN VITRO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and protein are the most valuable components of soybean seed. To examine whether oil and protein concentration are affected by the supply of nitrogen to the seed, immature soybean seeds [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Williams 82] were grown in vitro in nutrient solutions containing 20, 40, 60, or 8...

  9. Storage stability of sunflower oil with added natural antioxidant concentrate from sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nasirullah; Latha, R Baby

    2009-01-01

    Demand for use of natural additives such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, coloring and flavoring matter is continuously increasing world over. It is due to nutritional awareness among the masses and belief that most of the natural products are safe for human consumption. Interest has been shown recently on the use of natural antioxidants from oil seeds. Hence, oils obtained from sesame (Sesamum indicum) had been utilized for this purpose. Oils were thermally treated (T) to enhance the sesamol content from 4,900 to 9,500 ppm. A portion of resultant oil had been extracted with ethanol in a controlled conditions to yield a concentrate (ESSO-T) with sesamol content of 28,500 ppm. Whereas another portion after silica gel column separation yielded a concentrate (SSO-TFII) with sesamol content of 27,100 ppm. Refined sunflower oil without antioxidant was mixed with ESSO-T and SSO-TFII separately at the level of 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 ppm and its storage stability assessed was at ambient (22-28 degrees C) and elevated (37 degrees C) temperatures. Peroxide value (PV) and Free Fatty Acid content (FFA) of samples were estimated at intervals of 2 weeks for a total storage period of 12 weeks. Results indicated that ESSO-T at the level of 500 ppm had maximum protective effect on refined sunflower oil, where PV and FFA were found ranging between 2.1 to 5.9 and 0.10 to 0.15%; and 4.1 to 9.8 and 0.11 to 0.21% for samples stored at ambient and elevated conditions respectively. The storage stability of this sample was very close to the storage stability of sunflower oil containing TBHQ at 200 ppm. Comparatively in sunflower oil without antioxidant PV and FFA had gone up from 2.0 to 45.4 and 0.11 to 1.3% at ambient and 2.0 to 56.4 and 0.11 to 2.8% at elevated temperatures. PMID:19654454

  10. Protective effect of borage seed oil and gamma linolenic acid on DNA: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Campos-Sánchez, Juan; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil has been used as a treatment for various degenerative diseases. Many useful properties of this oil are attributed to its high gamma linolenic acid content (GLA, 18:3 ω-6). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety and suitability of the use of borage seed oil, along with one of its active components, GLA, with respect to DNA integrity, and to establish possible in vivo toxic and in vitro cytotoxic effects. In order to measure these properties, five types of assays were carried out: toxicity, genotoxicity, antigenotoxicity, cytotoxicity (using the promyelocytic leukaemia HL60 cell line), and life span (in vivo analysis using the Drosophila model). Results showed that i) Borage seed oil is not toxic to D. melanogaster at physiological concentrations below 125 µl/ml and the studies on GLA indicated non-toxicity at the lowest concentration analyzed ii) Borage seed oil and GLA are DNA safe (non-genotoxic) and antimutagenic compared to hydrogen peroxide, thereby confirming its antioxidant capacity; iii) Borage seed oil and GLA exhibited cytotoxic activity in low doses (IC50 of 1 µl/ml and 0.087 mM, respectively) iv) Low doses of borage seed oil (0.19%) increased the health span of D. melanogaster; and v) GLA significantly decreased the life span of D. melanogaster.Based on the antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects along with the ability to increase the health span, we propose supplementation with borage seed oil rather than GLA, because it protects DNA by modulating oxidative genetic damage in D. melanogaster, increases the health span and exerts cytotoxic activity towards promyelocytic HL60 cells. PMID:23460824

  11. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation. PMID:25976997

  12. Variation in seed oil and protein content among diverse cotton (Gossypium sp.) germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed embryos are comprised of oil and protein reserves that serve as a vital carbon, nitrogen and energy source during seed germination. These storage compounds also are a source of commercial vegetable oil and protein meal. Most historical surveys for quantifying either seed oil and/or prot...

  13. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  14. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  15. Dehulling of cuphea seed for the production of crude oil with low chlorophyll content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (PSR23) seed oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). MCFAs are used in soaps, detergents, cosmetics, lubricants, and food applications. Currently, cuphea is being grown to provide oil needed for research. The oil can be extracted effectively by screw pressing flaked whole seeds. ...

  16. Systems Characterization of Gene Reuglatory Networks Underlying Seed Maturation for Soybean Oil Improvement.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed oil composition and content are important agronomic traits, and are also determining factors for soybean oil nutritional values and its use in biodiesel production and other industrial applications. Production of seed storage oil requires concerted activity of many genes and biological ...

  17. Modification of oil and glucosinolate content in canola seeds with altered expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, research focusing on canola (Brassica napus L.) seed oil content and composition has expanded. Oil production and accumulation are influenced by genes participating in embryo and seed development. The Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a well characterized regulator of embryo development that also enhances the expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis. B. napus lines over-expressing or down-regulating BnLEC1 were successfully generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive expression of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Polo, increased seed oil content by 7-16%, while the down-regulation of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Topas reduced oil content by 9-12%. Experimental manipulation of BnLEC1 caused transcriptional changes in enzymes participating in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA biosynthesis, suggesting an enhanced carbon flux towards FA biosynthesis in tissues over-expressing BnLEC1. The increase in oil content induced by BnLEC1 was not accompanied by alterations in FA composition, oil nutritional value or glucosinolate (GLS) levels. Suppression of BnLEC1 reduced seed oil accumulation and elevated the level of GLS possibly through the transcriptional regulation of BnST5a (Sulphotransferase5a), the last GLS biosynthetic enzyme. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that experimental alterations of BnLEC1 expression can be used to influence oil production and quality in B. napus. PMID:26773545

  18. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Stetina, Salliana R.; Turley, Rickie B.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals) determines the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait) effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a 2-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes) in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines). Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source) to seed (sink). This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for food and feed

  19. Sunflower seed oil: automotive fuel source. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intent of this portion of the project has to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing sunflower seed oil as an alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. The research was limited to small, one cylinder, air-cooled engines that are very common on the market place. Conventional fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel blended with the sunflower oil were used. Sunfuel, sunflower oil, is difficult to procure and relatively expensive at approximately $4.00/gal. The research was unconcerned with how readily available or how competitively priced it was against petroleum products. All of the effort was to assume it was available and cost effective. We concentrated on making it burn in the heat engine and achieved it with marginal success. The review of the literature which was carried on concurrently with the research indicates several problems associated with producing Sunfuel.

  20. Increasing PCB Radiolysis Rates in Transformer Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-11-01

    The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with ó-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

  1. Increasing PCB radiolysis rates in transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Brey, Richard R.; Rodriguez, René G.; Pristupa, Scott; Ruhter, Aaron

    2002-11-01

    The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with γ-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

  2. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  3. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations. PMID:11312845

  4. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times. PMID:25628873

  5. Metabolic Engineering Plant Seeds with Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, James R.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Mansour, Maged P.; Liu, Qing; Belide, Srinivas; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) have critical roles in human health and development with studies indicating that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in particular. These fatty acids are predominantly sourced from fish and algal oils, but it is widely recognised that there is an urgent need for an alternative and sustainable source of EPA and DHA. Since the earliest demonstrations of ω3 LC-PUFA engineering there has been good progress in engineering the C20 EPA with seed fatty acid levels similar to that observed in bulk fish oil (∼18%), although undesirable ω6 PUFA levels have also remained high. Methodology/Principal Findings The transgenic seed production of the particularly important C22 DHA has been problematic with many attempts resulting in the accumulation of EPA/DPA, but only a few percent of DHA. This study describes the production of up to 15% of the C22 fatty acid DHA in Arabidopsis thaliana seed oil with a high ω3/ω6 ratio. This was achieved using a transgenic pathway to increase the C18 ALA which was then converted to DHA by a microalgal Δ6-desaturase pathway. Conclusions/Significance The amount of DHA described in this study exceeds the 12% level at which DHA is generally found in bulk fish oil. This is a breakthrough in the development of sustainable alternative sources of DHA as this technology should be applicable in oilseed crops. One hectare of a Brassica napus crop containing 12% DHA in seed oil would produce as much DHA as approximately 10,000 fish. PMID:23145108

  6. Vasorelaxant effect of essential oil isolated from Nigella sativa L. seeds in rat aorta: Proposed mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cherkaoui-Tangi, Khadija; Israili, Zafar Hasan; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds (Nigella oil) was investigated for its vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta. Nigella oil at concentrations of 10-100 μg/mL elicited a dose-dependent relaxation of the aorta, which was pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 10(-6) M) or KCl (100mM). In the presence of Nigella oil (75 μg/mL, the dose response curves to increasing concentrations of NA (10(-9) M to 10(-4)M) or KCl (10mM-100mM) were displaced downwards, indicating inhibition of the vasoconstrictive effect. This relaxation effect was independent of the presence of endothelium. In addition, the vasodilatory activity of the Nigella oil was not affected by pre-treatment of the rings with N(G)-nitro-L-Arginine (an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase; 0.1mM), suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect is not mediated by nitric oxide. Furthermore, pre-treatment of the rings with Nigella oil (75 μg/mL suppressed the tension increment produced by increasing external calcium concentration (0.25 mM to 1.5mM). Tin conclusion, the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds produces smooth muscle relaxation, which is independent of endothelium and is not mediated by nitric oxide. The results also suggest that the vasorelaxing effect of the oil results from the blockade of both voltage-sensitive and receptor-operated calcium channels, and this may have therapeutic significance, in that Nigella oil may be useful as an antihypertensive agent in humans. PMID:26826822

  7. [Study on porous maize starch preparation and powdering coix seed oil].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Sun, E; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-07-01

    To optimize the preparation conditions of porous starch The porous starch was used to powder coix seed oil. Porous starch was made of maize starch by using compound enzymes of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase. The preparation process was optimized through orthogonal test design with oil absorption rate to salad oil as indexes. The effect of different dosages of porous starch on yield of triglyceride by powdering coix seed oil was studied. The triglyceride release behaviors and fluidity of powdered coix seed oil were also studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions for preparation of porous maize starch were as follows, the mass radio of glucoamylase to a-amylase was 3:1, the temperatures was 55 degrees C, pH was 5.0, and hydrolysis time was 12 h. Under these conditions, the oil absorption rate to salad oil was 98.5% for porous maize starch. Porous starch was used to power coix seed oil. When porous starch to coix seed oil was 4:1, the triglyceride yield of powering coix seed oil was up to 97.02%. The fluidity of powdered coix seed oil was favorable and control released. The preparation of powdered liquid oil with porous starch had many advantages such as simple production technology, convenient operation, low cost and was worth generalizing. PMID:24199556

  8. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  9. Expression of Mouse MGAT in Arabidopsis Results in Increased Lipid Accumulation in Seeds

    PubMed Central

    El Tahchy, Anna; Petrie, James R.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Vanhercke, Thomas; Singh, Surinder P.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide demand for vegetable oil is projected to double within the next 30 years due to increasing food, fuel, and industrial requirements. There is therefore great interest in metabolic engineering strategies that boost oil accumulation in plant tissues, however, efforts to date have only achieved levels of storage lipid accumulation in plant tissues far below the benchmark to meet demand. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) is predominantly associated with lipid absorption and resynthesis in the animal intestine where it catalyzes monoacylglycerol (MAG) to form diacylglycerol (DAG), and then triacylglycerol (TAG). In contrast plant lipid biosynthesis routes do not include MGAT. Rather, DAG and TAG are either synthesized from glycerol-3-phosphate by a series of three subsequent acylation reactions, or originated from phospholipids via an acyl editing pathway. Mouse MGATs 1 and 2 have been shown to increase oil content transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue by 2.6 fold. Here we explore the feasibility of this approach to increase TAG in Arabidopsis thaliana seed. The stable MGAT2 expression resulted in a significant increase in seed oil content by 1.32 fold. We also report evidence of the MGAT2 activity based on in vitro assays. Up to 3.9 fold increase of radiolabeled DAG were produced in seed lysate which suggest that the transgenic MGAT activity can result in DAG re-synthesis by salvaging the MAG product of lipid breakdown. The expression of MGAT2 therefore creates an independent and complementary TAG biosynthesis route to the endogenous Kennedy pathway and other glycerolipid synthesis routes. PMID:26834753

  10. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  11. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  12. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%). PMID:17141409

  13. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil. UV absorption spectroscopy of the oil showed hypsochromic shift, and the maximum absorbance was at 269 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum revealed the presence of olefin hydrogen and carbonyl group of ester compounds in the oil sample. The evaluation of the chemical compounds in the oil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that, a total of five fatty acid methyl esters were present in the oil sample. Among the five fatty acid esters present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil, Methyl 16-methyl heptadecanoate (54.57 %) was found to be the predominant compound. This study also supports the presence of olefins in the long chain fatty acids from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. There is a significant correlation between the properties and the characteristic profile of the oil sample. This study is the first report that shows Malabar tamarind as a promising source of oil seeds. PMID:26345007

  14. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-01

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries. PMID:24422510

  15. Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David G; Eller, Fred J; Wang, Liping; Jane, Jay-Lin; Wang, Tong; Inglett, George E

    2007-05-16

    Twelve pumpkin cultivars (Cucurbita maxima D.), cultivated in Iowa, were studied for their seed oil content, fatty acid composition, and tocopherol content. Oil content ranged from 10.9 to 30.9%. Total unsaturated fatty acid content ranged from 73.1 to 80.5%. The predominant fatty acids present were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Significant differences were observed among the cultivars for stearic, oleic, linoleic, and gadoleic acid content of oil. Low linolenic acid levels were observed (<1%). The tocopherol content of the oils ranged from 27.1 to 75.1 microg/g of oil for alpha-tocopherol, from 74.9 to 492.8 microg/g for gamma-tocopherol, and from 35.3 to 1109.7 microg/g for delta-tocopherol. The study showed potential for pumpkin seed oil from all 12 cultivars to have high oxidative stability that would be suitable for food and industrial applications, as well as high unsaturation and tocopherol content that could potentially improve the nutrition of human diets. PMID:17439238

  16. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fattyacids,sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices such as seeding rate (SR), planting date (PD), and row-type (RT: single- and twin-rows) may alter seed nutrition in soybean. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of SR and PD on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral...

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Determinants of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Composition.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols (TAGs) fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel, and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in seed oil composition in nature provides targets for bioengineering fatty acid proportions optimized for various industrial and nutrition goals. Here, we characterized the seed oil composition of 391 world-wide, wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the 9 major fatty acids in the seed oil and 4 composite measures of the fatty acids. Four to 19 regions of interest were associated with the seed oil composition traits. Thirty-four of the genes in these regions are involved in lipid metabolism or transport, with 14 specific to fatty acid synthesis or breakdown. Eight of the genes encode transcription factors. We have identified genes significantly associated with variation in fatty acid proportions that can be used as a resource across the Brassicaceae. Two-thirds of the regions identified contain candidate genes that have never been implicated in lipid metabolism and represent potential new targets for bioengineering. PMID:26704140

  18. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of Manihot species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the genus, cultivated mainly for its starchy tuber roots. Cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats. However, there are very scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives, which usu...

  19. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  20. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14 days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress. PMID:25976784

  1. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement. We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition ...

  2. Consumption and quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products.

    PubMed

    Bosy, T Z; Cole, K A

    2000-10-01

    There has been a recent and significant increase in the use and availability of hemp seed oil products. These products are being marketed as a healthy source of essential omega fatty acids when taken orally. Although the health aspects of these oils is open to debate, the probability that oils derived from the hemp seed will contain delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC) is noteworthy. Recent additions to the literature cite a number of studies illustrating that the ingestion of these products results in urinary levels of the THC metabolite, delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA), well above the administrative cutoff (50 ng/mL) used during random drug screens. Testing performed by our laboratory found that the concentration of THC in hemp oil products has been reduced considerably since the publication of earlier studies. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the THC levels in commercially available hemp oils and to administer those oils tested to THC-free volunteers to determine urine metabolite levels following several 15-g doses. Two extraction protocols were evaluated for removing THC from the oil matrix: a single step liquid-liquid extraction was compared to a two-phase process using both liquid-liquid and solid-phase techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine THC levels in several products: four from Spectrum Essentials (3 bottled oils and 1-g capsules), two from Health from the Sun (1-g capsules and bottled oil) oils, and single samples of both Hempstead and Hempola hemp oils. These hemp oil products contained THC concentrations of 36.0, 36.4, 117.5, 79.5, 48.6, 45.7, 21.0, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively. The Abbott AxSYM FPIA and Roche On-Line KIMS immunoassays were used to screen the urine samples, and GC-MS was used to determine the amount of THC in each oil as well as confirm and quantitate THCA in the urine of study participants immediately before and 6 h after each dose. Peak THCA levels in the participants' urine

  3. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  4. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  5. A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Giroux, M.J.; Shaw, J.; Hannah, L.C. |

    1996-06-11

    The maize endosperm-specific gene shrunken2 (Sh2) encodes the large subunit of the heterotetrameric starch synthetic enzyme adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27). Here we exploit an in vivo, site-specific mutagenesis system to create short insertion mutations in a region of the gene known to be involved in the allosteric regulation of AGP. The site-specific mutagen is the transposable element dissociation (Ds). Approximately one-third (8 of 23) of the germinal revertants sequenced restored the wild-type sequence, whereas the remaining revertants contained insertions of 3 or 6 bp. All revertants retained the original reading frame 3 feet to the insertion site and involved the addition of tyrosine and/or serine. Each insertion revertant reduced total AGP activity and the amount of the SH2 protein. The revertant containing additional tyrosine and serine residues increased seed weight 11-18% without increasing or decreasing the percentage of starch. Other insertion revertants lacking an additional serine reduced seed weight. Reduced sensitivity to phosphate, a long-known inhibitor of AGP, was found in the high seed-weight revertant. This alteration is likely universally important since insertion of tyrosine and serine in the potato large subunit of AGP at the comparable position and expression in Escherichia coli also led to a phosphate-insensitive enzyme. These results show that single gene mutations giving rise to increased seed weight, and therefore perhaps yield, are clearly possible in a plant with a long history of intensive and successful breeding efforts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  7. In-stream measurement of canola (Brassica napus L.) seed oil concentration using in-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation in the seed oil concentration of oilseed crops can impair a crushing plant’s ability to efficiently recover the oil from seed. Consequently, there is interest in using in-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to measure the oil concentration of the seed to be processed and use thi...

  8. Determination of antimicrobial activity and resistance to oxidation of moringa peregrina seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Athanasiadis, Vasilios; Tsaknis, John; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined. PMID:22367027

  9. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  10. New vitamin E isomers (gamma-tocomonoenol and alpha-tocomonoenol) in seeds, roasted seeds and roasted seed oil from the Slovenian pumpkin variety 'Slovenska golica'.

    PubMed

    Butinar, Bojan; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Mariani, Carlo; Raspor, Peter

    2011-09-15

    The Štajerska region in north-eastern Slovenia and the Styria region in southern Austria have a long tradition of growing pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) as an oil crop. GC-MS determination of the free and esterified minor compounds in oil of roasted pumpkin seeds from the Slovenian C. pepo L. variety 'Slovenska golica' revealed the presence of two previously unreported compounds: alpha-tocomonoenol and gamma-tocomonoenol. Using the GC-MS data, reference samples (Crude Palm Oil) and tocopherol and tocotrienol standards it was possible to assign and quantify alpha-tocomonoenol (17.6±0.6μg/g) and gamma-tocomonoenol (118.7±1.0μg/g) compounds in roasted 'S. golica' seed oil using HPLC. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were 77.9±1.9μg/g and 586.0±4.6μg/g, respectively. Surprisingly the gamma-tocotrienol concentration found was only 6.9±0.2μg/g. Analysis of the seeds from which the oil was pressed showed the initial gamma-tocotrienol amount was even lower (1.6±0.1 and 2.2±0.1μg/g in the ground and roasted seeds, respectively) than in the roasted seed oil. PMID:25212163

  11. The sterols of Cucurbita moschata ("calabacita") seed oil.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J B; Gros, E G; Bertoni, M H; Cattaneo, P

    1996-11-01

    From the sterol fraction of seed oil from commercial Cucurbita moschata Dutch ("calabacita") delta 5 and delta 7 sterols having saturated and unsaturated side chain were isolated by chromatographic procedures and characterized by spectroscopic (1H and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) methods. The main components were identified as 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3 beta-ol (alpha-spinasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E,25-trien-3 beta-ol (25-dehydrochondrillasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,25-dien-3 beta-ol; 24R-ethyl-cholesta-7-en-3 beta-ol (delta 7-stigmastenol) and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7, 24(28)-dien-3 beta-ol (delta 7,24(28)-stigmastadienol). PMID:8934454

  12. Comparative plant sphingolipidomic reveals specific lipids in seeds and oil.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Frédérique; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Faure, Jean-Denis

    2014-07-01

    Plant sphingolipids are a highly diverse family of structural and signal lipids. Owing to their chemical diversity and complexity, a powerful analytical method was required to identify and quantify a large number of individual molecules with a high degree of structural accuracy. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a single elution system coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) in the positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, detailed sphingolipid composition was analyzed in various tissues of two Brassicaceae species Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. A total of 300 molecular species were identified defining nine classes of sphingolipids, including Cers, hCers, Glcs and GIPCs. High-resolution mass spectrometry identified sphingolipids including amino- and N-acylated-GIPCs. The comparative analysis of seedling, seed and oil sphingolipids showed tissue specific distribution suggesting metabolic channeling and compartmentalization. PMID:24731258

  13. Genome-wide association study of Arabidopsis thaliana identifies determinants of natural variation in seed oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in...

  14. Nutritional quality and essential oil compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn.) tissue and seed.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R; Olosunde, O O; Adegbite, J A; Omolola, O A

    2014-10-01

    Nutritional quality and essential oil compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn.) tissue and seed were determined. Oil was extracted from the seed using standard methods while the fatty acids of the oil, chemical and anti-nutritional properties of defatted seed flour were determined. Total fat yield of the seed flour was 12.20%. Defatted seed flour had higher crude fibre (36.92%), carbohydrate (40.07%) and ash (8.17%) contents. Major mineral contents were potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium. The tissue contain appreciable amount of vitamin C (8.10 mg/100 g). Oleic acid (42.59%) was the major fatty acid in the seed oil and the total unsaturated fatty acid was 62.38%. The seed oil had higher acid and saponification values and low iodine value. Oxalate (11.09 mg/100 g) content was the major anti-nutrient in the defatted seed flour. Defatted T. danielli seed flour serves as good source of dietary fibre and energy. PMID:24799240

  15. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  16. Antimelanoma Potential of Eruca sativa Seed Oil and its Bioactive Principles.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Prachi; Medhe, S; Ganesh, N; Srivastava, M M

    2015-01-01

    The present communication reports the comparison of in vivo antioxidant, antimelanoma and antimutagenic activities of Eruca sativa seed oil and its bio principles (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane) against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice model. Among the various treatments considered for the study, isothiocyanates combination (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane; 1:1:1; 10 µM) exhibited optimum antioxidant activity, 51.95±1.14 µM glutathione per mg protein compared to seed oil 25.91±1.26 µM. Lipid peroxidation value was 9.97±1.72 µM malondialdehyde per mg wet weight for isothiocyanates combination against seed oil, 28.45±1.87 µM and rendered significant protection against oxidative stress induced by melanoma in liver tissue. Isothiocyanates combination significantly suppressed various parameters, such as tumor growth, isothiocyanates combination by 36.36% while the seed oil by 15.23%; tumor weight, isothiocyanates combination by 45.9% and seed oil by 19.6%; tumor volume, isothiocyanates combination by 41.7% while the seed oil by 32.3%, measured for antimelanoma activity at a concentration of 10 µM. Isothiocyanates combination has been found to be more cytotoxic bioagent against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice compared to naturally occurring Eruca sativa seed oil. PMID:26009655

  17. Antimelanoma Potential of Eruca sativa Seed Oil and its Bioactive Principles

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Prachi; Medhe, S.; Ganesh, N.; Srivastava, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present communication reports the comparison of in vivo antioxidant, antimelanoma and antimutagenic activities of Eruca sativa seed oil and its bio principles (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane) against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice model. Among the various treatments considered for the study, isothiocyanates combination (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane; 1:1:1; 10 µM) exhibited optimum antioxidant activity, 51.95±1.14 µM glutathione per mg protein compared to seed oil 25.91±1.26 µM. Lipid peroxidation value was 9.97±1.72 µM malondialdehyde per mg wet weight for isothiocyanates combination against seed oil, 28.45±1.87 µM and rendered significant protection against oxidative stress induced by melanoma in liver tissue. Isothiocyanates combination significantly suppressed various parameters, such as tumor growth, isothiocyanates combination by 36.36% while the seed oil by 15.23%; tumor weight, isothiocyanates combination by 45.9% and seed oil by 19.6%; tumor volume, isothiocyanates combination by 41.7% while the seed oil by 32.3%, measured for antimelanoma activity at a concentration of 10 µM. Isothiocyanates combination has been found to be more cytotoxic bioagent against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice compared to naturally occurring Eruca sativa seed oil. PMID:26009655

  18. Molecular analysis of soybean lines with low palmitic acid content in the seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmitic acid is the major saturated fatty acid found in soybean oil, accounting for approximately 11% of the seed oil content. Reducing the palmitic acid levels of the oil is desirable because of the negative health effects specifically associated with this fatty acid. One of the genetic loci known...

  19. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  20. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  1. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  2. Leucoplast Pyruvate Kinase from Developing Castor Oil Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Plaxton, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Leucoplast pyruvate kinase (PKp; EC 2.7.1.40) from endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296) appears to be highly susceptible to limited degradation by a cysteine endopeptidase during the purification of the enzyme or incubation of clarified homogenates at 4°C. Purified castor seed PKp was previously reported to consist of immunologically related 57.5 and 44 kilodalton subunits (Plaxton WC, Dennis DT, Knowles VL [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1528-1534). By contrast, immunoreactive polypeptides of about 63.5 and 54 kilodaltons were observed when a western blot of an extract prepared under denaturing conditions was probed with affinity purified rabbit anti-(castor seed PKp) immunoglobulin G. Proteolytic activity against PKp was estimated by the disappearance of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits and the concomitant appearance of lower molecular mass immunoreactive degradation products during the incubation of clarified homogenates at 4°C. The presence of 2 millimolar dithiothreitol accelerated the degradation of PKp. The conservation of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits was observed after extraction of the enzyme in the presence of 1 millimolar p-hydroxymecuribenzoate, or 1 millimolar Nα-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone, or 10 millimolar iodoacetate. These results reveal that a cysteine endopeptidase was responsible for the in vitro proteolysis of PKp. This endopeptidase is present throughout all stages of endosperm development. Its PKp-degrading activity, however, appears to be most pronounced in preparations from older endosperm. When lysates of purified leucoplasts were incubated at 4°C for up to 21 hours, no degradation of PKp was observed; this indicated an extra-leucoplastic localization for the cysteine endopeptidase. Although the in vivo subunit structure of PKp remains uniform throughout all stages of endosperm development, the large decrease in PK activity that accompanies castor seed maturation coincides with a

  3. A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

  4. Anti-diabetic activity of peony seed oil, a new resource food in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianhui; Wang, Hongxin; Ma, Caoyang; Lou, Zaixiang; Liu, Chengxiang; Tanver Rahman, MdRamim; Gao, Chuanzhong; Nie, Rongjing

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the components of a new resource food in China, peony seed oil (PSO) by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), its inhibitory effects on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in vitro and its anti-diabetic effects on mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The results showed that peony seed oil showed weak anti-α-amylase activity; however, strong anti-α-glucosidase activity was noted. The GC-MS analysis of the oil showed 9 constituents of which α-linolenic acid was found to be the major component (38.66%), followed by linoleic acid (26.34%) and oleic acid (23.65%). The anti-diabetic potential of peony seed oil was tested in STZ induced diabetic mice. Administration of peony seed oil and glibenclamide reduced the blood glucose level and the area under curve (AUC) in STZ induced diabetic mice. There were significant increases in body weight, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total serum cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) in test groups as compared to the untreated diabetic groups. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic mice revealed the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increase of glutathione peroxides (GSH-px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH). The results provided a sound rationale for future clinical trials of oral administration of peony seed oil to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PMID:26245697

  5. Physicochemical characterisation and radical-scavenging activity of Cucurbitaceae seed oils.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; da Silva, Ana Carolina; Malacrida, Cassia Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Oils extracted from Cucurbitaceae seeds were characterised for their fatty acid and tocopherol compositions. In addition, some physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic contents and the radical-scavenging activities were determined. Oil content amounted to 23.9% and 27.1% in melon and watermelon seeds, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oils showed significant antioxidant activities. Fatty acid composition showed total unsaturated fatty acid content of 85.2-83.5%, with linoleic acid being the dominant fatty acid (62.4-72.5%), followed by oleic acid (10.8-22.7%) and palmitic acid (9.2-9.8%). The oils, especially watermelon seed oil, showed high total tocopherol and phenolic contents. The γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in both oils representing 90.9 and 95.6% of the total tocopherols in melon and watermelon seed oils, respectively. The potential utilisation of melon and watermelon seed oils as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries appears to be favourable. PMID:25697079

  6. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet. PMID:25636326

  7. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  8. A noninvasive platform for imaging and quantifying oil storage in submillimeter tobacco seed.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Johannes; Neuberger, Thomas; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schiebold, Silke; Nguyen, Thuy Ha; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Börner, Andreas; Melkus, Gerd; Jakob, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2013-02-01

    While often thought of as a smoking drug, tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is now considered as a plant of choice for molecular farming and biofuel production. Here, we describe a noninvasive means of deriving both the distribution of lipid and the microtopology of the submillimeter tobacco seed, founded on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. Our platform enables counting of seeds inside the intact tobacco capsule to measure seed sizes, to model the seed interior in three dimensions, to quantify the lipid content, and to visualize lipid gradients. Hundreds of seeds can be simultaneously imaged at an isotropic resolution of 25 µm, sufficient to assess each individual seed. The relative contributions of the embryo and the endosperm to both seed size and total lipid content could be assessed. The extension of the platform to a range of wild and cultivated Nicotiana species demonstrated certain evolutionary trends in both seed topology and pattern of lipid storage. The NMR analysis of transgenic tobacco plants with seed-specific ectopic expression of the plastidial phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator, displayed a trade off between seed size and oil concentration. The NMR-based assay of seed lipid content and topology has a number of potential applications, in particular providing a means to test and optimize transgenic strategies aimed at the manipulation of seed size, seed number, and lipid content in tobacco and other species with submillimeter seeds. PMID:23232144

  9. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  10. Effectiveness of rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil to enhance the α-linolenic acid content in milk from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pi, Y; Gao, S T; Ma, L; Zhu, Y X; Wang, J Q; Zhang, J M; Xu, J C; Bu, D P

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of rubber seed oil compared with flaxseed oil when fed alone or in combination on milk yield, milk composition, and α-linolenic acid (ALA) concentration in milk of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized design. Cows were fed a basal diet (control; CON) or a basal diet supplemented with 4% rubber seed oil (RO), 4% flaxseed oil (FO), or 2% rubber seed oil plus 2% flaxseed oil (RFO) on a dry matter basis for 9 wk. Feed intake, milk protein percentage, and milk fat levels did not differ between the treatments. Cows fed the RO, FO, or RFO treatments had a higher milk yield than the CON group (up to 10.5% more), whereas milk fat percentages decreased. Compared with the CON, milk concentration of ALA was substantially higher in cows receiving RO or RFO, and was doubled in cows receiving FO. The ALA yield (g/d) increased by 31.0, 70.3, and 33.4% in milk from cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. Both C18:1 trans-11 (vaccenic acid) and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (conjugated linoleic acid; CLA) levels were higher in cows fed added flaxseed or rubber seed oil. The CLA yield (g/d) increased by 336, 492, and 484% in cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. The increase in vaccenic acid, ALA, and CLA was greater in cows fed RFO than in cows fed RO alone. Compared with the CON, the milk fat from cows fed any of the dietary supplements had a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; conversely, the saturated fatty acids levels in milk fat were 30.5% lower. Insulin and growth hormones were not affected by dietary treatments; however, we noted an increase in both cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids levels in the RO, FO, or RFO treatments. These results indicate that rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil will increase milk

  11. Radioactive Chernobyl environment has produced high-oil flax seeds that show proteome alterations related to carbon metabolism during seed development.

    PubMed

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Starting in 2007, we have grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. variety Soniachna) and flax (Linum usitatissimum, L. variety Kyivskyi) in the radio-contaminated Chernobyl area and analyzed the seed proteomes. In the second-generation flax seeds, we detected a 12% increase in oil content. To characterize the bases for this increase, seed development has been studied. Flax seeds were harvested in biological triplicate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity from plants grown in nonradioactive and radio-contaminated plots in the Chernobyl area for two generations. Quantitative proteomic analyses based on 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed us to establish developmental profiles for 199 2-DE spots in both plots, out of which 79 were reliably identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The data suggest a statistically significant increased abundance of proteins associated with pyruvate biosynthesis via cytoplasmic glycolysis, L-malate decarboxylation, isocitrate dehydrogenation, and ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in early stages of seed development. This was followed by statistically significant increased abundance of ketoacyl-[acylcarrier protein] synthase I related to condensation of malonyl-ACP with elongating fatty acid chains. On the basis of these and previous data, we propose a preliminary model for plant adaptation to growth in a radio-contaminated environment. One aspect of the model suggests that changes in carbon assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis are an integral part of plant adaptation. PMID:24111740

  12. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective. PMID:25416221

  13. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; et al

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolatemore » catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.« less

  14. Oil body proteins sequentially accumulate throughout seed development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Pascale; Boulard, Céline; Bellamy, Annick; Valot, Benoît; d'Andréa, Sabine; Zivy, Michel; Nesi, Nathalie; Chardot, Thierry

    2011-11-15

    Despite the importance of seed oil bodies (OBs) as enclosed compartments for oil storage, little is known about lipid and protein accumulation in OBs during seed formation. OBs from rapeseed (Brassica napus) consist of a triacylglycerol (TAG) core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded with integral proteins which confer high stability to OBs in the mature dry seed. In the present study, we investigated lipid and protein accumulation patterns throughout seed development (from 5 to 65 days after pollination [DAP]) both in the whole seed and in purified OBs. Deposition of the major proteins (oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins) into OBs was assessed through (i) gene expression pattern, (ii) proteomics analysis, and (iii) protein immunodetection. For the first time, a sequential deposition of integral OB proteins was established. Accumulation of oleosins and caleosins was observed starting from early stages of seed development (12-17 DAP), while steroleosins accumulated later (~25 DAP) onwards. PMID:21803444

  15. Utilization of sunflower seed oil as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruwer, J.J.; van der Boshoff, B.; Hugo, F.J.C.; Fuls, J.; Hawkins, C.; van der Walt, A.N.; Engelbrecht, A.; du Plessis, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Research, using several makes of diesel engine, showed that sunflower seed oil, and particularly an ethyl ester mixture, has the potential to extend diesel fuel provided solutions are found for injector coking problems. (MHR)

  16. Effects of chelating agents on protein, oil, fatty acid amd seed mineral concentrations in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil for human diet. Since not much information is available on the effects of chelating agents on soybean seed composition constituents, the current study aimed to investigate the effects of various chelating agents on soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merr.)] ...

  17. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of se...

  18. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  19. Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones altered by potassium fertilizer rates in the midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the effect of potassium fertilizer on soybean ([Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones) is still largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of potassium application on seed p...

  20. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  1. Oil and fatty acid content in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus (C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus and 33 egusi), Citrullus colocynthis (n =...

  2. Extraction of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil by full pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress is currently being developed as an oilseed crop for biofuel production. Pennycress seeds harvested from a field near Peoria, IL, provided our first opportunity to conduct an oil extraction study on a pilot scale. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of seed moisture and c...

  3. Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Silva, J H; Lima, C R; Silva, E J R; Araújo, A V; Fraga, M C C A; Ribeiro E Ribeiro, A; Arruda, A C; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2008-03-28

    Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), known as Andiroba in Brazil, has been used by Amazon Rainforest indigenous communities for treatment of coughs, convulsions, skin diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, ear infections, to heal wounds and bruises and as an insect repellent. Carapa guianensis seed oil (SO) was evaluated for its acute and subacute toxicity (30 days) by the oral route in Wistar rats. In the acute toxicity test, SO (0.625-5.0g/kg, n=5/sex) did not produce any hazardous symptoms or deaths. The subacute treatment with SO (0.375, 0.75 and 1.5g/kg, n=10/group) failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Hematological analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. However, in the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum level (29%) in the group SO 1.5g/kg. In addition, absolute and relative liver weights were increased at the doses of 0.75g/kg (23.4 and 19.1%) and 1.5g/kg (18.7 and 33.1%). In conclusion, acute and subacute administration of Carapa guianensis seed oil did not produce toxic effects in male Wistar rats. However, the increase in the ALT serum level and in both absolute and relative liver weights may indicate a possible hepatic toxicity. PMID:18281172

  4. Effects of oil extraction on functional properties of protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seed and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current interest in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) comes from its seed oil, which is being evaluated for biodiesel production. The seed also has notable protein content (33% db). The effects of oil processing conditions on functionality of pennycress seed proteins were determined to identify potential...

  5. Identification of genes/loci and functional markers for seed oil quality improvement by exploring soybean genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The difference in seed oil composition and content among soybean genotypes can be attributed mostly to variations in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil-related genes expressed in seeds. We applied the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence RNA populations in soybean seeds fro...

  6. No positive influence of ingesting chia seed oil on human running performance.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Meaney, Mary Pat; Dew, Dustin A

    2015-05-01

    Runners (n = 24) reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg-1 chia seed oil (random order), provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max). Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during the chia seed oil (337%) versus water trial (35%) (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL(-1), respectively, p < 0.001), run time to exhaustion did not differ between trials (1.86 ± 0.10, 1.91 ± 0.13 h, p = 0.577, respectively). No trial differences were found for respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (0.92 ± 0.01), oxygen consumption, ventilation, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and plasma glucose and blood lactate. Significant post-run increases were measured for total leukocyte counts, plasma cortisol, and plasma cytokines (Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α)), with no trial differences. Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures. PMID:25988762

  7. No Positive Influence of Ingesting Chia Seed Oil on Human Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, David C.; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Meaney, Mary Pat; Dew, Dustin A.

    2015-01-01

    Runners (n = 24) reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg−1 chia seed oil (random order), provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max). Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during the chia seed oil (337%) versus water trial (35%) (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL−1, respectively, p < 0.001), run time to exhaustion did not differ between trials (1.86 ± 0.10, 1.91 ± 0.13 h, p = 0.577, respectively). No trial differences were found for respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (0.92 ± 0.01), oxygen consumption, ventilation, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and plasma glucose and blood lactate. Significant post-run increases were measured for total leukocyte counts, plasma cortisol, and plasma cytokines (Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α)), with no trial differences. Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures. PMID:25988762

  8. Extraction, isolation and characterisation of oil bodies from pumpkin seeds for therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Adams, Gary G; Imran, Shahwar; Wang, Sheng; Mohammad, Abubaker; Kok, M Samil; Gray, David A; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E

    2012-10-15

    Pumpkin, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family has been used frequently as functional medicines for therapeutic use. Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated. Here the influence of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the properties and stability of oil bodies from pumpkin (Cucurbita) were determined with a view to patterning oil body size and structure for future therapeutic intervention. Oil bodies from pumpkin seeds were extracted, isolated, characterised using optical microscopy, zeta potential and particle size distribution obtained. During microscopic analysis, the oil bodies were more intact and in an integrated form at the time of extraction but were ruptured with time. Water extracted oil bodies were spherical for all four layers where cream had larger oil bodies then upper curd. Lower curd and supernatant had considerably smaller size with lower curd densely packed and seemed to be rich in oil bodies than any of the four layers. At pH 3, in the absence of salt, the zeta potential is approximately +30 mV, but as the salt concentration increases, the ζ potential rises at 10 mM but then decreases over the salt range. This trend continues for the upper curd, lower curd and the supernatant and the degree of the reduction (mV) in zeta potential is of the order creamincreased salt concentrations induce negative potentials. Increasing the salt concentrations still further, however, does not make the ζ potential more negative. However, at pH 9 the zeta potential falls from 0 to -50 mV as the salt concentration increases with the largest reduction shown with 100 mM salt. Particle size distribution at increasing pH salt concentration

  9. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lingli; Que, Fei; Wei, Hewen; Xu, Guangwei; Dong, Xiaowei; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.). The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w) as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil) could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase (< 35% water) to the bicontinuous phase (40-45% water) and finally to the oil-in-water phase (> 45% water) along the dilution line. PMID:25996147

  10. Solubilization of Tea Seed Oil in a Food-Grade Water-Dilutable Microemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingli; Que, Fei; Wei, Hewen; Xu, Guangwei; Dong, Xiaowei; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.). The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w) as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil) could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase (< 35% water) to the bicontinuous phase (40–45% water) and finally to the oil-in-water phase (> 45% water) along the dilution line. PMID:25996147

  11. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids sugars and minerals as affected by seeding rates and row spacing in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the effects of seeding rates (SDR) and row spacing (RS) on soybean seed composition is almost non-existent. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of SDR and RS on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals using two soybean cultivars, P 93M90 (ear...

  12. Progress on screening the USDA cultivated peanut germplasm collection for variability in seed weight, seed-coat color, oil content and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 10,000 accessions in the USDA peanut germplasm collection. Among them, 8,913 accessions are cultivated peanuts. To determine the variability of seed traits, we initiated a study to observe seed-coat color, measure seed weight, and quantify oil content and fatty acid composition by nuc...

  13. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPARα, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity. PMID:23377116

  14. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  15. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed. PMID:23786062

  16. Effect of chemical structure on film-forming properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The film thickness of seven seed oils and two petroleum-based oils of varying chemical structures, was investigated by the method of optical interferometry under pure rolling conditions, and various combinations of entrainment speed (u), load, and temperature. The measured film thickness (h measured...

  17. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  18. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  19. Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

  20. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  1. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars. PMID:27023318

  2. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  3. Biodiesel from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) Seed Oil: Exceptional Oxidative Stability and Unusual Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) seed oil methyl esters (MFME), prepared by a standard transesterification procedure using methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst from refined meadowfoam oil (MFO), were evaluated as a potential biodiesel fuel. MFME contains the unusual 5(Z)-eicosenoate (64.2 wt %) an...

  4. Olive seed protein bodies store degrading enzymes involved in mobilization of oil bodies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The major seed storage reserves in oilseeds are accumulated in protein bodies and oil bodies, and serve as an energy, carbon, and nitrogen source during germination. Here, the spatio-temporal relationships between protein bodies and several key enzymes (phospholipase A, lipase, and lipoxygenase) involved in storage lipid mobilization in cotyledon cells was analysed during in vitro seed germination. Enzyme activities were assayed in-gel and their cellular localization were determined using microscopy techniques. At seed maturity, phospholipase A and triacylglycerol lipase activities were found exclusively in protein bodies. However, after seed imbibition, these activities were shifted to the cytoplasm and the surface of the oil bodies. The activity of neutral lipases was detected by using α-naphthyl palmitate and it was associated mainly with protein bodies during the whole course of germination. This pattern of distribution was highly similar to the localization of neutral lipids, which progressively appeared in protein bodies. Lipoxygenase activity was found in both the protein bodies and on the surface of the oil bodies during the initial phase of seed germination. The association of lipoxygenase with oil bodies was temporally correlated with the appearance of phospholipase A and lipase activities on the surface of oil bodies. It is concluded that protein bodies not only serve as simple storage structures, but are also dynamic and multifunctional organelles directly involved in storage lipid mobilization during olive seed germination. PMID:24170742

  5. Proteomic identification of allergenic seed proteins, napin and cruciferin, from cold-pressed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed

    Puumalainen, T J; Puustinen, A; Poikonen, S; Turjanmaa, K; Palosuo, T; Vaali, K

    2015-05-15

    In Finland and France atopic children commonly react to seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape in skin prick tests (SPT) and open food challenges. These seeds are not as such in dietary use and therefore the routes of sensitization are unknown. Possible allergens were extracted from commercial cold-pressed and refined rapeseed oils and identified by gel-based tandem nanoflow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Napin (a 2S albumin), earlier identified as a major allergen in the seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape, and cruciferin (an 11S globulin), a new potential seed allergen, were detected in cold-pressed oils, but not in refined oils. Pooled sera from five children sensitized or allergic to oilseed rape and turnip rape seeds reacted to these proteins from cold-pressed oil preparations and individual sera from five children reacted to these proteins extracted from the seeds when examined with IgE immunoblotting. Hence cold-pressed rapeseed oil might be one possible route of sensitization for these allergens. PMID:25577095

  6. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

  7. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidences for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Rekha; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil, commonly known as Malkangni or Jyotishmati, was in use from time immemorial to treat brain related disorders. Celastrus paniculatus seed oil has significant antidepressant-like activity in chronic unpredictable stressed mice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil in unstressed mice and to explore its mechanism of action. Methods: The seed oil (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, PO) and fluoxetine per se were administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice. On the 14th day, 60 min after drug administration, animals were subjected to Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Forced Swim Test (FST). The mechanism of action was also studied. Results: The oil significantly decreased immobility period of mice in both tail suspension test and forced swim test, indicating its significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (P<0.0001). ED50 value of celastrus seed oil using FST and TST were 17.38 and 31.62 mg/kg, respectively. The oil did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity. It significantly inhibited brain MAO–A activity and decreased plasma corticosterone levels. Sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), p-CPA (tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor), and baclofen (GABAB agonist) significantly attenuated the oil-induced antidepressant-like effect, when assessed during TST. Discussion: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil produced significant antidepressant-like effect in mice possibly through interaction with dopamine D2, serotonergic, and GABAB receptors; as well as inhibition of MAO–A activity and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:27303599

  8. Quality characteristics and stability of Moringa oleifera seed oil of Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, Babatunde S; Indira, T N; Bhatnagar, A S; Radha, C; Debnath, S; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2014-03-01

    Cold pressed and hexane extracted moringa seed oils (CPMSO and HEMSO) were evaluated for their physico-chemical and stability characteristics. The iodine value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter of CPMSO and HEMSO were found to be 67.8 and 68.5 g I2 / 100 g oil, 190.4 and 191.2 mg KOH / g oil and 0.59 and 0.65%, respectively. The total tocopherols of CPMSO and HEMSO were found to be 95.5 and 90.2 mg/Kg. The fatty acid composition of CPMSO and HEMSO showed oleic acid as the major fatty acid (78-79%). The oxidative, thermal and frying stabilities of the CPMSO were compared with commercial raw and refined groundnut oil (GNO and RGNO). The CPMSO was of adequate thermal stability and better oxidative stability as it showed 79% lesser peroxide formation than GNO. The frying stability of CPMSO was better as it showed lower increase in free fatty acid (28%), peroxide value (10 meq O2/Kg) and color (25%) than RGNO (48%, 22 meq O2/kg and 52%, respectively) after frying. PMID:24587525

  9. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  10. [Activity of oil isolated from Amaranth seeds on energetic functions of rat liver mitochondria after adrenaline introduction].

    PubMed

    Sirota, T V; Eliseeva, O P; Khunderiakova, N V; Kaminskiĭ, D V; Makhotina, O A; Kondrashova, M N

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that a three-week feeding of rats with oil derived from seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) leads to a moderate activation of respiration of coupled and uncoupled rat liver mitochondria (MCh) that oxidize succinate and succinate + glutamate, as well as alpha-ketoglutarate and alpha-ketoglutarate + malonate. In animals receiving the amaranth oil, the injection of adrenaline did not affect the oil-activated respiration of MCh during succinate oxidation; i. e., animals prepared by an oil-enriched diet were resistant to the action of adrenaline, which prevented from possible hyperactivation of mitochondrial functions. In the group of control animals, which received no oil, the injection of adrenaline activated the rate of phosphorylating respiration of MCh during oxidation of succinate or succinate + glutamate: the rate of oxygen uptake in state 3 respiration (by Chance) increased, and the phosphorylation time decreased. The injection of adrenaline did not affect the parameters of respiration of MCh that oxidize a-ketoglutarate; however, in the presence of malonate, the oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate in state 3 and uncoupled respiration have shown mild but significant increase in response to adrenaline. In animals receiving the amaranth oil, the oil-induced activation of respiration of MCh in response to adrenaline retained but did not increase; however, the phosphorylation time significantly decreased. Thus, concentrated oil of seeds activates the respiration of MCh. In addition, it enhances an energetic function of MCh, which prevents from the hyper-activation of mitochondrial respiration by adrenaline. Therefore an activation of energetic function of MCh by amaranth oil could explain its adaptogenic effect on rats. PMID:18357794

  11. Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and tocopherols in seed oils recovered from different Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-10-31

    Seed oils recovered from Rosaceae species such as dessert and cider apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and rose hip (Rosa canina L.) were analyzed for their tocopherol and carotenoid contents using HPLC-DAD-MS(n) following saponification. Qualitative and quantitative tocopherol and carotenoid compositions significantly differed, not only among the different genera but also among cultivars of one species. In particular, seed oils of cider apples were shown to contain higher amounts of both antioxidant classes than that of dessert apples. Total contents of tocopherols of the investigated Rosaceous seed oils ranged from 597.7 to 1099.9 mg/kg oil, while total carotenoid contents varied between 0.48 and 39.15 mg/kg oil. Thus, these seed oils were found to contain appreciable amounts of lipohilic antioxidants having health beneficial potential. The results of the present study contribute to a more economical and exhaustive exploitation of seed byproducts arising from the processing of these Rosaceous fruits. PMID:23020156

  12. Comparative Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses of Soybean Seed Cultivars Differing in Protein and Oil Content.

    PubMed

    Min, Chul Woo; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, So Wun; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Yong Chul; Bae, Dong Won; Han, Won Young; Lee, Byong Won; Ko, Jong Min; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-08-19

    This study develops differential protein profiles of soybean (Glycine max) seeds (cv. Saedanbaek and Daewon) varying in protein (47.9 and 39.2%) and oil (16.3 and 19.7%) content using protamine sulfate (PS) precipitation method coupled with a 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) approach. Of 71 detected differential spots between Daewon and Saedanbaek, 48 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Gene ontology analysis revealed that up-regulated proteins in Saedanbaek were largely associated with nutrient reservoir activity (42.6%), which included mainly seed-storage proteins (SSPs; subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin). Similar results were also obtained in two cultivars of wild soybean (G. soja cv. WS22 and WS15) differing in protein content. Western blots confirmed higher accumulation of SSPs in protein-rich Saedanbaek. Findings presented and discussed in this study highlight a possible involvement of the urea cycle for increased accumulation of SSPs and hence the higher protein content in soybean seeds. PMID:26237057

  13. Study on small molecular organic compounds pyrolysed from rubber seed oil and its sodium soap.

    PubMed

    Fernando, T L D; Prashantha, M A B; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Rubber seed oil (RSO) and its sodium soap were pyrolysed in a batch reactor to obtain low molar mass organic substances. The pyrolitic oil of RSO was redistilled and the distillates were characterized by GC-MS and FTIR. Density, acid value, saponification value and ester values were also measured according to the ASTM standard methods. A similar analysis was done for samples taken out at different time intervals from the reaction mixture. Industrially important low molar mass alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, cyclic compounds and carboxylic acids were identified in the pyrolysis process of rubber seed oil. However, pyrolysis of the sodium soap of rubber seed oil gave a mixture of hydrocarbons in the range of C14-C17 and hence it has more applications as a fuel. PMID:27066350

  14. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-04-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p < 0.05). Moreover, the analyses of thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible. PMID:26934111

  15. A herbivory-induced increase in the proportion of floating seeds in an invasive plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, Yuya; Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    It is important to determine the factors prompting seed dispersal because for plant species seed dispersal is the only opportunity to disperse into a new habitat. Previous studies showed that the maternal stress, such as high density and low nutrient levels, induces the adaptive plastic increase of the dispersal ability in seed heteromorphic plants. In this study, we examined whether herbivory can change the relative proportion of dispersal-related seed heteromorphism (floating or non floating seeds) in an invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Because A. artemisiifolia often distributes in the riparian habitat, floating seeds might contribute to the long distance dispersal by hydrochory. Floating ability and seed weight were compared between plants damaged by a specialist herbivore Ophraella communa and undamaged plants. The damaged plants produced lighter and more likely floating seeds than the undamaged plants. However, multi-regression analysis revealed that the probability of floating was affected by seed weight but was not affected by herbivore treatment (damaged vs. undamaged plants). These results suggest that the increased proportion of floating seeds was not a direct response to the herbivore signal but an indirect response through the herbivore's effect on the reduction of seed weight. Plants damaged by herbivores might not only decrease seed production and quality but also increase the dispersal ability. These responses in dispersal ability against the herbivores might contribute to the spread of invasive plants.

  16. Hemp-seed and olive oils: their stability against oxidation and use in O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sapino, S; Carlotti, M E; Peira, E; Gallarate, M

    2005-01-01

    Hemp-seed oil has several positive effects on the skin: thanks to its unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content it alleviates skin problems such as dryness and those related to the aging process. We present a comparative study of hemp-seed and olive oils, determining some physicochemical indices and evaluating their stability against oxidation. The peroxide value of hemp-seed oil was below 20, the threshold limit for edible oils. Hemp-seed oil was less stable against peroxidation than olive oil, but MDA and MONO assays showed its stability to be above expectations. The chlorophyll contained in extra virgin olive oil had a higher photostability than that contained in hemp-seed oil, possibly due to the larger amount of antioxidant in the olive oil. A certain amount of Vitamin E was found in hemp-seed oil. Since quality analyses indicated that hemp-seed oil is relatively stable, emulsions were prepared with the two oils, and their stability and rheological characteristics were tested. Some of the resulting gel-emulsions were suitable for spraying on the skin. PMID:16130045

  17. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  18. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  19. Oil extraction from lesquerella seeds by dry extrusion and expelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Lesquerella seeds with 6% (as is) and 12% moisture were extruded at different residence times by varying screw speeds and feed rates. The temperature of the extrudate was recorded and its moisture content was determined. The extent of seed cooking was evaluated by measuring the protein solub...

  20. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  1. Dispersal by rodent caching increases seed survival in multiple ways in canopy-fire ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Peterson, N B; Parker, V T

    2016-07-01

    Seed-caching rodents have long been seen as important actors in dispersal ecology. Here, we focus on the interactions with plants in a fire-disturbance community, specifically Arctostaphylos species (Ericaceae) in California chaparral. Although mutualistic relationships between caching rodents and plants are well studied, little is known how this type of relationship functions in a disturbance-driven system, and more specifically to systems shaped by fire disturbance. By burying seeds in the soil, rodents inadvertently improve the probability of seed surviving high temperatures produced by fire. We test two aspects of vertical dispersal, depth of seed and multiple seeds in caches as two important dimensions of rodent-caching behavior. We used a laboratory experimental approach to test seed survival under different heating conditions and seed bank structures. Creating a synthetic soil seed bank and synthetic fire/heating in the laboratory allowed us to have control over surface heating, depth of seed in the soil, and seed cache size. We compared the viability of Arctostaphylos viscida seeds from different treatment groups determined by these factors and found that, as expected, seeds slightly deeper in the soil had substantial increased chances of survival during a heating event. A key result was that some seeds within a cache in shallow soil could survive fire even at a depth with a killing heat pulse compared to isolated seeds; temperature measurements indicated lower temperatures immediately below caches compared to the same depth in adjacent soil. These results suggest seed caching by rodents increases seed survival during fire events in two ways, that caches disrupt heat flow or that caches are buried below the heat pulse kill zone. The context of natural disturbance drives the significance of this mutualism and further expands theory regarding mutualisms into the domain of disturbance-driven systems. PMID:27386076

  2. Studies on the seed oils of Parkia biglobosa and Parkia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Aiyelaagbe, O O; Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ekundayo, O

    1996-04-01

    The seed oils of Parkia biglobosa and Parkia bicolor (Mimosaceae) have been analysed for their possible edible utility and to provide some physical data on both oils. The fatty acid composition of the oils was identified. Six major fatty acids were identified in the oil of P. bicolor while five were identified in that of P. biglobosa by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The two oils contained five similar fatty acids in almost the same ratios. Arachidic acid was the most abundant fatty acids (greater than forty per cent) in both oils. Other fatty acids in the oils were behenic, stearic, palmitic and linoleic acids. The sixth fatty acid in P. bicolor was an odd number of carbon atom and un unsaturated fatty acid (C20H37COOH) named bicolargic acid. The oils were also found to be non toxic. PMID:8865332

  3. Chemometrical classification of pumpkin seed oils using UV-Vis, NIR and FTIR spectra.

    PubMed

    Lankmayr, Ernst; Mocak, Jan; Serdt, Katja; Balla, Branko; Wenzl, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Gfrerer, Marion; Wagner, Siegfried

    2004-10-29

    The main outcome of this work is elaboration of classification models for edible oil samples representing the most widespread brands of Austrian pumpkin seed oil. A complete spectral characterisation of the pumpkin seed oil samples by UV-Vis, NIR and FTIR spectra was obtained together with their basic sensorial classification. Chemometrical processing of the measured data enabled the detection of the most important spectral features, which are crucial for categorising the oils into two or three classes according to their sensory quality evaluated by a panel of experts. The elaborated models thus make it possible to predict the category into which a hitherto unclassified oil sample belongs--considering classification into either two categories, containing oils with overall acceptable scores or oils that were not accepted, or three categories, involving oils fulfilling all quality criteria, oils with good scores and not accepted oils. This will perspectively facilitate the determination of chemical substances responsible for bad taste, odour and colour of the respective oil brands, as well as finding substances contributing to the excellent sensorial perception of some tested products. PMID:15560925

  4. Seed oil triglyceride profiling of thirty-two hybrid grape varieties.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Fabiola; Seraglia, Roberta; Molin, Laura; Traldi, Pietro; De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Giust, Mirella; Flamini, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Triglyceride profile of seed oil samples from 32 hybrid grape varieties not studied before was investigated. A new method for the analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) has been developed based on the direct infusion in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and employing tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (85:10:5 v|v|v) as solvent; the formation of [M + Na](+) ions in high yield has been observed. TAGs were identified by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization and time-of-flight profile of samples was determined. Six were the principal TAGs identified in seed oil: trilinolein (LLL) was the most abundant (43%), followed by dilinoleoyl-oleoylglycerol (LOL, 23%), and dilinoleoyl-palmitoylglycerol (LPL, 15%). Compounds present in lower concentration were LSL and LOO (11%), LOP (6%), and LSP (2%). Compared with seed oils produced from V. Vinifera grapes, some significant differences in the relative abundances of TAGs were found, in particular hybrid grape seed oils showed higher LOL and lower LPL content, respectively. Among the samples studied, a particularly high content of LLL (rich in unsaturated fatty acids) was found in seed oils from two red varieties. PMID:22972779

  5. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:20098586

  6. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; Cerdá, Xim

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ant dispersers. By contrast, ant species that do not transport seeds and/or that do not abound near the plants are active either before or after H. foetidus diaspores are released. Experimental analysis of diet preference for three kinds of food shows that effective ant dispersers are mostly scavengers that readily feed on insect corpses and sugars. Artificial seed depots suggest that seeds deposited on the ground out of the natural daily time window of diaspore releasing are not removed by ants and suffer strong predation by nocturnal rodents Apodemus sylvaticus. Nevertheless, important inter-annual variations in rodent populations cast doubts on their real importance as selection agents. We argue that traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners may constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant–animal mutualisms involving numerous animal partners. PMID:17698486

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil From the Seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Mohamad; Sadoughi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia aerial parts are well known for antimicrobial activities including anti malaria. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil from the seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss (Asteraceae). Materials and Methods Essential oil was extracted from the powdered seeds of Artemisia aucheri by hydrodistillation. Antimicrobial activity against five bacterial species was tested using the disc diffusion method, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The essential oil of Artemisia aucheri seed showed activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The essential oil constituents identified by GC-MS were as follows: decane, ρ-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, ρ-mentha-8-ol, triene, borneol, lavandulol, bornyl acetate, chrysanthenyl acetate, dehydro aromadenderene, and caryophyllene oxide. Most of these compounds are also found in the aerial parts of Artemisia aucheri. Conclusions Variation in the compositions of essential oils from Artemisia aucheri, and thus variation in the antimicrobial activity of these oils, may be due to the plant parts used for essential oil prepration. PMID:24624145

  8. Effects of Oils and Essential Oils from Seeds of Zanthoxylum schinifolium against Foodborne Viral Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the most frequent cause of foodborne viral disease and are responsible for the vast majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. However, no specific therapies are available for the efficient control or prevention of foodborne viral disease. Here, we determined the antiviral activities of oils from seeds of Zanthoxylum schinifolium (ZSO) against foodborne viral surrogates, feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9), and murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), using plaque assay. Time-of-addition experiments were designed to determine the antiviral mechanism of action of ZSO against the surrogates. Maximal antiviral effect was observed upon pretreatment of FCV-F9 or MNV-1 with ZSO, which comprised oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid as the major fatty acids. FCV-F9 was more sensitive to ZSO than MNV-1, and the 50% effective concentration of ZSO against pretreatment of FCV-F9 was 0.0007%. However, essential oils from Z. schinifolium (ZSE), which comprised 42% estragole, showed no inhibitory effects against FCV-F9 and MNV-1. These results suggest that the inhibitory activities of ZSO were exerted by direct interaction of FCV-F9 or MNV-1 virion with ZSO, which may be a food material candidate for control of foodborne viral disease. PMID:25587338

  9. Gene expression profiling during seed-filling process in peanut with emphasis on oil biosynthesis networks.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kapil; Kayam, Galya; Faigenboim-Doron, Adi; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Hovav, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Pod-filling is an important stage of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed development. It is partially controlled by genetic factors, as cultivars considerably vary in pod-filling potential. Here, a study was done to detect changes in mRNA levels that accompany pod-filling processes. Four seed developmental stages were sampled from two peanut genotypes differing in their oil content and pod-filling potential. Transcriptome data were generated by RNA-Seq and explored with respect to genic and subgenomic patterns of expression. Very dynamic transcriptomic changes occurred during seed development in both genotypes. Yet, general higher expression rates of transcripts and an enrichment in processes involved "energy generation" and "primary metabolites" were observed in the genotype with the better pod-filling ("Hanoch"). A dataset of 584 oil-related genes was assembled and analyzed, resulting in several lipid metabolic processes highly expressed in Hanoch, including oil storage and FA synthesis/elongation. Homoeolog-specific gene expression analysis revealed that both subgenomes contribute to the oil genes expression. Yet, biases were observed in particular parts of the pathway with possible biological meaning, presumably explaining the genotypic variation in oil biosynthesis and pod-filling. This study provides baseline information and a resource that may be used to understand development and oil biosynthesis in the peanut seeds. PMID:27181953

  10. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated. PMID:23194559

  11. Rhamnolipids Increase the Phytotoxicity of Diesel Oil Towards Four Common Plant Species in a Terrestrial Environment.

    PubMed

    Marecik, Roman; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Lawniczak, Lukasz; Cyplik, Paweł; Szulc, Alicja; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2012-09-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of rhamnolipids on the phytotoxicity of diesel oil-contaminated soil samples. Tests evaluating the seed germination and growth inhibition of four terrestrial plant species (alfalfa, sorghum, mustard and cuckooflower) were carried out at different rhamnolipid concentrations (ranging from 0 to 1.200 mg/kg of wet soil). The experiments were performed in soil samples with a different diesel oil content (ranging from 0 to 25 ml/kg of wet soil). It was observed that the sole presence of rhamnolipids may be phytotoxic at various levels, which is especially notable for sorghum (the germination index decreased to 41 %). The addition of rhamnolipids to diesel oil-contaminated soil samples contributed to a significant increase of their phytotoxicity. The most toxic effect was observed after a rhamnolipid-supplemented diesel oil biodegradation, carried out with the use of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria consortium. The supplemention of rhamnolipids (600 mg/kg of wet soil) resulted in a decrease of seed germination of all studied plant species and an inhibition of microbial activity, which was measured by the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride tests. These findings indicate that the presence of rhamnolipids may considerably increase the phytotoxicity of diesel oil. Therefore, their use at high concentrations, during in situ bioremediation processes, should be avoided in a terrestrial environment. PMID:22865941

  12. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  13. Modification of seed oil content and acyl composition in the brassicaceae by expression of a yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zou, J; Katavic, V; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; MacKenzie, S L; Keller, W A; Hu, X; Taylor, D C

    1997-01-01

    A putative yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene (SLC1-1), reportedly a variant acyltransferase that suppresses a genetic defect in sphingolipid long-chain base biosynthesis, has been expressed in a yeast SLC deletion strain. The SLC1-1 gene product was shown in vitro to encode an sn-2 acyltransferase capable of acylating sn-1 oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, using a range of acyl-CoA thioesters, including 18:1-, 22:1-, and 24:0-CoAs. The SLC1-1 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis and a high erucic acid-containing Brassica napus cv Hero under the control of a constitutive (tandem cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter. The resulting transgenic plants showed substantial increases of 8 to 48% in seed oil content (expressed on the basis of seed dry weight) and increases in both overall proportions and amounts of very-long-chain fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols (TAGs). Furthermore, the proportion of very-long-chain fatty acids found at the sn-2 position of TAGs was increased, and homogenates prepared from developing seeds of transformed plants exhibited elevated lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) activity. Thus, the yeast sn-2 acyltransferase has been shown to encode a protein that can exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity and that can be used to change total fatty acid content and composition as well as to alter the stereospecific acyl distribution of fatty acids in seed TAGs. PMID:9212466

  14. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20–30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20–30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  15. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20-30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20-30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  16. Fate of oxidized triglycerides during refining of seed oils.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tommaso; Caponio, Francesco; Delcuratolo, Debora

    2003-07-30

    The evolution of oxidized triglycerides (ox-TG) during industrial refining was studied in soybean, sunflower, peanut, and corn oils. The analytical techniques used were silica gel column chromatography and high-performance size exclusion chromatography. The decrease in ox-TG during refining (42.3% on average) was accompanied by an increase in triglyceride oligopolymers (TGP). The inverse correlation between the two lipid groups suggests that the decrease in ox-TG during refining was due in part to the occurrence of polymerization reactions. An inverse correlation was also found between the percentage sum of ox-TG + TGP and percent TGP, indicating that a part of the ox-TG also underwent degradation or transformation reactions. On average, almost 58% of the ox-TG remained unchanged during refining and, of the rest, about half was involved in polymerization reactions and half in degradation or transformation reactions. PMID:14705891

  17. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. PMID:20435475

  18. Fatty acid profile in the seeds and seed tissues of Paeonia L. species as new oil plant resources.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuiyan; Du, Shaobo; Yuan, Junhui; Hu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Most common plant oils have little α-linolenic acid (C18:3(Δ9,12,15), ALA) and an unhealthy ω6/ω3 ratio. Here, fatty acids (FAs) in the seeds of 11 species of Paeonia L., including 10 tree peony and one herbaceous species, were explored using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results indicated that all Paeonia had a ω6/ω3 ratio less than 1.0, and high amounts of ALA (26.7-50%), oleic acid (C18:1(Δ9), OA) (20.8-46%) and linoleic acid (C18:2(Δ9,12), LA) (10-38%). ALA was a dominant component in oils of seven subsection Vaginatae species, whereas OA was predominant in two subsection Delavayanae species. LA was a subdominant oil component in P. ostii and P. obovata. Moreover, the FA composition and distribution of embryo (22 FAs), endosperm (14 FAs) and seed coat (6 FAs) in P. ostii, P. rockii and P. ludlowii were first reported. Peony species, particularly P. decomposita and P. rockii, can be excellent plant resources for edible oil because they provide abundant ALA to balance the ω6/ω3 ratio. The differences in the ALA, LA and OA content proportion also make the peony species a good system for detailed investigation of FA biosynthesis pathway and ALA accumulation. PMID:27240678

  19. Fatty acid profile in the seeds and seed tissues of Paeonia L. species as new oil plant resources

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuiyan; Du, Shaobo; Yuan, Junhui; Hu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Most common plant oils have little α-linolenic acid (C18:3Δ9,12,15, ALA) and an unhealthy ω6/ω3 ratio. Here, fatty acids (FAs) in the seeds of 11 species of Paeonia L., including 10 tree peony and one herbaceous species, were explored using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer. Results indicated that all Paeonia had a ω6/ω3 ratio less than 1.0, and high amounts of ALA (26.7–50%), oleic acid (C18:1Δ9, OA) (20.8–46%) and linoleic acid (C18:2Δ9,12, LA) (10–38%). ALA was a dominant component in oils of seven subsection Vaginatae species, whereas OA was predominant in two subsection Delavayanae species. LA was a subdominant oil component in P. ostii and P. obovata. Moreover, the FA composition and distribution of embryo (22 FAs), endosperm (14 FAs) and seed coat (6 FAs) in P. ostii, P. rockii and P. ludlowii were first reported. Peony species, particularly P. decomposita and P. rockii, can be excellent plant resources for edible oil because they provide abundant ALA to balance the ω6/ω3 ratio. The differences in the ALA, LA and OA content proportion also make the peony species a good system for detailed investigation of FA biosynthesis pathway and ALA accumulation. PMID:27240678

  20. SEED DETERIORATION INCREASES IN THE PRESENCE OF VOLATILES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of culinary importance emit low molecular weight carbonyl compounds that can be detected as volatiles in the surrounding air. Volatile carbonyl molecules are byproducts of cascading peroxidative reactions and can be highly reactive against proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Carum carvi L. pro...

  1. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use. PMID:23561092

  2. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Kumar, Dharmendra; Nath, Gopal; Kumar Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir; Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake & latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. Results: The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), GC-MS etc. Conclusion: The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy. PMID:27516977

  3. [Unsaturated fatty acid of Actinidia chinesis Planch seed oil enhances the antioxidative stress ability of rats with pulmonary fibrosis through activating Keap 1/Nrf 2 signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijing; Qian, Hong; Yin, Huiming; He, Jianbin; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Zaiyan

    2016-04-01

    Objective To observe the effects of unsaturated fatty acid of Actinidia chinesis Planch(USFA-ACP) seed oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and to explore whether the effect is mediated by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap 1)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf 2)signaling pathway. Methods Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, (60, 120, 180) mg/kg USFA-ACP seed oil treatment group and 5 mg/kg prednisone group. Each group included 10 animals. Rats in the control group were intratracheally administered with normal saline, and the rest of five groups were intratracheally administered with bleomycin A5 to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. From the second day, rats in the three USFA-ACP seed oil treatment groups were intragastrically treated with 60, 120 and 180 mg/kg USFA-ACP seed oil correspondingly. The prednisone group were intragastrically administrated with 5 mg/kg prednisone acetate. Control and model groups were treated with normal saline. All rats were sacrificed on day 28. Pulmonary tissues were then removed, and HE and Masson staining were performed. The contents of hydroxyproline (HYP), reactive oxygen species(ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) in pulmonary tissue homogenates were measured through the commercial kits. The protein expressions of Keap 1 and Nrf2 in pulmonary tissues were analyzed using Western blotting. Results Compared with the model group, the alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis extent in 60, 120, 180 mg/kg USFA-ACP seed oil treatment groups as well as the prednisone group were significantly alleviated, HYP, ROS and MDA contents in pulmonary tissues, Keap 1 protein expression in the cytoplasm decreased remarkably, while SOD, CAT and GSH-Px contents in pulmonary tissues, Nrf2 protein expression in the nucleus increased. Moreover, compared with 60 mg/kg USFA-ACP seed oil treatment group, the above

  4. The embryo and the endosperm contribute equally to argan seed oil yield but confer distinct lipid features to argan oil.

    PubMed

    Errouane, Kheira; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Vaissayre, Virginie; Leblanc, Olivier; Collin, Myriam; Kaid-Harche, Meriem; Dussert, Stéphane

    2015-08-15

    In the perspective of studying lipid biosynthesis in the argan seed, the anatomy, ploidy level and lipid composition of mature seed tissues were investigated using an experimental design including two locations in Algeria and four years of study. Using flow cytometry, we determined that mature argan seeds consist of two well-developed tissues, the embryo and the endosperm. The lipid content of the embryo was higher than that of the endosperm, but the dry weight of the endosperm was higher. Consequently, both tissues contribute equally to seed oil yield. Considerable differences in fatty acid composition were observed between the two tissues. In particular, the endosperm 18:2 percentage was twofold higher than that of the embryo. The tocopherol content of the endosperm was also markedly higher than that of the embryo. In contrast, the endosperm and the embryo had similar sterol and triterpene alcohol contents and compositions. PMID:25794750

  5. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    PubMed

    Minor, Rebecca L; Koprowski, John L

    2015-01-01

    Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti) on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure. PMID:26650073

  6. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Rebecca L.; Koprowski, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert’s squirrels (Sciurus aberti) on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert’s squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert’s squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert’s squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert’s squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure. PMID:26650073

  7. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. PMID:23561175

  8. Differential expression analysis of transcripts related to oil metabolism in maturing seeds of Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Divya; Sankararamasubramanian, H M; Kumar, M Ashok; Parida, Ajay

    2014-04-01

    Jatropha curcas has been widely studied at the molecular level due to its potential as an alternative source of fuel. Many of the reports till date on this plant have focussed mainly on genes contributing to the accumulation of oil in its seeds. A suppression subtractive hybridization strategy was employed to identify genes which are differentially expressed in the mid maturation stage of J. curcas seeds. Random expressed sequence tag sequencing of the cDNA subtraction library resulted in 385 contigs and 1,428 singletons, with 591 expressed sequence tags mapping for enzymes having catalytic roles in various metabolic pathways. Differences in transcript levels in early and mid-to-late maturation stages of seeds were also investigated using sequence information obtained from the cDNA subtraction library. Seven out of 12 transcripts having putative roles in central carbon metabolism were up regulated in early seed maturation stage while lipid metabolism related transcripts were detected at higher levels in the later stage of seed maturation. Interestingly, 4 of the transcripts revealed putative alternative splice variants that were specifically present or up regulated in the early or late maturation stage of the seeds. Transcript expression patterns from the current study using maturing seeds of J. curcas reveal a subtle balancing of oil accumulation and utilization, which may be influenced by their energy requirements. PMID:24757322

  9. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  10. Protection and viability of fruit seeds oils by nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Krasodomska, Olga; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania; Casadei, Maria Antonietta; Jungnickel, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we focused on the development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for dermal application. The NLC matrix was designed as a protective reservoir of biological active compounds that naturally occur in domestic fruit seed oils. Over the years, emulsions, as a popular physicochemical form of personal care products, were refined in order to obtain the best possible penetration into the skin of any bioactive compound introduced in the formulation, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the bioactive components are useful only if they are able to penetrate the skin unchanged. Therefore, an alternate way to deliver naturally occurring PUFAs is needed. NLCs present a novel delivery and protection system for the PUFAs. The cold pressed fruit seed oils obtained from waste material were used in this paper: blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and plum. Thermodynamic (DSC) and structural techniques ((1)H NMR) were applied in order to characterize the obtained systems in terms of seed oil incorporation into the NLC, and oxidative stability tests were used to confirm the protective quality of the systems. During the formulation optimization process the most stable nanosuspension with the best seed oil incorporation was a mixture of 4% nonionic emulsifiers, 88% water and 6% lipids with a ratio of 6:2, wax:oil. The oxidative stability tests showed that the NLC was an effective method of protection of the PUFAs. PMID:27348480

  11. RESPONSE OF LOW SEED PHYTIC ACID SOYBEANS TO INCREASES IN EXTERNAL P SUPPLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial development of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) varieties with low seed phytic acid concentrations will depend on both the stability of the trait when grown in soils with a wide range of phosphorus (P) availabilities, and on the impact of genetically altered P composition on protein and oil...

  12. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular. PMID:24142351

  13. Triacylglycerol biosynthesis in developing Ribes nigrum and Ribes rubrum seeds from gene expression to oil composition.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Hoppula, Kati B; Karhu, Saila T; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2016-04-01

    Oils with sufficient contents of fatty acids, which can be metabolized into precursors of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, have potential health effects. Ribes sp. seed oil is rich in α-linolenic, γ-linolenic and stearidonic acids belonging to this fatty acid group. Only a few previous studies exist on Ribes sp. gene expression. We followed the seed oil biosynthesis of four Ribes nigrum and two Ribes rubrum cultivars at different developmental stages over 2 years in Southern and Northern Finland with a 686 km latitudinal difference. The species and the developmental stage were the most important factors causing differences in gene expression levels and oil composition. Differences between cultivars were detected in some cases, but year and location had only small effects. However, expression of the gene encoding Δ(9)-desaturase in R. nigrum was affected by location. Triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Ribes sp. was distinctly buffered and typically followed a certain path, regardless of growth environment. PMID:26593580

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  15. Camelina seed transcriptome: a tool for meal and oil improvement and translational research.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu T; Silva, Jillian E; Podicheti, Ram; Macrander, Jason; Yang, Wenyu; Nazarenus, Tara J; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G; Lu, Chaofu; Scheffler, Brian E; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2013-08-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa), a Brassicaceae oilseed, has received recent interest as a biofuel crop and production platform for industrial oils. Limiting wider production of camelina for these uses is the need to improve the quality and content of the seed protein-rich meal and oil, which is enriched in oxidatively unstable polyunsaturated fatty acids that are deleterious for biodiesel. To identify candidate genes for meal and oil quality improvement, a transcriptome reference was built from 2047 Sanger ESTs and more than 2 million 454-derived sequence reads, representing genes expressed in developing camelina seeds. The transcriptome of approximately 60K transcripts from 22 597 putative genes includes camelina homologues of nearly all known seed-expressed genes, suggesting a high level of completeness and usefulness of the reference. These sequences included candidates for 12S (cruciferins) and 2S (napins) seed storage proteins (SSPs) and nearly all known lipid genes, which have been compiled into an accessible database. To demonstrate the utility of the transcriptome for seed quality modification, seed-specific RNAi lines deficient in napins were generated by targeting 2S SSP genes, and high oleic acid oil lines were obtained by targeting FATTY ACID DESATURASE 2 (FAD2) and FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 (FAE1). The high sequence identity between Arabidopsis thaliana and camelina genes was also exploited to engineer high oleic lines by RNAi with Arabidopsis FAD2 and FAE1 sequences. It is expected that these transcriptomic data will be useful for breeding and engineering of additional camelina seed traits and for translating findings from the model Arabidopsis to an oilseed crop. PMID:23551501

  16. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  17. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it's of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a "seed bank" of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  18. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  19. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  20. Gene silencing of Sugar-dependent 1 (JcSDP1), encoding a patatin-domain triacylglycerol lipase, enhances seed oil accumulation in Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most abundant form of storage oil in plants. They consist of three fatty acid chains (usually C16 or C18) covalently linked to glycerol. SDP1 is a specific lipase for the first step of TAG catabolism in Arabidopsis seeds. Arabidopsis mutants deficient in SDP1 accumulate high levels of oils, probably due to blockage in TAG degradation. We applied this knowledge from the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to engineer increased seed oil content in the biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Results As Jatropha is a biodiesel crop, any significant increase in its seed oil content would be an important agronomic trait. Using A. thaliana as a model plant, we found that a deficiency of SDP1 led to higher TAG accumulation and a larger number of oil bodies in seeds compared with wild type (Columbia-0; Col-0). We cloned Jatropha JcSDP1, and verified its function by complementation of the Arabidopsis sdp1-5 mutant. Taking advantage of the observation with Arabidopsis, we used RNAi technology to generate JcSDP1 deficiency in transgenic Jatropha. We found that Jatropha JcSDP1-RNAi plants accumulated 13 to 30% higher total seed storage lipid, along with a 7% compensatory decrease in protein content, compared with control (CK; 35S:GFP) plants. Free fatty acid (FFA) content in seeds was reduced from 27% in control plants to 8.5% in JcSDP1-RNAi plants. Conclusion Here, we showed that SDP1 deficiency enhances seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. Based on this result, we generated SDP1-deficient transgenic Jatropha plants using by RNAi technology with a native JcSDP1 promoter to silence endogenous JcSDP1 expression. Seeds of Jatropha JcSDP1-RNAi plants accumulated up to 30% higher total lipid and had reduced FFA content compared with control (CK; 35S:GFP) plants. Our strategy of improving an important agronomic trait of Jatropha can be extended to other oil crops to yield higher seed oil. PMID:24606605

  1. Radiations and biodegradation techniques for detoxifying Carica papaya seed oil for effective dietary and industrial use.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Bisi-Adeniyi, Tolulope Dorcas; Adedoyin, Toluwalase Ronke; Rotimi, Solomon Oladapo

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is toxic in high concentration. The capacity of Aspergillus niger, microwave and ultraviolet radiations to reduce the BITC levels in Carica papaya Linn seed oil were assessed in vitro. BITC at different concentrations were periodically exposed to microwave and ultraviolet radiations for 30 min and 10 h, respectively; and to identify Aspergillus niger for 4 days. Microwave radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels (0.0272, 0.0544, and 0.0816 μmol) to 12.19, 8.99 and 27.5 % respectively within 15 min. Ultraviolet radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels at all the concentrations. A. niger significantly increased (p < 0.05) BITC degradation on days 2 and 4 at 0.816, 1.36 and 2.72 nmol. Glutathione activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) while glutathione S-transferase activity significantly reduced (p < 0.05) at all concentrations on days 3 and 4 respectively. The three techniques are possible models for improving the dietary consumption of the oil. PMID:26396392

  2. Analytical characterization of Hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.) oil from eight regions in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianpeng; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Hua; Qian, Ping; Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Lite

    2010-06-01

    In this study, eight cultivars of hempseed were collected from different regions of China for analysis of physiochemical properties and chemical composition, as well as for seed indexes and proximate composition of seed kernel. The results indicated that Yunma No. 1 and Bama Huoma, with more than 50% oil and 30% protein in dehulled seed, could be considered as oil extraction material and protein source with respect to kernel yield. Iodine values ranging from 153.6 to 169.1 g/100 g reflected the high degree of unsaturation. The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded 90%, higher than most conventional vegetable oils. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 76.26% to 82.75% and were mainly composed of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid with a ratio close to 3:1. γ-Tocopherol was found at an average concentration of 28.23 mg/100 g of hempseed oil. The results indicated that hempseed oil is a potentially valuable vegetable oil. PMID:22435611

  3. Antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil during a forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Ko, Hsiang-Kai; Huang, Brian E T-G; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder may become one of the major leading causes of disease burden by 2030 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the discovery of antidepressive foods is attractive and could have considerable impacts worldwide. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil on adult male rats subjected to a forced swimming test (FST). Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were housed and fed various diets, including soybean oil-rich, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich diets for 6 weeks. After the dietary intervention, animals were tested using an FST and were sacrificed after the test. We analyzed the fatty acid profiles of red blood cells (RBCs) and the brain prefrontal cortex (PFC). Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and dopamine in the PFC were also determined. After the FST, the imipramine, EPA-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich groups showed significant shorter immobility time and longer struggling time than the control group (p < 0.05). Levels of BDNF in the P. frutescens seed oil-rich group and levels of serotonin in the EPA-rich group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. Moreover, the BDNF concentration in the PFC was significantly positively correlated with the struggling time. However, there were no significant differences in dopamine levels between the intervention groups and the control group. In conclusion, a P. frutescens seed oil-rich diet exhibited antidepressant-like properties through modulation of fatty acid profiles and BDNF expression in the brain during an FST. PMID:24651157

  4. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat’s Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat’s sperm. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Results Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. Conclusion This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26816914

  5. Modification of Seed Oil Composition in Arabidopsis by Artificial microRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Belide, Srinivas; Petrie, James Robertson; Shrestha, Pushkar; Singh, Surinder Pal

    2012-01-01

    Various post transcriptional gene silencing strategies have been developed and exploited to study gene function or engineer disease resistance. The recently developed artificial microRNA strategy is an alternative method of effectively silencing target genes. The Δ12-desaturase (FAD2), Fatty acid elongase (FAE1), and Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase B (FATB) were targeted with amiR159b-based constructs in Arabidopsis thaliana to evaluate changes in oil composition when expressed with the seed-specific Brassica napus truncated napin (FP1) promoter. Fatty acid profiles from transgenic homozygous seeds reveal that the targeted genes were silenced. The down-regulation of the AtFAD-2 gene substantially increased oleic acid from the normal levels of ∼15% to as high as 63.3 and reduced total PUFA content (18:2Δ9,12 + 18:3Δ9,12,15 + 20:2Δ11,14 + 20:3Δ11,14,17) from 46.8 to 4.8%. Δ12-desaturase activity was reduced to levels as low as those in the null fad-2-1 and fad-2-2 mutants. Silencing of the FAE1 gene resulted in the reduction of eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11) to 1.9 from 15.4% and silencing of FATB resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid (16:0) to 4.4% from 8.0%. Reduction in FATB activity is comparable with a FATB knock-out mutant. These results demonstrate for the first time amiR159b constructs targeted against three endogenous seed-expressed genes are clearly able to down-regulate and generate genotypic changes that are inherited stably over three generations. PMID:22866055

  6. Seed Oil and Composition Development in Two Sunflower Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. Currently, it is recommended that desiccants such as glyphosate and paraquat be applied at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Recently, Johnson and Gesch (2009) showed that PM for two commerci...

  7. Creating Conventional Soybeans with the High Oleic Acid Seed Oil Trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commodity soybeans are poised to undergo a revolutionary change. Major shifts in market expectations for the nutritional quality of the oil, brought about in part through food labeling requirements and the suitability for biodiesel, are driving the commodity soybean to embrace new seed compositiona...

  8. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  9. Influence of geography on fatty acid composition of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of 24 seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) accessions collected from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U.S. was measured to determine the influence of geography on fatty acid distribution. Seed oils were extracted with hexane utilizing the Soxhlet method and fatty acid...

  10. Nutrient homeostasis, C:N:S ratios, protein, and oil content in Cuphea seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macro- and micro-nutrient densities, carbon:nitrogen (C:N), nitrogen:sulphur (N:S), protein, and oil contents and interrelationships were assessed during a 3-year study in seeds of the indeterminate Cuphea germplasm line PSR23 selected from an inter-specific cross between two species of the Lythrace...

  11. Seed oil and Fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species were evaluated for seed oil content using TD-NMR. Species evaluated included; A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschat...

  12. Enrichment of erucic acid from pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) is a winter annual that has a wide geographic distribution and a growth habitat that makes it suitable for an off-season rotation between corn and soybeans in much of the Midwestern United States. Pennycress seed contains 36% oil with 36.6% erucic acid content. There are...

  13. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  14. Protective effect of Eruca sativa seed oil against oral nicotine induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Gamal Said; El-Fark, Magdy Omar; Hamdy, Raid Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    Nicotine is a pharmacologically active component of the tobacco that adversely affects the male reproductive system and fertility. Nicotine administration in experimental animals was found to affect spermatogenesis, epididymal sperm count, motility and the fertilizing potential of sperms. The goal of this work is to assess the protective or ameliorative effect of Eruca Sativa seed oil against testicular damage induced by oral administration of nicotine in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into three groups; control, nicotine treated and nicotine and Eruca seed oil treated groups. After three weeks of treatment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed where testes were removed and weighed then calculating relative testis weights. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining and the sections were examined for different morphometric and histopathological changes. The results show that nicotine administration had an effect on the body and testis weight and various morphometric parameters of the testis. It also induced varying degrees of structural damage to the seminiferous tubules, with shrinkage and absence of mature spermatids. Disorganized, vacuolization and loss of germinal cells were noticed in the basement membrane. The co-administration of Eruca Sativa seed oil led to improvement in the morphometric and histopathological changes of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, Eruca Sativa seed oil treatment in this study had a protective role by reversing, almost completely, all morphometric and histological changes in the testis induced by nicotine administration. PMID:27289444

  15. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm. PMID:22540530

  16. Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cottonseed biodiesel while assessing the IDI engine multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the southeast of the USA every year and they contain oils that can be transesteri...

  17. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifuge gave an...

  18. EVIDENCE OF SEED OILS IN FINE PARTICLES FROM THE NEW YORK METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a poster on the contribution of seed oils used for cooking to organic particulate matter to be presented at the 2006 International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research in St. Paul, Minnesota on September 10-15. Sam...

  19. Combining ability and performance of cotton germplasm with diverse seed oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A line by tester analysis was used to identify superior general and specific combining parents for seed oil content in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). This experiment was conducted using four lines (PD 7723, PD 94042, PD 3246 and PD 5377) and four testers (TX 21, TX 101, TX 182 and TX 244) w...

  20. Nutrient homeostasis, C:N ratio, and oil content in cuphea seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interrelationships between densities of 14 nutrients, C:N and N:S ratios, and oil and protein contents were assessed in seeds of indeterminate Cuphea plants subjected to no (GDD0) or to source-sink manipulation by removing the top 25% of plant foliage at 100 and 200 growing degree days (GDD1 and GDD...

  1. Fatty acid profile of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil and properties of the methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent literature, seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos; also known previously as Kosteletzkya virginica) seed oil was reported as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel. In the present work, the fatty acid profile of K. pentacarpos is shown to correspond to that of other plants in ...

  2. Effect of extrusion cooking of lesquerella seeds on the quality of the extracted oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert southwestern United States. The seed has 28% oil, which contains about 64% hydroxy fatty acid (HFA). HFA is used in a variety of industrial applications such as lubricants, corrosion inhibitor...

  3. Camelina seed transcriptome: Tool for meal and oil improvement and translational research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa), a Brassicaceae oilseed, has received intense interest as a biofuel crop and production platform for industrial oils. Limiting wider production of camelina for these uses is the need to improve seed composition traits such as the quality and content of the protein rich-me...

  4. An improved method for extraction of high-quality total RNA from oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Rayani, Azadeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Seeds of oilseed plants that contain large amounts of oil, polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols are not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. The presence of these substances affects the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids. Here, a rapid and efficient RNA isolation protocol that, in contrast to other methods tested, allows high purify, integrity and yield of total RNA from seeds of sesame, corn, sunflower, flax and rapeseed was developed. The average yields of total RNA from 70 mg oil seeds ranged from 84 to 310 µg with A260/A280 between 1.9 and 2.08. The RNA isolated with this protocol was verified to be suitable for PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and expression analysis. PMID:25534638

  5. Increasing the Oleic Acid in Soybean Oil with Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the oleic acid content along with decrease in linolenic acid can improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Genetic changes in soybean using standard plant breeding practices has resulted in a publicly released a mid-oleic breeding line, N98-4445A, with oil that averages 57% oleic ac...

  6. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  7. Liquefaction of cotton seed in sub-critical water/ethanol with modified medical stone for bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomin; Wang, Baofeng; Zhang, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated thermal liquefaction of cotton seed in an autoclave. The effects of solvent (ethanol/water, water and ethanol), temperature and some additives on product distribution were investigated. The results showed that using ethanol/water as solvent could get higher total conversion. The highest liquid oil yield (38.4%) was obtained at 300°C, 2MPa and 30min in ethanol/water with Mo/MS (medical stone). The highest hydrogen content in gas also was obtained when adding Mo/MS, and then followed by that when adding Co-Mo/MS. (1)H NMR analysis indicated that the use of additives (except MS) could increase the aliphatic content in liquid oil. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR showed that the liquefied oil from liquefaction of cotton seed mainly obtained aliphatic compounds, and adding the additives only changed the amount of compounds and did not alter the type of compounds obtained in the oil. PMID:26318931

  8. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations. PMID:22131677

  9. Did greater burial depth increase the seed size of domesticated legumes?

    PubMed

    Kluyver, Thomas A; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-10-01

    The independent domestication of crop plants in several regions of the world formed the basis of human civilizations, and attracts considerable interest from archaeologists and biologists. Selection under cultivation led to a suite of domestication traits which distinguish crops from their wild progenitors, including larger seeds in most seed crops. This selection may be classified as 'conscious' or 'unconscious' selection according to whether humans were aware of the changes that they were driving. The hypothesis that human cultivation buried seeds deeper than natural dispersal, exerting unconscious selection favouring larger seeds with greater reserves, was tested. Using a comparative approach, accessions of eight grain legumes, originating from independent domestication centres across several continents, were sampled. Seeds were planted at different depths in a controlled environment, and seedling emergence scored for 5 weeks after sowing. Domestication in all species was associated with increased seed mass. In three species, greater mass was not correlated with increased ability to emerge from depth. In five species, emergence depth did correlate with mass, suggesting that selection during domestication may have acted on emergence depth. However, domestication only had a significant effect in two of these species (lentil and mung bean), and the increase in depth was no more than predicted by a cube-root allometric relationship with seed mass. The results do not support the hypothesis that burial under cultivation was a general selection mechanism for increased seed mass during the domestication of grain legumes, but it may have acted in particular species or regions. PMID:24058143

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    PubMed

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds. PMID:25174674

  11. Study on preparation method of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds kernel oil with zero trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Yao, Shi-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Yi; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    The seed of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) is a by-product of pepper production and rich in unsaturated fatty acid, cellulose, and protein. The seed oil obtained from traditional producing process by squeezing or extracting would be bad quality and could not be used as edible oil. In this paper, a new preparation method of Z. bungeanum seed kernel oil (ZSKO) was developed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of alkali saponification-cold squeezing, alkali saponification-solvent extraction, and alkali saponification-supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The results showed that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing could be the optimal preparation method of ZSKO, which contained the following steps: Z. bungeanum seed was pretreated by alkali saponification under the conditions of adding 10 %NaOH (w/w), solution temperature was 80 °C, and saponification reaction time was 45 min, and pretreated seed was separated by filtering, water washing, and overnight drying at 50 °C, then repeated squeezing was taken until no oil generated at 60 °C with 15 % moisture content, and ZSKO was attained finally using centrifuge. The produced ZSKO contained more than 90 % unsaturated fatty acids and no trans-fatty acids and be testified as a good edible oil with low-value level of acid and peroxide. It was demonstrated that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing process could be scaled up and applied to industrialized production of ZSKO. PMID:26268620

  12. The antioxidant effects of pumpkin seed oil on subacute aflatoxin poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Aslan, Öznur; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the antioxidant effect of pumpkin seed oil against the oxidative stress-inducing potential of aflatoxin. For this purpose, 48 male BALB/c mice were used. Four groups, each comprising 12 mice, were established. Group 1 was maintained as the control group. Group 2 was administered with pumpkin seed oil alone at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day (∼1375mg/kg.bw/day). Group 3 received aflatoxin (82.45% AFB1 , 10.65% AFB2 , 4.13% AFG1, and 2.77% AFG2 ) alone at a dose of 625 μg/kg.bw/day. Finally, group 4 was given both 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day pumpkin seed oil and 625 μg/kg.bw/day aflatoxin. All administrations were oral, performed with the aid of a gastric tube and continued for a period of 21 days. At the end of day 21, the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, heart, and spleen of the animals were excised, and the extirpated tissues were homogenized appropriately. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in tissue homogenates. In conclusion, it was determined that aflatoxin exhibited adverse effects on most of the oxidative stress markers. The administration of pumpkin seed oil diminished aflatoxin-induced adverse effects. In other words, the values of the group, which was administered with both aflatoxin and pumpkin seed oil, were observed to have drawn closer to the values of the control group. PMID:24591108

  13. Complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters with biodiesel prepared from soybean and waste cooking oils to enhance fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters (MFME) with soybean and waste cooking oil methyl esters (SME and WCME) was investigated. MFME prepared from cold-pressed meadowfoam oil exhibited an exceptionally high induction period (IP) of 66.2 h whereas SME and WCME yielded conside...

  14. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  15. Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M Musa

    2008-09-01

    Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:18800913

  16. Cumulative effect of heterologous AtWRI1 gene expression and endogenous BjAGPase gene silencing increases seed lipid content in Indian mustard Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-10-01

    The production of vegetable oil in many countries of the world, including India has not been able to keep pace with the increasing requirement, leading to a very large gap in the demand-supply chain. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the yield potential of the oilseed crops so as to enhance the storage lipid productivity. The present study describes a novel metabolic engineering ploy involving the constitutive down-regulation of endogenous ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (BjAGPase) enzyme and the seed-specific expression of WRINKLED1 transcription factor (AtWRI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) with an aim to divert the photosynthetically fixed carbon pool from starch to lipid synthesis in the seeds for the enhanced production of storage lipids in the seeds of transgenic mustard plants. The starch content, in both the vegetative leaf and developing seed tissues of the transgenic B. juncea lines exhibited a reduction by about 45-53% compared to the untransformed control, whereas the soluble sugar content was increased by 2.4 and 1.3-fold in the leaf and developing seed tissues, respectively. Consequently, the transgenic lines showed a significant enhancement in total seed lipid content ranging between 7.5 and 16.9%. The results indicate that the adopted metabolic engineering strategy was successful in significantly increasing the seed oil content. Therefore, findings of our research suggest that the metabolic engineering strategy adopted in this study for shifting the anabolic carbon flux from starch synthesis to lipid biosynthesis can be employed for increasing the storage lipid content of seeds in other plant species. PMID:27314514

  17. A genome-wide association study of seed protein and oil content in soybean

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Association analysis is an alternative to conventional family-based methods to detect the location of gene(s) or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provides relatively high resolution in terms of defining the genome position of a gene or QTL. Seed protein and oil concentration are quantitative traits which are determined by the interaction among many genes with small to moderate genetic effects and their interaction with the environment. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed protein and oil concentration in 298 soybean germplasm accessions exhibiting a wide range of seed protein and oil content. Results A total of 55,159 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using various methods including Illumina Infinium and GoldenGate assays and 31,954 markers with minor allele frequency >0.10 were used to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. In euchromatic regions, the mean LD (r 2 ) rapidly declined to 0.2 within 360 Kbp, whereas the mean LD declined to 0.2 at 9,600 Kbp in heterochromatic regions. The GWAS results identified 40 SNPs in 17 different genomic regions significantly associated with seed protein. Of these, the five SNPs with the highest associations and seven adjacent SNPs were located in the 27.6-30.0 Mbp region of Gm20. A major seed protein QTL has been previously mapped to the same location and potential candidate genes have recently been identified in this region. The GWAS results also detected 25 SNPs in 13 different genomic regions associated with seed oil. Of these markers, seven SNPs had a significant association with both protein and oil. Conclusions This research indicated that GWAS not only identified most of the previously reported QTL controlling seed protein and oil, but also resulted in narrower genomic regions than the regions reported as containing these QTL. The narrower GWAS-defined genome

  18. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. PMID:25912558

  19. Methyl ester of [Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider] seed oil: biodiesel production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Saloua, Fatnassi; Saber, Chatti; Hedi, Zarrouk

    2010-05-01

    Oil extracted from seeds of Maclura pomifera fruits grown in Tunisia was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of the biodiesel oil (4.66 cSt) is similar to that of petroleum diesel (2.5-3.5 cSt). The density (0.889 g/cm(3)), kinematic viscosity (4.66 cSt), flash point (180 degrees Celsius), iodine number (125 degrees Celsius), neutralization number (0.4), pour point (-9 degrees Celsius), cloud point (-5 degrees Celsius), cetane number (48) are very similar to the values set forth by the ASTM and EN biodiesel standards for petroleum diesel (No. 2). The comparison shows that the methyl esters of M. pomifera oil could be possible diesel fuel replacements. PMID:20060293

  20. Isolation and identification of a potent radical scavenger (canolol) from roasted high erucic mustard seed oil from Nepal and its formation during roasting.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Kshitij; Stevens, Christian V; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Roasting of high erucic mustard (HEM) seed has been reported to give a typical flavor and increase the oxidative stability of the extracted oil. A potent radical scavenging compound was successfully isolated from roasted HEM seed oil in a single-step chromatographic separation using an amino solid-phase extraction column. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry spectra revealed the compound as 2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol (generally known as canolol), and its identity was fully confirmed by chemical synthesis. The formation of canolol during roasting was compared among HEM varieties (Brassica juncea, B. juncea var. oriental, Brassica nigra, and Sinapis alba) together with a low erucic rapeseed variety. HEM varieties were shown to produce less than one-third of canolol compared to rapeseed at similar roasting conditions. This observation was linked to a lower free sinapic acid content together with a lower loss of sinapic acid derivatives in the HEM varieties compared to rapeseed. Around 50% of the canolol formed in the roasted seed was shown to be extracted in the oil. Roasting of HEM seed before oil extraction was found to be a beneficial step to obtain canolol-enriched oil, which could improve the oxidative stability. PMID:22746294

  1. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  2. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  3. Studies on the effect of ohmic heating on oil recovery and quality of sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kirti; Mudgal, V D; Viswasrao, Gajanan; Srivastava, Himani

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a new technological process for sesame oil extraction. The process deals with the effect of ohmic heating on enhancement of oil recovery and quality of cleaned and graded sesame seed. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (600, 750 and 900 V/m), end point temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and holding time (5, 10 and 15 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovered from sesame seed through mechanical extracted oil by application of ohmic heating varies from 39.98 to 43.15 %. The maximum oil recovery 43.15 % was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 85 °C using EFS of 900 V/m for a holding time of 10 min as against 34.14 % in control sample. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil was within the acceptable limit (1.52 to 2.26 % oleic acid) of 0.5 to 3 % as prescribed respectively by Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The peroxide value of extracted oil was also found within the acceptable limit (0.78 to 1.01 meq/kg). The optimum value for maximum oil recovery, minimum residual oil content, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value were 41.24 %, 8.61 %, 1.74 % oleic acid and 0.86 meq/kg, respectively at 722.52 V/m EFS at EPT 65 °C for 5 min. holding time which was obtained by response surface methodology. PMID:27413228

  4. In silico identification and comparative genomics of candidate genes involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil in plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs) which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants. PMID:22312320

  5. In Silico Identification and Comparative Genomics of Candidate Genes Involved in Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Seed Oil in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs) which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants. PMID:22312320

  6. Wild Amaranthus caudatus seed oil, a nutraceutical resource from Ecuadorian flora.

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Medici, A; Guerrini, A; Scalia, S; Poli, F; Muzzoli, M; Sacchetti, G

    2001-11-01

    Seed oil of wild Amaranthus caudatus from Ecuador was analyzed for determining the tocopherol, fatty acid, and sterol contents. The data obtained were compared with the analogous chemical profile of seed oil of Italian A. caudatus with the objective of evaluating the nutraceutical and alimentary potential of the Ecuadorian matrix. Supercritical fluid and ultrasound-enhanced extractions were performed on both matrices. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of tocopherols were performed by HPLC, whereas GC and GC-MS were used to determine the fatty acid composition and sterols, respectively. Supercritical fluid extraction at 400 atm was the most efficient extraction method in terms of both total yield extract and tocopherol yield. Seeds of Ecuadorian of A. caudatus contained higher levels of tocopherols than Italian samples, whereas the fatty acid composition and sterol content were similar. From the obtained results it can be suggested that seed oil of wild Ecuadorian A. caudatus can prove to be an effective nutraceutical and alimentary resource and a valid alternative to the European varieties. PMID:11714343

  7. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  8. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  9. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Laura; Bundó, Mireia; Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  10. A Cytosolic Acyltransferase Contributes to Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Sucrose-Rescued Arabidopsis Seed Oil Catabolism Mutants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Luisa; Whitehead, Lynne; He, Zhesi; Gazda, Valeria; Gilday, Alison; Kozhevnikova, Ekaterina; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and oil bodies persist in sucrose (Suc)-rescued Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings disrupted in seed oil catabolism. This study set out to establish if TAG levels persist as a metabolically inert pool when downstream catabolism is disrupted, or if other mechanisms, such as fatty acid (FA) recycling into TAG are operating. We show that TAG composition changes significantly in Suc-rescued seedlings compared with that found in dry seeds, with 18:2 and 18:3 accumulating. However, 20:1 FA is not efficiently recycled back into TAG in young seedlings, instead partitioning into the membrane lipid fraction and diacylglycerol. In the lipolysis mutant sugar dependent1and the β-oxidation double mutant acx1acx2 (for acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase), levels of TAG actually increased in seedlings growing on Suc. We performed a transcriptomic study and identified up-regulation of an acyltransferase gene, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE3 (DGAT3), with homology to a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cytosolic acyltransferase. The acyl-Coenzyme A substrate for this acyltransferase accumulates in mutants that are blocked in oil breakdown postlipolysis. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed involvement in TAG synthesis and specificity toward 18:3 and 18:2 FAs. Double-mutant analysis with the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter mutant peroxisomal ABC transporter1 indicated involvement of DGAT3 in the partitioning of 18:3 into TAG in mutant seedlings growing on Suc. Fusion of the DGAT3 protein with green fluorescent protein confirmed localization to the cytosol of N. benthamiana. This work has demonstrated active recycling of 18:2 and 18:3 FAs into TAG when seed oil breakdown is blocked in a process involving a soluble cytosolic acyltransferase. PMID:22760209

  11. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

  12. Nutraceutical delivery systems: resveratrol encapsulation in grape seed oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this work was to fabricate nanoemulsions-based delivery systems to encapsulate resveratrol. Nanoemulsions were formed using spontaneous emulsification method: 10% oil phase (grape seed oil plus orange oil) and 10% surfactant (Tween 80) were titrated into 80% aqueous phase. An optimum orange oil-to-grape seed oil ratio of 1:1(w/w) formed small droplets (d ≈ 100 nm) with good stability to droplet growth. The maximum amount of resveratrol that could be dissolved in the oil phase was 120 ± 10 μg/ml. The effect of droplet size on the chemical stability of encapsulated resveratrol was examined by preparing systems with different mean droplet diameters of 220 ± 2; 99 ± 3; and 45 ± 0.4 nm. Encapsulation of resveratrol improved its chemical stability after exposure to UV-light: 88% retention in nanoemulsions compared to 50% in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). This study showed that resveratrol could be encapsulated within low-energy nanoemulsion-based delivery systems and protected against degradation. PMID:25148980

  13. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5-2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg(-1) body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg(-1) body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg(-1) ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties. PMID:21792359

  14. Efficacy of simvastatin and pumpkin-seed oil in the management of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    al-Zuhair, H; Abd el-Fattah, A A; Abd el Latif, H A

    1997-05-01

    Pumpkin-seed oil (PSO), a natural supplement rich with antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), was given in combination with simvastatin, as antihypercholesterolemic drug, to high cholesterol-fed rabbits, for three weeks. In comparison with normal rabbits, a significant increase of the aortic contractile response to norepinephrine was observed which could be attributed to endothelium dysfunction. In addition, serum levels of total lipids, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased while phospholipids and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were decreased in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. These changes could be related to the predominance of LDL and oxidized-LDL particles caused by high levels of reactive oxygen species during hypercholesterolemia (HC). Treatment with simvastatin modulated most of the altered parameters affected during HC that might be, in part, due to inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. While concomitant administration of simvastatin and PSO succeeded to cause marked reduction of the aortic contractile response to norepinephrine and to normalize the most adverse effects observed during HC. These effects were explained by the potentiating effects of simvastatin with antioxidants and essential fatty acids in PSO. On the contrary, serum activities of aminotransferases and creatine phosphokinase were increased with simvastatin treatment but not with the combination therapy in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. PMID:9299202

  15. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening. PMID:16390196

  16. Bird and ant synergy increases the seed dispersal effectiveness of an ornithochoric shrub.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Paulo H S A; Martins, Milene M; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Christianini, Alexander V

    2016-06-01

    Seed dispersal may involve different vectors of dispersal in two or more sequential phases (i.e., diplochory). However, contributions of each phase to the overall seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) are poorly understood and hard to evaluate due to post-dispersal processes that affect seed and seedling survival. We investigated the simultaneous bird (phase 1, in plant canopy) and ant (phase 2, on the floor) contributions to SDE with the ornithochoric shrub Erythroxylum ambiguum in a Brazilian Atlantic forest. Twelve species of birds fed on fruit and dispersed approximately 26 % of the seed crop. The remaining seed crop, 90 % of which contained viable seeds, fell to the ground beneath the parental plant. Ants either cleaned seeds in fruits or carried fallen fruit and seeds from bird feces to their nests. Although E. ambiguum has no adaptation for ant dispersal, ants were as quantitatively important as birds. Birds and ants equally increased germination rates compared to controls. However, birds deposited seeds farther from the parent, where seedling survival was higher (78 %) than it was beneath the parent (44 %), whereas ants carried seeds to their nests, where seedling survival was higher (83 %) than in controls away from their nests (63 %). Diplochory allowed a 42 % increase in SDE compared to dispersal in phase 1 alone. High lipid content in the fruit pulp of E. ambiguum may facilitate the inclusion of ants in a second step of dispersal after diaspores reach the floor. Ants can also buffer the dispersal of diplochorous plants against decreases in phase 1 dispersers. PMID:26899481

  17. A Noninvasive Platform for Imaging and Quantifying Oil Storage in Submillimeter Tobacco Seed1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Johannes; Neuberger, Thomas; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schiebold, Silke; Nguyen, Thuy Ha; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Börner, Andreas; Melkus, Gerd; Jakob, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2013-01-01

    While often thought of as a smoking drug, tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is now considered as a plant of choice for molecular farming and biofuel production. Here, we describe a noninvasive means of deriving both the distribution of lipid and the microtopology of the submillimeter tobacco seed, founded on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. Our platform enables counting of seeds inside the intact tobacco capsule to measure seed sizes, to model the seed interior in three dimensions, to quantify the lipid content, and to visualize lipid gradients. Hundreds of seeds can be simultaneously imaged at an isotropic resolution of 25 µm, sufficient to assess each individual seed. The relative contributions of the embryo and the endosperm to both seed size and total lipid content could be assessed. The extension of the platform to a range of wild and cultivated Nicotiana species demonstrated certain evolutionary trends in both seed topology and pattern of lipid storage. The NMR analysis of transgenic tobacco plants with seed-specific ectopic expression of the plastidial phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator, displayed a trade off between seed size and oil concentration. The NMR-based assay of seed lipid content and topology has a number of potential applications, in particular providing a means to test and optimize transgenic strategies aimed at the manipulation of seed size, seed number, and lipid content in tobacco and other species with submillimeter seeds. PMID:23232144

  18. Differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species on seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera) in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-05-01

    Seed hoarding is an important behavioral adaptation to food shortages for many rodent species. Sympatric rodents may affect the natural regeneration of large-seeded trees differently as seed dispersers or seed predators. Using seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera), we investigated differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species in semi-natural enclosures in a subtropical forest in southwest of China. We found that all these six species ate seeds of C. oleifera, but only Edward's long-tailed rats ( Leopoldamys edwardsi) were predominantly scatter hoarders; chestnut rats ( Niviventer fulvescens) and white-bellied rats ( Niviventer confucianus) scatter hoarded and larder hoarded few seeds, but were seed predators; South China field mice ( Apodemus draco) exhibited little larder-hoarding behavior; and Chevrier's field mice ( A. chevrieri) as well as Himalayan rats ( Rattus nitidusa) did not hoard seeds at all. The rodents that engaged in scatter hoarding often formed single-seed caches and tended to cache seeds under grass or shrubs. Our findings indicate that sympatric rodents consuming seeds of the same species of plant can have different hoarding strategies, affecting seed dispersal and plant regeneration differently. We conclude by discussing the role of these species in hoarding seeds of C. oleifera and highlight the essential role of Edward's long-tailed rats as predominantly potential dispersers of this plant species.

  19. Polymer flooding increases production in giant oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Delamaide, E.; Corlay, P. )

    1994-12-01

    Daqing field, discovered in 1959, is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, with original oil in place exceeding two billion tons. Reservoir heterogeneity and oil viscosity have resulted in moderate displacement efficiency and high watercut. To increase recovery, polymer injection was tested in two pilots between 1987 and 1992, after lab and reservoir studies. Both pilots proved highly successful and led to the decision to extend polymer injection to the whole field. This article presents the history of Daqing polymer flooding, from preliminary studies to full-field extension.

  20. Oil, fatty acid, and protein content of seeds harvested from soybeans exposed to O sub 3 and/or SO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwald, C. ); Endress, A.G. )

    1988-09-01

    In a series of greenhouse experiments, we exposed soybean plant (Corsoy-79) to low levels of O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}, singly and in combination. Exposure to O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} alone increased the oil content of the harvested seeds, but the protein content was essentially unchanged. The seed oil: protein ratio increased with increasing pollutant concentration in both experiments. These responses, however, were not observed in seeds harvested from plants exposed to mixtures of O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}. Differences in fatty acid content and composition were also noted. Ozone alone caused an increase in seed fatty acid content as a result of increased linoleic and stearic acids coupled with decreased oleic acid. After exposure to SO{sub 2} alone, no significant alterations of the fatty acid composition were observed. No statistically significant pattern could be identified for the content of fatty acids in seeds harvested from plants exposed to the O{sub 3} + SO{sub 2} mixtures, although the accumulation of linoleic acid appeared to be depressed.

  1. Effect of increasing oil from distillers grains or corn oil on lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Bertics, S; Armentano, L E

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate production response and more specifically percentage and yield of fat in milk from dairy cows fed distillers grains with added solubles (DGS). It was hypothesized that the oil present in DGS would decrease milk fat yield. Four dietary treatments consisted of dried DGS replacing soybean meal and soybean hulls. The DGS inclusion rates as a percentage of dry matter (DM) were 0, 5, 10, and 15% DGS. To determine the role of oil in DGS, a fifth diet similar to 0% DGS with added corn oil (OIL) was included. Twenty multiparous Holsteins were assigned to a replicated, 5 x 5 Latin Square design with periods of 21 d. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration. Feeding OIL or 15% DGS resulted in similar production of milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Increasing dietary DGS linearly increased milk production and milk true protein yield. Adding corn oil increased milk yield and, although milk true protein yield also tended to increase with oil, milk true protein concentration decreased. The addition of DGS or OIL did not significantly change fat yield from 0% DGS; however, fat concentration in milk was significantly decreased by DGS due to increased fluid milk production. In diets containing approximately 28% NDF, cottonseed, blood and fish meal, feeding DGS to bring total dietary fatty acids to 5% of diet DM increased milk and milk protein yield without decreasing milk fat yield. Reduced proportions of shorter chain fatty acids and increased proportions of longer chain fatty acids in milk as dietary fatty acid content increased suggests that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland was inhibited but this was offset by increased secretion of long-chain fatty acids, presumably absorbed from the diet. Therefore, our hypothesis that feeding corn oil either as DGS or as pure corn oil would decrease milk fat yield was not correct. PMID:16027196

  2. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  3. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  4. The Mechanism of Methylated Seed Oil on Enhancing Biological Efficacy of Topramezone on Weeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinwei; Jaeck, Ortrud; Menegat, Alexander; Zhang, Zongjian; Gerhards, Roland; Ni, Hanwen

    2013-01-01

    Methylated seed oil (MSO) is a recommended adjuvant for the newly registered herbicide topramezone in China and also in other countries of the world, but the mechanism of MSO enhancing topramezone efficacy is still not clear. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of MSO on efficacy, solution property, droplet spread and evaporation, active ingredient deposition, foliar absorption and translocation of topramezone applied to giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.). Experimental results showed that 0.3% MSO enhanced the efficacy of topramezone by 1.5-fold on giant foxtail and by 1.0-fold on velvetleaf. When this herbicide was mixed with MSO, its solution surface tension and leaf contact angle decreased significantly, its spread areas on weed leaf surfaces increased significantly, its wetting time was shortened on giant foxtail but not changed on velvetleaf, and less of its active ingredient crystal was observed on the treated weed leaf surfaces. MSO increased the absorption of topramezone by 68.9% for giant foxtail and by 45.9% for velvetleaf 24 hours after treatment. It also apparently promoted the translocation of this herbicide in these two weeds. PMID:24086329

  5. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Farooq; Bhanger, M I

    2003-10-22

    The hexane-extracted oil content of Moringa oleifera seeds ranged from 38.00 to 42.00%. Protein, fiber, and ash contents were found to be 26.50-32.00, 5.80-9.29, and, 5.60-7.50%, respectively. Results of physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 68.00-71.80; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4590-1.4625; density (24 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9080 mg/mL; saponification value, 180.60-190.50; unsaponifiable matter, 0.70-1.10%; and color (1 in. cell), 0.95-1.10 R + 20.00-35.30 Y. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil were up to 123.50-161.30, 84.07-104.00, and 41.00-56.00 mg/kg, respectively. The oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 78.59%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acid up to levels of 7.00, 7.50, 5.99, and 4.21%, respectively. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 9.99 h and reduced to 8.63 h after degumming. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.70 and 0.31, respectively. Many parameters of M. oleifera oil indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical Moringa seed oils reported in the literature. The results of the present analytical study were also compared with those of different vegetable oils. PMID:14558778

  6. Aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from seeds, fruits, and other oil-rich plant materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ, oilseeds, and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new processes are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive...

  7. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  8. Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Sramala, Issara; Pinket, Wichchunee; Pongwan, Pawinee; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Kasemwong, Kittiwut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera) seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span(®)80 and Tween(®)80). The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF), the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS. PMID:27136528

  9. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolate catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.

  10. Determination principal component content of seed oils by THz-TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Li, Xiang-jun

    2009-07-01

    The terahertz transmission spectra of seed oils are measured in the frequency range extending from 0.2 to 1.4 THz using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption spectra of three acid compounds (octadecanoic acid, octadecenoic acid and octadecadienoic acid) in seed oils are recorded and simulated using both THz-TDS and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Support vector regression (SVR) model using the raw measured terahertz spectral data directly as input of the principal component is established and is employed to determinate three acid compounds content for the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Comparison of the experimental data using liquid chromatography with predictions based on support vector regression, respectively, exhibits excellent agreement.

  11. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  12. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  13. Multi-population selective genotyping to identify soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed protein and oil QTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is seed protein and oil. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort, and though genome-wide asso...

  14. Effect of foliar and soil application of potassium fertilizer on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of soil and foliar application of potassium (K) on leaf and seed mineral concentration levels, and seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals). Soybean cultivar (Pioneer 95470) of maturity group 5.7 was grown in a repeat...

  15. Effect of water stress and foliar boron application on seed protein oil fatty acids and nitrogen metabolism in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of water stress and foliar boron (FB) application on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition and nitrogen metabolism have not been well investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress and FB on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, nitra...

  16. Kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Podestá, F E; Plaxton, W C

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PKc) isolated from endosperm of germinating castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.) have been studied. Optimal efficiency in substrate utilization (in terms of Vmax/Km for phosphoenolpyruvate or ADP) occurred between pH 6.7 and 7.4. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a bivalent and a univalent metal cation, with Mg2+ and K+ fulfilling this requirement. Mg2+ binding showed positive and negative co-operativity at pH 6.5 (h = 1.6) and pH 7.2 (h = 0.69) respectively. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and K+, whereas ADP acted as a mixed-type inhibitor over 1 mM. Glycerol (10%, v/v) increased the S0.5(ADP) 2.3-fold and altered the pattern of nucleotide binding from hyperbolic (h = 1.0) to sigmoidal (h = 1.79) without modifying PEP saturation kinetics. No activators were identified. ATP, AMP, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate, 2-phosphoglycerate, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate, glycerol 3-phosphate and phosphoglycolate were the most effective inhibitors. These metabolites yielded additive inhibition when tested in pairs. ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate were mixed-type inhibitors with respect to PEP, whereas competitive inhibition was observed for other inhibitors. Inhibition by malate, 2-oxoglutarate, phosphorylated triose sugars or phosphoglycolate was far more pronounced at pH 7.2 than at pH 6.5. Although 32P-labelling studies revealed that extensive phosphorylation in vivo of soluble endosperm proteins occurred between days 3 and 5 of seed germination, no alteration in the 32P-labelling pattern of 5-day-germinated endosperm was observed after 30 min of anaerobiosis. Moreover, no evidence was obtained that PKc was a phosphoprotein in aerobic or anoxic endosperms. It is proposed that endosperm PKc activity of germinating castor seeds is enhanced after anaerobiosis through concerted decreases in ATP levels, cytosolic pH and

  17. Kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Plaxton, W C

    1991-10-15

    The kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PKc) isolated from endosperm of germinating castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.) have been studied. Optimal efficiency in substrate utilization (in terms of Vmax/Km for phosphoenolpyruvate or ADP) occurred between pH 6.7 and 7.4. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a bivalent and a univalent metal cation, with Mg2+ and K+ fulfilling this requirement. Mg2+ binding showed positive and negative co-operativity at pH 6.5 (h = 1.6) and pH 7.2 (h = 0.69) respectively. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and K+, whereas ADP acted as a mixed-type inhibitor over 1 mM. Glycerol (10%, v/v) increased the S0.5(ADP) 2.3-fold and altered the pattern of nucleotide binding from hyperbolic (h = 1.0) to sigmoidal (h = 1.79) without modifying PEP saturation kinetics. No activators were identified. ATP, AMP, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate, 2-phosphoglycerate, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate, glycerol 3-phosphate and phosphoglycolate were the most effective inhibitors. These metabolites yielded additive inhibition when tested in pairs. ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate were mixed-type inhibitors with respect to PEP, whereas competitive inhibition was observed for other inhibitors. Inhibition by malate, 2-oxoglutarate, phosphorylated triose sugars or phosphoglycolate was far more pronounced at pH 7.2 than at pH 6.5. Although 32P-labelling studies revealed that extensive phosphorylation in vivo of soluble endosperm proteins occurred between days 3 and 5 of seed germination, no alteration in the 32P-labelling pattern of 5-day-germinated endosperm was observed after 30 min of anaerobiosis. Moreover, no evidence was obtained that PKc was a phosphoprotein in aerobic or anoxic endosperms. It is proposed that endosperm PKc activity of germinating castor seeds is enhanced after anaerobiosis through concerted decreases in ATP levels, cytosolic pH and

  18. Edible oils for liver protection: hepatoprotective potentiality of Moringa oleifera seed oil against chemical-induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Blowi, Ali S; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Ahmed, Atallah F; Rafatullah, Syed

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil (Ben oil; BO) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage in rats. The oil at 0.2 and 0.4 mL/rat was administered orally for 21 consecutive days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT) and bilirubin levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the oil. There was a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in the liver tissue. The results obtained indicated that BO possesses potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage by lowering liver marker enzymes, MDA concentration, and elevating NP-SH and TP levels in liver tissue. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver. The results of this study showed that treatment with Ben oil or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by CCl(4) . The pentobarbital induced narcolepsy prolongation in mice was retarded by the Ben oil. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no morbidity or mortality. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linolic acid assay tests of the BO exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity in both tests used. The possible mechanism(s) of the liver protective activity of Ben oil activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of antioxidant component(s) in the oil. Consequently, BO can be used as a therapeutic regime in treatment of some hepatic disorders. PMID:22757719

  19. Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acids (FAs) are important as raw materials for the biotechnology industry. Existing methods of FAs production are based on chemical methods. In this study potassium hydroxide (KOH)-catalyzed reactions were utilized to hydrolysis Jatropha curcas seed oil. Results The parameters effect of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA%) were investigated using D-Optimal Design. Characterization of the product has been studied using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved at 1.75M of ethanolic KOH concentration, 65°C of reaction temperature and 2.0 h of reaction time. Conclusions This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for J. curcas seed oil hydrolysis. In a 18-point experimental design, FFA% of hydrolyzed J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%, which proved by FTIR and HPLC. PMID:22044685

  20. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4}, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl{sub 2} (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by {sup 32}P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation.

  1. Healing efficacy of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil in an ovine burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Asmussen, Sven; Traber, Daniel L; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; Connelly, Rhykka; Traber, Lillian D; Walker, Timothy W; Malgerud, Erik; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sea buckthorn (SBT) seed oil - a rich source of substances known to have anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity, and to promote skin and mucosa epithelization - on burn wound healing, five adult sheep were subjected to 3rd degree flame burns. Two burn sites were made on the dorsum of the sheep and the eschar was excised down to the fascia. Split-thickness skin grafts were harvested, meshed, and fitted to the wounds. The autograft was placed on the fascia and SBT seed oil was topically applied to one recipient and one donor site, respectively, with the remaining sites treated with vehicle. The wound blood flow (LASER Doppler), and epithelization (ultrasound) were determined at 6, 14, and 21 days after injury. 14 days after grafting, the percentage of epithelization in the treated sites was greater (95 ± 2.2% vs. 83 ± 2.9%, p<0.05) than in the untreated sites. Complete epithelization time was shorter in both treated recipient and donor sites (14.20 ± 0.48 vs. 19.60 ± 0.40 days, p<0.05 and 13.40 ± 1.02 vs. 19.60 ± 0.50 days, p<0.05, respectively) than in the untreated sites, confirmed by ultrasound. In conclusion, SBT seed oil has significant wound healing activity in full-thickness burns and split-thickness harvested wounds. PMID:24007892

  2. A positive cannabinoids workplace drug test following the ingestion of commercially available hemp seed oil.

    PubMed

    Struempler, R E; Nelson, G; Urry, F M

    1997-01-01

    A commercially available health food product of cold-pressed hemp seed oil ingested by one volunteer twice a day for 4 1/2 days (135 mL total). Urine specimens collected from the volunteer were subjected to standard workplace urine drug testing procedures, and the following concentrations of 11-nor-delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (9-THCA) were detected: 41 ng/mL 9-THCA at 45 h, 49 ng/mL at 69 h, and 55 ng/mL at 93 h. Ingestion was discontinued after 93 h, and the following concentrations were detected: 68 ng/mL at 108 h, 57 ng/mL at 117 h, 31 ng/mL at 126 h, and 20 ng/mL at 142 h. The first specimen that tested negative (50 ng/mL initial immunoassay test, 15 ng/mL confirmatory gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric test) was at 146 h, which was 53 h after the last hemp seed oil ingestion. Four subsequent specimens taken to 177 h were also negative. This study indicates that a workplace urine drug test positive for cannabinoids may arise from the consumption of commercially available cold-pressed hemp seed oil. PMID:9248945

  3. Assessment of Pb and Cd in seed oils and meals and methodology of their extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Peng, Liang; Chen, Zhipeng; Zeng, Qingru

    2016-04-15

    Oil seed, which is a secondary product in phytoremediation, contaminated with heavy metals should be disposed of in an appropriate fashion. In this study, heavy metal concentrations found in oilseed rape and peanut oils were below 0.1 mg kg(-1) after extractions, being found most of the heavy metals in meals rather in oils. Extraction experiments were carried out to determine the optimum methodology for the removal of Pb and Cd from seed meals using K3C6H5O7, K2C4H4O6 and (NH4)2EDTA. The highest extraction of the Pb and Cd in the seed meals was achieved using 30 mM extractant solutions at 30°C for 24 h and a three-step extraction procedure. K3C6H5O7 and K2C4H4O6 had less impact on the removal of nutrients than (NH4)2EDTA. PMID:26616978

  4. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil on ovalbumin‑induced lung inflammation in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Qin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Mingyi; Wang, Sheng-Chun; Cao, Zeng-Fa

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (Z. seed oil) to alleviate airway inflammation in asthmatic mice. The asthmatic mice were treated with vehicle, ovalbumin (OVA), or OVA + Z. seed oil (2 g/kg) for between 24 h and 14 days. Following treatment, inflammatory cell infiltration and pulmonary tissue damage were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling proteins were measured by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays, reverse transcription quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In asthmatic mice, administration of Z. seed oil attenuated lung tissue injury and airway remodeling, and inhibited the infiltration of leukocytes and eosinophils into the airway by reducing the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared with OVA‑treated mice (P<0.05). Z. seed oil also reduced the levels of inflammatory chemokine and adhesion molecules via downregulation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase and activation of c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase in the Z. seed‑treated mice compared with OVA‑treated mice (P<0.05). Thus, data from the present study indicates that Z. seed oil can suppress pulmonary inflammation and tissue injury during asthma, and suggests that it may be used to effectively treat allergen‑induced asthma. PMID:27035565

  6. Lipids, Proteins, and Structure of Seed Oil Bodies from Diverse Species.

    PubMed Central

    Tzen, JTC.; Cao, Yz.; Laurent, P.; Ratnayake, C.; Huang, AHC.

    1993-01-01

    Oil bodies isolated from the mature seeds of rape (Brassica napus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), flax (Linus usitatis simum), maize (Zea mays L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) had average diameters that were different but within a narrow range (0.6-2.0 [mu]m), as measured from electron micrographs of serial sections. Their contents of triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids, and proteins (oleosins) were correlated with their sizes. The correlation fits a formula that describes a spherical particle surrounded by a shell of a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with oleosins. Oil bodies from the various species contained substantial amounts of the uncommon negatively charged phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol, as well as small amounts of free fatty acids. These acidic lipids are assumed to interact with the basic amino acid residues of the oleosins on the surface of the phospholipid layer. Isoelectrofocusing revealed that the oil bodies from the various species had an isoelectric point of 5.7 to 6.6 and thus possessed a negatively charged surface at neutral pH. We conclude that seed oil bodies from diverse species are very similar in structure. In rapeseed during maturation, TAG and oleosins accumulated concomitantly. TAG-synthesizing acyltransferase activities appeared at an earlier stage and peaked during the active period of TAG accumulation. The concomitant accumulation of TAG and oleosins is similar to that reported earlier for maize and soybean, and the finding has an implication for the mode of oil body synthesis during seed maturation. PMID:12231682

  7. Optimization of transesterification of rubber seed oil using heterogeneous catalyst calcium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inggrid, Maria; Kristanto, Aldi; Santoso, Herry

    2015-12-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel manufactured with the help of alkali hydroxide catalyst through transesterification reaction of vegetable oil. This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for transesterification reaction producing biodiesel from crude rubber seed oil by varying process parameters such as the molar ratio of alcohol, CaO amount as the alkaline catalyst, and reaction time. The rubber seed oil has a high level of free fatty acid content, which means the use of homogenous alkaline catalyst gives some technological problems such as soap formation which leaded in difficulty in the separation and purification of the product. Calcium oxide (CaO) is one of the most favorable heterogeneous base catalysts because it's reusable, noncorrosive, and low cost. Pre-treatment was performed by acid esterification with H2SO4 as the catalyst to decrease the content of free fatty acid in the rubber seed oil, in this pretreatment process the 12% FFA of crude oil could be reduced to below 3% FFA. The product after esterification process was then transesterified by alkaline transesterification by varying process parameters to convert triglyceride into biodiesel. The study found that maximum curvature for biodiesel yield occurred at 9:1 molar ratio of alcohol, 5%w catalyst loading, and 3 hours reaction time. Design expert software is used to determine the optimum point from experimental data. The result showed that the optimum yield of methyl ester from transesterification was 73.5 % by mass with 0.69 degree of desirability. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its density, viscosity, acid number, and solubility to meet SNI requirement standards.

  8. Savanna fires increase rates and distances of seed dispersal by ants.

    PubMed

    Parr, C L; Andersen, A N; Chastagnol, C; Duffaud, C

    2007-02-01

    Myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) is a prominent dispersal mechanism in many environments, and can play a key role in local vegetation dynamics. Here we investigate its interaction with another key process in vegetation dynamics-fire. We examine ant dispersal of seeds immediately before and after experimental burning in an Australian tropical savanna, one of the world's most fire-prone ecosystems. Specifically, our study addressed the effects of burning on: (1) the composition of ants removing seeds, (2) number of seed removals, and (3) distance of seed dispersal. Fire led to higher rates of seed removal post-fire when compared with unburnt habitat, and markedly altered dispersal distance, with mean dispersal distance increasing more than twofold (from 1.6 to 3.8 m), and many distance dispersal events greater than the pre-fire maximum (7.55 m) being recorded. These changes were due primarily to longer foraging ranges of species of Iridomyrmex, most likely in response to the simplification of their foraging landscape. The significance of enhanced seed-removal rates and distance dispersal for seedling establishment is unclear because the benefits to plants in having their seeds dispersed by ants in northern Australia are poorly known. However, an enhanced removal rate would enhance any benefit of reduced predation by rodents. Similarly, the broader range of dispersal distances would appear to benefit plants in terms of reduced parent-offspring conflict and sibling competition, and the location of favourable seedling microsites. Given the high frequency of fire in Australian tropical savannas, enhanced benefits of seed dispersal by ants would apply for much of the year. PMID:17033801

  9. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Vial, Eric; Gebhardt, Mary; Lacher, Craig; Kumar, Shiv; Combs, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining area of production in South East Asia, due to lower yields, and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quality (both seed Se concentration and speciation). Selenium was provided to five lentil accessions as selenate or selenite by foliar or soil application at rates of 0, 10, 20, or 30 kg Se/ha and the resulting lentil biomass, grain yield, seed Se concentration, and Se speciation was determined. Seed Se concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Seed Se speciation was measured using ICP-mass spectrometry with a high performance liquid chromatography (ICP-MS-LC) system. Foliar application of Se significantly increased lentil biomass (5586 vs. 7361 kg/ha), grain yield (1732 vs. 2468 kg /ha), and seed Se concentrations (0.8 vs. 2.4 μg/g) compared to soil application. In general, both application methods and both forms of Se increased concentrations of organic Se forms (selenocysteine and selenomethionine) in lentil seeds. Not surprisingly, the high yielding CDC Redberry had the highest levels of biomass and grain yield of all varieties evaluated. Eston, ILL505, and CDC Robin had the greatest responses to Se fertilization with respect to both grain yield, seed Se concentration and speciation; thus, use of these varieties in areas with low-Se soils might require Se fertilization to reach yield potentials. PMID:26042141

  10. Differential protection of black-seed oil on econucleotidase, cholinesterases and aminergic catabolizing enzyme in haloperidol-induced neuronal damage of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Akintunde, Jacob K.; Irechukwu, C. Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Background: The antipsychotic, haloperidol, is extremely efficient in the treatment of schizophrenia but its application is constrained because of irreversible adverse drug reactions. Hence, in this study, we investigate the differential effects of black seed oil on cholinesterase [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BuChE), ectonucleotidase (5′-nucleotidase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monoamine oxidase (MAO)] activities and relevant markers of oxidative stress in the cerebrum of haloperidol-induced neuronal-damaged rats. Methods: The animals were divided into six groups (n = 10): normal control rats; haloperidol-induced rats: induced rats were pre-, co- and post-treated with black-seed oil respectively, while the last group was treated with extract oil only. The treatment was performed via oral administration and the experiment lasted 14 days. Results: The results revealed an increase in 5I nucleotidase, a marker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) hydrolysis, as well as AChE, BuChE and MAO activities, with concomitant decrease in LDH activity of cerebrum in induced rats when compared with controls. Also, administration of haloperidol caused systemic oxidative damage and adverse histopathological changes in neuronal cells, indications of mental disorder. The differential treatments with black-seed oil prevented these alterations by increasing LDH and decreasing 5I nucleotidase, AChE, BuChE and MAO activities in the cerebrum. Essential oil post-treatment is most efficacious in reversing haloperidol-induced neuronal damage in rat; followed by pre- and cotreatment, respectively. Conclusions: We concluded that essential black-seed oil enhanced the wellness of aminergic, purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions of haloperidol-induced neuronal damage in rats. PMID:27493717

  11. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    PubMed

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. PMID:24506492

  12. Genetic Control of Storage Oil Synthesis in Seeds of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Douglas H.; Flintham, John E.; Hills, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control seed oil content and fatty acid composition were studied using a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between the Arabidopsis ecotypes Landsberg erecta and Cape Verdi Islands. Multiple QTL model mapping identified two major and two minor QTL that account for 43% of the variation in oil content in the population. The most significant QTL is at the bottom of chromosome 2 and accounts for 17% of the genetic variation. Two other significant QTL, located on the upper and lower arms of chromosome 1, account for a further 19% of the genetic variation. A QTL near to the top of chomosome 3 is epistatic to that on the upper arm of chromosome 1. There are strong QTL for linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids contents that colocate with the FAD3 locus, another for oleic acid (18:1) that colocates with FAD2 and other less significant QTL for palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and eicosaenoic (20:1) acids. The presence of the QTL for seed oil content on chromosome 2 was confirmed by the generation of lines that contain a 22-cM region of Landsberg erecta DNA at the bottom of chromosome 2 in a background containing Cape Verdi Islands in other regions of the genome that had been shown to influence oil content in the QTL analysis. PMID:15466222

  13. Genome-wide association study in arabidopsis thaliana of natural variation in seed oil melting point, a widespread adaptive trait in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to co-vary with germination temperatures because of a trade-o...

  14. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. PMID:21482464

  15. Density of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil and its Methyl Esters: Measurement and Estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veny, Harumi; Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Hasan, Masitah; Raman, Abdul Aziz; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik

    2009-04-01

    Density data as a function of temperature have been measured for Jatropha curcas seed oil, as well as biodiesel jatropha methyl esters at temperatures from above their melting points to 90 ° C. The data obtained were used to validate the method proposed by Spencer and Danner using a modified Rackett equation. The experimental and estimated density values using the modified Rackett equation gave almost identical values with average absolute percent deviations less than 0.03% for the jatropha oil and 0.04% for the jatropha methyl esters. The Janarthanan empirical equation was also employed to predict jatropha biodiesel densities. This equation performed equally well with average absolute percent deviations within 0.05%. Two simple linear equations for densities of jatropha oil and its methyl esters are also proposed in this study.

  16. Variability in seed oil content and farry acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  17. Black cumin seed essential oil, as a potent analgesic and antiinflammatory drug.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Ghannadi, Alireza; Jafarabadi, Hadi

    2004-03-01

    The steam-distilled essential oil of Iranian black cumin seed (Nigella sativa L.) was investigated for its composition and analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. After oil analysis by GC/MS, 20 compounds were identified in the oil, obtained in 0.4% (v/w) yield. Among them, para-cymene (37.3%) and thymoquinone (13.7%) were the major components. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and light tail flick tests were used for assessment of analgesic activity. Antiinflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Black cumin seed essential oil (BCSEO) was found to produce a significant analgesic effect in acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and light tail flick tests. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, could not reverse the analgesic effect observed in the formalin test. Although oral administration of BCSEO at doses of 100, 200 and 400 micro L/kg did not exert a significant antiinflammatory effect in the carrageenan test, i.p. injection of the same doses significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema. BCSEO at doses of 10 and 20 micro L/ear could also reduce croton oil-induced oedema. It seems that mechanism(s) other than opioid receptors is (are) involved in the analgesic effect of BCSEO since naloxone could not reverse this effect. Both systemic and local administration of BCSEO showed antiinflammatory activity. Thymoquinone, as one of the major components of BCSEO, probably has an important role in these pharmacological effects. PMID:15103664

  18. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Litsea cubeba seed to produce bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Chang, Zhoufan; Duan, Peigao; Yan, Weihong; Xu, Yuping; Zhang, Lei; Miao, Juan; Fan, Yunchang

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Litsea cubeba seed was conducted over different temperature (250-350°C), time (30-120 min), reactor loading (0.5-4.5 g) and Na2CO3 loading (0-10 wt.%). Temperature was the most influential factor affecting the yields of product fractions. The highest bio-oil yield of 56.9 wt.% was achieved at 290°C, 60 min, and reactor loading of 2.5 g. The presence of Na2CO3 favored the conversion of the feedstock but suppressed the production of bio-oil. The higher heating values of the bio-oil were estimated at around 40.8 MJ/kg. The bio-oil, which mainly consisted of toluene, 1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-benzene, fatty acids, fatty acid amides, and fatty acid esters, had a smaller total acid number than that of the oil obtained from the direct extraction of the starting material. It also contained nitrogen that was far below the bio-oil produced from the HTL of microalgae, making it more suitable for the subsequent refining. PMID:24140857

  19. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:24274540

  20. Optimization of oil extraction from giant bushel gourd seeds using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Yetunde Yemisi; Akinoso, Rahman; Raji, Akeem Olayemi

    2016-09-01

    Gourd seeds have been identified as a source of edible oil, but there is sparse literature on the effect of processing factors on the characteristics of oil extracted from any Lagenaria spp. Optimization of oil extraction with the aid of expeller was achieved by applying response surface methodology. The variables were roasting temperature (87.70-172.0°C) and roasting duration (7.93-22.07 min), while the responses were oil yield and oil quality (free fatty acid, color, specific gravity, saponification value, moisture, and refractive index). Data obtained were analyzed at P < 0.05. Roasting conditions significantly influenced all the responses at P < 0.05. The optimum roasting condition was 100°C for 20 min, which gave 27.62% oil yield with good quality attributes (free fatty acid: 0.61%, color: 3.47 abs, specific gravity: 0.90 g/mL, saponification value: 289.66 mL, and refractive index: 1.47). PMID:27625780

  1. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities. PMID:25686854

  2. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

    2013-01-01

    Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method. PMID:24284494

  3. Stereospecific analysis of triacylglycerols as a useful means to evaluate genuineness of pumpkin seed oils: lesson from virgin olive oil analyses.

    PubMed

    Butinar, Bojan; Bucar-Miklavcic, Milena; Valencic, Vasilij; Raspor, Peter

    2010-05-12

    In Slovenia two superb vegetable oils with high added nutritional value are produced: "Ekstra devisko oljcno olje Slovenske Istre (extra virgin olive oil from Slovene Istra)" and "Stajersko prekmursko bucno olje (pumpkin seed oil from Slovenia)". Their quality and genuineness must be monitored as adulteration can easily be undertaken. Olive oil genuineness determination experiences can show how analyses following an experience data-driven decision tree gathering several chemical determinations (fatty acids, (E)-isomers of fatty acids, sterol and tocopherol determinations) may be helpful in assessing the pumpkin seed oil from Slovenia genuineness. In the present work a set of HPLC triacylglycerol determinations was performed, based on the nine main triacylglycerols (LLLn, LLL, PLL, LOO, PLO, OOO, POO, SPL, and SLS) on a limited number of different pumpkin seed oils from northeastern Slovenia. The performed determinations showed that stereospecific analyses of triacylglycerols together with other chemical determinations can be useful in building a protocol for the evaluation of the genuineness of pumpkin seed oil from Slovenia. PMID:20380471

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study in Arabidopsis thaliana of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Melting Point: A Widespread Adaptive Trait in Plants.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Morrison, Ginnie D; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to covary with germination temperatures because of a trade-off between total energy stores and the rate of energy acquisition during germination under competition. The seed oil compositions of 391 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under common-garden conditions, were used to assess whether seed oil melting point within a species varied with germination temperature. In support of the adaptive explanation, long-term monthly spring and fall field temperatures of the accession collection sites significantly predicted their seed oil melting points. In addition, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to determine which genes were most likely responsible for the natural variation in seed oil melting point. The GWAS found a single highly significant association within the coding region of FAD2, which encodes a fatty acid desaturase central to the oil biosynthesis pathway. In a separate analysis of 15 a priori oil synthesis candidate genes, 2 (FAD2 and FATB) were located near significant SNPs associated with seed oil melting point. These results comport with others' molecular work showing that lines with alterations in these genes affect seed oil melting point as expected. Our results suggest natural selection has acted on a small number of loci to alter a quantitative trait in response to local environmental conditions. PMID:26865732

  5. Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

  6. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  7. (13)C NMR characterization of triacylglycerols of Moringa oleifera seed oil: an "oleic-vaccenic acid" oil.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna; Chepkwony, Paul Kiprono; Ndalut, Paul K

    2002-02-27

    The composition of acyl chains and their positions in the triacylglycerols of the oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera were studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The unsaturated chains of M. oleifera seed oil were found to comprise only mono-unsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, two omega-9 mono-unsaturated acids, (cis-9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids) and one omega-7 mono-unsaturated acid (cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid)). The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were detected as separated resonances in the spectral regions where the carbonyl and olefinic carbons resonate according to the 1,3- and 2-positions on the glycerol backbone. The unambiguous detection of vaccenic acid was also achieved through the resonance of the omega-3 carbon. The (13)C NMR methodology enabled the simultaneous detection of oleate, vaccenate, and eicosenoate chains according to their positions on the glycerol backbone (1,3- and 2-positions) through the carboxyl, olefinic, and methylene envelope carbons of the triacylglycerol acyl chains. PMID:11853466

  8. SUNFLOWER GERMPLASM DIVERSITY FOR SEED OIL SATURATED FATTY ACID CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary saturated fat has become an important concern of consumers in recent years, as studies have indicated that high levels of saturated fat consumption are correlated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The purpose of the present study was to screen the USDA-ARS sunflower germplasm ac...

  9. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    PubMed

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. PMID:22995032

  10. The Durative Use of Suspension Cells and Callus for Volatile Oil by Comparative with Seeds and Fruits in Capparis spinosa L

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Fu, Chunhua; Jia, Haibo; Li, Maoteng

    2014-01-01

    Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource. PMID:25422894

  11. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongtai; He, Yuchi; Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Fu, Chunhua; Jia, Haibo; Li, Maoteng

    2014-01-01

    Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource. PMID:25422894

  12. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

    PubMed Central

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop–wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's ‘atypical’ domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system. PMID:26029260

  13. Environmental variability and the initiation of dispersal: turbulence strongly increases seed release

    PubMed Central

    Skarpaas, Olav; Auhl, Richard; Shea, Katriona

    2005-01-01

    Dispersal is a critical process in ecology. It is an important biological driver of, for example, invasions, metapopulation dynamics, spatial pattern formation and pathogen movement. Much is known about the effect of environmental variability, including turbulence, on dispersal of diaspores. Here, we document experimentally the strong but under-explored influence of turbulence on the initiation of dispersal. Flower heads of two thistle species (Carduus nutans and Carduus acanthoides) with ripe seeds were exposed to series of laminar and turbulent air flows of increasing velocity in a wind tunnel. Seed release increased with wind speeds for both laminar and turbulent flows for both species. However, far more seeds were released, at significantly lower wind speeds, during turbulent flows. These results strongly suggest a need for more quantitative studies of abscission in the field, as well as dispersal models that incorporate variability in the diaspore release phase. PMID:16608696

  14. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Xu, Zhenbo; Zheng, Baodong; Martin Lo, Y

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) was evaluated using a variety of solvents. Petroleum ether was the most effective for oil extraction, followed by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, acetone, and isopropanol. Several variables, such as ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and the ratio of solvent volume and seed weight (S/S ratio) were studied for optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest oil yield, 25.11% (w/w), was obtained using petroleum ether under optimal conditions for ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and S/S ratio at 140 W, 40 °C, 36 min, and 10 ml/g, respectively. The PSO yield extracted by UAE was significantly higher than by using Soxhlet extraction (SE; 20.50%) and supercriti cal fluid extraction (SFE; 15.72%). The fatty acid compositions were significantly different among the PSO extracted by Soxhlet extraction, SFE, and UAE, with punicic acid (>65%) being the most dominant using UAE. PMID:22964031

  15. [The fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty acids ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2В±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3В±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0В±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5В±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1В±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2В±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1В±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0В±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2В±0,1 mg% begenic acids. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty acids, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material. PMID:25341255

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of apricot seed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Ahn, Jeong-Hyun; Kwon, Ae-Ran; Lee, Eun Sook; Kwak, Jin-Hwan; Min, Yu-Hong

    2014-12-01

    In traditional oriental medicine, apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed has been used to treat skin diseases such as furuncle, acne vulgaris and dandruff, as well as coughing, asthma and constipation. This study describes the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial potential of the essential oil obtained from apricot seeds (Armeniacae Semen). The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Benzaldehyde (90.6%), mandelonitrile (5.2%) and benzoic acid (4.1%) were identified. Disc diffusion, agar dilution and gaseous contact methods were performed to determine the antimicrobial activity against 16 bacteria and two yeast species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 250 to 4000, 500 to 2000 and 250 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast strains, respectively. The minimum inhibitory doses by gaseous contact ranged from 12.5 to 50, 12.5 to 50 and 3.13 to 12.5 mg/L air for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast strains, respectively. The essential oil exhibited a variable degree of antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and yeasts tested. PMID:25219371

  17. Microencapsulation of conjugated linolenic acid-rich pomegranate seed oil by an emulsion method.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, Surashree; Ghosh, Santinath; Maiti, Prabir; Ghosh, Mahua

    2012-12-01

    Controlled release of food ingredients and their protection from oxidation are the key functionality provided by microencapsulation. In the present study, pomegranate seed oil, rich in conjugated linolenic acid, was microencapsulated. As encapsulating agent, sodium alginate or trehalose was used. Calcium caseinate was used as the emulsifier. Performances of the two encapsulants were compared in respect of the rate of release of core material from the microcapsules and stability of microcapsules against harsh conditions. Microencapsulation was carried out by preparation of an emulsion containing calcium caseinate as the emulsion stabilizer and a water-soluble carbohydrate (either sodium alginate or trehalose) as the encapsulant. An oil-in-water emulsion was prepared with pomegranate seed oil as the inner core material. The emulsion was thereby freeze-dried and the dried product pulverized. External morphology of the microcapsules was studied under scanning electron microscope. Micrographs showed that both types of microcapsules had uneven surface morphology. Release rate of the microcapsules was studied using UV-spectrophotometer. Trehalose-based microcapsules showed higher release rate. On subjecting the microcapsules at 110 °C for specific time periods, it was observed that sodium alginate microcapsules retained their original properties. Hence, we can say that sodium alginate microcapsules are more heat resistant than trehalose microcapsules. PMID:23014855

  18. Increasing the energy density of vegetative tissues by diverting carbon from starch to oil biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sanjaya; Durrett, Timothy P; Weise, Sean E; Benning, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Increasing the energy density of biomass by engineering the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetative tissues is synergistic with efforts to produce biofuels by conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Typically, TAG accumulates in developing seeds, and little is known about the regulatory mechanisms and control factors preventing oil biosynthesis in vegetative tissues in most plants. Here, we engineered Arabidopsis thaliana to ectopically overproduce the transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) involved in the regulation of seed oil biosynthesis. Furthermore, we reduced the expression of APS1 encoding a major catalytic isoform of the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in starch biosynthesis using an RNAi approach. The resulting AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines accumulated less starch and more hexoses. In addition, these lines produced 5.8-fold more oil in vegetative tissues than plants with WRI1 or AGPRNAi alone. Abundant oil droplets were visible in vegetative tissues. TAG molecular species contained long-chain fatty acids, similar to those found in seed oils. In AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines, the relative expression level of sucrose synthase 2 was considerably elevated and correlated with the level of sugars. The relative expression of the genes encoding plastidic proteins involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, biotin carboxyl carrier protein isoform 2 and acyl carrier protein 1, was also elevated. The relative contribution of TAG compared to starch to the overall energy density increased 9.5-fold in one AGPRNAi-WRI1 transgenic line consistent with altered carbon partitioning from starch to oil. PMID:22003502

  19. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces. PMID:26743667

  20. An improved method to discover adulteration of Styrian pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Wenzl, Thomas; Prettner, Elke; Schweiger, Klaus; Wagner, Franz S

    2002-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is rather expensive compared to other vegetable oils. Therefore, it is often adulterated by the addition of cheaper oils. In contrast to other edible oils, the content of Delta 5-sterols is very low, while Delta 7-sterols are dominating. The determination of Delta 5-sterols, especially beta-sitosterol has proven to be a good possibility to detect admixture of cheap vegetable oils to a level below which the economic profit is not significant any more. The presented method is a variant of an analysis concept, which has been published previously in European Food Research and Technology by Mandl et al. [Eur. Food Res. Technol. 209 (1999) 400. ]. It includes saponification of the triglycerides as a first step followed by separation of the potassium salts of the fatty acids from the unsaponifiable fraction by adsorption chromatography. In order to enhance gas chromatographic properties of the analytes, the hydroxyl function of the sterols is derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) to the trimethylsilylether. Finally, the analytes are separated on a capillary column of medium polarity (HP 35 MS) in a temperature programmed run within 18 min. Detection of the analytes was done by flame ionization. Special attention was set onto the precision and repeatability of the method. PMID:12406602

  1. Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds with an HSP90 inhibitor increases plant resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    Resistance of plants to unfavourable conditions is an important feature to use them as an autotrophic link of Life Support Systems in space exploration missions. It significantly depends on basic and stress-induced levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) in cells. It is known that HSP90 can bind and maintain heat shock transcription factors (HSF) as a monomer that lacks DNA binding activity and thereby regulate HSP expression. Modulation of activity of the HSP synthesis and resistance by HSP90 in plants is not well investigated. The objective of this study was to determine how treatment of seeds with an HSP90 inhibitor affects environmental responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seed treatment with geldanamycin (GDA) was used to reduce HSP90 function. The affect of space flight stressors was simulated by gamma-irradiation and thermal upshift. Two series of experiments were carried out: 1) exposure of dry seeds to gamma-irradiation (1 kGy, ^{60}Co); 2) heat shock of seedlings. It was shown that GDA treatment of seeds stimulated the seedling growth after seed irradiation. It also increased both the basic thermotolerance (45°C for 45 min) and induced thermotolerance (45°C for 1,5-2,5 h after pretreatment at 37°C for 2 h) in seedlings. In addition, seed treatment with GDA had a prolonged effect on the HSP70 production in seedlings under normal and stressful conditions. It shows that the stimulatory effects of GDA may be caused by induction of HSP70 synthesis. The obtained data demonstrate that pre-treatment of seeds with GDA before planting allows inducing the stress resistance at least at early growth stages of plants.

  2. Seed weight increases with altitude in the Swiss Alps between related species but not among populations of individual species.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Andrea R; Schütz, Wolfgang; Stöcklin, Jürg

    2005-06-01

    Seed weight is a crucial plant life history trait, determining establishment success and dispersal ability. Especially in stressful environments, larger seeds may be selected at the expense of seed number, because larger seeds have a better chance of giving rise to an established offspring. We tested the hypotheses that between related species-pairs and among populations of single species a similar trend for increasing seed weight with increasing altitude should be present. Firstly, we measured seed weights from 29 species-pairs, with one species occurring in lowland areas and a congeneric species from high altitudes. Seeds of the alpine species were 28+/-8% larger than seeds from lowland species (P < 0.01). Compared to the related lowland species, 55% of the alpine species had heavier seeds, 3% (one species) had lighter, and 41% had seeds of approximately equal weight. Secondly, we compared seed weights among populations of four species from different habitats and with different life histories. Seeds from between 11 and 34 populations per species were sampled along altitudinal gradients of 800-1,500 m (ca. 800 m in Scabiosa lucida, ca. 1,000 m in Saxifraga oppositifolia, ca. 1,000 m in Epilobium fleischeri, and ca. 1,500 m in Carex flacca). In all the four species, we found no indication for heavier seeds at higher altitudes. Our results indicate a selection pressure for species with heavier seeds at higher altitude, but the trend does not seem to operate across all cases. Phylogenetic constraints may limit the correlation among altitude and seed weight, operating particularly against selection for larger seed size, the closer populations and species are related to each other. PMID:15800741

  3. Authentication of vegetable oils by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses with emphasis on olive oil and pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, J E; Ogrinc, N

    2001-03-01

    The authenticity of vegetable oils consumed in Slovenia and Croatia was investigated by carbon isotope analysis of the individual fatty acids by the use of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), and through carbon isotope analysis of the bulk oil. The fatty acids from samples of olive, pumpkin, sunflower, maize, rape, soybean, and sesame oils were separated by alkaline hydrolysis and derivatized to methyl esters for chemical characterization by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to isotopic analysis. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk oil and of the individual fatty acids are related to (1) a thermally induced degradation during processing (deodorization, steam washing, or bleaching), (2) hydrolytic rancidity (lipolysis) and oxidative rancidity of the vegetable oils during storage, and (3) the potential blend with refined oil or other vegetable oils. The impurity or admixture of different oils may be assessed from the delta(13)C(16:0) vs. delta(13)C(18:1) covariations. The fatty acid compositions of Slovenian and Croatian olive oils are compared with those from the most important Mediterranean producer countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, and France). PMID:11312892

  4. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining availability in Asia, due to lower yields and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quali...

  5. Field emergence and plant density of sand bluestem lines selected for increased seed germination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) populations AB-medium Syn-1 and Syn-2, and CD-tall Syn-1 and Syn-2 were developed from populations AB-medium Syn-0 and CD-tall Syn-0 by recurrent selection for increased seed germination in low water potentials. The objective of this research was to verify if...

  6. Additional male mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata wied.) Attractants from Angelica seed oil (Angelica archangelica L.).

    PubMed

    Flath, R A; Cunningham, R T; Mon, T R; John, J O

    1994-08-01

    Two sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, β-copaene and β-ylangene, were isolated from bioactive fractions of angelica seed oil and were shown by field bioassays to be attractive to the male Mediterranean fruit fly. Their relative attractiveness, compared with the(+)-and (-)-α-copaene enantiomers, are: (+)-α-copaene>angelica β-copaene>angelica β-ylangene>(-)-α-copaene. The enantiomer ratios for the two compounds are: β-copaene, 61.4% (+), 38.6% (-); β-ylangene, 91.9% (+), 8.1% (-).trans-α-Bergamotene was also isolated from the same fractions, but in sufficient quantity for bioassay [enantiomer ratio: 95.7% (+), 4.3% (-)]. PMID:24242723

  7. Effect of oil extraction assisted by ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Juárez-Barrientos, José M; Chávez-Zamudio, Rubí; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of amplitude and time of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the physicochemical properties and the fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo) were evaluated. Ultrasound time (5-30 min) and the response variables amplitude (25-100%), extraction yield, efficiency, oxidative stability in terms of the free fatty acids (FFA) of the plant design comprising two independent experiments variables, peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (AV), totox value (TV) and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The time and amplitude showed significant differences (P<0.05) for all variables. The highest yield of extraction was achieved at 5 min and amplitude of 62.5% (62%). However, the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasound time of 26.34 min and amplitude of 89.02%. All extracts showed low FFA (2.75-4.93% oleic acid), PV (1.67-4.68 meq/kg), AV (1.94-3.69) and TV (6.25-12.55) values. The main fatty acids in all the extracts were oleic and linoleic acid. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted oil extraction had increased performance and reduced extraction time without affecting the oil quality. PMID:26964969

  8. Pyrolysis of Mesua ferrea and Pongamia glabra seed cover: characterization of bio-oil and its sub-fractions.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bhaskar, Thallada; Kataki, Rupam

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, pyrolysis of Mesua ferrea seed cover (MFSC) and Pongamia glabra seed cover (PGSC) was performed to investigate the characteristics of bio-oil and its sub fractions. In a fixed bed reactor, the effect of temperature (range of 350-650 °C) on product yield and quality of solid product were monitored. The maximum bio-oil yield of 28.5 wt.% and 29.6 wt.% for PGSC and MFSC respectively was obtained at 550 °C at heating rate of 40 °C/min. The chemical composition of bio-oil and its sub fractions were investigated using FTIR and (1)H NMR. GC-MS was performed for both PGSC and MFSC bio-oils and their corresponding n-hexane fractions. The results showed that bio-oil from the feedstocks and its sub-fractions might be a potential source of renewable fuel and value added chemicals. PMID:25453438

  9. Stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion using whey protein isolate-conjugated durian seed gum: enhancement of interfacial activity through conjugation process.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaee Amid, Bahareh; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60 °C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process. PMID:24060935

  10. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments of tomato seeds increase the growth and yield of plants.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A; Garcí, D; Sueiro, L; Gilart, F; Porras, E; Licea, L

    2006-05-01

    The effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on growth and yield of tomato (cv Campbell-28) were investigated under field conditions. Tomato seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 100 mT (rms) for 10 min and at 170 mT (rms) for 3 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental plots (30.2 m(2)) and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During the vegetative and generative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses, and the resistance of plants to geminivirus and early blight was evaluated. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each plot and the yield and yield parameters were determined. In the vegetative stage, the treatments led to a significant increase in leaf area, leaf dry weight, and specific leaf area (SLA) per plant. Also, the leaf, stem, and root relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically treated seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. In the generative stage, leaf area per plant and relative growth rates of fruits from plants from magnetically exposed seeds were greater than those of the control plant fruits. At fruit maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (P < .05) the mean fruit weight, the fruit yield per plant, the fruit yield per area, and the equatorial diameter of fruits in comparison with the controls. At the end of the experiment, total dry matter was significantly higher for plants from magnetically treated seeds than that of the controls. A significant delay in the appearance of first symptoms of geminivirus and early blight and a reduced infection rate of early blight were observed in the plants from exposed seeds to MFs. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and yield of tomato crop. PMID:16511881

  11. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PMID:27120053

  12. Increased adiposity induced by high dietary butter oil increases vertebrae trabecular structural indices in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has been associated with both improved and impaired bone health, and other dietary factors apparently affect the nature of the association. An experiment was performed to determine whether increased adiposity induced by high dietary butter oil impairs bone structure and whether that effect ...

  13. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera L.) Seed Oil Poly(α-hydroxydibutylamine) Triglycerides: Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Tisserat, Brent; Gordon, Sherald H; Gravett, Alan

    2015-07-29

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifugate gave an admixture of the triglycerides and free fatty acids. The free fatty acid content of the oil was removed when portions of the admixture were diluted with hexane and shaken with cold aqueous ammonium hydroxide (0.1 M) solution. The desiccant-dried organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the cleaned Osage orange triglyceride after solvent removal by rotary evaporation at 67 °C. Epoxidation of the resulting cleaned triglyceride was effected by reaction with in situ generated peroxy performic acid in H2O2. The oxirane rings of the derivatized oil were then opened using N,N-dibutylamine catalyzed by anhydrous ZnCl2 to afford the poly(α-hydroxydibutylamine) triglyceride. The purpose of this work was to derivatize and thereby stabilize this highly unsaturated tree oil for its eventual use in lubrication applications. PMID:26189408

  14. Conversion of crude Jatropha curcas seed oil into biodiesel using liquid recombinant Candida rugosa lipase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ting-Chun; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Lee, Guan-Chiun

    2015-09-01

    The versatile Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) has been widely used in biotechnological applications. However, there have not been feasibility reports on the transesterification of non-edible oils to produce biodiesel using the commercial CRL preparations, mixtures of isozymes. In the present study, four liquid recombinant CRL isozymes (CRL1-CRL4) were investigated to convert various non-edible oils into biodiesel. The results showed that recombinant CRL2 and CRL4 exhibited superior catalytic efficiencies for producing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Jatropha curcas seed oil. A maximum 95.3% FAME yield was achieved using CRL2 under the optimal conditions (50 wt% water, an initial 1 equivalent of methanol feeding, and an additional 0.5 equivalents of methanol feeding at 24h for a total reaction time of 48 h at 37 °C). We concluded that specific recombinant CRL isozymes could be excellent biocatalysts for the biodiesel production from low-cost crude Jatropha oil. PMID:26011691

  15. Increased ABA sensitivity results in higher seed dormancy in soft white spring wheat cultivar ‘Zak’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a strategy to increase the seed dormancy of soft white wheat, mutants with increased sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were identified in mutagenized grain of soft white spring wheat ‘Zak”. Lack of seed dormancy is correlated with increased susceptibility to preharvest sprouti...

  16. Dietary Black Raspberry Seed Oil Ameliorates Inflammatory Activities in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jae; Jung, Hana; Cho, Hyunnho; Lee, Kiuk; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of the markers related to inflammation in db/db mice fed black raspberry seed (BRS) oil, which is rich in α-linolenic acid. Mice were divided into four groups: (1) C57BL/6 mice fed 16 % calories from soybean oil (normal CON); (2) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 16 % calories from soybean oil (CON); (3) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 8 % calories from soybean and 8 % calories from BRS oil (BRS 50 %); and (4) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 16 % calories from BRS oil (BRS 100 %). After 10 weeks, n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the livers and epididymal adipose tissues of the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % mice than in the CON. Serum TNFα and IL-6 were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. Serum IL-10 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the BRS 100 % than the CON. In the liver and epididymal adipose tissue, mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % were lower than in the CON. Anti-inflammatory markers were higher in the epididymal adipose tissues of the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. In the epididymal adipose tissue, macrophage infiltration markers (F4/80 and CD68) and leptin mRNA were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. Results of this study suggest that BRS oil may have anti-inflammatory effects in obese diabetic mice by ameliorating inflammatory responses. PMID:27165261

  17. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Koester, Robert P; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Cary, Troy R; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha(-1) year(-1), and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. PMID:24790116

  18. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Robert P.; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A.; Cary, Troy R.; Diers, Brian W.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world’s most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha–1 year–1, and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. PMID:24790116

  19. Larvicidal efficacy of seed oils of Pterocarpus santalinoides and tropical Manihot species against Aedes aegypti and effects on aquatic fauna.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, M A; Popoola, S A; Agbaje, W B; Adewale, B; Adeoye, M D; Jimoh, W A

    2009-10-01

    Botanical larvicides have featured prominently as alternative to synthetic chemical insecticides which are less degradable and toxic to non-target organisms. The larvicidal potentials of the seed oils of Pterocarpus santalinoides and Tropical Manihot species (TMS 30572) were investigated in the laboratory against larvae of Aedes aegypti. The seed oil of each plant was extracted using n-hexane and was graded into different concentrations; 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm. The toxicity of each of the concentrations was evaluated against 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti and tadpoles (Buffo spp) as non target aquatic fauna. Both oils were toxic to the larvae though at higher concentrations (120 ppm and 150 ppm) after 24 hours of exposure. The oil of P. santalinoides was more toxic to the larvae (LC50 104.0 ppm and LC90 184.5 ppm) than oil of TMS (LC50 113.5 and LC90 201.2) but the difference in the lethal doses was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, mortality was not recorded at any of the graded concentrations in both oils against tadpoles. The results therefore suggest that the seed oils of both plants could be incorporated as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to non-target organisms. PMID:20734705

  20. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579

  1. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  2. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  3. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  4. Bayesian Multi-Trait Analysis Reveals a Useful Tool to Increase Oil Concentration and to Decrease Toxicity in Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed Central

    Silva Junqueira, Vinícius; de Azevedo Peixoto, Leonardo; Galvêas Laviola, Bruno; Lopes Bhering, Leonardo; Mendonça, Simone; Agostini Costa, Tania da Silveira; Antoniassi, Rosemar

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for jatropha breeding is to identify superior genotypes that present high seed yield and seed oil content with reduced toxicity levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for three important traits (weight of 100 seed, oil seed content, and phorbol ester concentration), and to select superior genotypes to be used as progenitors in jatropha breeding. Additionally, the genotypic values and the genetic parameters estimated under the Bayesian multi-trait approach were used to evaluate different selection indices scenarios of 179 half-sib families. Three different scenarios and economic weights were considered. It was possible to simultaneously reduce toxicity and increase seed oil content and weight of 100 seed by using index selection based on genotypic value estimated by the Bayesian multi-trait approach. Indeed, we identified two families that present these characteristics by evaluating genetic diversity using the Ward clustering method, which suggested nine homogenous clusters. Future researches must integrate the Bayesian multi-trait methods with realized relationship matrix, aiming to build accurate selection indices models. PMID:27281340

  5. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  6. In Vivo Assessment of Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activity from Oil of Seeds of Brassica Nigra in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, Sunil; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was made to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of oil of seeds of Brassica nigra (BNO) in streptozotocin -nicotinamide (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: BNO was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic study. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results: Administration of BNO at a dose 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight p.o. to STZ diabetic rats showed reduction in blood glucose level from 335 mg/dl to 280 mg/dl at 4th h and from 330 mg/dl to 265 mg/dl respectively which was found significant (p<0.01) as compared with diabetic control. BNO (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin in test groups as compared to control group. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat’s revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH). Conclusion: Thus the results showed that the oil of seeds of Brassica nigra has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity. PMID:24312861

  7. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    El Kharrassi, Youssef; Samadi, Mohammad; Lopez, Tatiana; Nury, Thomas; El Kebbaj, Riad; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I.; Vamecq, Joseph; Moustaid, Khadija; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd; Masson, David; and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  8. Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Brebra (Millettia ferruginea) seed flour as well as physicochemical characterization of its seed oil.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

    2014-01-01

    Still there is no scientific report about the proximate analysis of seeds and characteristics of oil produced from brebra seed. Objective of this study was to determine proximate and antinutritional characteristics of seeds as well as the physicochemical characteristics of brebra seed oil. Crude oil, protein, fiber, ash, moisture and carbohydrate content of brebra were 48.5 ± 0.99%, 29.7 ± 0.23%, 2.41 ± 0.12%, 3.24 ± 0%, 4.24 ± 0.04% and11.92 ± 0.2%, respectively. Seed has concentrated energy (6.0298 Kcal/gm). The respective tannin, oxalate and phytic acid value were 84.3 ± 0.89 mg/100 gm, 20.97 ± 0.36 mg/100 gm and 291.62 ± 0.87 mg/100 gm, respectively. Cyanide was not detected in the sample. Seed contains high concentration of phosphorus (1062.1 ± 0.3 mg/100 g), potassium (281 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), magnesium (112.38 ± 0.1 mg/g), sodium (93.26 ± 0.1 mg/g) and calcium (61.55 ± 0.01 mg/g). The oil was analyzed for specific gravity at 20°C, viscosity at 40°C, refractive index at 40°C, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value and ester value. Their respective values were 0.942, 40.59 mm(2)/s, 1.473, 0.39 mg KOH/g, 174.95 mg KOH/g, 104.48 gI2/100 g, 6.88 and 174.56 mg KOH/g. Unsaturated fatty acids accounts (80.7%), of which 48.2% and 27.7% were linolcic and linolenic, respectively, which make suitable for production of biodiesel. Seed has higher nutrient composition, low antinutritional elements and high calorie value compared to some legumes. PMID:24995153

  9. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into three groups: "Group A" that received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction. PMID:24311880

  10. Removing the mustard oil bomb from seeds: transgenic ablation of myrosin cells in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) produces MINELESS seeds

    PubMed Central

    Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Thangstad, Ole Petter; Ahuja, Ishita; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2010-01-01

    Many plant phytochemicals constitute binary enzyme–glucoside systems and function in plant defence. In brassicas, the enzyme myrosinase is confined to specific myrosin cells that separate the enzyme from its substrate; the glucosinolates. The myrosinase-catalysed release of toxic and bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, upon activation or tissue damage, has been termed ‘the mustard oil bomb’ and characterized as a ‘toxic mine’ in plant defence. The removal of myrosin cells and the enzyme that triggers the release of phytochemicals have been investigated by genetically modifying Brassica napus plants to remove myrosinase-storing idioblasts. A construct with the seed myrosin cell-specific Myr1.Bn1 promoter was used to express a ribonuclease, barnase. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing barnase were embryo lethal. Co-expressing barnase under the control of the Myr1.Bn1 promoter with the barnase inhibitor, barstar, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enabled a selective and controlled death of myrosin cells without affecting plant viability. Ablation of myrosin cells was confirmed with light and electron microscopy, with immunohistological analysis and immunogold-electron microscopy analysis showing empty holes where myrosin cells normally are localized. Further evidence for a successful myrosin cell ablation comes from immunoblots showing absence of myrosinase and negligible myrosinase activity, and autolysis experiments showing negligible production of glucosinolate hydrolysis products. The plants where the myrosin defence cells have been ablated and named ‘MINELESS plants’. The epithiospecifier protein profile and glucosinolate levels were changed in MINELESS plants, pointing to localization of myrosinases and a 35 kDa epithiospecifier protein in myrosin cells and a reduced turnover of glucosinolates in MINELESS plants. PMID:20219777

  11. Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 4. C1-C27 organic compounds from cooking with seed oils.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James J; Kleeman, Michael J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-02-15

    The emission rates of gas-phase, semivolatile, and particle-phase organic compounds ranging in carbon number from C1 to C27 were measured from institutional-scale food cooking operations that employ seed oils. Two cooking methods and three types of seed oils were examined: vegetables stir-fried in soybean oil, vegetables stir-fried in canola oil, and potatoes deep fried in hydrogenated soybean oil. The emission rates of 99 organic compounds were quantified, and these include n-alkanes, branched alkanes, alkenes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, carbonyls, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and lactones. Carbonyls and fatty acids (n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids) make up a significant portion of the organic compounds emitted from all three seed oil cooking procedures. The compositional differences in the organic compound emissions between the different cooking operations are consistent with the differences in the organic composition of the various cooking oils used. The distribution of the n-alkanoic acids between the gas and particle phases was found to be in good agreement with gas/particle partitioning theory. The relative importance of emissions from commercial deep frying operations to the total emissions of C16 and C18 n-alkanoic acids in the Los Angeles urban area was estimated using the available information and is estimated to account for approximately 7% of the total primary emissions of these acids. Additional emissions of these n-alkanoic acids from stir-frying and grill frying operations are expected. Estimates also indicate that seed oil cooking may make up a significant fraction of the emissions of lighter n-alkanoic acids such as nonanoic acid. PMID:11883419

  12. Toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadiracta indica) against the larvae of amblyomma variegatum a three-host tick in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ndumu, P A; George, J B; Choudhury, M K

    1999-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadiracta indica, family: Meliaceae, 'Dogon yaro' in Hausa -language) was tested against the larvae of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum (family: Ixodidae or hard tick) parasitic to cattle commonly found in Nigeria. Undiluted neem oil (100% concentration) was found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 48 h. The toxicity was concentration and time dependent. PMID:10479769

  13. Effect of seed roasting on canolol, tocopherol, and phospholipid contents, Maillard type reactions, and oxidative stability of mustard and rapeseed oils.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2014-06-18

    This work was carried out to study the effect of roasting on different compositional parameters and oil oxidative stability of three Brassica species (Brassica juncea (BJ), B. juncea var. oriental (BJO), and Brassica napus (rapeseed, RS)). After 10 min of roasting at 165 °C, canolol contents of BJ, BJO, and RS oil reached 297.8, 171.6, and 808.5 μg/g, and the phospholipid phosphorus contents reached 453.6, 342.6, and 224.2 μg/g oil, respectively. The BJ and BJO seeds showed more prominent browning reactions than RS, due to the presence of higher amounts of reducing sugars, lysine, arginine and the occurrence of Maillard type browning reactions of phospholipids. The UV-visible spectra, fluorescence, and pyrrole content showed the presence of browning reaction products in the roasted seed oils. Roasting increased the oxidative stability of all varieties. Canolol formation could only partially explain such observations. Other roasting effects such as phospholipid extraction and Maillard type browning reaction products were also responsible for the increased stability. PMID:24884309

  14. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oderinde, Rotimi Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72 ± 0.2%), Albizia lebbeck  (6.40 ± 0.60%), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2 ± 0.30%). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food. PMID:26904625

  15. Muscadine grape seed oil as a novel source of tocotrienols to reduce adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Yagiz, Yavuz; Xu, Changmou; Lu, Jiang; Chung, Soonkyu; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-07-01

    Tocotrienols are unsaturated forms of vitamin E previously shown to reduce adipogenesis and adipose inflammation. In this study, muscadine grape seed oil (MGSO) was identified as a novel source of tocotrienols containing significant amounts of α- and γ-tocotrienol (T3) with minor seasonal changes. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory potential of MGSO by using primary human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Differentiating hASCs were treated with MGSO and compared with rice bran and olive oil. Accumulation of triglyceride was significantly lower in MGSO-treated hASCs than rice bran and olive oils. A tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) from MGSO was prepared by solid phase extraction and eluted with 15% 1,4-dioxane in hexane. The MGSO-derived TRF treatment significantly reduced mRNA and protein expression that are crucial to adipogenesis (e.g., PPARγ and aP2) in hASCs. Furthermore, TRF from MGSO markedly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes and cytokine secretion to the medium (IL-6 and IL-8). Collectively, our work suggests that MGSO is a stable and reliable natural source of T3 and MGSO may constitute a new dietary strategy to attenuate obesity and its associated adipose inflammation. PMID:26073057

  16. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

  17. Influence of the degree of inulin polymerization on the ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Keven; Meireles, M Angela A

    2015-11-20

    The effect of the degree of polymerization (DP) of inulin was evaluated on its encapsulant characteristics. We assessed the influence of the average inulin DP (DP ≥10 and DP ≥23) in the ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil using the freeze-drying technique for particle formation. The intensification of the homogenization process with ultrasound did not improve the characteristics of the emulsions due to the physicochemical limitations of the inulin molecular chain (molecules do not exhibit surface activity). The particle morphology, oil entrapment efficiency, encapsulation efficiency, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and Rancimat analyses proved the effectiveness of inulin as a wall material. The properties influenced by the DP were the surface oil, encapsulation efficiency, water activity, particle size and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil because the highest DP promoted the formation of microparticles with lower surface oil content, greater encapsulation efficiency, low water activity, larger size and greater protection against oil oxidation. PMID:26344316

  18. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Seed and Shell Essential Oils Extracted from Abrus precatorius (L)

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, Sunday O.; Asekun, Olayinka T.; Familoni, Oluwole B.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils from plants have been proven safe as natural antioxidants, and few are already marketed as digestive enhancers as well as in prevention of several degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of seed and shell essential oils of Abrus precatorius (L), a herb used for ethno-medicinal practices in Nigeria. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The ability of the oils to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging; lipid peroxide and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. The IC50 of the seed and shell oils (2.10 mg/mL and 1.20 mg/mL respectively) showed that antioxidant activity is higher than that for the standard drugs (3.20 mg/mL and 3.40 mg/mL) for the nitric oxide scavenging assay. The lipid peroxidation radical activity of the oils were similar to vitamin C, weak DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were discovered in comparison to vitamin C and rutin. Generally, in the four antioxidant assays, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the oils and percentage inhibition of free radicals and lipid peroxidation. The composition of A. precatorius essential oils reported earlier may account for their antioxidant capacity. PMID:26784871

  19. Oleosin Isoforms of High and Low Molecular Weights Are Present in the Oil Bodies of Diverse Seed Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Tzen, Jason T. C.; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Chan, Kwai-Lan; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Oleosins are unique and major proteins localized on the surface of oil bodies in diverse seed species. We purified five different oleosins (maize [Zea mays L.] KD 16 and KD 18, soybean [Glycine max L.] KD 18 and KD 24, and rapeseed [Brassica campestris L.] KD 20), and raised chicken antibodies against them. These antibodies were used to test for immunological cross-reactivity among oleosins from diverse seed species. Within the same seed species, antibodies raised against one oleosin isoform did not cross-react with the other oleosin isoform (i.e. between maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18, and between soybean oleosins KD 18 and KD 24). However, the respective antibodies were able to recognize oleosins from other seed species. Where interspecies cross-reactivity occurred, the results suggest that there are at least two immunologically distinct isoforms of oleosins present in diverse seed species, one of lower Mr, and another one of higher Mr. This suggestion is also supported by the relative similarities between the amino acid sequence of a small portion of rapeseed oleosin KD 20 and those of maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18. In maize kernel, there was a tissue-specific differential presentation of the three oleosins, KD 16, KD 18, and KD 19, in the oil-storing scutellum, embryonic axis, and aleurone layer. The phylogenetic relationship between the high and low Mr isoforms within the same, and among diverse, seed species is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16667830

  20. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Pei-Ling; Lo, Yi-Chen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans. Principal Findings The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%). Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans. Conclusions This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods. PMID:27275864

  1. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  2. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes. PMID:24518351

  3. Identification of the unsaturated heptadecyl fatty acids in the seed oils of Thespesia populnea and Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition of the seed oils of Thespesia populnea and cotton variety SG-747 (Gossypium hirsutum) were studied to identity their 17-carbon fatty acids. With a combination of chemical derivatization, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry, 8-heptadecenoic acid, 9-heptadecenoic acid...

  4. Increased nutritive value of transgenic potato by expressing a nonallergenic seed albumin gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Chakraborty, N; Datta, A

    2000-03-28

    Improvement of nutritive value of crop plants, in particular the amino acid composition, has been a major long-term goal of plant breeding programs. Toward this end, we reported earlier the cloning of the seed albumin gene AmA1 from Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The AmA1 protein is nonallergenic in nature and is rich in all essential amino acids, and the composition corresponds well with the World Health Organization standards for optimal human nutrition. In an attempt to improve the nutritional value of potato, the AmA1 coding sequence was successfully introduced and expressed in tuber-specific and constitutive manner. There was a striking increase in the growth and production of tubers in transgenic populations and also of the total protein content with an increase in most essential amino acids. The expressed protein was localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the vacuole of transgenic tubers. Thus we have been able to use a seed albumin gene with a well-balanced amino acid composition as a donor protein to develop a transgenic crop plant. The results document, in addition to successful nutritional improvement of potato tubers, the feasibility of genetically modifying other crop plants with novel seed protein composition. PMID:10716698

  5. Systemic insecticide and gibberellin reduced cone damage and increased flowering in a spruce seed orchard.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, O; Almqvist, C; Weslien, J

    2012-06-01

    Insects feeding in conifer cones are difficult to control with nonsystemic insecticides. Newly developed systemic insecticides that can be injected into tree trunks may be a possible way of reducing both insect damage and negative side-effects to the surrounding environment, compared with conventional spraying. Several insecticides that could be injected into tree stems were tested on Picea abies (L.) Karst. In one experiment, insecticides (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, abamectin, and imidacloprid) were injected during flowering; in a second experiment two of these insecticides (abamectin and imidacloprid) were injected 1 yr before the expected flowering. In the second experiment insecticide treatment was also combined with treatments with the flower stimulating hormone, gibberellin (GA(4/7)). The only insecticide that reduced damage was abamectin, both after injection during flowering and after injection 1 yr before the expected flowering. Injections with GA(4/7) increased flowering and were as efficient as the conventional application method of drilling but abamectin was not effective in combination with the drilling method. There was no negative effect of the insecticide injections on seed quality. The injections were ineffective against the seed chalcid Megastigmus strobilobius (Ratzeburg), which was found to have an unexpected, negative effect on seed quality. Our results suggest that it may be possible to reduce damage from certain insect species, and to increase flowering by injecting abamectin and GA(4/7) in the year before a cone crop. PMID:22812130

  6. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

  7. Sequential fractionation of grape seeds into oils, polyphenols, and procyanidins via a single system employing CO2-based fluids.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Taylor, Larry Thomas

    2004-05-01

    Pure supercritical CO(2) was used to remove >95% of the oil from the grape seeds. Subcritical CO(2) modified with methanol was used for the extraction of monomeric polyphenols, whereas pure methanol was used for the extraction of polyphenolic dimers/trimers and procyanidins from grape seed. At optimum conditions, 40% methanol-modified CO(2) removed >79% of catechin and epicatechin from the grape seed. This extract was light yellow in color, and no higher molecular weight procyanidins were detected. Extraction of the same sample after removal of the oils and polyphenols, but now under enhanced solvent extraction conditions using methanol as a solvent, provided a dark red solution shown via electrospray ionization HPLC-MS to contain a relatively high concentration of procyanidins. The uniqueness of the study is attested to by the use of CO(2)-based fluids and the employment of a single instrumental extraction system. PMID:15113138

  8. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Ambika; Huff, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.)] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle)] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses. PMID:27135522

  9. HPLC in reversed phase mode: Tool for investigation of kinetics of blackcurrant seed oil lipolysis in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bártlová, Milena; Bernásek, Prokop; Sýkora, Jan; Sovová, Helena

    2006-07-24

    Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) seed oil is rich in alpha- and gamma-linolenic acids, the latter in particular being of potential use in medicine. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the oil was carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide using lipase Lipozyme as catalyst and changes in the composition of acylglycerols were recorded. Mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols and free fatty acids were separated by non-aqueous high-performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase mode and detected by UV diode array and 1H NMR detectors. Lipozyme was found to exert low specificity to individual fatty acids in the hydrolysed oil. PMID:16597516

  10. New conjugated hydroxydienoic fatty acids and acetotriacylglycerols from Securidaca longipedunculata seed oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Madrigal, R V; Plattner, R D

    1979-02-26

    Like other members of the plant family Polygalaceae, Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., is a source of fatty acids and triacylglycerols with unusual structures. Its seed oil contains at least seven chromatographically distinct groups of triacylglycerols divided into two series: One series represents monoacetotriacylglycerols, and the other 'normal' triacylglycerols having only long-chain fatty acids. Each series has groups containing zero, one or two conjugated hydroxydienoic acids. In addition, there is a small amount of triacylglycerol incorporating three hydroxy acids. In addition to coriolic (13-hydroxyoctadeca-cis-9,trans-11-dienoic) acid (27%), two of its previously unknown homologs are present: 11-hydroxyhexadeca-cis-7,trans-9-dienoic acid (15%) and 9-hydroxytetradeca-cis-5,trans-7-dienoic acid (2%). PMID:427179

  11. Co-introduction of an antisense gene for an endogenous seed storage protein can increase expression of a transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Goossens, A; Van Montagu, M; Angenon, G

    1999-07-30

    We have investigated whether the expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds of a transgene (the Phaseolus vulgaris arcelin (arc)5-I gene) could be enhanced by the simultaneous introduction of an antisense gene for an endogenous seed storage protein (2S albumin). Seeds of plants transformed with both the arc5-I gene and a 2S albumin antisense gene contained reduced amounts of 2S albumins and increased arcelin-5 (Arc5) accumulation levels compared to lines harboring the arc5-I gene only. Arc5 production could be enhanced to more than 24% of the total seed protein content, suggesting that antisense technology could be of great utility to favor high expression of transgenes. PMID:10452550

  12. Analysis of gene expression profiles of two near-isogenic lines differing at a QTL region affecting oil content at high temperatures during seed maturation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yana; Cao, Zhengying; Xu, Fei; Huang, Yi; Chen, Mingxun; Guo, Wanli; Zhou, Weijun; Zhu, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Zou, Jitao; Jiang, Lixi

    2012-02-01

    Seed oil production in oilseed rape is greatly affected by the temperature during seed maturation. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between genotype and temperature in seed maturation remains largely unknown. We developed two near-isogenic lines (NIL-9 and NIL-1), differing mainly at a QTL region influencing oil content on Brassica napus chromosome C2 (qOC.C2.2) under high temperature during seed maturation. The NILs were treated under different temperatures in a growth chamber after flowering. RNA from developing seeds was extracted on the 25th day after flowering (DAF), and transcriptomes were determined by microarray analysis. Statistical analysis indicated that genotype, temperature, and the interaction between genotype and temperature (G × T) all significantly affected the expression of the genes in the 25 DAF seeds, resulting in 4,982, 19,111, and 839 differentially expressed unisequences, respectively. NIL-9 had higher seed oil content than NIL-1 under all of the temperatures in the experiments, especially at high temperatures. A total of 39 genes, among which six are located at qOC.C2.2, were differentially expressed among the NILs regardless of temperature, indicating the core genetic divergence that was unaffected by temperature. Increasing the temperature caused a reduction in seed oil content that was accompanied by the downregulation of a number of genes associated with red light response, photosynthesis, response to gibberellic acid stimulus, and translational elongation, as well as several genes of importance in the lipid metabolism pathway. These results contribute to our knowledge of the molecular nature of QTLs and the interaction between genotype and temperature. PMID:22042481

  13. The tribological chemistry of the triazine derivative additives in rape seed oil and synthetic diester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Rui; Li, Jing; Wu, Hua; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Ma, Chenyan

    2011-02-01

    The additives, laurylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TRLA) and diisooctylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TREA), were prepared in our laboratory. The products were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. Their tribological behaviors as additives in raped seed oil and diester were evaluated using four-ball friction and wear testers as well. The results suggest that all the synthesized compounds have excellent tribological behaviors and they were compared with sulfurized isobutene (referred to as SIB) which is a commercial additive. The results show that they have good tribological properties. The two additives were investigated on thermal films and tribofilms by using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results of surface analysis reveal that the thermal films formed from TREA and TRLA in rape seed oil (referred to as RSO) and diester (referred to as DE), all are consist of iron sulfate; under mild AW conditions, the tribofilms from TRLA and TREA in DE is mainly composed of FeS, while the tribochemcal film from TRLA in RSO is mainly composed of iron sulfite; under EP-1 (the maximum non-seizure load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS and FeSO4; under EP-2 (nearly weld load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS.

  14. The control of seed oil polyunsaturate content in the polyploid crop species Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rachel; Trick, Martin; Soumpourou, Eleni; Clissold, Leah; Morgan, Colin; Werner, Peter; Gibbard, Carl; Clarke, Matthew; Jennaway, Richard; Bancroft, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Many important plant species have polyploidy in their recent ancestry, complicating inferences about the genetic basis of trait variation. Although the principal locus controlling the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana is known (fatty acid desaturase 2; FAD2), commercial cultivars of a related crop, oilseed rape (Brassica napus), with very low PUFA content have yet to be developed. We showed that a cultivar of oilseed rape with lower than usual PUFA content has non-functional alleles at three of the four orthologous FAD2 loci. To explore the genetic basis further, we developed an ethyl methanesulphonate mutagenised population, JBnaCAB_E, and used it to identify lines that also carried mutations in the remaining functional copy. This confirmed the hypothesised basis of variation, resulting in an allelic series of mutant lines showing a spectrum of PUFA contents of seed oil. Several lines had PUFA content of ~6 % and oleic acid content of ~84 %, achieving a long-standing industry objective: very high oleic, very low PUFA rapeseed without the use of genetic modification technology. The population contains a high rate of mutations and represents an important resource for research in B. napus. PMID:24489479

  15. Antioxidant, cholinesterase inhibition activities and essential oil analysis of Nelumbo nucifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahnaz; Khan, Hidayatullah; Ali, Farman; Ali, Nayab; Khan, Fahim Ullah; Khan, Sami Ullah

    2016-06-01

    Nelumbo nucifera seeds' essential oil (EO), crude extract and subsequent fractions were evaluated for their DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion-free radical scavenging and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction and EO showed outstanding antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 191, 450 μg/mL (DPPH), 123, 221 μg/mL (ABTS) and 69, 370 μg/mL (superoxide anion). The ethyl acetate fraction and EO also caused significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 70 ± 0.6, 64 ± 0.8 and 75 ± 0.3, 58 ± 0.2, in dose-dependent manner. The first ever gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the EO obtained from N. nucifera seeds resulted in identification of 19 constituents, mainly comprised of oxygenated sesquiterpenes responsible for their promising bioactivity. The crude and fractions revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in phytochemical investigation. PMID:26212099

  16. Nut-like oil seeds: food for monkeys, chimpanzees, humans, and probably ape-men.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R

    1987-07-01

    The hypothetical hyperrobust australopithecine gnathic nutcracker adaptation is reexamined in light of ecobotanical information on edible wild nuts provided by the flora of tropical and subtropical Africa. The nut producing species are tree-forms. Those of the forest region do not as a rule produce fruits with edible mesocarps. In contrast, the woodland savanna species (particularly in the Zambezian region) characteristically provide an important whole fruit, i.e., a nutritious mesocarp in addition to edible oil-rich nut seeds. These fruits drop from the tree before they are fully mature and go through the final ripening phase on the ground. They are important seasonal foods for a variety of vertebrates, including primates, elephants, and antelope. Altogether the nuts exhibit a broad range of toughness values, measured here as strength under compression. The woodland nuts are not as tough (177-934 kg force, breaking load) as those of the tropical forest (192-1,673 kg force). The seed-predators of the woodland species include squirrels, baboons, warthogs, and parrots. Paleoecological analyses indicate that it was the woodland nuts that were probably available to Australopithecus boisei and A. robustus. Preliminary estimates of adult male gnathic nut-cracking capabilities suggest that A. boisei could have orally cracked a significant portion of the woodland nuts. In spite of this, ecobotanical data indicate that we can probably reject the hypothesis that these hominids were year-round gnathic nut-cracking specialists. Both the indirect and direct evidence support this conclusion. PMID:3113265

  17. Fatty acids, essential oil and phenolics composition of Silybum marianum seeds and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Abbassi, Feten; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Marzouk, Brahim

    2016-05-01

    The presentstudydescribes the biochemical evaluation of Silybum marianum seed. The analysis of essential oil composition of Silybum marianum seed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of14 volatile components with the predominance of γ-cadinene (49.8%) and α-pinene (24.5%). Whereas, the analysis of fatty acids composition, showed the predominance of linoleic (50.5%) and oleic (30.2%) acids. Silybum marainum presented also an important polyphenol contents with 29mgGAE/g DW, a good antiradical activity (CI(50)=39μg/ml) but a lower reducing power ability. Flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were about 3.39mg EC/g DW and 1.8mg EC/gDW, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified by RP-HPLC, were silybin A (12.2%), silybin B (17.67%), isosilybin A (21.9%), isosilybin B (12.8%), silychristin (7.9%) andsilydianin (7.5%). PMID:27166539

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  19. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bingxin; Ban, Xiaoquan; Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  20. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  1. De Novo Assembly of the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seed Transcriptome Revealed Candidate Unigenes for Oil Accumulation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

    2013-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops. PMID:24040062

  2. Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Lanuzza, Francesco; D'Angelo, Valeria; Circosta, Clara

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively. FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids. The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF. Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27076277

  3. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    PubMed

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies. PMID:25284307

  4. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase. PMID:26574624

  5. Overexpression of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic gene DWF4 in Brassica napus simultaneously increases seed yield and stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sangita; Prasad, Bishun D.; Liu, Qing; Grbic, Vojislava; Sharpe, Andrew; Singh, Surinder P.; Krishna, Priti

    2016-01-01

    As a resource allocation strategy, plant growth and defense responses are generally mutually antagonistic. Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates many aspects of plant development and stress responses, however, genetic evidence of its integrated effects on plant growth and stress tolerance is lacking. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic gene AtDWF4 in the oilseed plant Brassica napus and scored growth and stress response phenotypes. The transgenic B. napus plants, in comparison to wild type, displayed increased seed yield leading to increased overall oil content per plant, higher root biomass and root length, significantly better tolerance to dehydration and heat stress, and enhanced resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transcriptome analysis supported the integrated effects of BR on growth and stress responses; in addition to BR responses associated with growth, a predominant plant defense signature, likely mediated by BES1/BZR1, was evident in the transgenic plants. These results establish that BR can interactively and simultaneously enhance abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and plant productivity. The ability to confer pleiotropic beneficial effects that are associated with different agronomic traits suggests that BR–related genes may be important targets for simultaneously increasing plant productivity and performance under stress conditions. PMID:27324083

  6. Overexpression of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic gene DWF4 in Brassica napus simultaneously increases seed yield and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Sangita; Prasad, Bishun D; Liu, Qing; Grbic, Vojislava; Sharpe, Andrew; Singh, Surinder P; Krishna, Priti

    2016-01-01

    As a resource allocation strategy, plant growth and defense responses are generally mutually antagonistic. Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates many aspects of plant development and stress responses, however, genetic evidence of its integrated effects on plant growth and stress tolerance is lacking. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic gene AtDWF4 in the oilseed plant Brassica napus and scored growth and stress response phenotypes. The transgenic B. napus plants, in comparison to wild type, displayed increased seed yield leading to increased overall oil content per plant, higher root biomass and root length, significantly better tolerance to dehydration and heat stress, and enhanced resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transcriptome analysis supported the integrated effects of BR on growth and stress responses; in addition to BR responses associated with growth, a predominant plant defense signature, likely mediated by BES1/BZR1, was evident in the transgenic plants. These results establish that BR can interactively and simultaneously enhance abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and plant productivity. The ability to confer pleiotropic beneficial effects that are associated with different agronomic traits suggests that BR-related genes may be important targets for simultaneously increasing plant productivity and performance under stress conditions. PMID:27324083

  7. Proteomic analysis of the oil palm fruit mesocarp reveals elevated oxidative phosphorylation activity is critical for increased storage oil production.

    PubMed

    Loei, Hendrick; Lim, Justin; Tan, Melvin; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qing Song; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chung, Maxey C M

    2013-11-01

    Palm oil is a highly versatile commodity with wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and biofuel industries. Storage oil in the oil palm mesocarp can make up a remarkable 80% of its dry mass, making it the oil crop with the richest oil content in the world. As such, there has been an ongoing interest in understanding the mechanism of oil production in oil palm fruits. To identify the proteome changes during oil palm fruit maturation and factors affecting oil yield in oil palm fruits, we examined the proteomic profiles of oil palm mesocarps at four developing stages--12, 16, 18, and 22 weeks after pollination--by 8-plex iTRAQ labeling coupled to 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. It was found that proteins from several important metabolic processes, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty acid biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation, were differentially expressed in a concerted manner. These increases led to an increase in carbon flux and a diversion of resources such as ATP and NADH that are required for lipid biosynthesis. The temporal proteome profiles between the high-oil-yielding (HY) and low-oil-yielding (LY) fruits also showed significant differences in the levels of proteins involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In particular, the expression level of the β subunit of the ATP synthase complex (complex IV of the electron transport chain) was found to be increased during fruit maturation in HY but decreased in the LY during the fruit maturation. These results suggested that increased energy supply is necessary for augmented oil yield in the HY oil palm trees. PMID:24083564

  8. Increased oil recovery from mature oil fields using gelled polymer treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G. Paul; Green, Down W.; McCool, Stan

    2000-02-23

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This research program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. This report describes the progress of the research during the first six months of work. A Dawn EOS multi-angle laser light scattering detector was purchased, installed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted to determine the permeabilities of a bulk gel and of a filter cake which forms when a gel is dehydrated. The pressure at which a gel in a tube is ruptured was measured and was correlated to the length and diameter of the gel.

  9. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  10. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  11. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. PMID:26265495

  12. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:26130050

  13. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel

  14. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  15. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2012-12-01

    The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P < 0.05). The fatty acid compositions in the oils were virtually identical regardless of the extraction methods. The contents of tocopherol, sterol, policosanol, and phosphorus in the perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P < 0.05). The SC-CO(2) -extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods. PMID:23106331

  16. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  17. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

    2009-08-01

    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil. PMID:19343365

  18. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA. PMID:22538527

  19. Effect of incremental levels of sunflower-seed oil in the diet on ruminal lipid metabolism in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, K J; Ahvenjärvi, S; Toivonen, V; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Griinari, J M

    2008-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for enhancing the concentration of this fatty acid in ruminant-derived foods. Most evidence to date suggests that endogenous synthesis is the major source of cis-9, trans-11 in milk fat and ruminal outflow is limited and largely independent of dietary 18 : 2n-6 supply. Four lactating cows fitted with a rumen cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 14 d experimental periods to examine the effects of sunflower-seed oil (SFO) as a source of 18 : 2n-6 on ruminal lipid metabolism. Cows were offered grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0, 250, 500 or 750 g SFO/d. Supplements of SFO had no effect on DM intake, milk fat or protein secretion, but increased linearly (P < 0.01) milk yield and milk lactose output and shifted (P < 0.001) rumen fermentation towards propionate at the expense of acetate. SFO supplements increased linearly (P < 0.05) the flow of 18 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6 and total CLA at the omasum and enhanced ruminal cis-9-18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 metabolism. Flows of all-trans- (Delta4-16) and cis- (Delta9-16) 18 : 1 isomers were elevated, while increases in ruminal CLA outflow were confined to trans-8, trans-10 and geometric 9,11 and 10,12 isomers. It is concluded that supplementing grass silage-based diets with plant oils rich in 18 : 2n-6 enhances ruminal outflow of trans-11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-CLA in lactating cows. PMID:18005482

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of different components of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils and their synergism against oral pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    H Gopalkrishna, Aparna; M, Seshagiri; Muddaiah, Sunil; R, Shashidara

    2016-01-01

    Background. Opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are common in the oral cavity. In recent years Candida species have shown resistance against a number of synthetic drugs. This study assessed the antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils against six common pathogenic Candida strains. Synergistic activity of the major oil components was also studied. Methods. Antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils were tested against six oral fungal pathogens, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida krusei 6258, Candida tropicalis 13803, Candida parapsilosis22019, Candida glabrata 90030 and Candida dubliniensis MYA 646, by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus from seeds subjected to columnchromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) and major components were separated and quantified. Results. All the six Candida strains showed growth inhibition to a variable degree when tested with both seed oils. Both seed oils showed antifungal activity. For Centratherum anthelminticum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was recorded at 75.7 mm for Candida albicans ATCC 90028, and the least DIZ was 45.7 mm for Candida dubliniensis MYA 646. For Ocimum sanctum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was 61.0 mm for Candida krusei ATCC 6258 and the least DIZ was 46.7 mm for Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. The mixtures of phospholipids and unsaponifiable matter exhibitedMIC values at 1.25 μL for both oils, whereas neutral lipids fraction and unsaponifiable matter exhibited similar MIC at 2.5 μL against Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Conclusion. Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctumseed oils exhibited strong antifungal activity against six different species of Candida and this may be attributed to various active components in the oil and their

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of different components of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils and their synergism against oral pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    H Gopalkrishna, Aparna; M, Seshagiri; Muddaiah, Sunil; R, Shashidara

    2016-01-01

    Background. Opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are common in the oral cavity. In recent years Candida species have shown resistance against a number of synthetic drugs. This study assessed the antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils against six common pathogenic Candida strains. Synergistic activity of the major oil components was also studied. Methods. Antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils were tested against six oral fungal pathogens, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida krusei 6258, Candida tropicalis 13803, Candida parapsilosis22019, Candida glabrata 90030 and Candida dubliniensis MYA 646, by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus from seeds subjected to columnchromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) and major components were separated and quantified. Results. All the six Candida strains showed growth inhibition to a variable degree when tested with both seed oils. Both seed oils showed antifungal activity. For Centratherum anthelminticum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was recorded at 75.7 mm for Candida albicans ATCC 90028, and the least DIZ was 45.7 mm for Candida dubliniensis MYA 646. For Ocimum sanctum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was 61.0 mm for Candida krusei ATCC 6258 and the least DIZ was 46.7 mm for Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. The mixtures of phospholipids and unsaponifiable matter exhibitedMIC values at 1.25 μL for both oils, whereas neutral lipids fraction and unsaponifiable matter exhibited similar MIC at 2.5 μL against Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Conclusion.Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctumseed oils exhibited strong antifungal activity against six different species of Candida and this may be attributed to various active components in the oil and their

  2. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation on Seed and Seedling Production of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a Temperate Steppe Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Yang, Haijun; Xia, Jianyang; Zhang, Wenhao; Wan, Shiqiang; Li, Linghao

    2011-01-01

    Background The responses of plant seeds and seedlings to changing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and precipitation regimes determine plant population dynamics and community composition under global change. Methodology/Principal Findings In a temperate steppe in northern China, seeds of P. tanacetifolia were collected from a field-based experiment with N addition and increased precipitation to measure changes in their traits (production, mass, germination). Seedlings germinated from those seeds were grown in a greenhouse to examine the effects of improved N and water availability in maternal and offspring environments on seedling growth. Maternal N-addition stimulated seed production, but it suppressed seed mass, germination rate and seedling biomass of P. tanacetifolia. Maternal N-addition also enhanced responses of seedlings to N and water addition in the offspring environment. Maternal increased-precipitation stimulated seed production, but it had no effect on seed mass and germination rate. Maternal increased-precipitation enhanced seedling growth when grown under similar conditions, whereas seedling responses to offspring N- and water-addition were suppressed by maternal increased-precipitation. Both offspring N-addition and increased-precipitation stimulated growth of seedlings germinated from seeds collected from the maternal control environment without either N or water addition. Our observations indicate that both maternal and offspring environments can influence seedling growth of P. tanacetifolia with consequent impacts on the future population dynamics of this species in the study area. Conclusion/Significance The findings highlight the importance of the maternal effects on seed and seedling production as well as responses of offspring to changing environmental drivers in mechanistic understanding and projecting of plant population dynamics under global change. PMID:22194863

  3. Hypolipidemic Activity of Peony Seed Oil Rich in α-Linolenic, is Mediated Through Inhibition of Lipogenesis and Upregulation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianhui; Ma, Chaoyang; Liu, Chengxiang; Gao, Chuanzhong; Nie, Rongjing; Wang, Hongxin

    2016-04-01

    Peony seed oil (PSO) is a new resource food rich in α-Linolenic Acid(ALA) (38.66%). The objective of this study was to assess the modulatory effect of PSO on lipid metabolism. Lard oil, safflower oil (SFO), and PSO were fed to wistar rats with 1% cholesterol in the diet for 60 d. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in PSO fed rats compared to lard oil and SFO fed rats. ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), contents were significantly increased, whereas linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in serum and liver of PSO fed rats. Feeding PSO increased ALA level and decreased n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. The hypolipidemic result of PSO indicated that PSO participated in the regulation of plasma lipid concentration and cholesterol metabolism in liver. The decreased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1C (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)-reduced lipid synthesis; Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPARα) accompanied by increase of uncoupling protein2 (UP2) and acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) stimulated lipid metabolism and exerted an antiobesity effect via increasing energy expenditure for prevention of obesity. PMID:26930155

  4. Increases in 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels in germinating amaranth seeds and in ripening banana.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y; Hashima, K; Kishida, K

    2000-11-01

    To examine whether 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) is derived from starch degradation in plant tissues, we colorimetrically measured AG contents of germinating amaranth seeds and ripening banana pulp. In both cases, as starch degradation proceeded, AG levels were significantly increased, but were 1,700-5,000 times lower than those of total soluble carbohydrates. alpha-1,4-Glucan lyase activity, which is measured by the 1,5-anhydrofructose (AF) liberated from non-reducing glucose residues of starch or glycogen, was too low to be detected in amaranth or banana by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. On the other hand, AF reductase, which reduces AF to AG, was detected in germinating amaranth seeds and banana pulp. Thus, the increases in AG levels are conceived to be derived from starch breakdown, although further investigation is needed to answer whether the starch degradation pathway via alpha-1,4-glucan lyase/AF reductase exists in plant tissues. PMID:11193417

  5. Increase of onion yield through low dose of gamma irradiation of its seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendl, F. M.; Wiendl, F. W.; Wiendl, J. A.; Vedovatto, A.; Arthur, V.

    1995-02-01

    The increase of onions' yield could be achieved by the common farmer through the use of nuclear techniques. This report describes the results obtained with the irradiation of onion seeds, with low doses of gamma radiations (Cobalt-60), at doses of 0 (control), 150, 400 and 700 Gy. Beyond the proper onion's variety also the use of low dose rates of 13.1, 39.2 and 52.3 Gy per hour were of the great importance during irradiation. The results showed to be promising, both in laboratory studies and in the field, resulting in an increase of onions production: A greater number of seedlings, bulbs and a higher yield in weight per hectar were planted. In the field the most promising dose and dose rate to the variety "Super-X" were respectively 150 Gy and 13.1 Gy per hour, yielding an 24.9 percent heavier weight of onions than the control. The other tested variety was "Granex-33", which did not respond so favorable to irradiation. However, also with this variety we harvested a 2.1 percent heavier weight than its control, if the onion seeds were irradiated with the dose of 700 Gy at a dose dose rate of 13.1 Gy per hour.

  6. Dietary omega-3 PUFA and health: stearidonic acid-containing seed oils as effective and sustainable alternatives to traditional marine oils.

    PubMed

    Surette, Marc E

    2013-05-01

    The daily consumption of dietary omega-3 PUFA is recommended by governmental agencies in several countries and by a number of health organizations. The molecular mechanisms by which these dietary PUFA affect health involve the enrichment of cellular membranes with long-chain 20- and 22-carbon omega-3 PUFA that impacts tissues by altering membrane protein functions, cell signaling, and gene expression profiles. These changes are recognized to have health benefits in humans, especially relating to cardiovascular outcomes. Cellular membrane enrichment and health benefits are associated with the consumption of long-chain omega-3 PUFA found in marine oils, but are not generally linked with the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid, the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA found in plant seed oils. However, the supply of omega-3 PUFA from marine sources is limited and may not be sustainable. New plant-derived sources of omega-3 PUFA like stearidonic acid-soy oil from genetically modified soybeans and Ahiflower oil from Buglossoides arvensis seeds that are enriched in the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA stearidonic acid are being developed and show promise to become effective as well as sustainable sources of omega-3 PUFA. An example of changes in tissue lipid profiles associated with the consumption of Ahiflower oil is presented in a mouse feeding study. PMID:23417895

  7. Increased cell seeding efficiency in bioplotted three-dimensional PEOT/PBT scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Leferink, A M; Hendrikson, W J; Rouwkema, J; Karperien, M; van Blitterswijk, C A; Moroni, L

    2016-08-01

    In regenerative medicine studies, cell seeding efficiency is not only optimized by changing the chemistry of the biomaterials used as cell culture substrates, but also by altering scaffold geometry, culture and seeding conditions. In this study, the importance of seeding parameters, such as initial cell number, seeding volume, seeding concentration and seeding condition is shown. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded into cylindrically shaped 4 × 3 mm polymeric scaffolds, fabricated by fused deposition modelling. The initial cell number ranged from 5 × 10(4) to 8 × 10(5) cells, in volumes varying from 50 µl to 400 µl. To study the effect of seeding conditions, a dynamic system, by means of an agitation plate, was compared with static culture for both scaffolds placed in a well plate or in a confined agarose moulded well. Cell seeding efficiency decreased when seeded with high initial cell numbers, whereas 2 × 10(5) cells seemed to be an optimal initial cell number in the scaffolds used here. The influence of seeding volume was shown to be dependent on the initial cell number used. By optimizing seeding parameters for each specific culture system, a more efficient use of donor cells can be achieved. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24668928

  8. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  9. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  10. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control. PMID:25346198

  11. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  12. Increasing the production yield of recombinant protein in transgenic seeds by expanding the deposition space within the intracellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seeds must maintain a constant level of nitrogen in order to germinate. When recombinant proteins are produced while endogenous seed protein expression is suppressed, the production levels of the foreign proteins increase to compensate for the decreased synthesis of endogenous proteins. Thus, exchanging the production of endogenous seed proteins for that of foreign proteins is a promising approach to increase the yield of foreign recombinant proteins. Providing a space for the deposition of recombinant protein in the intracellular compartment is critical, at this would lessen any competition in this region between the endogenous seed proteins and the introduced foreign protein. The production yields of several recombinant proteins have been greatly increased by this strategy. PMID:23563599

  13. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-08-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  14. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  15. Effect of pumpkin-seed oil on the level of free radical scavengers induced during adjuvant-arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Fahim, A T; Abd-el Fattah, A A; Agha, A M; Gad, M Z

    1995-01-01

    Pumpkin-seed oil (PSO), a natural supplement rich with antioxidant ingredients, was given to rats in which arthritis was induced using Freund's complete adjuvant. Its effect was compared with that of indomethacin, as a classical anti-inflammatory agent. Two experimental patterns were studied, an acute phase that was applied only with PSO and a chronic phase applied for both PSO and indomethacin. Compared to normal untreated rats, it was shown that the induction of arthritis caused a decrease in serum sulphhydryl groups, with an increase in serum ceruloplasmin in both phases. Blood glutathione was first elevated in the acute phase, then its level was reduced in the chronic phase. Serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity was elevated only at the acute phase, while plasma total proteins and albumin were reduced at the chronic phase. Liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was markedly increased, while no changes were observed in the levels of liver lipid peroxides and glutathione. These changes in the studied parameters were attributed to the superoxides and free radicals during arthritic inflammation. Administration of PSO succeeded in modulating most of the altered parameters affected during arthritis, especially at the chronic phase. Also, a remarkable inhibition of paw oedema was observed. A similar pattern was obtained upon treatment with indomethacin except that indomethacin markedly elevated liver lipid peroxides levels. Concurrent administration of PSO with indomethacin caused no changes in the parameters studied compared to that induced by treatment with indomethacin alone. PMID:7784309

  16. The activity of SnRK1 is increased in Phaseolus vulgaris seeds in response to a reduced nutrient supply

    PubMed Central

    Coello, Patricia; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris seeds can grow and develop at the expense of the pod reserves after the fruits have been removed from the plant (Fountain etal., 1989). Because this process involves sensing the reduction of nutrients and the remobilisation of pod reserves, we investigated the effect on sucrose non-fermenting related kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity during this process. Bean fruits removed from the plant at 20 days after flowering (DAF) demonstrated active remobilisation of nutrients from the pod to the seeds. After 5 days, the pod dry weight was reduced by 50%. The process was characterized by a rapid degradation of starch, with the greatest decrease observed on day 1 after the fruits were removed. The pod nutrients were insufficient for the needs of all the seeds, and only some seeds continued their development. Those seeds exhibited a transient reduction in sucrose levels on day 1 after the fruits were removed. However, the normal level of sucrose was recovered, and the rate of starch synthesis was identical to that of a seed developed under normal conditions. Removing the fruits from the plant had no effect on the activity of SnRK1 in the pods, whereas in the seeds, the activity was increased by 35%. Simultaneously, a large reduction in seed sucrose levels was observed. The increase in SnRK1 activity was observed in both the cotyledon and embryo axes, but it was higher in the cotyledon. At 20–25 DAF, cotyledons actively accumulate storage materials. It is possible that the increase in SnRK1 activity observed in seeds developed in fruits that have been removed from the plant is part of the mechanism required for nutrient remobilisation under conditions of stress. PMID:24860586

  17. Emulsions Made of Oils from Seeds of GM Flax Protect V79 Cells against Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Skorkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Hasiewicz-Derkacz, Karolina; Gębarowski, Tomasz; Kulma, Anna; Moreira, Helena; Kostyn, Kamil; Gębczak, Katarzyna; Szyjka, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and hydrophilic phenolic compounds are components of flax oil that act as antioxidants. We investigated the impact of flax oil from transgenic flax in the form of emulsions on stressed Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts. We found that the emulsions protect V79 cells against the H2O2 and the effect is dose dependent. They reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and protected genomic DNA against damage. The rate of cell proliferation increased upon treatment with the emulsions at a low concentration, while at a high concentration it decreased significantly, accompanied by increased frequency of apoptotic cell death. Expression analysis of selected genes revealed the upregulatory impact of the emulsions on the histones, acetylases, and deacetylases. Expression of apoptotic, proinflammatory, and anti-inflammatory genes was also altered. It is thus suggested that flax oil emulsions might be useful as a basis for biomedical products that actively protect cells against inflammation and degeneration. The beneficial effect on fibroblast resistance to oxidative damage was superior in the emulsion made of oil from transgenic plants which was correlated with the quantity of antioxidants and squalene. The emulsions from transgenic flax are promising candidates for skin protection against oxidative damage. PMID:26779302

  18. Emulsions Made of Oils from Seeds of GM Flax Protect V79 Cells against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Skorkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Hasiewicz-Derkacz, Karolina; Gębarowski, Tomasz; Kulma, Anna; Kostyn, Kamil; Gębczak, Katarzyna; Szyjka, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and hydrophilic phenolic compounds are components of flax oil that act as antioxidants. We investigated the impact of flax oil from transgenic flax in the form of emulsions on stressed Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts. We found that the emulsions protect V79 cells against the H2O2 and the effect is dose dependent. They reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and protected genomic DNA against damage. The rate of cell proliferation increased upon treatment with the emulsions at a low concentration, while at a high concentration it decreased significantly, accompanied by increased frequency of apoptotic cell death. Expression analysis of selected genes revealed the upregulatory impact of the emulsions on the histones, acetylases, and deacetylases. Expression of apoptotic, proinflammatory, and anti-inflammatory genes was also altered. It is thus suggested that flax oil emulsions might be useful as a basis for biomedical products that actively protect cells against inflammation and degeneration. The beneficial effect on fibroblast resistance to oxidative damage was superior in the emulsion made of oil from transgenic plants which was correlated with the quantity of antioxidants and squalene. The emulsions from transgenic flax are promising candidates for skin protection against oxidative damage. PMID:26779302

  19. Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar

    2007-09-15

    Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Bordbar, Sara; Serjouie, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) condition on the yield, antioxidant activity and stability of the oil from papaya seed. The studied ultrasound variables were time, temperature, ultrasound power and solvent to sample ratio. The main goal was to optimise UAE condition providing the highest recovery of papaya seed oil with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. The interaction of ultrasound variables had the most and least significant effects on the antioxidant activity and stability, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a relatively high oil recovery (∼ 73%) from papaya seed. The strongest antioxidant activity was achieved by the extraction at the elevated temperature using low solvent to sample ratio. The optimum ultrasound extraction was set at the elevated temperature (62.5 °C) for 38.5 min at high ultrasound power (700 W) using medium solvent to sample ratio (∼ 7:1 v/w). The optimum point was practically validated. PMID:25442517